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MOILE OPERATING SYSTEM

A mobile operating system, also referred to as mobile OS, is an operating system that operates
a smartphone, tablet, PDA, or other mobile device. Modern mobile operating systems combine
the features of a personal computer operating system with other features, including a
touchscreen, cellular, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GPS mobile navigation, camera, video camera, speech
recognition, voice recorder, music player, near field communication and infrared blaster.

Contents
1 History
2 Current software platforms
o 2.1 Android
o 2.2 iOS
o 2.3 Windows Phone
o 2.4 Firefox OS
o 2.5 Sailfish OS
o 2.6 Tizen
o 2.7 Ubuntu Touch OS
o 2.8 Blackberry
o 2.9 Windows 8.1 Pro 64-bit
3 Discontinued software platforms
o 3.1 Symbian
o 3.2 Windows Mobile
o 3.3 Palm OS
o 3.4 webOS
o 3.5 Maemo
o 3.6 MeeGo
o 3.7 LiMo
4 Customer satisfaction
5 Market share
o 5.1 Mobile internet traffic share

History
Mobile operating system milestones mirror the development of mobile phones and smartphones:
19731992 Mobile phones use embedded systems to control operation.
1993 The first smartphone, the IBM Simon, has a touchscreen, email and PDA features.
1996 Palm Pilot 1000 personal digital assistant is introduced with the Palm OS mobile
operating system.
1996 First Windows CE Handheld PC devices are introduced.
1999 Nokia S40 OS is officially introduced along with the Nokia 7110
2000 Symbian becomes the first modern mobile OS on a smartphone with the launch of
the Ericsson R380.
2001 The Kyocera 6035 is the first smartphone with Palm OS.
2002 Microsoft's first Windows CE (Pocket PC) smartphones are introduced.
2002 BlackBerry releases its first smartphone.
2005 Nokia introduces Maemo OS on the first internet tablet N770.
2007 Apple iPhone with iOS is introduced as an iPhone, "mobile phone" and "internet
communicator."[2]
2007 Open Handset Alliance (OHA) formed by Google, HTC, Sony, Dell, Intel,
Motorola, Samsung, LG, etc.[3]
2008 OHA releases Android 1.0 with the HTC Dream (T-Mobile G1) as the first Android
phone.
2009 Palm introduces webOS with the Palm Pre. By 2012 webOS devices were no longer
sold.
2009 Samsung announces the Bada OS with the introduction of the Samsung S8500.
2010 Windows Phone OS phones are released but are not compatible with the previous
Windows Mobile OS.
2011 MeeGo the first mobile Linux, combining Maemo and Moblin, is introduced with
the Nokia N9, a collaboration of Nokia, Intel and Linux Foundation
In September 2011 Samsung, Intel and the Linux Foundation announced that their efforts
will shift from Bada, MeeGo to Tizen during 2011 and 2012.
In October 2011 the Mer project was announced, centered around an ultra-portable Linux
+ HTML5/QML/JavaScript Core for building products with, derived from the MeeGo
codebase.
2012 Mozilla announced in July 2012 that the project previously known as "Boot to
Gecko" was now Firefox OS and had several handset OEMs on board.
2013 Canonical announced Ubuntu Touch, a version of the Linux distribution expressly
designed for smartphones. The OS is built on the Android Linux kernel, using Android
drivers, but does not use any of the Java-like code of Android.[4]
2013 BlackBerry released their new operating system for smartphones and tablets,
BlackBerry 10.
2013 Google release latest version of Android Kitkat.
2014 Microsoft release Windows Phone 8.1 in February 2014.
2014 Apple release iOS 8 in September 2014.
2014 BlackBerry release BlackBerry 10.3 in September 2014.
2014 Google release Android Lollipop in November 2014.

Current software platforms


Android
Android (based on the Linux Kernel) is from Google Inc.. It has the largest installed base
worldwide on smartphones. Most of Android is free and open source, but a large amount of
software on Android devices (such as Play Store, Google Search, Google Play Services, Google
Music, and so on) are proprietary and licensed. Android's releases prior to 2.0 (1.0, 1.5, 1.6) were
used exclusively on mobile phones. Android 2.x releases were mostly used for mobile phones
but also some tablets. Android 3.0 was a tablet-oriented release and does not officially run on
mobile phones. The current Android version is 4.4 Android's releases are nicknamed after sweets
or dessert items like Cupcake (1.5), Donut (1.6), Eclair (2.0), Frozen Yogurt ("Froyo") (2.2),
Ginger Bread (2.3), Honeycomb (3.0), Ice Cream Sandwich (4.0), Jelly Bean (4.1), (4.2), (4.3)
Kit Kat (4.4), and Lollipop (5.0). Most major mobile service providers carry an Android device.
Since HTC Dream was introduced, there has been an explosion in the number of devices that
carry Android OS. From second quarter of 2009 to the second quarter of 2010, Android's
worldwide market share rose 850% from 1.8% to 17.2%. On November 15, 2011, Android
reached 52.5% of the global smartphone market share. On September 2014 Android's global
market share rose to 85%.

