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Someproblems deal with the allowed valuesof the energyof a hydrogenatom, with the possible

wavelengtls and frequenciesof the radiationemitted when a hydrogenatom makesa transition


from one state to a lower energy state, or with the frequency and wavelength ofradiation that can
be absorbedby a hydrogenatom. The aliowed values ofthe energyare given by

Y/

4.

tru'

I
13.6eV
o"=-a+FF=---7-.
-

wheren is a positiveinteger.Remember
E = 0 meanstheelectronis just freeof theprotonand
hasno kineticenergy.The energyof thephotonis the magnitudeofthe differencein energyof
thetwo statesinvolvedin thekansition:hf:14- E1l.e- Elis positivefor an absorptionevent
andnegativefor an emissionevent.
someprobiemsinvolvethe wavefunctionsfor the electronin a hydrogenatom.Theelectron
movesin three-dimensional
spaceandly42
dv g|esthe probabilityit canbe foundin the
infinitesimalvolumedZ. Theradialprobabilitydensityis givenby p(r) : { mzlyy'zarild,
p(r)dr
givesthe probabiiity that the particlecanbe found in the sphericalshell with inner radiusr and
outerradiusr I dr'.

Questions and Example Problems from Chapter 39


Question1
The figure below showsthreeinfinite potentialwells, eachon an x axis. without written
calculation,determinethe wave function ry for a ground-stateelectrontrappedin eachwel1.

Vn(*) =

l(t) =

I
L

,^ (# -)
tP,(")

13-"
{/-

\l

ff*,e

X.)

\P,t*) =

(+^)

I
ProblemI
A proton is confinedto a one-dimensionalinfinite potentialwell 100pm wide. What is its
ground-stateenergy?

rQr= I't,?*,o"?Kr
L= looprn
= loo" lo-'*^

X"
)
En = (-*;,)

, ^
n=))e'3>
""

"^

arta& --+ n = I

g/t-*J
L.
E ,' = --)>
8"q L}

-p.='

(G'ut*lo-zq5'')a

E : 3.2,1* 1d'r5

8(t.t"?* tdt"rg;(roo^!d'\)'

= O. o?'o6q V

Problem2
Aa electronis trappedin a one-dimensionalinfinite potentialwell. (a) What pair of adjacent
energylevels (if any)will havetlree timesthe energydifferencethat existsbetweenlevelsn: 3
andn : 4? @) What pair (if any) will havetwice that energydifference?

/ hl- \I nl
, ..a,^,in#o*,,l--L-'' ,' ____-_>
aA,a^r;*.,te.J"g?
(8.qL',/
fu"r]_ r^"^"+-"A"
= A, nt
ja nrl

r.
Xn=

(")

^-,

- 2!. -

F, (.*l)'-

,t^rt ,uj-^f- t^*r*

= ( E-)In*r)^
_
Fn*,
'r+t
\ ,.r",,
z
n
'
. E, (n*\)

E, D'

En = 71, (a"*r)

= 3 (Er-trt)

A, (t,.*,)= 3 f a, t"')*-E, (3)"1


'

,- -'l'

r--1 \d.n*'J .L, / E rJ *


: .3l'7F'l
i

, ,.,

.\:i'

o r'-

-;

'-"21 *''-.t9^--"*
n=-,lo n'"n
An-t 1="|1
An*
1 Al 2l
!'
/\

' :=

l;

f-----

P^*^'W

-Xt/v414 b

b) ,.^,*/"u*.t 4*, - En= E,(ln*l) ='I(tr,-tr"))n:*^


"':
A, (an*r)= t f e, (q')"- (3)"1 * '' [ ?A']
{l
.!

= t1 ---+ | w, nAaa N"I4Aa^'f'^A1 (antt) = if tr, ---" An-n1


zr-n^a W
\ ^ ^^ ".,San^t,L

IA,'x@

I
I

Problem 3
Supposethat ar electrontrappedin a one-dinensionalinfrnite well of width 250 pm is excited
fiom its first excitedstateto jts third exiited srate.(a) [n e]eclron-volts,
what eneigymust be
transfenedto the eiectronfor this quantumjump? Ifthe electronthen de-excitesby emitting
light, (b) what wavelengths can it emit and (c) in which groupings (and orders) can they be
emitted?(d) Show the severalpossibleways the electroncan de-exciteon an energy-level
diagram.

E:
(-n

a
8 r.rL*)

n\=

( r.a3*ro-']f,..)'

