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STAAD.

Pro
V8i (SELECTseries 5)

International Design Codes Manual


Last Updated: Tuesday, February 04, 2014

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International Design Codes Manual i

Table of Contents
About STAAD.Pro

About the STAAD.Pro Documentation

Getting Started and Tutorials

Examples Manual

Graphical Environment

Technical Reference Manual

International Design Codes

Batch Design versus Design Modes

Batch Design

Design Modes

1 Australian Codes

1A. Australian Codes - Concrete Design per AS 3600 - 2001

1A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design

1A.2 Member Dimensions

1A.3 Design Parameters

1A.4 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration

12

1A.5 Beam Design

13

1A.6 Column Design

14

1A.7 Slab or Wall Design

14

1B. Australian Codes - Steel Design per AS 4100 - 1998

17

1B.1 General

17

1B.2 Analysis Methodology

19

1B.3 Member Property Specifications

20

1B.4 Built-in Steel Section Library

20

1B.5 Section Classification

23

1B.6 Material Properties

24

1B.7 Member Resistances

24

1B.8 Design Parameters

27
International Design Codes Manual iii

1B.9 Code Checking

34

1B.10 Member Selection

35

1B.11 Tabulated Results of Steel Design

36

1B.12 Physical Member Design

36

2 British Codes
2A. British Codes - Concrete Design per BS8110

45
47

2A.1 Design Parameters

47

2A.2 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations

50

2A.3 Member Dimensions

50

2A.4 Beam Design

50

2A.5 Column Design

52

2A.6 Slab Design

53

2A.7 Shear Wall Design

54

2B. British Codes - Steel Design per BS5950:2000

63

2B.1 General

63

2B.2 Analysis Methodology

64

2B.3 Member Property Specifications

64

2B.4 Built-In Steel Section Library

64

2B.5 Member Capacities

67

2B.6 Design Parameters

70

2B.7 Design Operations

81

2B.8 Code Checking

81

2B.9 Member Selection

81

2B.10 Tabulated Results of Steel Design

82

2B.11 Plate Girders

84

2B.12 Composite Sections

85

2B.13 Design of Tapered Beams

85

2C. British Codes - Design per BS5400

89

2C.1 General Comments

89

2C.2 Shape Limitations

89

iv STAAD.Pro

2C.3 Section Class

89

2C.4 Moment Capacity

89

2C.5 Shear Capacity

90

2C.6 Design Parameters

90

2C.7 Composite Sections

92

2D. British Codes - Design per BS8007

93

2D.1 Design Process

93

2D.2 Design Parameters

94

2D.3 Structural Model

95

2D.4 Wood & Armer Moments

95

2E. British Codes - Design per British Cold Formed Steel Code

97

2E.1 Cross-Sectional Properties

97

2E.2 Design Procedure

97

2E.3 Design Equations

98

2E.4 Design Parameters

102

2E.5 Verification Problem

107

3 Canadian Codes

113

3A. Canadian Codes - Concrete Design per CSA Standard A23.3-94

115

3A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design

115

3A.2 Member Dimensions

115

3A.3 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations

115

3A.4 Design Parameters

116

3A.5 Beam Design

118

3A.6 Column Design

119

3A.7 Slab/Wall Design

120

3B. Canadian Codes - Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSA-S16-01

121

3B.1 General Comments

121

3B.2 Analysis Methodology

121

3B.3 Member Property Specifications

122

3B.4 Built-in Steel Section Library

122

International Design Codes Manual v

3B.5 Section Classification

126

3B.6 Member Resistances

126

3B.7 Design Parameters

132

3B.8 Code Checking

136

3B.9 Member Selection

136

3B.10 Tabulated Results of Steel Design

137

3B.11 Verification Problems

138

3C. Canadian Codes - Design Per Canadian Cold Formed Steel Code S136-94

155

3C.1 Cross-Sectional Properties

155

3C.2 Design Procedure

155

3C.3 Design Parameters

157

3D. Canadian Codes - Wood Design Per CSA Standard CAN/CSA-086-01

163

3D.1 General Comments

163

3D.2 Analysis Methodology

163

3D.3 Member Property Specifications

163

3D.4 Built-in Timber Section Library

164

3D.5 Member Resistance

165

3D.6 Design Parameters

168

3D.7 Code Checking

170

3D.8 Member Selection

171

3D.9 Tabulated Results of Timber Design

171

3D.10 Verification Problems

172

3D. Canadian Codes - Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSA-S16-09

179

3D.11 General Comments

180

3D.12 Analysis Methodology

180

3D.13 Member Property Specifications

180

3D.14 Built-in Steel Section Library

180

3D.15 Section Classification

181

3D.16 Member Resistances

181

3D.17 Design Parameters

189

vi STAAD.Pro

4 Cypriot Codes

195

4A. Cypriot Codes - Concrete Design in Cyprus

197

4B.1 Design Parameters

199

5 Danish Codes

203

5A. Danish Codes - Steel Design per DS412

205

5B.1 Design Parameters

207

6 Dutch Codes

209

6A. Dutch Codes - Steel Design per NEN 6770

211

6A.1 Design Parameters

211

7 European Codes

215

7A. European Codes - Concrete Design Per Eurocode EC2

217

7A.1 Design Operations

217

7A.2 Eurocode 2 (EC2)

217

7A.3 National Application Documents

217

7A.4 Material Properties and Load Factors

218

7A.5 Columns

218

7A.6 Beams

218

7A.7 Slabs

219

7A.8 Design Parameters

220

7B. European Codes - Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992]

223

7B.1 General Description

223

7B.2 Analysis Methodology

224

7B.3 Material Properties and Load Factors

225

7B.4 Section Classification

225

7B.5 Member Design

225

7B.6 Design Parameters

228

7B.7 CodeChecking

235

7B.8 MemberSelection

236

7B.9 TabulatedResultsofSteelDesign

236

7C. European Codes - Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 1993-1-1:2005]

239

International Design Codes Manual vii

7C.1 General Description

239

7C.2 AnalysisMethodology

241

7C.3 Material Properties and Load Factors

241

7C.4 Section Classification

241

7C.5 Member Design

242

7C.6 Design Parameters

265

7C.7 CodeChecking

278

7C.8 Member Selection

279

7C.9 TabulatedResultsofSteelDesign

279

7D. European Codes - National Annexes to Eurocode 3 [EN 1993-1-1:2005]