Android version history

Global Android version distribution since December 2009. As of October 2014, Android 4.x
Jelly Bean is the most widely used Android version, operating on around 55% of Android
devices worldwide.
The version history of the Android mobile operating system began with the release of the
Android beta in November 2007. The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released in
September 2008. Android is under ongoing development by Google and the Open Handset
Alliance (OHA), and has seen a number of updates to its base operating system since its initial
release.

Since April 2009, Android versions have been developed under a confectionery-themed code
name and released in alphabetical order; the exceptions are versions 1.0 and 1.1 as they were not
released under specific code names:
Alpha(astro boy) (1.0)
Beta(bender) (1.1)
Cupcake (1.5)
Donut (1.6)
Eclair (2.02.1)
Froyo (2.22.2.3)
Gingerbread (2.32.3.7)
Honeycomb (3.03.2.6)
Ice Cream Sandwich (4.04.0.4)
Jelly Bean (4.14.3.1)
KitKat (4.44.4.4)
Lollipop (5.0)

iOS
iOS is from Apple Inc.. It has second largest installed base worldwide on smartphones behind
Android. It is closed source and proprietary and built on open source Darwin core OS. The Apple
iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad and second-generation Apple TV all use an operating system called
iOS, which is derived from Mac OS X. Native third party applications were not officially
supported until the release of iOS 2.0 on July 11, 2008. Before this, "jailbreaking" allowed third
party applications to be installed, and this method is still available. Currently all iOS devices are
developed by Apple and manufactured by Foxconn or another of Apple's partners. As of
September 2014, iOS global market share was 11%.

Windows Phone
Windows Phone is from Microsoft. It is closed source and proprietary. It has third largest
installed base on smartphones behind Android and iOS. On February 15, 2010, Microsoft
unveiled its next-generation mobile OS, Windows Phone. The new mobile OS includes a
completely new over-hauled UI inspired by Microsoft's "Metro Design Language". It includes
full integration of Microsoft services such as OneDrive and Office, Xbox Music, Xbox Video,
Xbox Live games and Bing, but also integrates with many other non-Microsoft services such as
Facebook and Google accounts. Windows Phone devices are made primarily by Nokia, along
with HTC, Samsung. As of September 2014, Windows Phone market share was 3%.

Firefox OS
Firefox OS is from Mozilla. It is open source and uses Mozilla Public License. According to Ars
Technica, "Mozilla says that B2G is motivated by a desire to demonstrate that the standardsbased open Web has the potential to be a competitive alternative to the existing single-vendor
application development stacks offered by the dominant mobile operating systems."

Sailfish OS
Sailfish OS is from Jolla. It is partly open source and adopts GPL (core and middleware),
however the user interface is closed source. After Nokia failed in 2011 with the MeeGo project
most of the MeeGo team have left Nokia, and established Jolla as a company to use MeeGo and
MER business opportunities. In 2012 Linux Sailfish OS based on MeeGo and using MER core
distribution has been launched for public use. The first device, Jolla (mobile phone) was unveiled
on 20 May 2013.

Tizen
Tizen is hosted by the Linux Foundation and support from the Tizen Association, guided by a
Technical Steering Group composed of Intel and Samsung. Tizen is an operating system for
devices including smartphones, tablets, in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) devices, and smart TVs. It
is an open source system that aims to offer a consistent user experience across devices. Tizen's

main components are the Linux kernel and the WebKit runtime. According to Intel, Tizen
combines the best of LiMo and MeeGo." HTML5apps are emphasized, with MeeGo
encouraging its members to transition to Tizen, stating that the "future belongs to HTML5-based
applications, outside of a relatively small percentage of apps, and we are firmly convinced that
our investment needs to shift toward HTML5." Tizen will be targeted at a variety of platforms
such as handsets, tablets, smart TVs and in-vehicle entertainment. On May 17, 2013, Tizen
released version 2.1, code-named Nectarine.

