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List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani

Total 102 marks 1 hour and 45 minutes


31.

Two students are watching an action film in which a car drives down a ramp onto the
back of a moving lorry. Both are moving at high speed, the car slightly faster than the lorry.
One student complains that this is impossible because the car would not be able to
stop before hitting the cab of the lorry.
The car has mass 1250 kg and is moving at a speed of 28.0 m s1. The lorry has mass
3500 kg and a speed of 25.5 m s1. The length of the flat back of the lorry allows a braking
distance of 5.0 m.

By considering both momentum and energy show that the stunt is possible, provided a
minimum force of about 600 N slows the car down. You should support your explanations with
calculations.
Treat the situation as one in which two objects join together.
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List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani


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(Total 8 marks)

42.
On one type of theme park ride, a boat swings freely along a circular path from
successively higher starting positions. As the boat moves through the lowest point on its swing,
the riders are travelling at high speeds, and feel quite big forces on them.
With some rides, such as Rush at Thorpe Park, the highest starting point is with the
supporting arm horizontal as shown.
Rush boat at
starting point
18 m
Boat

The length of the supporting arm of Rush is 18 m. The mass of a typical rider is 70 kg.

(a)

Calculate the maximum g-force felt by a typical rider on Rush.


force from seat
g-force = weight of rider

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List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani


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(5)

(b)

Two students in the queue are having a discussion.

A says: If they made a new ride twice as big the g-force at the bottom would be amazing!
B says: I think the g-force wouldnt be any different.
With reference to your calculation, explain which student is correct.
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(1)
(Total 6 marks)

171. Most types of microphone detect sound because the sound waves cause a diaphragm
to vibrate. In one type of microphone this diaphragm forms one plate of a parallel plate

List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani


capacitor. As the diaphragm plate moves. the capacitance chances. Moving the plates closer
together increases the capacitance. Moving the plates further apart reduces the capacitance.
This effect is used to produce the electrical signal. The circuit shown below consists of
a 3 V supply, an uncharged capacitor microphone C. a resistor R. and a switch S.

The switch S is closed. Sketch a graph of the voltage across the capacitor microphone
against time. Assume that the capacitor microphone is not detecting any sound.
V/V

3
2
1

RC

(3)
Explain why movement of the diaphragm causes a potential difference (the signal)
across R.
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(4)

List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani


(Total 7 marks)
172. The results of particle collisions are observed using particle detectors. Sometimes the
products of these collisions are themselves unstable and decay to give further particles; the
products of decay can be photons.
two
gamma ray photons. The rest mass of the meson is 135 MeV/c2.

Calculate the wavelength of each photon.


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Wavelength =............................................
(5)
(Total 5 marks)

107. A student is learning about how capacitors work. He uses the circuit shown in Figure 1
to investigate the capacitor C. Letter X labels a connection which he can make to either of the

List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani


oints L or M. Each cell has an e.m.f. of 1.5 V.
Figure 1

Figure 2
I/A

100 k

X
10

A1
A2
C

0
0

10

Connection X to
L made at t = 3 s

He connects X to L. He sketches how the reading on ammeter 1 varies with time


(Figure 2).
Explain in terms of charge what has happened in the circuit.
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(3)

Explain what he would have seen if he had watched ammeter 2.


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(2)

t/s

List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani


Use his sketch graph (Figure 2) to estimate the charge which has passed through
ammeter 1 between the times t = 3 s and t = 10 s.
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Charge = ..................................................
(2)

Use the graph and your answer above to estimate the capacitance of the capacitor.
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Capacitance = ..........................................
(3)

State and explain what he would observe on each ammeter if he then continued the
experiment by moving the connection X from L to M.
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(2)
(Total 12 marks)

74.
Most smoke detectors contain an isotope of Americium (241Am), the nuclei of which
decay by emitting an alpha particle. When a nucleus of Americium emits an alpha particle the
principle of conservation of momentum and the principle of conservation of energy are
obeyed.

List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani


kineticenergy of alpha particle
Show that the ratio kineticenergy of resulting nucleus is about 60 and briefly discuss
the origin of this energy.

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(Total 6 marks)

183. Fast modern passenger and car ferries are often twin-hull boats, propelled using water
jets instead of conventional propellers. A pumping system throws water out backwards at
speed. One such ferry is the Stena Lynx II, which sails between Fishguard in Wales and Rosslare
in Ireland.

List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani

Some data about the Stena Lynx II:


Resistive forces at cruising speed
Mass of water per second ejected by the jets

= 8.0 105 N
= 60 000kg s1

Show that water must be thrown backwards at about 13 m s 1 while the boat is
maintaining cruising speed.

(3)

The pumping system converts energy which is expended in two main ways: working
against resistive forces and giving kinetic energy to the water thrown backwards.
Calculate the power expended against the resistive forces at the cruising speed of 20
ms1.

Power =
(2)

List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani


Calculate the rate at which the water in the jets gains kinetic energy.