283

7D.1 General Format

283

7D.2 Specifying the design engine to use a national annex

284

7D.1 Dutch National Annex to EC3

286

7D.1 Norwegian National Annex to EC3

298

7D.1 UK National Annex to EC3

299

7D.2 French National Annex to EC3

309

7D.3 Finnish National Annex to EC3

317

7D.4 Polish National Annex to EC3

323

7D.5 Singaporean National Annex to EC3

331

7D.6 Belgian National Annex to EC3

339

7D.7 Malaysian National Annex to EC3

346

7D.8 German National Annex to EC3

353

7D.9 Swedish National Annex to EC3

358

7E. Timber Design Per EC 5: Part 1-1

363

7E.1 General Comments

363

7E.2 Analysis Methodology

365

7E.3 Design Parameters

370

7E.4 Verification Problems

373

8 Finnish Codes
8A. Finnish Codes - Concrete Design per B4

viii STAAD.Pro

381
383

8A.1 Design Parameters

385

8A. Finnish Codes - Steel Design per B7

387

8A.2 Design Parameters

387

9 French Codes

391

9A. French Codes - ConcreteDesign per B.A.E.L

393

9A.1 Design Parameters

393

9A.2 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration

394

9A.3 Member Dimensions

395

9A.4 Beam Design

395

9A.5 Column Design

395

9A.6 Slab/Wall Design

396

9B. French Codes - Steel Design per the French Code

399

9B.1 General Comments

399

9B.2 Basis of Methodology

399

9B.3 Member Capacities

399

9B.4 Combined Axial Force and Bending

400

9B.5 Design Parameters

400

9B.6 Code Checking and Member Selection

402

9B.7 Tabulated Results of Steel Design

403

9B.8 Built-in French Steel Section Library

404

10 German Codes

409

10A. German Codes - ConcreteDesign Per DIN 1045

411

10A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design

411

10A.2 Member Dimensions

411

10A.3 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations

411

10A.4 Beam Design

412

10A.5 Column Design

413

10A.6 Slab Design

413

10A.7 Design Parameters

414

10B. German Codes - Steel Design Per the DIN Code

417

International Design Codes Manual ix

10B.1 General

417

10B.2 AnalysisMethodology

417

10B.3 Member Property Specifications

417

10B.4 Built-in German Steel Section Library

418

10B.5 Member Capacities

421

10B.6 Combined Loading

421

10B.7 Design Parameters

422

10B.8 Code Checking

424

10B.9 Member Selection

425

11 Indian Codes
11A. Indian Codes - Concrete Design per IS 456

427
429

11A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design

429

11A.2 Member Dimensions

429

11A.3 Design Parameters

429

11A.4 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration

435

11A.5 Beam Design

436

11A.6 Column Design

438

11A.7 Bar Combination

439

11A.8 Wall Design in accordance with IS 456-2000

440

11B. Indian Codes - Concrete Design per IS 13920

449

11B.1 Design Operations

449

11B.2 Section Types for Concrete Design

449

11B.3 Design Parameters

449

11B.4 Beam Design

459

11B.5 Column Design

462

11B.6 Bar Combination

463

11B.7 Verification Example

464

11C. Indian Codes - Steel Design per IS 800 - 1984

x STAAD.Pro

469

11C.1 Design Operations

469

11C.2 General Comments

469

11C.3 Allowable Stresses

470

11C.4 Design Parameters

472

11C.5 Stability Requirements

476

11C.6 Truss Members

476

11C.7 Deflection Check

476

11C.8 Code Checking

476

11C.9 Member Selection

477

11C.10 Member Selection By Optimization

477

11C.11 Tabulated Results of Steel Design

477

11C.12 Indian Steel Table

479

11C.13 Column With Lacings And Battens

483

11D. Indian Codes - Steel Design per IS 802

487

11D.1 General Comments

487

11D.2 Allowable Stresses

487

11D.3 Stability Requirements

488

11D.4 Minimum Thickness Requirement

490

11D.5 Code Checking

490

11D.6 Member Selection

491

11D.7 Member Selection by Optimization

491

11D.8 Tabulated Results of Steel Design

491

11D.9 Design Parameters

492

11D.10 Calculation of Net Section Factor

495

11D.11 Example Problem No. 28

496

11E. Indian Codes - Design per Indian Cold Formed Steel Code

501

11E.1 Cross-Sectional Properties

501

11E.2 Design Procedure

501

11E.3 Code Checking and Member Selection

503

11E.4 Design Parameters

503

11F. Indian Codes - Steel Design per IS 800 - 2007


11F.1 General Comments

509
509

International Design Codes Manual xi

11F.2 Design Process

509

11F.3 Member Property Specification

519

11F.4 Design Parameters

520

11F.5 Code Checking and Member Selection

523

11F.6 Verification Example

524

12 Japanese Codes
12A. Japanese Codes - ConcreteDesign Per 1991 AIJ

533
535

12A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design

535

12A.2 Member Dimensions

535

12A.3 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations

535

12A.4 Beam Design

536

12A.5 Column Design

537

12A.6 Slab/Wall Design

539

12A.7 Design Parameters

539

12B. Japanese Codes - Steel Design Per 2005 AIJ

543

12B.1 General

543

12B.2 Member Capacities

543

12B.3 Design Parameters

547

12B.4 Von Mises Stresses Check

551

12B.5 Verification Problems

552

12C. Japanese Codes - SteelDesign Per 2002 AIJ

557

12C.1 General

557

12C.2 Analysis Methodology

557

12C.3 MemberPropertySpecifications

557

12C.4 Built-in Japanese Steel Section Library

558

12C.5 Member Capacities

562

12C.6 Combined Loading

567

12C.7 Design Parameters

567

12C.8 Code Checking

571

12C.9 Member Selection

571

xii STAAD.Pro

12C.10 Von Mises Stresses Check

572

13 Mexican Codes

575

13A. Mexican Codes - Concrete Design Per MEX NTC 1987

577

13A.1 Design Operations

577

13A.2 Section Types for Concrete Design

577

13A.3 Member Dimensions

577

13A.4 Design Parameters

578

13A.5 Beam Design

582

13A.6 Column Design

584

13A.7 Column Interaction

585

13A.8 Column Design Output

586

13A.9 Slab Design

587

13B. Mexican Codes - Steel Design Per NTC 1987

589

13B.1 General

589

13B.2 Limit States Design Fundamentals

589

13B.3 Member End Forces and Moments

590

13B.4 Section Classification

590

13B.5 Member in Axial Tension

590

13B.6 Axial Compression

591

13B.7 Flexural Design Strength

591

13B.8 Design for Shear

592

13B.9 Combined Compression Axial Force and Bending

592

13B.10 Combined Tension Axial Force and Bending

593

13B.11 Design Parameters

593

13B.12 Code Checking and Member Selection

597

13B.13 Tabulated Results of Steel Design

597

14 Norwegian Codes

599

14A. Norwegian Codes - Steel Design per NS 3472 / NPD

601

14A.1 - General Notes

601

14A.2 - Basis for Code Checking

602

International Design Codes Manual xiii

14A.3 Design Parameters

606

14A.4 Stability Check According to NS 3472

609

14A.5 - Stability Check According to NPD

617

14A.6 Yield Check

620

14A.7 Tubular Joint Check, NPD 3.5

636

14A.8 - Tabulated Results

640

14B. Norwegian Codes - Steel Design per NORSOK N-004


14B.1 Member Resistances
Norwegian Codes - Steel Design per NORSOK N-004

655
655
666

14B.2 Design Parameters

666

14B.3 Code Checking

670

14B.4 Member Selection

670

14B.5 Tubular Joint Checking

670

14B.6 Tubular Joint Resistance

672

14B.7 External Geometry File

674

14B.8 Tabulated Results

674

14C. Norwegian Codes - Concrete Design per NS 3473


14C.1 Design Parameters

15 Russian Codes
15A. Russian Codes - Concrete Design Per SNiP 2.03.01-84*

677
677

681
683

15A.1 General

683

15A.2 Design Parameters and Input Data

684

15A.3 Beams

698

15A.4 Columns

703

15A.5 Two DimensionalElement (slabs, walls, shells)

706

15B. Russian Codes - Steel Design Per SNiP 2.23-81* (Edition 1999)

709

15B.1 General

709

15B.2 Built-in Russian Steel Section Library

709

15B.3 Member Capacities

712

15B.4 Design Parameters

714

xiv STAAD.Pro

15B.5 Member Selection and Code Check

720

16 Singaporian Codes

725

16A. Singaporean Codes - Concrete Design per CP65


16A.1 Design Parameters

727
729

17 South African Codes

733

17A. South African Codes - Concrete Design per SABS-0100-1

735

17A.1 Design Parameters

735

17A.2 Member Dimensions

737

17A.3 Beam Design

738

17A.4 Column Design

739

17B. South African Codes - Steel Design Per SAB Standard SAB0162-1:1993

741

17B.1 General

741

17B.2 Analysis Methodology

741

17B.3 Member Property Specifications

741

17B.4 Built-in Steel Section Library

742

17B.5 Section Classification

745

17B.6 Member Resistances

745

17B.7 Design Parameters

747

17B.8 Code Checking

750

17B.9 Member Selection

750

17B.10 Tabulated Results of Steel Design

751

17B.11 Verification Problems

752

17B.12 Verification Problem No. 2

754

17B.13 Verification Problem No. 3

756

18 Spanish Codes

759

18A. Spanish Codes - Steel Design per NBE-MV103-1972


18A.1 Design Parameters
18A. Spanish Codes - Concrete Design per EHE
18A.2 Design Parameters

19 Swedish Codes

761
761
763
763

767
International Design Codes Manual xv

19A. Swedish Codes - Steel Design per BSK 99


19A.1 Design Parameters
19B. Swedish Codes - Concrete Design per BBK 94
19C.1 Design Parameters

20 American Aluminum Code

769
769
771
773

777

20A.1 Member Properties

777

20A.2 Double channel front-to-front

778

20A.3 Design Procedure

778

20A.4 Design Parameters

778

20A.5 Code Checking

786

20A.6 Member Selection

786

21 American Transmission Tower Code


21A. American Transmission Tower Code - Steel Design per ASCE 10-97

787
789

21A.1 General Comments

789

21A.2 Allowable Stresses per ASCE 10-97

789

21A.3 Critical Conditions used as criteria to determine Pass/Fail status

790

21A.4 Design Parameters

790

21A.5 Code Checking and Member Selection

794

21B. American Transmission Tower Code - Steel Design per ASCE Manuals and
Reports

795

21B.1 General Comments

795

21B.2 Allowable Stresses per ASCE (Pub. 52)