Blackberry
BlackBerry 10 (based on the QNX OS) is from BlackBerry. As a smart phone OS, it is closed
source and proprietary. It is used mostly by Government employees. BlackBerry 10 is the next
generation platform for BlackBerry smartphones and tablets. All phones and tablets are
manufactured by Blackberry itself. One of the dominant platforms in the world, it's global
market share has been reduced to less than 1% in late 2014.

Windows 8.1 Pro 64-bit


Windows 8.1 Pro 64-bit (based on Windows 8.1) is from Microsoft. As a laplet OS, it is open
source and proprietary.

Discontinued software platforms


Symbian
The Symbian platform was developed by Nokia for certain models of smartphones. It is
proprietary software. The operating system was discontinued in 2012, although a slimmed down
version for basic phones was still developed until July 2014. Microsoft officially shelved the
platform in favor of Windows Phone after the acquisition of Nokia.

Windows Mobile
Windows Mobile was from Microsoft. It was closed source and proprietary. The Windows CE
operating system and Windows Mobile middleware are widely spread in Asia. The two improved
variants of this operating system, Windows Mobile 6 Professional (for touch screen devices) and
Windows Mobile 6 Standard, were unveiled in February 2007. It was criticized for having a user
interface which is not optimized for touch input by fingers; instead, it is more usable with a
stylus. However, unlike iOS, it supports both touch screen and physical keyboard configurations.
Windows Mobile's market share sharply declined to just 5% in Q2 of 2010. Microsoft phased out
the Windows Mobile OS to focus on Windows Phone.

Palm OS
Palm OS/Garnet OS was from Access Co. It is closed source and proprietary. webOS was
introduced by Palm in January 2009 as the successor to Palm OS with Web 2.0 technologies,
open architecture and multitasking capabilities.

webOS
webOS was from LG, although some parts are open source. webOS is a proprietary mobile
operating system running on the Linux kernel, initially developed by Palm, which launched with
the Palm Pre. After being acquired by HP, two phones (the Veer and the Pre 3) and a tablet (the
TouchPad) running webOS were introduced in 2011. On August 18, 2011, HP announced that
webOS hardware was to be discontinued but would continue to support and update webOS
software and develop the webOS ecosystem. HP released webOS as open source under the name
Open webOS, and plans to update it with additional features. On February 25, 2013 HP
announced the sale of WebOS to LG Electronics, who planned to use the operating system for its
"smart" or Internet-connected TVs. However HP retained patents underlying WebOS as well as
cloud-based services such as the App Catalog.

Maemo
Maemo was a platform developed by Nokia for smartphones and Internet tablets. It is open
source and GPL, based on Debian GNU/Linux and draws much of its GUI, frameworks and
libraries from the GNOME project. It uses the Matchbox window manager and the GTK-based
Hildon as its GUI and application framework.

MeeGo
MeeGo was from non-profit organization The Linux Foundation. It is open source and GPL. At
the 2010 Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Nokia and Intel both unveiled 'MeeGo', a mobile
operating system that combined Moblin and Maemo to create an open-sourced experience for
users across all devices. In 2011 Nokia announced that it would no longer pursue MeeGo in
favor of Windows Phone. Nokia announced the Nokia N9 on June 21, 2011 at the Nokia
Connection event in Singapore. LG announced its support for the platform.

LiMo
LiMo was from the LiMo Foundation. LiMo Foundation launched LiMo 4 on February 14, 2011.
LiMo 4 delivers middleware and application functionality, including a flexible user interface,
extended widget libraries, 3D window effects, advanced multimedia, social networking and
location-based service frameworks, sensor frameworks, multi-tasking and multi-touch
capabilities. In addition, support for scalable screen resolution and consistent APIs means that

the platform can deliver a consistent user experience across multiple device types and form
factors.

Customer satisfaction
According to a Readers' Choice Awards survey conducted by PC Magazine in 2013, Android
and Windows Phone customers gave their phones a rating of 8.9 on a 0 (extremely dissatisfied)
to 10 (extremely satisfied) scale, an improvement of 0.3 and 0.6 points respectively. Android
received an 8.9 (one of the highest ratings to date for an operating system) followed by iOS (7.3)
The biggest reasons given by readers when asked why they chose their mobile phones are as
follow: operating system (72%) and 4G capability (51%) for Android, quality of email
experience (83%) for Blackberry, availability of apps (63%) for iOS and operating system (48%)
for Windows Phone (81%)

Market share
In 2006, Android, iOS and Windows Phone did not exist and just 64 million smartphones were
sold. In 2014, more than a billion smartphones were sold and global market share was 85% for
Android, 11% for iOS, 3% for Windows Phone and remaining 1% for all other platforms.

See table below for source data