''tcz)(15arto''lo)a
6 (q-n" to

n\

(l.us* lo-'*r) nr

En=

( a.oaev) n\
(")

z'pfutali,b

p.'rivJ-r,r4}.A,utdo

*-r 6= q

A F= Er- Ar

---+ n='l

(6.o3,rv) (,it-2-)

D E ' ??,.a1-V

(u)

hf = AE

6/r=oF -:
P"aarJA

=e

:=:-

\=

\ : lJ- Inm

(.)

'===:
'

4/ ->

?---ra l--t I
,l-a3 3 -- |
/i--r3 3-ra a+l

\-=::,= 4 l ' X n $

X = )-5.?n.'\

n=l

.:--:---

- -V- -. .n r n
= 'l -) .Q' -o- e
.= 13.'7nr.
&-q'E, ( t o 1 " v ) ( ' 1 ' - l ' ) = :

= ?.j.tl ..r

q 'L{ -+ h= A.

p 1= ) - r r 6 = |

\/ng
["

fi*r"'lon"

-+ n= 3
n=q
---:=:'

y ^ 1= ] - - s

)=

X = 68'5n',
e--->

ft={
({)

n=3
rr=:.
n=\

Problem 4
A particlb is confinedto the one-dimensionalinfinite potential well ofthe figure belor,. If the
particle is in its first excited state(n : 2), what is its probability of detectionbetween(a) x : 0
and x : 0.25L, (b) x : 0 and x : 0.50L, and (c) x : 0.25 L altd x : L?

,P"c.)=f;(T)
\(r) =i{ **. (li') V"*t*)= YL,.,\\(^"L)*

/'o'L5L

(\ 4 )/

n,

- e/ ^Anx\ r

-?

/,'tt'n(t)ly

x:o

u = 2"rx/t

Jt=LA"dq

'-r/t
n/t

/,xt\t

du = L/t dr

( /")(Lrn)J,-"'"in

tn/^
'
= * LAx-/q 'r)1

oo

- Y^*4f =
- (t/s'o
A"'r
Y^ntr-+
|
W

=+

TL-'-1

(u) r,--* ttz,,*ry,1!y^hr r*{;*


.

1
\'/. \

probfems

f=o.rr.=l-)"

ts

-)W

.x=\Z:;r"oL
I

I
tt
I zt
= l-'/'t=)71

(a; The figurebelowgives'theenergylevelsfor an electrontrappedin iTifri6p-otenrialenergy


well 450 eV deep.if the electronis i,nthen: 3 statgwhatis its kineticenergy?ft) Theelectron
then absorbs500 eV of energyfrom an exlemal source.What is its kinetic energyafterthis
absorption,
assumingthatthe electronmovesto a positionfor which x > L.
_,,-Nonquandzed

-Top

of rvcll

/c,)

d,o\)

= }3o<.y'+

{**t-r

U-r-t-V

it

-=

'n/aY. ,D a

":\r

5ooary' =

?f o-,,/ = J{+u)

: )i

V -'1 L,tOe'J

----)

Problem 6
Ar electronis containedin the rectangularbox of the figure below, with
widths L_ = g00 pm,
Lr= 1600 pm, andr-:400 pm. what is the electron'sglound-stateenergy
in eleciron-voits?

"r-

L nx)n)
I rr.

= -6;h' 1": -:---G-{,,


t e"" Zr.

,I

-i vlt.r"i.,p,_t,Tsh

^
l

h,.,..
r)trl
:

Xttt

{\

- f) =

.,]
L

I'

\.

:-

q,*r,<,.. ...1",q ft y = Oy

1-:-1-:--::
Lx
:-..t

;_1

L L.ba - trr-'r f .: )

8(I'tt"lo-::'

''
{4oa' io

!:')

F, ,,,j " 4'?5*

ir
Problem 7

3. joeV

iD-'*5.

of widthsL" = L andL, : )y containsan electron.what


r r u q r rmuitiple
nqrulJre
vof
r
"orral
where m is the electron's

, r
3
X.ggul,*
h-l6mI-"
, r,^

mass,are (a) the

energyof the electron's$ound state,(b) the


energyoritsnrsrexcited,",","i;;#;;#;;'rff
;T::i.43"#f
T#.:,Tf&iitrj
difference between the energies
of its second and third excited states?

(*xs.*) =(*) t*.9,J


an*,n,=

=(*t(f.s)

(a) q,-A,#r"*
(t)

E,,,=(*)

h=\

+^"trrc.^fadd*

--2 nx-l
()Y -- '{

(,r /,) =

E,,^=(;,^)(,.