795

21B.3 Design Parameters

796

21B.4 Code Checking and Member Selection

799

22 Steel Design per American Petroleum Institute Code

801

22A.1 Design Operations

801

22A.2 Allowables per API Code

802

22A.3 Design Parameters

806

22A.4 Code Checking

809

22A.5 Member Selection

810

xvi STAAD.Pro

22A.6 Chord Selection and Qf Parameter

810

22A.7 Tabulated Results of Steel Design

811

22A.8 Joint Design

813

23 ANSI/AISC N690 Design Codes


23A. ANSI/AISC N690-1994 Code

817
819

23A.1 General Comments

819

23A.2 Design Parameters

820

23A.3 Examples

826

23B. ANSI/AISC N690-1984 Code

835

23B.1 General Comments

835

23B.2 Design Process

835

23B.3 Member Property Specification

839

23B.4 Design Parameters

839

23B.5 Code Checking and Member Selection

842

23B.6 Examples

842

24 American Society of Mechanical Engineers Nuclear Facility (ASME


NF) Codes
851
24A. ASME NF 3000 - 1974 & 1977 Codes

853

24A.1 Design Process

853

24A.2 Member Property Specification

857

24A.3 Design Parameters

857

24A.4 Code Checking and Member Selection

861

24A.5 Example

861

24B. ASME NF 3000 - 1989 Code

863

24B.1 Design Process

863

24B.2 Member Property Specification

867

24B.3 Design Parameters

867

24B.4 Code Checking and Member Selection

871

24B.5 Example

871

24C. ASME NF 3000 - 1998 Code

873

International Design Codes Manual xvii

24C.1 Design Process

873

24C.2 Member Property Specification

877

24C.3 Design Parameters

878

24C.4 Code Checking and Member Selection

882

24C.5 Example

882

24D. ASME NF 3000 - 2001 &2004 Codes

885

24D.1 Design Process

885

24D.2 Member Property Specification

889

24D.3 Design Parameters

890

24D.4 Code Checking and Member Selection

893

24D.5 Example of 2004 Code

893

24E.1 Service Levels

897

24E.2 Stress Level Factors

897

Technical Support

xviii STAAD.Pro

899

This documentation has been prepared to provide information pertaining to the various
international codes supported by STAAD. These codes are provided as additional codes by Bentley
Sytems, Incorporated. In other words, they do not come with the standard license package. Hence,
information on only some of the codes presented in this document may be actually pertinent to
the license package available to you.
This document is to be used in conjunction with the STAAD Technical Reference Manual and the
STAAD Application Examples Manual. Effort has been made to provide some basic information
about the analysis considerations and the logic used in the design approach. A brief outline of the
factors affecting the design along with references to the corresponding clauses in the codes is also
provided. Examples are provided at the appropriate places to facilitate ease of understanding of the
usage of the commands and design parameters. You are urged to refer to the Examples Manual for
solved problems that use the commands and features of STAAD. Since the STAAD output contains
references to the clauses in the code that govern the design, we recommend that you consult the
documentation of the code of that country for additional details on the design criteria.

International Design Codes Manual 1

About STAAD.Pro
STAAD.Pro is a general purpose structural analysis and design program with applications primarily
in the building industry - commercial buildings, bridges and highway structures, industrial
structures, chemical plant structures, dams, retaining walls, turbine foundations, culverts and other
embedded structures, etc. The program hence consists of the following facilities to enable this task.
1. Graphical model generation utilities as well as text editor based commands for creating the
mathematical model. Beam and column members are represented using lines. Walls, slabs
and panel type entities are represented using triangular and quadrilateral finite elements.
Solid blocks are represented using brick elements. These utilities allow the user to create the
geometry, assign properties, orient cross sections as desired, assign materials like steel,
concrete, timber, aluminum, specify supports, apply loads explicitly as well as have the
program generate loads, design parameters etc.
2. Analysis engines for performing linear elastic and pdelta analysis, finite element analysis,
frequency extraction, and dynamic response (spectrum, time history, steady state, etc.).
3. Design engines for code checking and optimization of steel, aluminum and timber
members. Reinforcement calculations for concrete beams, columns, slabs and shear walls.
Design of shear and moment connections for steel members.
4. Result viewing, result verification and report generation tools for examining displacement
diagrams, bending moment and shear force diagrams, beam, plate and solid stress contours,
etc.
5. Peripheral tools for activities like import and export of data from and to other widely
accepted formats, links with other popular softwares for niche areas like reinforced and
prestressed concrete slab design, footing design, steel connection design, etc.
6. A library of exposed functions called OpenSTAAD which allows users to access STAAD.Pros
internal functions and routines as well as its graphical commands to tap into STAADs
database and link input and output data to third-party software written using languages like
C, C++, VB, VBA, FORTRAN, Java, Delphi, etc. Thus, OpenSTAAD allows users to link inhouse or third-party applications with STAAD.Pro.

International Design Codes Manual 2

About the STAAD.Pro


Documentation
The documentation for STAAD.Pro consists of a set of manuals as described below. These manuals
are normally provided only in the electronic format.
All the manuals can be accessed from the Help facilities of STAAD.Pro. If you want to obtain a
printed copy of the books, visit the docs.bentley.com site to check availability and order. Bentley
also supplies the manuals in the PDF format at no cost for those who want to print them on their
own. See the back cover of this book for addresses and phone numbers.

Getting Started and Tutorials


This manual contains information on the contents of the STAAD.Pro package, computer system
requirements, installation process, copy protection issues and a description on how to run the
programs in the package. Tutorials that provide detailed and step-by-step explanation on using the
programs are also provided.

Examples Manual
This book offers examples of various problems that can be solved using the STAAD engine. The
examples represent various structural analyses and design problems commonly encountered by
structural engineers.

Graphical Environment
This document contains a detailed description of the Graphical User Interface (GUI) of STAAD.Pro.
The topics covered include model generation, structural analysis and design, result verification, and
report generation.

Technical Reference Manual


This manual deals with the theory behind the engineering calculations made by the STAAD
engine. It also includes an explanation of the commands available in the STAAD command file.

International Design Codes


This document contains information on the concrete, steel, aluminum, and timber design codes
that are supported in the batch design routines. Note that most steel and concrete batch design
routines for the US design codes can be found in the Technical Reference Manual. Details of the

International Design Codes Manual 3

About the STAAD.Pro Documentation

steel design codes supported in the post processing Steel Design Mode can be found in the User
Interface manual. Details of the beam, column and slab concrete design codes supported in the
Concrete Design Mode can be found in the RCDesigner manual.
The documentation for the STAAD.Pro Extension component(s) is available separately.

4 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

Batch Design versus Design Modes


STAAD.Pro has two means by which structural members can be designed.

Batch Design
Using this method, code checks and/or member selection is performed directly by the analysis and
design engine when an analysis is performed.
The contents of this manual, along with those in the Technical Reference manual, are all used for
batch design.

Design Modes
Code checks and member selection is performed in a post-processing module for either Steel
Design or Concrete Design. These modes are available in the Graphical User Interface.
Refer to the Steel Design mode and Concrete Design mode help sections for additional
information.
Table 14.1-Available steel design codes
in the Steel Design mode
Country/Region

Code

Egypt

205 2001

Europe

EC3 DD

Great Britain

BS5950 2000

India

IS800

United States

AISCASD

Note: Design per the Chinese steel code GB50017-2003 must be performed per the localized
STAADSSDD interface. Please download and install this application from Bentley SELECT.
Table 14.2-Available design codes in the
Concrete Design codes
Country/
Region

Code

Australia

AS 3600

China

GB50010

International Design Codes Manual 5

Batch Design versus Design Modes

Country/
Region
Egypt

Code
ECCS 203
Eurocode 2 - 1991

Europe
Eurocode 2 - 2004
France

BAEL

Germany

DIN 1045-1

Great Britain

BS 8110

India

IS456

Japan

AIJ

Norway

NS3473

Russia

SP52-101-03

Singapore

CP65

Spain

EHE

Turkey

TS 500
ACI 318-99

United States

6 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

ACI 318-05 / 318M05

1
Australian Codes

International Design Codes Manual 7

1 Australian Codes

8 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design

1A. Australian Codes - Concrete Design per AS 3600 - 2001


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the Australian code AS 3600-2001
Australian Standard-Concrete Structures.
Design of members per AS 3600 - 2001 requires the STAAD CAN/AUS/SA Design Codes
SELECTCode Pack.

1A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design


The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed.
l

For Beams: Prismatic (Rectangular & Square)

For Columns: Prismatic (Rectangular, Square, and Circular)

1A.2 Member Dimensions


Concrete members which will be designed by the program must have certain section properties
input under the MEMBER PROPERTY command. The following example shows the required input:
UNIT MM
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. ZD 250.
11 13 PR YD 350.

In the above input, the first set of members are rectangular (450 mm depth and 250mm width) and
the second set of members, with only depth and no width provided, will be assumed to be circular
with 350 mm diameter. It is absolutely imperative that the user not provide the cross section area
(AX) as an input.

1A.3 Design Parameters


The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform the design. Default
parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for conventional
design requirements. These values may be changed to suit the particular design being performed.
Table 1A.1 of this manual contains a complete list of the available parameters and their default
values. It is necessary to declare length and force units as Millimeter and Newton before performing
the concrete design.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.

International Design Codes Manual 9

1A.3 Design Parameters

Table 1A.1-Australian Concrete Design per AS 3600 Parameters


Parameter Name
CODE

Default Value
-

Description
Must be specified as
AUSTRALIAN to invokes design
per AS 3600 - 2001.
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.52.2 of the
Technical Reference Manual.

CLB

40 mm

Clear cover for outermost


bottom reinforcement.

CLS

40 mm

Clear cover for outermost side


reinforcement.

CLT

40 mm

Clear cover for outermost top


reinforcement.

DEPTH

YD

Total depth to be used for


design. This value defaults to
YD as provided under MEMBER
PROPERTIES.

