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I.

Analytical Solutions in Conduction Heat Transfer


G. Instantaneous and Continuous Sources
1. Application to heat treatment of surfaces with lasers and to
welding
power
input q (W)

fusion zone
melt pool
What is size and shape of
melt pool? How is it affected
by power input and velocity?

x
y

z
plate velocity u

Assume continuous point source


fixed at origin in a semi-infinite solid
that moves with steady velocity u in
x-direction.

lesson 7

I. Analytical Solutions in Conduction Heat Transfer


1. Application to heat treatment of surfaces with laser and to
welding (cont.)
power
input q (W)

fusion zone
melt pool
x

z
plate velocity u

Additional assumptions
point heat source
constant thermal properties
no melting or solidification
no heat loss from surface of plate
Approach
instantaneous planar source
instantaneous point source
surface treatment of moving
solid

lesson 7

I. Analytical Solutions in Conduction Heat Transfer


2. The fundamental solution - one-dimensional, instantaneous,
planar source
a. pulse of thermal energy released uniformly over plane at
x = 0 in infinite solid with initial temperature T = 0.
Let Q = strength of source, Km, where Qc (=) J/m2
(I.G.1)

(I.G.2)

We want to find T(x,t) where x ranges from - to +.


By conservation of energy,

Qc =

cT( x, t )dx

(I.G.3)

lesson 7

I. Analytical Solutions in Conduction Heat Transfer


b. governing equations

2T
T
=
t
x 2
at t = 0, T( x,0) = Q( x )
at x = , T( , t ) = 0

(I.G.4)

( x )dx = 1

(I.G.5)
(I.G.6)

f ( x )( x )dx = f ( x )

(I.G.7)
(I.G.8)

c. solution (see Lesson 12 of Farlow)

Also known as
Greens function,
the fundamental
solution, and the
impulse response
function.
lesson 7

T ( x ,t ) =

x2
Q

exp
1/ 2
2( t )
4t

x 2 = 2t

(I.G.10)

r 2 = x 2 + y 2 = 4t
r

= x

(I.G.9)

+ y

+ z

(I.G.11)

= 6t
(I.G.12)

I. Analytical Solutions in Conduction Heat Transfer


3. Three-dimensional, instantaneous, point source
a. statement of problem for point source in infinite solid
Let S = strength of source, Km3, where Sc (=) J
(I.G.13)
We want to find T(x,y,z,t) where x, y, and z range from - to +.
By conservation of energy,

Sc =

cT( x, y, z, t )dxdydz

(I.G.14)

lesson 7

I. Analytical Solutions in Conduction Heat Transfer


3. Three-dimensional, instantaneous, point source (cont.)
b. governing equations

2T 2 T 2T
T

=
+
+
x 2 y 2 z 2
t

at t = 0, T( x, y, z,0) = S( x )( y )( z )

(I.G.15)

at x, y, z = , T( ,,, t ) = 0
c. solution
Let T(x,y,z,t)=Tx(x,t)Ty(y,t)Tz(z,t)

Then

Tx
2Tx
=
t
x 2
at t = 0, Tx ( x,0) = S1/ 3( x )
at x = , Tx ( , t ) = 0

lesson 7

(I.G.17)

(I.G.16)

r2
S


exp
8( t )3 / 2
4t
where r 2 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2

T ( r ,t ) =
and

(I.G.18)

I. Analytical Solutions in Conduction Heat Transfer


4. Solution to heat treatment or welding problem
a. governing equations for infinite solid

Recall

T ~

c
+ V T = (kT ) + u' ' ' (I.B.18)
t

For our problem, (I.B.18) becomes

2T 2 T 2T
T
u T
+
+
=
2
2
2

x
t
z
y
x
at t = 0, T( x, y, z,0) = S( x )( y )( z )

(I.G.19)

at x, y, z = , T( ,,, t ) = 0
(I.G.19) is the diffusion-advection or diffusion-convection equation.
lesson 7

I. Analytical Solutions in Conduction Heat Transfer


4. Solution to heat treatment or welding problem (cont.)
b. solution - define coordinates that move with the solid (x,
y, z, t) so that the source is always at the origin. Solve
the problem in these coordinates (making use of (I.G.18))
and then transform back to x, y, z, t coordinates. See
Lesson 15 in Farlow.
S
x = x - ut
x = x - ut
y = y
x
Hot spot
Hot spot
z = z
z
u
at
t
=
0
at time t
t = t
ut
The solution for instantaneous pulse of strength S in
primed coordinates is (I.G.18):

T( x' , y' , z' , t' ) =

( x' )2 + ( y' )2 + ( z' )2


(I.G.20)
exp

t
'
8( t' )3 / 2

lesson 7

I. Analytical Solutions in Conduction Heat Transfer


b. solution (cont.)
In stationary coordinates (I.G.20) becomes

( x ut )2 + ( y )2 + ( z )2

exp

4 t
8( t )3 / 2

(I.G.21)
c. solution with continuous source
S

T( x, y, z, t ) =

Suppose S is zero until time t > w, then it has value S.


The new temperature field becomes

0, t w
( x, y, z, t ) =
T( x, y, z, t w ), t > w
if cS = qdt, q = constant (W), and q is switched on at t = w,
and left on, temperature at time t is (see Lesson 10)

T( x, y, z, t ) =
lesson 7

(I.G.22)

[ x u( t w )]2 + ( y )2 + ( z )2
dw

exp
3 / 2 0
3/2

4( t w )
8c( )

(t w )
q

I. Analytical Solutions in Conduction Heat Transfer


c. solution with continuous source (cont.)
Now let t in (I.G.22) to give

T( x, y, z ) =

q
u
(r x )
exp
4kr
2

(I.G.23)

d. now consider heat treatment on surface of semi-infinite


solid and neglect all heat losses from surface. (I.G.23)
becomes

T( x, y, z ) =

q
u
(r x )
exp
2kr

(I.G.24)

lesson 7

I. Analytical Solutions in Conduction Heat Transfer


d. heat treatment on surface of semi-infinite solid (cont.)

T( x, y, z ) =

q
u
(r x )
exp
2kr
2

(I.G.24)

Pe = ua/ (Peclet no., a


dimensionless velocity)
Pe = 0, 2,10, 50
a = q/(2 k TM)
TM = melting point of solid

lesson 7

I. Analytical Solutions in Conduction Heat Transfer


d. heat treatment on surface of semi-infinite solid (cont.)

T( x, y, z ) =

q
u
(r x )
exp
2kr

(I.G.24)

Typical laser treatment conditions:


12-by-12-mm uniform square beam
5.7 kW
u = 38 mm/s
Consider T(x,0,0) = 850 C (Actual T = 850 + T0)

T( x,0,0) =
x=

q
2kr

q
5700 W
=
= 21 mm
2kT 2(50 W /(m K )850 C

lesson 7