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Exerccios termodinmica

Unidade 6 Segunda Lei da Termodinmica


1 A potncia eltrica consumida num aquecedor a resistncia utilizado no controle
T1:
SCF
doQC:
arSCF/OVY
de uma sala
de 1500 W. Determine a potencia eltrica que
GTBL057-Borgnakke-v7
pode
ser economizada se o aquecimento do ar dor promovido por uma bomba de calorDecember 28, 2007
com coeficiente de eficcia de 2,0. (RESP: 750 W)

P1: KUF/OVY de P2:


OSO/OVY
temperatura
GTBL057-07

2 A potncia eltrica gerada numa central termoeltrica geotrmica 150MW. A


taxa de transferncia de calor de fonte geotrmica para o ciclo da central 1000 MW
rejeita calor na atmosfera atravs de uma torre de resfriamento. Determine a
270 e !o ciclo
CHAPTER SEVEN THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
taxa de transferncia de calor para a atmosfera e a vazo em massa de ar na torre
sabendo que a variao de temperatura mxima do ar que escoa na torre 10C.

a temperature
of 13MW;
C below
What
effi7.56 A temperature of about 0.01 K can be achieved
(RESP:
Q = 850
marground.
=84 661
kg/s)

ciency will a heat engine have operating between


by magnetic cooling. In this process, a strong magthese
two
thermal
reservoirs?
paramagnetic
3 Calcule o trabalho necessrio para obter 250 gnetic
de field
geloisaimposed
partir on
deagua
lquidasalt,
a maintained
at
1
K
by
transfer
of
energy
to
liquid
he7.4910C.
Find the
maximum
the refrigerator
your
Admita
queCOP
seuforrefrigerador
in
acionado
por um
motor
com
potencia
de
750W
e therlium
boiling
at
low
pressure.
The
salt
is
then
kitchen, assuming it runs in a Carnot cycle.
que o ciclo de refrigerao apresenta coeficiente demally
eficcia
igual
a the
3,5.helium,
Considerando
isolated
from
the magnetic field
7.50 A refrigerator should remove 500 kJ from some
que
a
nica
carga
trmica

a
devida
a
gua
no
congelador
do
refrigerador,
calcule
is
removed,
and
the
salt
temperature
drops.oAssume
food. Assume the refrigerator works in a Carnot
that
1
mJ
is
removed
at
an
average
temperature
of

tempo
necessrio
para
completar
a
operao
de
resfriamento.
(RESP:
W
=
-26,82
kJ;
cycle between 10 C and 45 C with a motor0.1
K
to
the
helium
by
a
Carnot-cycle
heat
pump.
tempo
= 35,78
s)W. How much time does it take
compressor
of 500
Find the work input to the heat pump and the COP
if this is the only cooling load?
with an ambient temperature of 300 K.
aquecida
com uma
bomba de calor
que apresenta coeficiente de
7.514 AcarUma
enginecasa
burns5 kg
of fuel (equivalent
to adding
7.57 The lowest temperature that has been achieved is
QH ) at 1500
K and
rejects
to the radiator
and
eficcia
igual
a 2,2.
A energy
temperatura
no interior
da casa uniforme
e mantida sempre a
about 1 106 K. To achieve this, an additional
exhaust
at
an
average
temperature
of
750
K.
As20C. A taxa de transferncia de calor da casa para
externo,beyond
em kW,

stageoofambiente
cooling is required
that described
sume the fuel has a heating value of 40 000 kJ/kg
igual
a
0,8
vezes
a
diferena
entre
a
temperatura
no
interior
da
casa
e
a
temperatura
do
in the previous problem, namely, nuclear cooling.
and find the maximum amount of work the engine
This process
is similar
to magnetic
cooling,
ambiente
externo.
Admitindo
que
a
temperatura
externa
igual
a -10C,
calcule
a but it
can provide.
involves
the
magnetic
moment associated with the
potencia
necessria
para
acionar
a
bomba
de
calor.
(RESP:
10,91
kW)
7.52 A large heat pump should upgrade 5 MW of heat at
nucleus rather than that associated with certain ions
85 C to be delivered as heat at 150 C. What is the
in the paramagnetic salt. Suppose that 10 J is to be
amount
of workuma
(power)
input thatdurante
will
5minimum
Prope-se
aquecer
residncia
o inverno
usando uma bomba de calor.
removed from a specimen at an average temperadrive
this
pump?
A temperatura da residncia deve ser sempre mantida
20C.
Estima-se que,
ture of igual
105 Ka(10
J is approximately
the potential