EFACE

FC

FYMAIN

30 N/mm 2
400 N/mm 2

Distance from end node of


beam to face of support used
for shear design; used for shear
and torsion calculations.
Compressive strength of
concrete.
Yield Stress for main
reinforcing steel. Applicable
values per Table 6.2.1 of AS
3600-2001:
250
400
450
500

10 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1A.3 Design Parameters

Parameter Name
FYSEC

Default Value
400 N/mm 2

Description
Yield Stress for secondary
reinforcing steel. Applicable
values per Table 6.2.1 of AS
3600-2001:
250
400
450
500

MAXMAIN

12 mm

Maximum main reinforcement


bar size.

MINMAIN

12 mm

Minimum main reinforcement


bar size.

MINSEC

12 mm

Minimum secondary
reinforcement bar size.

MMAG

RATIO

4.0

Factor by which column


design moments are
magnified.
Maximum percentage of
longitudinal reinforcement in
columns.

NSECTION

12

Number of equally spaced


sections for design.

SFACE

Distance from start node of


beam to face of support used
for shear design; used for shear
and torsion calculations.

International Design Codes Manual 11

1A.4 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration

Parameter Name
TRACK

Default Value
0.0

Description
For beam design:
0.0 = output consists of
reinforcement details at the
member start, middle, and
end
1.0 = critical moments are
printed in addition to
TRACK 0.0 output
2.0 = required steel for
intermediate sections
defined by NSECTION are
printedin addition to
TRACK 0.0 output
For column design:
0.0 = reinforcement details
are printed

WIDTH

ZD

Width to be used for design.


This value defaults to ZD as
provided under MEMBER
PROPERTIES.

1A.4 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration


Slenderness effects are extremely important in designing compression members. There are two
options by which the slenderness effect can be accommodated. One option is to perform an exact
analysis which will take into account the influence of axial loads and variable moment of inertia on
member stiffness and fixed end moments, the effect of deflections on moment and forces and the
effect of the duration of loads. Another option is to approximately magnify design moments.
STAAD has been written to allow the use of the first option. To perform this type of analysis, use
the command PDELTA ANALYSIS instead of PERFORM ANALYSIS. The PDELTA ANALYSIS will
accommodate the requirements of the second- order analysis described by AS 3600, except for the
effects of the duration of the loads. It is felt that this effect may be safely ignored because experts
believe that the effects of the duration of loads are negligible in a normal structural configuration.
Although ignoring load duration effects is somewhat of an approximation, it must be realized that
the evaluation of slenderness effects is also by an approximate method. In this method, additional
moments are calculated based on empirical formula and assumptions on sidesway.
Considering all of the above information, a P-Delta analysisas performed by STAADmay be
used for the design of concrete members. However the user must note that to take advantage of
this analysis, all the combinations of loading must be provided as primary load cases and not as
load combinations. This is due to the fact that load combinations are just algebraic combinations

12 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1A.5 Beam Design

of forces and moments, whereas a primary load case is revised during the P-delta analysis based on
the deflections. Also, note that the proper factored loads (like 1.5 for dead load etc.) should be
provided by the user. STAAD does not factor the loads automatically.

1A.5 Beam Design


Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. For all these forces, all active beam loadings are
prescanned to identify the critical load cases at different sections of the beams. The total number of
sections considered is 13 (e.g., 0., .1, .2, .25, .3, .4, .5, .6, .7, .75, .8, .9, and 1). All of these sections are
scanned to determine the design force envelopes.

1A.5.1 Design for Flexure


Maximum sagging (creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the beam) and hogging (creating
tensile stress at the top face) moments are calculated for all active load cases at each of the above
mentioned sections. Each of these sections is designed to resist both of these critical sagging and
hogging moments. Currently, design of singly reinforced sections only is permitted. If the section
dimensions are inadequate as a singly reinforced section, such a message will be permitted in the
output. Flexural design of beams is performed in two passes. In the first pass, effective depths of the
sections are determined with the assumption of single layer of assumed reinforcement and
reinforcement requirements are calculated. After the preliminary design, reinforcing bars are chosen
from the internal database in single or multiple layers. The entire flexure design is performed again
in a second pass taking into account the changed effective depths of sections calculated on the
basis of reinforcement provided after the preliminary design. Final provisions of flexural
reinforcements are made then. Efforts have been made to meet the guideline for the curtailment of
reinforcements as per AS 3600. Although exact curtailment lengths are not mentioned explicitly in
the design output (finally which will be more or less guided by the detailer taking into account of
other practical consideration), user has the choice of printing reinforcements provided by STAAD at
13 equally spaced sections from which the final detailed drawing can be prepared.

1A.5.2 Design for Shear


Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments. Shear design is
performed at 13 equally spaced sections (0. to 1.) for the maximum shear forces amongst the active
load cases and the associated torsional moments. Shear capacity calculation at different sections
without the shear reinforcement is based on the actual tensile reinforcement provided by STAAD.
Two-legged stirrups are provided to take care of the balance shear forces acting on these sections.
Example of Input Data for Beam Design:
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE AUSTRALIAN
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FYSEC 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLEAR 25 MEM 2 TO 6

International Design Codes Manual 13

1A.6 Column Design

MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6
TRACK 1.0 MEMB 2 TO 9
DESIGN BEAM 2 TO 9
END CONCRETE DESIGN

1A.6 Column Design


Columns are designed for axial forces and biaxial moments at the ends. All active load cases are
tested to calculate reinforcement. The loading which yields maximum reinforcement is called the
critical load. Column design is done for square, rectangular and circular sections. By default, square
and rectangular columns are designed with reinforcement distributed on each side equally. That
means the total number of bars will always be a multiple of four (4). This may cause slightly
conservative results in some cases. All major criteria for selecting longitudinal and transverse
reinforcement as stipulated by AS 3600 have been taken care of in the column design of STAAD.
Example of Input Data for Column Design:
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE AUSTRALIAN
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLEAR 25 MEMB 2 TO 6
MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6
DESIGN COLUMN 2 TO 6
END CONCRETE DESIGN

1A.7 Slab or Wall Design


To design a slab or wall, it must be modeled using finite elements. The command specifications are
in accordance with Chapter 2 and Chapter 6 of the specification.
Elements are designed for the moments Mx and My. These moments are obtained from the
element force output (see Section 3.8 of the Technical Reference Manual). The reinforcement
required to resist Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the reinforcement
required to resist My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement. The parameters FYMAIN, FC,
MAXMAIN, MINMAIN, and CLEAR listed in Table 1A.1 are relevant to slab design. Other parameters
mentioned in Table 1A.1 are not applicable to slab design.

14 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1A.7 Slab or Wall Design

Figure 1A.1 - Element moments: Longitudinal (L) and Transverse (T)

Example of Input Data for Slab/Wall Design


UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE AUSTRALIAN
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FC 25 ALL
CLEAR 40 ALL
DESIGN ELEMENT 15 TO 20
END CONCRETE DESIGN

International Design Codes Manual 15

16 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1B.1 General

1B. Australian Codes - Steel Design per AS 4100 - 1998


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Australian code AS 4100-1998
Standards Australia - Steel Structural Design.
Design of members per AS 3600 - 1998 requires the STAAD CAN/AUS/SA Design Codes
SELECTCode Pack.

1B.1 General
The design philosophy embodied in this specification is based on the concept of limit state design.
Structures are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which they
would become unfit for their intended use. Two major categories of limit-state are recognized ultimate and serviceability. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength
and stability, while that in serviceability is deflection. Appropriate load and resistance factors are
used so that a uniform reliability is achieved for all steel structures under various loading
conditions and at the same time the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote.
In the STAAD implementation, members are proportioned to resist the design loads without
exceeding the limit states of strength, stability, and serviceability. Accordingly, the most economic
section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria as augmented by the designer in
specification of allowable member depths, desired section type, or other such parameters. The code
checking portion of the program checks whether code requirements for each selected section are
met and identifies the governing criteria.
The following sections describe the salient features of the STAAD implementation of AS 4100. A
detailed description of the design process along with its underlying concepts and assumptions is
available in the specification document.

1B.1.1 Strength Limit States


Strength design capacities (Ru) are calculated and compared to user-defined design action effects
(S*), so as to ensure that S* Ru in accordance with AS 4100 3.4. Details for design capacity
calculations are outlined in the sections that follow.

1B.1.2 Deflection Limit States


STAAD.Pros AS 4100 implementation does not generally check deflections. It is left to the user to
check that both local member and frame deflections are within acceptable limits.
Note: Local member deflections parallel to the local member y-axis can be checked against a userdefined maximum span / deflection ratio. This can be performed using the DFF, DJ1, and DJ2
design parameters, however this is only available for MEMBER Design. Details are provided in the
sections that follow.

International Design Codes Manual 17

1B.1 General

1B.1.3 Eccentric Beam Reactions


STAAD.Pro does not automatically account for minimum eccentricity distances for beam reactions
being transferred to columns as per AS 4100 4.3.4. However member offsets can be used to model
these eccentricities.
Refer to Section 5.25 of the Technical Reference manual for further information on the Member
Offset feature.

