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CE 226 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS


TEXTBOOK: DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURES: Theory and Applications to
Earthquake Engineering by Anil K. Chopra, Prentice Hall, 1995
COURSE OUTLINE:
PART I SINGLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEMS
1 Equations of Motion, Problem Statement, and Solution Methods
Degree of Freedom; Simple Harmonic Motion; Force-Displacement
Relation; Damping Force; Equation of Motion; Mass-Spring-Damper
System; Methods of Solution of the Differential Equation

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2 Free Vibration
Undamped Free Vibration; Viscously Damped Free Vibration;
Coulomb Damped Free Vibration
3 Response to Harmonic and Periodic Excitations
Harmonic Vibration of Undamped Systems; Harmonic Vibration with
Viscous Damping; Response to Vibration Generator; Resonance;
Natural Frequency and Damping from Harmonic Tests; Force
Transmission and Vibration Isolation; Response to Ground Motion
and Vibration Isolation; Vibration-Measuring Instruments; Energy
Dissipated in Viscous Damping; Equivalent Viscous Damping

4 Response to Arbitrary, Step, and Pulse Excitation


Response to Unit Impulse; Response to Arbitrary Force; Step Force;
Ramp or Linearly Increasing Force; Step Force with Finite Rise
Time; Rectangular Pulse Force; Half-Cycle Sine Pulse Force;
Symmetrical Triangular Pulse Force; Effects of Pulse Shape and
Approximate Analysis for Short Pulses; Effects of Viscous Damping;
Response to Ground Motion
5 Numerical Evaluation of Dynamic Response
6 Earthquake Response of Linear Systems
Earthquake Excitation; Equation of Motion; Response Quantities;
Response Spectrum Concept; Deformation, Pseudo-velocity, and
Pseudo-acceleration Response Spectra; Peak Structural Response

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7 Earthquake Response of Inelastic


Force-Deformation Relations; Normalized Yield Strength, Yield
Strength, Yield Reduction Factor and Ductility Factor; Equation of
Motion and Controlling Parameters; Effects of Yielding; Response
Spectrum for Yield Deformation and Yield Strength; Design Strength
and Deformation from the Response Spectrum; Design Yield
Strength
8 Generalized Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems
Generalized SDF Systems; Rigid Body Assemblages; Systems with
Distributed Mass and Elasticity; Lumped Mass System: Shear
Building; Natural Vibration Frequency by Rayleighs Method

PART II MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEMS


9 Equations of Motion, Problem Statement, and Solution Methods
Simple System: Two-Story Shear Building; General Approach to
Linear Systems; Static Condensation; Planar and Symmetric-Plan
Systems: Ground Motion; Inelastic Systems; Element Forces;
Methods for Solving the Equations of Motion
10 Free Vibration
Systems without Damping; Natural Vibration Frequencies and
Modes; Modal and Spectral Matrices; Orthogonality of Modes;
Normalization of Modes; Modal Expansion of Displacements;
Solution of Free Vibration Equations: Undamped; Free Vibration
of Systems with Damping; Solution of Free Vibration Equations:
Classically Damped Systems

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11 Dynamic Analysis and Response of Linear Systems


Analysis of Two-DOF Systems without Damping; Vibration Absorber
or Tuned Mass Damper; Modal Equations for Undamped Systems;
Modal Equations for Damped Systems Displacement Response;
Element Forces; Modal Analysis
12 Earthquake Analysis of Linear Systems
Response History Analysis; Modal Analysis; Multistory Building with
Symmetric Plan Response Spectrum Analysis; Peak Response from
Earthquake Response Spectrum Multistory Buildings with
Symmetric Plan
13 Structural Dynamics in Building Codes
Uniform Building Code (US), 1994 (NSCP 1992)

THEORY OF VIBRATION
Essential characteristics of a vibrating system:

All bodies possessing inertia (mass) and


elasticity (degree of stiffness) are capable of
vibration

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THEORY OF VIBRATION
Definitions
Free Vibration a system put out of its equilibrium
position and vibrates under the action of forces
inherent in the system, and in the absence of external
forces, is under free vibration.
Forced Vibration a vibration that takes place under
the action of external forces is called forced vibration.
Degree of Freedom (DOF) the number of degree of
freedom is equal to the number of independent coordinates
necessary to describe the motion of a system.