(.) t^rd)r4r""""t,&J" .--)ll=1, E,,r=(*)

*)

0\%)

^(*)

5*t

=
=
t (-ut')
E.,'.
(rr
(
7,
)
;r-)
ll.l
(l;

,arr-1 ttc'flA,^fi*o --t

l:=j

E,,t

=e;') 1i/')=?(#)-- '


+=-AA = (t)

Vs^t)

Problem 8
(a) What is the wavelengthoflight for the least energeticphoton emittedin the Paschenseriesof
the hydrogenaton spectrumlines? (b) What is the wavelengthofthe serieslimit for the Paschen
series?

'at = (-t:'a"v)
t+'3
hf
(t,-;k
-,
P^*r^r^)r)
a e = (Bl "v)(+ -*-i)

ll::=i

(") X^,* r^-4'fi2 4 nr"ra= rl i A E, (t:.{"eV)(+.


*)

WV

| 875 "\

\ = ltqo"V.t'cq=- lr-=j=;il
"-"-'I
/.jtl-V
l"
Problem9
A hydrogenalom, initially at rest in the n = 4 quantumstate,undergoesa transition to the ground
state,emitting a photonin tle process.What is the speedof the recoilinghydrogenatom?

As,,r'*ili-tr;ro.i';-a>
", fl p,rr-*^rfur.1.,

ldu ..r.'-.c...r,-,rfi+,"1lg E|*

-.t'.*'s",1.,s"-."{Ir'1c,-i J;ou ,. w;-"+"-!"re,,n


}.,1,-;L.zrvou-1*b*r'

Pu
)

{ ,il = a), )*,r^ -{r+,.*1

**e*']'u" ;","r*k.'r"{-{l4rr* ,"&i


"+ .).i\",I',,^-ixl,"dr^r

F$-J*4r"1 "r."J 3"


jo$t:, ,!.ntr*r*
rw,-,,,-e*-.$r^,.,+

'---'---= \/,^ = 'y.


ffl*Vn
l*,u*-,

izr{-e.."J1'a
rf

1}*t-lJ4"r'"'i-o *''*-n-'X -'t-b-\a : i-l i = Er-F,


-P.+,iu*c.f!
"''',
6r};fuo'r

f**.*)

= lt.-t5e-J

i-

D*V* ' l'+/- =

( t:.ts.v)

-:

' 'tl

rr., C

(r: ts.v) ( t'y"';:t;''V.u)


( 1 . r , 1 2 , , t ' ' ' u 2( ): ' o ' ) t > x o>f )

t'---------------

=
------u
ii { r', 4')",f5 i
i,!

l, b lr, lo

Kdo

Problem 10
(a) Find, usiug the energy-level diagram of the figue below, the quanturn numbers
corresponding to a transition in which the wavelength of the emitted radiation is 121.6 nrn. (b\
To whal seriesdoesthis tmnsmissionbelons?
Nonquantized

E=hf .= \-/\

-2.0

4.(l

6
;

-6.0

.i

-B,0

E=

I At-fO eV.om
I )"1.L orq

'

-10.0

// ..- :-'
l[Illt_

E = lO'l.-V
(

-14.0

-l

i6;;-;il

/r/^t

-lrt Fr^J "$ f"a*'-"^-'t^

{u; lt/.d".-^t/-'r"l
(")

hi= /\E = Etn*-Eu*


lD.t".v -13-4n\

- 3.'1-V -- - 13't"eV
-..-+

n'

flt=

l?'GeV =tl
3-rl e V

Problem1I
A hydrogen,atomin a statehavinga binding energy(the energyrequiredto removean electron)
of 0.85eV makesa transitionto a statewith an excitationenergy(the differencebetweenthe
e,nergyof the stateandthat of the ground state)of 10.2eV. (a) Wlat is the energyof the photon
emittedasa result ofthe transition?(b) Identifi this traasition,usrngthe energyJeveldiagramof
the figure below.

0-

*L

= -D-85-V

Er=

-)3.t"eV+ lo.)eV

4.0
-6.0.

g,

Ee

_-8.0'
-10.0.

- (-3.'i

-12.0

"v)

-140

( b)

F, +/qll""

bt*r"

) ^4,o^^cr+.r /040 Jiat

Azr.o

t)

D=?.

---> A F = En - Ae

.ttbtet

bpl**,

- tzss - tt::9
/\a
n).
- 13.t"'v
=-..fi\

D=4

/.-\

+ t ' 1 z|, V

e'"bqv
-,r.u'l^,oaa

^ pr"b'l

("
= - 1 3 . . -e- .-. -V- ( - 1 3 , 6e u )
n'

aa

l'55 e/

= 1..55- V ---->

13,G4V

na

= -o.85ev