1B.1.4 Limit States Not Considered


The following limit states are not directly considered in STAAD.Pros implementation of AS 4100.
Table 1B.1-Limit States Not Considered
in STAAD.Pro AS 4100 Design
Limit State

Code
Reference

Stability

AS 4100 3.3

Serviceability

AS 4100 3.5

Brittle Fracture

AS 4100 3.7

Fire

AS4100 3.9

Other Design
Requirements

AS 4100 3.11

1B.1.5 Connection Design


STAAD.Pro and Bentleys RAM Connection program currently do not support design of
connections in accordance with AS 4100. In some cases connection design may govern the size of
members. Such considerations are not considered in STAAD.Pros AS 4100 and should be checked
by separately.

1B.1.6 Bolts and Welds


Bolt holes and welds are not generally considered in STAAD.Pros AS 4100 member design.
Note: NSC and NSF design parameters are used to manually specify a reduction in net section
area for compression or tension capacity calculations. These can be used to account for bolt hole
area reductions. Further details are provided in the sections that follow.

18 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1B.2 Analysis Methodology

1B.2 Analysis Methodology


Either the elastic or dynamic analysis methods may be used to obtain the forces and moments for
design as per AS4100 section 4.4. Analysis is done for the specified primary and repeat loading
conditions. Therefore, it is your responsibility to enter all necessary loads and load combination
factors for design in accordance with the AS/NZS 1170 Series or other relevant design codes. You are
allowed complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors
to create necessary loading situations. Depending upon the analysis requirements, regular stiffness
analysis or P-Delta analysis may be specified. Dynamic analysis may also be performed and the
results combined with static analysis results.
Note: Plastic analysis and design in accordance with AS 4100 section 4.5 is not implemented in
STAAD.Pro.

1B.2.1 Elastic Analysis


Two types of elastic analysis can be performed using STAAD.Pro in accordance with AS4100:
i. First Order Linear, Elastic Analysis - used to perform a regular elastic stiffness analysis as per
AS 4100 4.4.2.1. Refer to Section 5.37.1 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional
details on this feature.
ii. Second Order PDelta Linear, Elastic Analysis - Depending on the type of structure, a PDelta
analysis may be required in order to capture second-order effects as per AS 4100 4.4.1.2.
Second-order effects can be captured in STAAD.Pro by performing a PDelta second-order
elastic analysis as per AS 4100 Appendix E. Refer to Section 5.37.2 of the Technical Reference
Manual for additional details on this feature.
Note: Moment amplification as per AS 4100 clause 4.4.2 is not considered.
Tip: In order to correctly capture second-order effects for combination load cases using a
PDelta Analysis, the Repeat Load feature must be used. Second-order effects will not be
correctly evaluated if the Load Combination feature is used. Load Combinations are
combinations of results where Repeat Loads instruct the program to perform the analysis
on the combined load actions. Refer to Section 5.32.11 of the Technical Reference Manual
for additional details on using Repeat Loads.

1B.2.2 Dynamic Analysis


Dynamic analysis may also be performed and the results combined with static analysis results. Refer
Section 5.32.10 of the Technical Reference Manual for further information on Dynamic Loading and
Analysis features.

International Design Codes Manual 19

1B.3 Member Property Specifications

1B.3 Member Property Specifications


For specification of member properties, either the steel section library available in STAAD or the
User Table facility may be used. The next section describes the syntax of commands used to assign
properties from the built-in steel table. For more information on these facilities, refer to Section 1.7
the STAAD Technical Reference Manual.

1B.4 Built-in Steel Section Library


The following information is provided for use when the built-in steel tables are to be referenced for
member property specification. These properties are stored in a database file. If called for, the
properties are also used for member design. Since the shear areas are built into these tables, shear
deformation is always considered during the analysis of these members. An example of the member
property specification in an input file is provided at the end of this section.
A complete listing of the sections available in the built-in steel section library may be obtained by
using the tools of the graphical user interface.
Refer to Section 1.7.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional information.
Table 1B.2-Available Australian Sections for STAAD.Pro AS 4100 Design
General Profile Type Australian Sections
I-SECTION

Description

WB, WC

Welded beams and columns

UB, UC

Universal beams and columns

T-SECTION

BT, CT

Tees cut from universal beams and columns

CHANNEL

PFC

Parallel flange channels

ANGLE

EA, UA

Equal and unequal angles

TUBE

SHS, RHS

Square and rectangular hollow sections

PIPE

CHS

Circular hollow sections

Note: STAAD.Pro will not design the following section types to AS 4100: Double Profiles (D),
Composite Sections (C), Top Cover Plates (TC), Bottom Cover Plates (BC), and Top & Bottom
Cover Plates (TB), Double Channels (D, BA, & FR) and Double Angles (LD & SD). Refer to Section
Profile Tables in the Graphical Environment for these options.
Tip: When adding and assigning sections using the built-in steel section library through the
Graphical Environment, STAAD.Pros default tables are American. To change the default tables to
Australian, select File > Configuration from the STAAD.Pro Start page (no input file open). Set
the Default Profile Table to Australian on the Configure Program dialog Section Profile Table.
Following are the descriptions of different types of sections.

20 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1B.4 Built-in Steel Section Library

1B.4.1 UB Shapes
These shapes are designated in the following way.
20 TO 30 TA ST UB150X14.0
36 TO 46 TA ST UB180X16.1

1B.4.2 UC Shapes
The designation for the UC shapes is similar to that for the UB shapes.
25 TO 35 TA ST UC100X14.8
23 56 TA ST UC310X96.8

1B.4.3 Welded Beams


Welded Beams are designated in the following way.
25 TO 35 TA ST WB700X115
23 56 TA ST WB1200X455

1B.4.4 Welded Columns


Welded Columns are designated in the following way.
25 TO 35 TA ST WC400X114
23 56 TA ST WC400X303

1B.4.5 Parallel Flange Channels


Shown below is the syntax for assigning names of channel sections.
1 TO 5 TA ST PFC75
6 TO 10 TA ST PFC380

1B.4.6 Double Channels


Back-to-back double channels, with or without a spacing between them, are available. The letter D
in front of the section name will specify a double channel.
11 TA D PFC230
17 TA D C230X75X25 SP 0.5

In the above set of commands, member 11 is a back-to-back double channel PFC230 with no spacing
in between. Member 17 is a double channel PFC300 with a spacing of 0.5 length units between the
channels.

International Design Codes Manual 21

1B.4 Built-in Steel Section Library

1B.4.7 Angles
Two types of specification may be used to describe an angle. The standard angle section is specified
as follows:
16 20 TA ST A30X30X6

The above section signifies an angle with legs of length 30 mm and a leg thickness of 6 mm. This
specification may be used when the local Z axis corresponds to the z-z axis specified in Chapter 2. If
the local Y axis corresponds to the z-z axis, type specification "RA" (reverse angle) may be used.
17 21 TA RA A150X150X16

Note: Single angles must be specified with an RA (Single Angle w/Reverse Y-Z Axis) in order to
be designed to AS 4100. This is to ensure that the major and minor principal axes align with the
local member z and y axes respectively, similar to other section profiles.

1B.4.8 Double Angles


Short leg back-to-back or long leg back-to-back double angles can be specified by means of input of
the words SD or LD, respectively, in front of the angle size. In case of an equal angle, either SD or
LD will serve the purpose.
33 35 TA SD A65X50X5 SP 0.6
37 39 TA LD A75X50X6
43 TO 47 TA LD A100X75X10 SP 0.75

1B.4.9 Tubes (Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections)


Tubes can be assigned in 2 ways. In the first method, the designation for the tube is as shown
below. This method is meant for tubes whose property name is available in the steel table. In these
examples, members 1 to 5 consist of a 2X2X0.5 inch size tube section, and members 6 to 10 consist of
10X5X0.1875 inch size tube section. The name is obtained as 10 times the depth, 10 times the width,
and 16 times the thickness.
1 TO 5 TA ST TUB20202.5
6 TO 10 TA ST TUB100503.0

In the second method, tubes are specified by their dimensions. For example,
6 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5

is a tube that has a height of 8 length units, width of 6 length units, and a wall thickness of 0.5
length units. Only code checking, no member selection, will be performed for TUBE sections
specified in this latter manner.

1B.4.10 Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections)


Pipes can be assigned in 2 ways. In the first method, the designation for the pipe is as shown below.
This method is meant for pipes whose property name is available in the steel table.
1 TO 5 TA ST PIP180X5

22 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1B.5 Section Classification

6 TO 10 TA ST PIP273X6.5

In the second method, pipe sections may be provided by specifying the word PIPE followed by the
outside and inside diameters of the section. For example,
1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0

specifies a pipe with outside diameter of 25 length units and inside diameter of 20 length units.
Only code checking, no member selection, will be performed on pipes specified in this latter
manner.