Examples of Single Degree of Freedom


Systems (SDOF)

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Examples of Multi-Degree of Freedom


Systems (MDOF)

Simple Harmonic Motion

Define the response as the projection of P on the y-axis


(response can be defined in other ways)
A Amplitude of vibration; maximum response
T period of vibration; time for a complete cycle,
expressed in seconds.
angular frequency of rotation (radians per second)
f frequency in cycles per second (Hz)
f = 1/T
= 2/T

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SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS


All single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems can be
idealized or modeled mathematically by a mass-springdashpot system as shown:

SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS


Where:
 = the coordinate to describe the response. It is
usually referred from the equilibrium or neutral
position
() = displacement response, gives the position of
the mass at any time t


  = 
= velocity response
y (t) =








= acceleration response

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System description
m = mass or inertia property, assumed to be concentrated on the block
(point mass)
k = stiffness property; the force required to give mass a unit displacement,
its unit is force/length
c = damping coefficient; property of the system that retards the motion of
the system (e.g. friction)
P(t) = force function, externally applied
*Note that m, c, and k are inherent properties of the system

TYPES OF VIBRATION
A.
B.
C.
D.

Free, undamped vibration


Free, damped vibration
Forced, undamped vibration
Forced, damped vibration

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  ,    

A. Free, undamped vibration:

  0:     0

This is the differential equation of motion or DEM.


The DEM can be written as:

Let

DEM

 




 

 

0
!

0

0

the characteristic equation is: !  !  0


the roots of this equation are:   #
hence the solution to the DEM has the form:

   $ %&'   ( '#) 

To determine the constants $ and (, use initial conditions.


These are the given displacement and velocity of the mass
at time   0:
 0  *
- the initial displacement
 0  +*
- the initial velocity

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   $ %&'   ( '#) 

 0  $ %&'0  ( '#)0  *
   $ '#)   ( %&' 
 0  $ '#)0  ( %&'0  +*

$  *

(  +* /

Therefore the displacement response is:

   * %&'  

What is the significance of

?





Determine the response at    


 

2

 * cos



2

 * cos   2 
 * %&'  

56

+*

!.


56

'#) 

+*

sin

[Eq. 1]



2

sin   2

'#) 

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!.

 * %&'  

56

'#) 

This is identical to [Eq. 1], the response at . Hence, we can say


that the displacement response, , at time  is the same as at
!.
time (  ). Therefore, 2/ is the period, 7, of vibration.

7

!.

or

 2/7

Which has been defined as the angular frequency of vibration,


.




[Eq. 2]

Summary Undamped, free vibration


Excitation

Structure

Response
Harmonic
Depends on u0 and v0

Initial displacement, u0
Initial velocity, v0

9  9  0

u (t ) = A cos t + B sin t

= k m

where

Natural circular frequency

Natural period and cyclic


frequency

T=

= C cos(t )
A = u0 , B = v0
C = A2 + B 2 , = tan 1 (B A)

1
=
f 2

When an undamped SDOF system is subjected to initial displacement u0 and/or velocity v0, the
T = 21 k m
system will oscillate in a sinusoidal pattern with a period equal to

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B. Free, damped vibration

From the F.B.D. of the vibrating block, the differential equation


of motion is:

  %    0

[Eq. 3]

Note that the damping force, % , is of the viscous or


proportional damping type where the damping force is
proportional to the velocity of the mass. Although not all
damping is of this type, it will be assumed that this is the type of
damping present in the system. The other type of damping is
dry or Coulomb damping.

For the D.E.M. of the type given by [Eq. 3]. The form of the
solution is of the type:
  $: ;
The first and second derivative with respect to time are:

Substituting in [Eq. 3]:

or

  $<: ;
  $<! : ;

 $<! : ;  % $<: ;   $: ;  0
$: ; <!  %<    0

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Since $: ; is not equal to zero (for a non-trivial solution) the sum


of the terms in parenthesis must be zero.
<!  %<    0
<! 