7.53quando
An air conditioner
provides
1
kg/s
of
air
at
15
C
energy
loss
of
a
pin
dropping
3
mm).
Find
a temperatura do meio externo cai a -10C, a taxa de transferncia de calor dathe work
cooled from outside atmospheric air at 35 C. Estiinput to apotncia
Carnot heat
pump and
its COP required
residncia
para o meio igual a 25 kW. Qual a mnima
eltrica
necessria
mate the amount of power needed to operate the air
to
do
this,
assuming
the
ambient
temperature is
para
acionarClearly
essa bomba
calor. (RESP:
conditioner.
state all de
assumptions
made. 2,56 kW)
300 K.
7.54 A cyclic machine, shown in Fig. P7.54, receives
7.58 An inventor has developed a refrigeration unit that
6325
AkJfigura
mostrareservoir.
o esquema
de uma mquina
cclica que utilizada para
from a abaixo
1000 K energy
It rejects
maintains the cold space at 10 C while operating
transferir
um reservoir,
reservatrio
a alta
a baixaHow do
125 kJ to acalor
400 Kde
energy
and thetrmico
cycle
in atemperatura
25 C room. A para
COP ofoutro
8.5 is claimed.
produces 200 Determine,
kJ of work asutilizando
output. Is this
temperatura.
os cycle
valores fornecidos
na
figura,
se
esta
mquina

you evaluate this?


reversible,
irreversible,
or
impossible?
reversvel, irreversvel ou impossvel. (RESP: 7.59
impossvel)
Calculate the amount of work input a refrigerator
needs to make ice cubes out of a tray of 0.25 kg liquid water at 10 C. Assume the refrigerator works
TH = 1000 K
in a Carnot cycle between 8 C and 35 C with a
motor-compressor of 750 W. How much time does
QH = 325 kJ
it take if this is the only cooling load?
Cyclic
7.60 A heat pump receives energy from a source at 80 C
W = 200 kJ
machine
and delivers energy to a boiler that operates at 350
kPa. The boiler input is saturated liquid water and
QL = 125 kJ
the exit is saturated vapor, both at 350 kPa. The heat
TL = 400 K
pump is driven by a 2.5 MW motor and has a COP
that is 60% of a Carnot heat pump COP. What is
FIGURE P7.54
the maximum mass flow rate of water the system
can deliver?
7.55 A salesperson selling refrigerators and deep freez7.61 A household freezer operates in a room at 20 C.
ers will guarantee a minimum COP of 4.5 year
Heat must be transferred from the cold space at a
round. How would the performance of these marate of 2 kW to maintain its temperature at 30 C.
chines compare? Would it be steady throughout the
What is the theoretically smallest (power) motor
year?
required to operate this freezer?

20

in the winter with a


e maintained at 20 C
ent temperature oute at which heat is lost
o be 25 kW. What is
r required to drive the

Qloss

tor produces a maxiThe energy is used in


rates in a 10 C envim thermal efficiency?
designed to focus the
maximum temperature

1: SCF

7.66 In a cryogenic experiment you need to keep a container at 125 C, although it gains 100 W due to
heat transfer. What is the smallest motor you would
need for a heat pump absorbing heat from the container and rejecting heat to the room at 20 C?
7 7.67
Prope-se
construir
central
termeltrica
com potencia de 1.000 MW e
It is proposed
to build auma
1000 MW
electric
power
utilizando
dgua
de contrabalho. Os condensadores devem ser
plant vapor
with steam
as thecomo
workingfluido
fluid. The
densers
are gua
to be cooled
water (seefigura
Fig. abaixo. A temperatura mxima de
resfriados
com
de umwith
rio,river
conforme

P7.67).
The
maximum
steam
temperature
is
550
C,
vapor ser de 550C e a presso nos condensadores
ser de 10kPa. Como consultor de
and the pressure in the condensers will be 10 kPa.
engenharia, voc solicitado a estimar o aumento de temperatura da gua no rio
Estimate the temperature rise of the river down(Entre stream
a montante
e apower
jusante
from the
plant.da usina). Qual a sua estimativa? (RESP: 1,9C)