1B.4.11 Sample File Containing Australian Shapes


STAAD SPACE
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORD
1 0 0 0 11 100 0 0
MEMB INCI
1 1 2 10
UNIT CM
MEMBER PROPERTIES AUSTRALIAN
* UB SHAPES
1 TA ST UB200X25.4
* UC SHAPES
2 TA ST UC250X89.5
* CHANNELS
3 TA ST PFC125
* DOUBLE CHANNELS
4 TA D PFC200
* ANGLES
5 TA ST A30X30X6
* REVERSE ANGLES
6 TA RA A150X150X16
* DOUBLE ANGLES - SHORT LEGS BACK TO BACK
7 TA SD A65X50X5 SP 0.6
* DOUBLE ANGLES - LONG LEGS BACK TO BACK
8 TA LD A100X75X10 SP 0.75
* TUBES (RECTANGULAR OR SQUARE HOLLOW SECTIONS)
9 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5
* PIPES (CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS)
10 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0
PRINT MEMB PROP
FINISH

1B.5 Section Classification


The AS 4100 specification allows inelastic deformation of section elements. Thus, local buckling
becomes an important criterion. Steel sections are classified as compact, noncompact, or slender;
depending upon their local buckling characteristics. This classification is a function of the
geometric properties of the section. The design procedures are different depending on the section
class. STAAD determines the section classification for the standard shapes and user specified shapes.
Design is performed for all three categories of section described above.

International Design Codes Manual 23

1B.6 Material Properties

1B.6 Material Properties


For specification of material properties, the user can use either:
a. built-in material constants
b. user-defined materials
Refer Section 5.26.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for further information on the Built-in
Material Constants feature.
Refer Section 2.26.1 of the Technical Reference Manual for further information on the Define
Material feature.

1B.6.1 Youngs Modulus of Elasticity (E)


STAAD.Pros default steel materials E value is 205,000 MPa. However AS 4100 section 1.4 states that
the modulus of elasticity should be taken as 200,000 MPa. There are a number of options to change
this value:
l

change the steel material through the input file or GUI for each file created

define a new steel material for each file created

change the default STAAD.Pro metric E value in the file C:/Windows/StaadPro20070.ini,


going to the [Material-Metric] section, and changing E1=205.0e6 to E1=200.0e6. Restart
STAAD.Pro for this to take effect.
Caution: Virtualization features of Windows Vista and Windows 7 may require additional
files to be modified. Contact Bentley Technical Support for assistance.

1B.7 Member Resistances


The member resistance is calculated in STAAD according to the procedures outlined in AS 4100.
Calculated design capacities are compared to corresponding axial, bending moment, and shear
forces determined from the STAAD.Pro analysis. These are used to report the fail or pass status for
the members designed.
Two types of design checks are typically performed per AS 4100:
l

Nominal section checks

Nominal member checks

The nominal section capacity refers to the capacity of a cross-section to resists applied loads, and
accounts for cross-section yielding and local buckling effects. The nominal member capacity on the
other hand refers to the capacity of a member to resist applied loads, and includes checks for global
member buckling effects including Euler buckling, lateral-torsional buckling, etc.

24 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1B.7 Member Resistances

1B.7.1 Axial Tension


The criteria governing the capacity of tension members are based on two limit states per AS 4100
Section 7. The limit state of yielding of the gross section is intended to prevent excessive elongation
of the member.
The second limit state involves fracture at the section with the minimum effective net area Nt
section axial tension capacities are calculated (Cl.7.2). Through the use of the NSF parameter (see
Table 1B.1), you may specify the net section area. STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a
member based on these two limit states per Cl.7.1 and Cl.7.2 respectively of AS 4100. Eccentric end
connections can be taken into account using the KT correction factor, perCl.7.3. The f yield stress is
y
based on the minimum plate yield stress. Parameters FYLD, FU, and NSF are applicable for these
calculations.

1B.7.2 Axial Compression


The compressive strength of members is based on limit states per AS 4100 Section 6. It is taken as
the lesser of nominal section capacity and nominal member capacity. Nominal section capacity,
Ns, is a function of form factor (Cl.6.2.2), net area of the cross section, and yield stress of the
material. Through the use of the NSC parameter (see Table 1B.1), you may specify the net section
area. Note that this parameter is different from that corresponding to tension. The program
automatically calculates the form factor. The k form factors are calculated based on effective plate
f
widths per Cl.6.2.4, and the f yield stress is based on the minimum plate yield stress.
y

Nominal member capacity, Nc, is a function of nominal section capacity and member slenderness
reduction factor (Cl.6.3.3). This value is calculated about both principal x and y axes. Here, you are
required to supply the value of b (Cl.6.3.3) through the ALBparameter (see Table 1B.1). The
effective length for the calculation of compressive strength may be provided through the use of the
parameters KY, KZ, LY, and LZ (see Table 1B.1).

1B.7.3 Bending
Bending capacities are calculated to AS 4100 Section 5. The allowable bending moment of members
is determined as the lesser of nominal section capacity and nominal member capacity (ref. Cl.5.1).
The nominal section moment capacity, M , is calculated about both principal x and y axes and is
s
the capacity to resist cross-section yielding or local buckling and is expressed as the product of the
yield stress of the material and the effective section modulus (ref. Cl.5.2). The effective section
modulus is a function of section type (i.e., compact, noncompact, or slender) and minimum plate
yield stress f . The nominal member capacity depends on overall flexural-torsional buckling of the
y
member (ref.Cl.5.3).
Note: For sections where the web and flange yield stresses (f
and f
respectively) are
y,web
y.flange
different, the lower of the two yield stresses is applied to both the web and flange to determine
the slenderness of these elements.

International Design Codes Manual 25

1B.7 Member Resistances

Member moment capacity, Mb , is calculated about the principal x axis only (ref. Cl.5.6). Critical
flange effective cross-section restraints and corresponding design segment and sub-segments are
used as the basis for calculating capacities.

1B.7.4 Interaction of Axial Force and Bending


Combined section bending and shear capacities are calculated using the shear and bending
interaction method as per Cl.5.12.3.
Note: This check is only carried out where Vv section web shear capacities are calculated. Refer
Table 1B.6-1 for details.
The member strength for sections subjected to axial compression and uniaxial or biaxial bending is
obtained through the use of interaction equations. Here, the adequacy of a member is also
examined against both section (ref. Cl.8.3.4) and member capacity (ref.Cl.8.4.5). These account for
both in-plane and out-of-plane failures. If the summation of the left hand side of the equations,
addressed by the above clauses, exceeds 1.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO
parameter (see Table 1B.1), the member is considered to have FAILed under the loading condition.

1B.7.5 Shear
Section web shear capacity, Vv , is calculated per Cl.5.11, including both shear yield and shear
buckling capacities. Once the capacity is obtained, the ratio of the shear force acting on the cross
section to the shear capacity of the section is calculated. If any of the ratios (for both local Y & Zaxes) exceed 1.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table 1B.1), the
section is considered to have failed under shear.
Table 1B.6-1 below highlights which shear capacities are calculated for different profile types.
Table 1B.3-Section Type Shear Checks
General Profile Type

I-SECTION
(i.e., parallel to minor
principal y-axis)

Australian
Section
WB, WC,
UB, UC

Shear Checks

Calculated for web only

T-SECTION

BT, CT

CHANNEL

PFC

ANGLE

EA, UA

No checks performed

TUBE

SHS, RHS

Calculated parallel to both x & y


principal axes

PIPE

CHS

Per AS 4100 5.11.4

26 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1B.8 Design Parameters

Note: Only unstiffened web capacities are calculated. Stiffened webs are not considered. Bearing
capacities are not considered.

1B.7.6 Torsion
STAAD.Pro does not design sections or members for torsion for AS4100.

1B.8 Design Parameters


The design parameters outlined in Table 1B.1 are used to control the design procedure. These
parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus allow the
engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs. The design scope
indicates whether design parameters are applicable for MEMBER Design, PMEMBER Design, or both.
The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for
conventional design. Depending on the particular design requirements, some or all of these
parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 1B.4-Australian Steel Design Parameters
Parameter
Name
CODE

Default Value

Design
Scope

Description

Must be specified as
AUSTRALIAN to invoke
design per AS 4100 - 1998.
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the
Technical Reference
Manual.

ALB

2.0

Member section constant


(refer cl. 6.3.3)
If ALB is 2.0, it is
automatically calculated
based on TABLE 6.3.3(1),
6.3.3(2); otherwise the
input value is used.

International Design Codes Manual 27

1B.8 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default Value

ALM

Design
Scope

0.0

Description

Moment modification
factor (refer cl. 5.6.1.1)
If ALM is 0.0, it is
automatically calculated
based cl.5.6.1.1; otherwise
the input value is used.

BEAM

0.0

0.0 = design only for


end moments and those
at locations specified by
SECTION command.
1.0 = Perform design for
moments at twelfth
points along the beam.

DFF

None (Mandatory for


deflection check)

Analytical
members
only

Deflection Length/
Maximum Allowable
local deflection.

DJ1

Start Joint of member

Joint No. denoting start


point for calculation of
deflection length

DJ2

End Joint of member

Joint No. denoting end


point for calculation of
deflection length

DMAX

45.0 [in.]

Maximum allowable
depth (Applicable for
member selection)

DMIN

0.0 [in.]

Minimum required
depth (Applicable for
member selection)

FU

500.0 [MPa]

Ultimate strength of
steel.

FYLD

250.0 [MPa]

Yield strength of steel.