Rate =
(2)

Hence show that the overall efficiency of the pumping system at cruising speed is
about 40%.
Data:
Fuel consumption of pumping system at cruising speed = 1.6 litres/second
1 litre of fuel provides 3.4 107 J of energy when burnt

(3)
(Total 10 marks)

127. In London the Earths magnetic field has a magnetic flux density of 4.8 105 T at
66 to the horizontal as shown in the diagram.
Earth's magnetic field
66
Earth's surface

List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani


Calculate the magnitude of the horizontal component of the Earths magnetic field in
London.
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Horizontal component = ......................................
(2)

For a conductor of length I moving at a speed i) perpendicular to a field of flux density


B, the induced voltage V between the ends of the conductor is given by
V=

A metal scaffolding pole falls from rest off a high building. The pole is aligned
horizontally in an east-west direction. The Earths magnetic field lines at this point lie in a
north-south direction.
2.5 m

Direction
of fall

Calculate the induced voltage across the pole 2.0 s after it started to fall.
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Induced voltage = ................................................
(3)

List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani


What would be the induced voltage after 2.0 s if the pole were aligned in a northsouth direction? explain your answer.
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(2)
(Total 7 marks)

131. To restore a regular heart rhythm to a patient in an emergency, paramedics can use a
machine called a defibrillator. The defibrillator uses a capacitor to store energy at a voltage of
several thousand volts. Conducting paddles are placed on either side of the patients chest,
and a short pulse of current flows between them when the capacitor is discharged.
The graph below shows voltage against charge for the capacitor used in a defibrillator.
6000
Voltage /V
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0

0.5

0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40


Charge /C

With reference to the graph, show that the energy stored in a capacitor is given by the
1
formula W = 2 QV.
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List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani


(2)

Calculate the energy stored by the capacitor when charged to 5000 V.


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Energy = .....................................................
(1)

The graph below shows how voltage varies with time as the capacitors discharged
across a test circuit that has a resistance equivalent to that of the patients chest.

6000
Voltage /V
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0
Time /ms

Use the graph to find the time constant for the circuit.
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Time constant = ..........................................
(2)

The total resistance of the circuit, including the paddles and chest, is
the capacitance of the capacitor.

List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani


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Capacitance = .............................................
(2)

The energy delivered to the patients chest is selected by the operator from these
settings: 50 J, 180 J, 380 J. This is achieved inside the machine electronically, by allowing the
discharge to proceed for an appropriate length of time.
On one particular setting, the discharge lasts for 2.0 ms. Calculate the energy left in
the capacitor at this time.
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(2)

Some energy loss occurs and roughly 60% of the energy leaving the capacitor during
the discharge actually goes into the patient. Find which setting the operator has selected.
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Energy setting = .................................
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

150. One practical arrangement for verifying Coulombs law is to use a lightweight,
negatively-charged, freely-suspended ball. It is repelled by the negative charge on a larger
sphere that is held near it, on an insulated support. The small angle of deflection is then
measured.

List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani

Thread

Charged
sphere

Charged
suspended ball
r

Draw a free-body force diagram for the suspended ball.

(3)

List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani


The weight of the ball is W. Show that the force of repulsion F on the suspended ball is
given by
F = W tan
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(2)

A student takes several sets of readings by moving the larger sphere towards the
suspended ball in order to increase the mutual force of repulsion between them. He measures
the angle of deflection and the separation distance r in each case. He then calculates the
magnitude of the force F.
Here are some of his results.
Force F/103 N
Distance r/103 m

36.0

27.0

142

568

18.0

9.0

Calculate the values that you would expect the student to have obtained for the
missing forces, assuming that Coulombs law was obeyed.
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Write your answers in the table.


(4)

List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani


Suggest why, in practice, it was necessary for the student to take measurements
quickly using this arrangement.
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(1)
(Total 10 marks)

157. A tennis ball connected to a long piece of string is swung around in a horizontal circle
above the head of a pupil.
The pupil feels that there is a tension in the string and argues that for equilibrium
there must be an outward centrifugal force acting on the ball. Criticise his argument and
explain why there is a tension in the string.
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(5)

The pupil lets go of the string. Draw a free-body force diagram for the ball at the
instant after release.

List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani

(1)
(Total 6 marks)

23.
A capacitor C1 is connected to a supply. When a potential difference of 4.0 V is applied
across the capacitor, it stores a charge of 0.80 nC.

C1

(a)

(i)

4.0 V

Calculate the electrical work done by the supply as it transfers this charge.

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Work done = ....................................
(2)

(ii)
Mark on the diagram above the magnitudes and polarities of the charges stored on the
plates of the capacitor.
(1)
Total: 3

34.

(a)

radius of atom
The ratio radius of nucleus for a given atom is about 105.

density of atom
Use this value to calculate the ratio density of nucleus .

State the assumption you have made.


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List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani


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Assumption .................................................................................................................
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(4)

(b)
What observation is made in the alpha particle scattering experiment that supports
your assumption?
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(1)
(Total 5 marks)

90.
A student wants to test Coulombs law, which is about the force between two charged
objects.
She plans to hang two balloons on insulated threads, charge them both with equal
positive charges, and measure the angles at which they hang away from each other. The
dimensions she plans to use in her experiment are shown on the diagram.
0.5 m

1.8 m

0.5 m

List of Hardest Questions Unit 4 Chanchal Lalwani


She thinks she can make accurate measurements if the balloons hang at an angle of
1.5 or more from the vertical. Add to the diagram to show all the forces acting on one of the
balloons. Hence show that the minimum charge Q she needs on each balloon must be about
[Assume that each balloon behaves as though the charge were concentrated at its centre.]
The mass of each balloon = 0.0018 kg.
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(Total 6 marks)