%< 
 0
 

This is the characteristic equation


Using the quadratic formula to solve for the roots of the
characteristic equation yields:
<

or

<

%


%

2

%

2


4 

%
<> 

2

%
2

%
<! 

2

%
2












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The exact form of the solution depends on the form of the 2


roots, <> and <! . These are the three cases:
CASE 1: If

!

>

i.e.,

!

>

<> and <! are both real and negative numbers. The solution
(or response equation) will be:

  $: ;A  (: ;

[Eq. 4]

This represents a non-vibrating system.

CASE 2: If

!

i.e.,
?

<> and <! are both equal to !

!

(repeated, real roots)

The response equation for repeated, real roots is:

  $: ;  (: ;

[Eq. 5]

This equation also represents a non-vibrating case.

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CASE 3: If

!

<

i.e.,

!

<

The roots are:


%
%
<> 
 # !
2
2

%
% !
!
<! 
#

2
2
These are non-repeated, imaginary roots.

CASE 3 (contd)
The corresponding solution has the form:
?

  : C! [$%&' !

%
2

  ('#) !

%
2

[Eq. 6]

This represents a vibrating function.

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The three cases are shown on the following graph.

Define:

%?E = critical damping = 2


?
= damping ratio =
?FG

Overdamped: % > %?E or > 1.0


Underdamped: % < %?E or < 1.0
Critically Damped: %  %?E or  1.0

 

? !
!

 1 !

this is called the frequency of the damped


vibration, or, damped frequency.
!.

7 = damped period of vibration = J

[Eq. 6] can be written as:

   : CJ [$%&'   ('#) ]

[Eq. 7]

where $ and ( are constants to be determined from


initial conditions.

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MEASUREMENT OF DAMPING

V

VW>

VW!

Let
= ratio of 2 successive amplitudes of the same sign

NO

P QRS

P Q R(SOTK )

 : JUK

(a constant)

MEASUREMENT OF DAMPING

 : JUK

!.

X)  7  J
Y

!.

>W

or 

(X) is called logarithm decrement, let Y  X))

Z W[.

For small damping, 2


Application: to determine damping of a system, two
consecutive amplitudes of the same sign are measured,
their ratio is . Knowing , we get  X).
Therefore,

Z W[.

or

[for typical structures < 0.20]

!. if damping is small

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Damping ratio of buildings


The exact damping ratio of an actual structure is difficult to determine.
Furthermore, the damping ratio appears to increase during large swings
and depends on natural period of building.

Free vibration tests


To determine the damping ratio for practical structures,
free vibration experiments are conducted. The
damping ratio can be determined after j cycles from

1
2 j

ln

ui
ui + j

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Example

Solution

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C. Forced, Undamped Vibration


1. Harmonic (Sinusoidal) Excitation
Free body diagram of the block
_   <&'#) 

po

_   <&'#) 

The D.E.M. is:


Solution:

    <&'#)
  ?  ;

?  `:):abX '&X9#&)  $%&'('#)

;  particular solution 

;j

(J C )

Transient part

'#)t Steady State part

   $%&'  ('#)  (J C ) '#) (mn. 8)


;j

The constants A and B can be determined by initial conditions.


A  y(0)  j b)q (

 (0)

;
j >C

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For stationary initial condition, i.e., at   0,  0  0, and


 0  0,

(Eq. 8) becomes:
() 

;j

['#) '#)]

where

If we define:

(>C )

rs 

tu
swx
v

(Eq. 9)

Frequency Ratio

(i.e., ignoring the dynamic


t

effect due to the acceleration of the mass) and rs  u


v
as the maximum static displacement, Eq. 9 can be written as:

where

   y*  

  
If   > 1

1
['#) '#)]
(1 ! )

it is called Dynamic Magnification


Factor (DMF)
In general it is called Dynamic Response Factor (DRF)

When = 1, ()

This is called Resonance state.


At resonant frequency,
displacements become very large.