28 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1B.8 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name
IST

Default Value

Design
Scope

Description

Steel type - 1 - SR, 2 HR, 3 - CF, 4 - LW, 5 HW


Note: See p.47 of AS
4100-1998.

KT

1.0

Correction factor for


distribution of forces
(refer cl. 7.2)

KY

1.0

K value for general


column flexural buckling
about the local Y-axis.
Used to calculate
slenderness ratio.

KZ

1.0

K value for general


column flexural buckling
about the local Z-axis.
Used to calculate
slenderness ratio.

LHT

Physical
members
only

Load height position as


described in Table 5.6.3
(2)of AS 4100:1998
0 = at Shear
center
1 = At top
flange

LY

Member Length

Length for general


column flexural buckling
about the local Y-axis.
Used to calculate
slenderness ratio.

LZ

Member Length

Length for general


column flexural buckling
about the local Z-axis.
Used to calculate
slenderness ratio.

International Design Codes Manual 29

1B.8 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name
MAIN

Default Value

Design
Scope

0.0

Description

A value of either 0.0 or


1.0 suppresses the
slenderness ratio check.
checks are not explicitly
required per AS 4100.
Any value greater than 1.0
is used as the limit for
slenderness in
compression.

NSC

1.0

Net section factor for


compression members =
An / Ag
(refer cl. 6.2.1)

NSF

PBRACE

1.0

None

Net section factor for


tension members.
Physical
members
only

Refer to section 1B.11 for


details on the PBRACE
parameter.

PHI

0.9

Capacity reduction factor

RATIO

1.0

Permissible ratio of
actual load effect to the
design strength.

SGR

Steel Grade. Refer to Note


a below.
0.0 = normal grade
1.0 = high strength
grade steel

SKL

1.0

A load height factor


given in Table 5.6.3(2)

SKR

1.0

A lateral rotation
restraint factor given in
Table 5.6.3(3)

SKT

1.0

A twist restraint factor


given in Table 5.6.3(1)

30 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1B.8 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name
TRACK

Default Value

0.0

Design
Scope

Description

Output detail
0.0 = report only
minimum design
results
1.0 = report design
strengths in addition
to TRACK 0.0 output
2.0 = provide full
details of design

UNB

Member Length

Unsupported length in
bending compression of
the bottom flange for
calculating moment
resistance.

UNT

Member Length

Unsupported length in
bending compression of
the top flange for
calculating moment
resistance.

1B.8.1 Notes
a. DFF, DJ1, and DJ2 Deflection calculations
Compute Delta = SQRT((DX2 - DX1)2 + (DY2 - DY1)2 + (DZ2 - DZ1)2)
Compute Length = distance between DJ1 & DJ2 or, between start node and end node, as the
case may be.
Note: Deflection calculations are not applicable to PMEMBERs.
a. A straight line joining DJ1 and DJ2 is used as the reference line from which local
deflections are measured.
For example, refer to the figure below where a beam has been modeled using four
joints and three members. The Deflection Length for all three members will be
equal to the total length of the beam in this case. The parameters DJ1 and DJ2 should
be used to model this situation. Thus, for all three members here, DJ1 should be 1
and DJ2 should be 4.

International Design Codes Manual 31

1B.8 Design Parameters

D = Maximum local deflection for members 1, 2, and 3.


PARAMETERS
DFF 300. ALL
DJ1 1 ALL
DJ2 4 ALL

b. If DJ1 and DJ2 are not used, "Deflection Length" will default to the member length
and local deflections will be measured from original member line.
c. It is important to note that unless a DFF value is specified, STAAD will not perform a
deflection check. This is in accordance with the fact that there is no default value for
DFF.
b. LHT Parameter
If the shear force is constant within the segment, longitudinal position of the load is
assumed to be at the segment end.
If there is any variation of the shear force and the load is acting downward determined from
shear force variation and load height parameter indicates the load is acting on top flange
(flange at the positive local y axis) and restraints at the end of the segment is not FU (FRU)
or PU (PRU) Kl is assumed to be 1.4.
If there is any variation of the shear force and the load is acting upward determined from
shear force variation and load height parameter indicates the load is acting on top flange
(flange at the positive local y axis) and restraints at the end of the segment is not FU (FRU)
or PU (PRU) Kl is assumed to be 1.0 as the load acting at the top flange is contributing to
stabilize against local torsional buckling.
c. SGR Parameter
AS 4100 defines the values of steel grades that are used as either normal steel or high grade
steel. The following table explains the material values used when either option is specified
for a particular shape:
Table 1B.5-Steel Grades used for the SGR Parameter
Section Type

WB, WC, Tee section cut from WB and WC


WB, WC, Tee section cut from WB and WC

32 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

SGR Value

Steel
Grade
Used

0 (Normal)

300

1 (High)

400

1B.8 Design Parameters

Section Type

SGR Value

Steel
Grade
Used

UB, UC, Tee section cut from UB and UC,


EA, UA and all UPT sections UB, UC, Tee
section cut from UB and UC, EA, UA and
all UPT sections

0 (Normal)

300

1 (High)

350

Pipe, Tube, CHS, RHS, SHS Pipe, Tube,


CHS, RHS, SHS

0 (Normal)

250

1 (High)

350

Note: If a value for theFYLDparameter has been specified, then that value will be used.
Otherwise, the SGR value will be used to determine the yeild strength and tensile strength
values for the steel. based on maximum thickness of the individual elements of the
section. Only for shear capacity calculation web thickness is used. Similarly, Tensile
Strength is determined either from FU parameter or from SGR parameter.
Caution: A check is introduced to see if yield stress is more than 450 MPa or not. If it is, a
warning is issued and the yield stress is set to 450 MPa.
The following example uses the Member design facility in STAAD.Pro. However, it is strongly
recommended to use the Physical member design capabilities for AS4100:
PARAMETER 1
CODE AUSTRALIAN
ALB 0.0 MEMBER ALL
ALM 1.13 MEMBER ALL
BEAM 1.0 MEMBER ALL
DFF 250.0 MEMBER ALL
DMAX 0.4 MEMBER ALL
DMIN 0.25 MEMBER ALL
FU 400.0 MEMBER ALL
FYLD 310.0 MEMBER ALL
IST 2.0 MEMBER ALL
KT 0.85 MEMBER ALL
KX 0.75 MEMBER ALL
KY 1.0 MEMBER ALL
LX 4.5 MEMBER ALL
LY 6.0 MEMBER ALL
MAIN 1.0 MEMBER ALL
NSC 0.9 MEMBER ALL
NSF 1.0 MEMBER ALL
PHI 0.9 MEMBER ALL
RATIO 0.9 MEMBER ALL
SGR 1.0 MEMBER ALL
SKT 1.0 MEMBER ALL
SKL 1.0 MEMBER ALL
SKR 1.0 MEMBER ALL
TRACK 2.0 MEMBER ALL
UNB 3.4 MEMBER ALL
UNT 6.8 MEMBER ALL
CHECK CODE MEMBER ALL

International Design Codes Manual 33

1B.9 Code Checking

1B.9 Code Checking


The purpose of code checking is to evaluate whether the provided section properties of the
members are adequate for the specified loads as per AS 4100 requirements.
Tip: The member selection facility can be used to instruct the program to select a different
section if the specified section is found to be inadequate.
Code checking for an analytical member is done using forces and moments at every twelfth point
along the beam. The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. In addition,
the critical condition, governing load case, location (distance from the start joint) and magnitudes
of the governing forces and moments are also printed. The extent of detail of the output can be
controlled by using the TRACK parameter.
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code Checking.
Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification of the Code
Checking command.
Note: Code checking cannot be performed on composite and prismatic sections.
Example of commands for code checking:
UNIT NEWTON METER
PARAMETER
CODE AUSTRALIAN
FYLD 330E6 MEMB 3 4
NSF 0.85 ALL
KY 1.2 MEMB 3 4
RATIO 0.9 ALL
CHECK CODE MEMB 3 4

1B.9.1 Physical Members


For physical members (PMEMBERs), code checks are performed at section stations positioned at 1/12th
points along each analytical member included in the PMEMBER. It is up to you to determine if these
locations cover critical sections for design, and adjust as necessary. The number of stations for
PMEMBER Design cannot be altered, however the analytical members can be split so that in effect
more stations are checked for a PMEMBER.
For each section station along a PMEMBER, section capacity checks are carried for design actions at
that station location. Member capacity checks are also carried out for each station. For these the
program searches each side of the station to find adjacent effective restraints and design forces and
moments. This allows the program to determine the segment / sub-segment that the section
station resides in, and then proceeds to calculate the member capacities. Enough section stations
should be included to capture all segments / sub-segments for checking.
Note: When checking combined actions for the section capacities, the design actions at the
section station are used. However when checking combined actions for the member capacities,

34 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1B.10 Member Selection

the maximum forces from anywhere along the segment / sub-segment being considered are used.
This is as stipulated in AS 4100 8.2.
The output reports whether the member has PASSed or FAILed the design checks, as well as the
critical condition, critical load case, magnitudes of design actions for the most critical cross-section
location (distance from the start joint), and complete calculations for design. The TRACK design
parameter can be used to control the level of detail provided in the output. Color-coded results can
also be viewed in the GUIs Post Processing Beam |Unity Check page.
In some cases some of the output will report N/A values. This occurs where a calculation does not
apply to a member. For example if a member never goes into tension then no values can be reported
in the tension capacity output sections.
Note: As per AS 4100 1.4, the TRACK 2.0 detailed level of output for PMEMBER Design uses x and
y subscripts to refer to major and minor principal axes respectively. These differ to STAAD.Pro
local member axes, where z and y refer to major and minor principal axes.