Power
plant

60

Intake

Discharge

8 m deep

River mean speed


l boiling point of any
10m/minute
December 28, 2007
20:4
perature the enthalpy
l. A Carnot refrigeraproduction of 1 kmol FIGURE P7.67
m saturated vapor at 8 Um condicionador de ar deve ser utilizado para manter a temperatura de um
is the work input to
7.68 Repeat
the previous
problem
usingEste
a morecondicionador
realistic
cmodo
constante
e igual
a 20C.
pode operar como refrigerador
for the cycle with an
thermal
efficiency
of
35%.
(COP
=3)
ou
como
bomba
de
calor
(COP
=4)
e
a
potencia
eltrica necessria para
R
BC
K?
HOMEWORK PROBLEMS ! 275
3
7.69
A
steel
bottle
of
V
=
0.1
m
contains
R-134a
at
ade with a rock (gran- acionar a unidade 1,2 kW. A transferncia de calor para o cmodo, em kW, igual a
20 C and 200 kPa. It is placed indaa deep
freezer, e do cmodo multiplicada por 0,5.
atmosfera
to 400 K using solar diferena entre as temperaturas

where
it
is
cooled
to
20
C.
The
deep
freezer
es Q
atmosphere.
Find
to create
hot gases.
Sketch theassetup
in terms ofsits
condies,
determine
temperaturas
and Nessas
H from the bed
mnimas e mximas da atmosfera em
in
a
room
with
an
ambient
temperature
of 20
utside
temperatures
devices
and adequadamente.
give a relation for the
ratio
ofTC = 10,4C, T
rroundings
at 290 K. que acyclic

unidade
opera
(RESP:
min
max = 27,2C)
hasrefigerator
an inside temperature
ofburner
20 C.
Q Land
in the
to Q fuel in the
in Find
termsthe
own, and as it reaches
of energy
thetemperatures.
freezer must remove from
of amount
the various
reservoir
de heat
the energy
rock
transferthe
rates
the R-134a and the extra amount of work input to
he
heat engines
effi- 7.109 A furnace, shown in Fig. P7.109, can deliver heat,
e outdoor
temperathe freezer to do the process.
refrigerao
a -30C.
eheat
process,
andgiven
what is 9 Deseja-se
transfer
QH 1 , at T H 1 ,produzir
and it is proposed
to use this
to drive aDispe-se de um reservatrio trmico a
7.70
Sixty
kilograms
per
hour
of
water
runs
a
200 C,
conforme
figura at
abaixo.
Assim,
trabalho
pode ser produzido por um motor
heat engine
with aarejection
T atm instead
ofthrough
direct
heat
exchanger,
entering
as
saturated
liquid
at
200
roomoperando
heating. The
heat oengine
drives a heat
pump e o ambiente, e este trabalho pode ser
trmico
entre
reservatrio
a
200C
00 K and 200 kPa.
kPa
and leaving
as saturated vapor.
The heat is as
supthat
delivers
Qacionar
the atmosphere
H 2 at T roomousing
transfer from a reutilizado
para
refrigerador.
Admitindo
que todos os processos so
plied
by
a
Carnot
heat
pump
operating
from
a
lowthe cold reservoir. Find the ratio
QH 2 /QH 1 as a funcW
es energy from
the

reversveis,
determine
a
relao
entre
os
calores
transferidos
do reservatrio a alta
temperature
reservoir atIs16this
C.aFind
thesetup
rate ofthan
work
tion
of the temperatures.
better
K besides the work
into room
theeheat
pump.
temperatura
do
espao
direct
heating
fromrefrigerado.
the furnace? (RESP:Qq1/Qf2=0,687)
at at 300
K. Since
HE
7.71
A
heat
engine
has
a
solar
collector receiving 0.2
QHC v d T and find
m air
QL
2
kW/m
,
inside
of
which
a
transfer
medium is heated
ature to find the reTH1
Troom
to 450
K. The collected energy powers
a heat en
gine that rejects heat at 40 C. If the heat engine
driving a heat pump
QH1
QH2
nergy at 50 C as a
ecting heat at 30 C.
W
the heat pump that
H.E.
H.P.
otal waste energy is
elivered at the high
Confirmation Pages

URE P7.106

he winter and then


he interior temper-

QL1
Tatm

QL2
Tatm

FIGURE P7.109
7.110 Consider the rock bed thermal storage in Problem
7.65. Use the specific heat so that you can write
QH in terms of dT rock and find the expression for
W out of the heat engine. Integrate this expression over temperature and find the total heat engine
work output.
7.111 On a cold (10 C) winter day, a heat pump pro-