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Note: =
Damping ratio

Response factor (also called DMF) for a one-story structure


subjected to harmonic force

Harmonic vibration of undamped systems

Harmonic vibration of undamped systems


(a) Harmonic Forcing Function

(b) Response to harmonic force

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Steady state response


The steady-state dynamic response may be expressed as
y(t) = (y )o

>
>C

sin 

where

y*  ;j

the max. value of the


the static deformation

In the plot of the term in () vs. , the term

Is positive when < 1, indicating that the


response, y(t), and the forcing function,
p(t), have the same sign. The displacement
is said to be in phase with the load, otherwise,
it is said to be out of phase.

Harmonic vibration of undamped systems

Deformation response factor


The steady-state dynamic response may be expressed as

where
Rd =

yp(t) = (y )o|q sin(  })

u0
1
=
(u st )0 1 2

0o <
= o
180 >

For <

, = 0, implying that the displacement varies as sint ,


in phase with the applied force. For > , = 180, indicating
that the displacement varies as - sint , out of phase relative to the force.
(see Figure
3.1.3,
Chopra) systems
Harmonic
vibration
of undamped

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Deformation response factor

Harmonic vibration of undamped systems

2. Abrupt, Constant load (Undamped)


D.E.M. :     _

or:   !   
~

Solution:    $'#)  (%&'  

[Eq. 10]

For stationary initial condition, *  0 and +*  0,


~

    1 %&'
 yV?  

where    (1 %&')

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3. Impulse Loading, Undamped

Impulse = Pt

From Eq. 10:  >  $'#)>  (%&'> 

~


Within the impulse, <  < (  ), Eq. 10 governs but


 is too small for the system to respond.
After the impulse, at     or   0 we have
free vibration with *  0 ( too small to cause a * )
and +* 

~


(from  +)

From the equation of free, undamped vibration:


+*
   * %&'  '#)

_

'#)

or

~

   J '#)( )

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4. General Loading, Undamped


A General Loading
can be thought of
as a series of impulse
loads

Response: (no initial displacement and velocity)


>

   J * < '#)  q (Eq. 11)


This is called the Duhamel Integral.

Total response if there is initial condition: * and +*



+*
   * %&'  '#)  y  '#)  q

D. Forced, Damped Vibration


1. Harmonic Loading
DEM:   %    <&'#)
or

  2  !  

;j
'#)


p = posint

General Solution: y = yc + yp
? (t) = : C Csin(d t - )

Transient response
Steady-state response

(t ) = A sin ( t ) = p0 Rd sin ( t )
uypp(t)
k

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D. Forced, Damped Vibration


1. Harmonic Loading
DEM:   %    <'#)
or

:   2  !  

~
'#)


Solution for stationary initial conditions:


_
1
  
: CJ 2%&' 
!
 (1 )! 4! !


2! (1 ! )
(1

!)

where:  J

'#)   1 ! '#) 2%&'


[Eq. 12]

The term in brackets [ ] is the transient part which fades in time. The rest of
the equation is the steady-state response.

Response to Harmonic Forces


Transient vibration decays because of damping. Transient

term depends on the initial conditions AND the applied


force.
Steady-state solution prevails for large t and a function

only of the applied force.


In many machine applications transients may be ignored.

In earthquake analysis, make sure the transient is not


significant.
Response to Harmonic Excitation

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Dynamic response factors


Deformation (or Displacement)
Response factor, Rd
Rd

j
;j/

>

>C!)!W(!

Rd gives the ratio of the amplitude yo


to the static deformation (yst)o
due to force po.

Phase lag
 tanC>

!
>C!

Dynamic response factors


Velocity Response Factor, Rv

Acceleration Response Factor, Ra

Relationship among Rd, Rv, and Ra

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Resonant Frequencies and Responses

Fig. 3.2.7, Chopra

Resonant Frequencies and Responses


The resonant frequency ratio is  1 22
The Displacement Response Factor is

Response to Harmonic Excitation

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2. General Loading, Damped


Response: (without initial condition)

1
  
<(): C
 *

C

'#) ( )q

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