1B.10 Member Selection


This process incrementally checks increasing section profile sizes until a size is found that is AS
4100 compliant, or the largest section has been checked. Only section profiles of the same type as
modeled are incrementally checked, with the increasing sizes based on a least weight per unit
length criteria.
For example, a member specified initially as a channel will have a channel selected for it. Selection
of members whose properties are originally provided from a user table will be limited to sections in
the user table.
Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification of
the Member Selection command.
The design calculations for Member Selection are the same as for Code Checking.
Tip: A Fixed Group command is also available, and can be used to force all members within a
user-defined group to take the same section size based on the most critical governing design
criteria for all members within that group. This is particularly useful when you want to use the
Member Selection feature, but want a group of elements to have the same size. Refer to Section
5.49 of the Technical Reference Manual for information on using this feature.
Note: Member Selection will change member sizes, and hence will change the structures stiffness
matrix. In order to correctly account for this, a subsequent analysis and Code Check should be
performed to ensure that the final structure is acceptable. This may need to be carried out over
several iterations.
Note: Composite and prismatic sections cannot be selected.

International Design Codes Manual 35

1B.11 Tabulated Results of Steel Design

Example of commands for member selection:


UNIT NEWTON METER
PARAMETER
FYLD 330E6 MEMB 3 4
NSF 0.85 ALL
KY 1.2 MEMB 3 4
RATIO 0.9 ALL
SELECT MEMB 3 4

1B.11 Tabulated Results of Steel Design


Results of code checking and member selection are presented in a tabular format. The term
CRITICAL COND refers to the section of the AS 4100 specification which governs the design.

1B.12 Physical Member Design


There are two methods available in STAAD.Pro for checking members against the requirements of
AS 4100:
a. Analytical member method
b. Physical member method
Herein these are referred to as MEMBER Design and PMEMBER Design respectively.
Note: This feature requires STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 2) build 2007.07 or higher.
Traditionally STAAD.Pro performed code checks based on single analytical members (i.e., single
members between two nodes). This implementation remains in place as shown in the example in
Section 1B.8. Physical Member (PMEMBER) Design on the other hand allows you to group single or
multiple analytical members into a single physical design member for the purposes of design to AS
4100.
PMEMBER Design also has additional features, including:
l

automated steel grades based on section type;

automated tensile stress (f ) and yield stress (f ) values based on plate thicknesses;

automated segment / sub-segment design;

improved detailed design calculation output; and

Thus, it is strongly recommended that PMEMBER Design be used, even for the design of single
analytical members.

1B.12.1 Modeling with Physical Members


Physical Members may be grouped by either of the following methods:

36 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1B.12 Physical Member Design

STAAD.Pro Editor - Directly specify physical members in the input file. Refer to Section
5.16.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional information.

Graphical Environment - Using the tools in the Steel Design toolbar, members can be
manually or automatically formed. Refer to Section 1.4 of the Graphical Environment manual
for additional information.

Note: When creating PMEMBERs for AS 4100, this must be performed in STAAD.Pros Modeling
mode. Do not use the Steel Design mode.

1B.12.2 Segment and Sub-Segment Layout


For calculation of member bending capacities about the principal x-axis, the PMEMBER Design uses
the concept of segment / sub-segment design. By default PMEMBERs are automatically broken up
into design segments and sub-segments based on calculated effective restraints. User-defined
restraints assigned using the PBRACE design parameter are checked to see if they are effective (i.e.,
if they are placed on the critical flange as per AS 4100 5.5). Restraints not applied to the critical
flange are ineffective and hence are completely ignored.
Refer to Section 1B.7 for further information on how user-defined restraints are applied using the
PBRACE design parameter, including available restraint types, and restraint layout rules.
Note: Segment and sub-segment layouts for PMEMBERs may change for different load cases
considered for design. Some restraints may be effective for one particular load case as they are
found to apply to the critical flange, however for another load case may be found not to act on
the critical flange, and found to be ineffective. In other words the critical flange can change for
each load case considered.
Typically the critical flange will be the compression flange, except for segments with a U restraint
at one end, in which case it will be the tension flange (as is the case for a cantilever).
The PMEMBER Design uses the following routine to determine effective cross-section restraints for
each load case considered:
i. first all user-defined restraints are checked to see if they are applied to the compression
flange, with those that arent ignored;
ii. next a check is made to see if a U type restraint is found at either end of the PMEMBER. If
this is the case then any adjacent L restraints up to the next F, FR, P or PR restraint
are also ignored, regardless of whether they are placed on the critical or non-critical flange.
Refer AS 4100 5.4.2.4.
The compression flange in step 1 of the routine above is calculated based on the bending moments
at the locations of the restraints being considered. If the bending moment is zero at the same
location as a restraint then the following method is used to determine which flange is critical at
the zero moment location:
a. If the zero moment is at the end of the PMEMBER, then the compression flange is based on
the bending moment at a small increment from then end;

International Design Codes Manual 37

1B.12 Physical Member Design

b. If the zero moment is along the PMEMBER and is a peak value, then the compression flange
is based on the bending moment at a small increment from that location;
c. If neither 1 or 2 above is valid, then the stiffer of the restraints at that location is taken. The
stiffness of different restraint types from the most stiff to least stiff are taken as outlined in
Table 1B.9-3.
Table 1B.6-Assumed Order of Restraint
Stiffness for Zero Moment Critical
Flange
Stiffness

Restraint Type

Most Stiff

FR

PR

Least Stiff

None

Once the effective restraints have been determined, the PMEMBER is divided into segments
bounded by F, P, FR, PR or U effective restraints. These segments are then further divided
into sub-segments by effective L restraints.
Note: Sub-segment lengths are not automatically checked to determine if they provide full lateral
restraint as per AS 4100 5.3.2.4.
For design of cantilevers, the free tip should have user-defined U restraints applied to both top
and bottom flanges.
Note: If the effective restraints for any load case consist of U or L restraints only, an error will
be reported.

1B.12.3 Physical Member Restraints Specification


The PBRACE parameter is used to specify the restraint condition along the top and bottom flange of
a PMEMBER.

General Format
PBRACE { TOP | BOTTOM } f1 r1 f2 r2 f52 r52 (PMEMB pmember-list)
Where:

38 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1B.12 Physical Member Design

f is a fraction of the PMEMBER length where restraint condition is being specified.


n
This value is any ratio between 0.0 and 1.0.
r is one of the possible restraint condition as in the following:
n

Table 1B.7-Physical Member Restraint Types


Designation,
r
1

Restraint
Type

Description

Fully
restrained

Partially
restrained

Laterally
restrained

Cannot be specified at the ends of


design members.

Unrestrained

Can only be applied at the ends of


design members, and must be
applied to both flanges to be
effective.
Caution: Both top and bottom
flanges can not be unrestrained
at the same location (as this is
unstable).

FR

Fully and
rotationally
restrained

PR

Partially and
rotationally
restrained

Continuously The flange is assumed to be


restrained
continuously supported at that
flange up to next restraint
location. For continuously
supported flange unbraced length
is assumed to be zero.

Example
PBRACE TOP 0.85 FR 0.33 PR 0.33 PR 0.25 F 0.75 L 0.5 PR 1.0 U 0.0 U
PBRACE BOTTOM 0.75 L 0.0 U 0.25 P 0.5 L 1.0 U PMEMB 3 7

International Design Codes Manual 39

1B.12 Physical Member Design

Description
Refer to AS 4100 Section 5.5 for a full definition of the critical flange. Typically this will be the
compression flange, except for segments with U restraint at one end, then it will be the tension
flange (as is the case for cantilever portion at the end).
l

when gravity loads are dominant (i.e., negative local y-axis direction), the critical flange of a
segment shall be the top flange (i.e., tension).

when upward wind loads are dominant (i.e., positive local y-axis direction), the critical
flange shall be the bottom flange (i.e., tension).

Design physical members are divided into segments by F, P, FR, PR or U effective section
restraints. Segments are further broken down into sub-segments by L restraints, but only if the
L restraints are deemed to be effective. L restraints are only considered to be effective when
positioned on the critical flange between F, P, FR or FP restraints. If an L restraint is
positioned on the non-critical flange it shall be completely ignored. Further, if an L restraint is
positioned between a U and an F, P, FR or PR restraint, it shall be ignored (regardless of
whether it is on the critical or non-critical flange).
Design members must have either a F, P, FR, PR, or U restraint specified at both ends, for both
flanges.
l

If UNL is not specified, segment length is used as UNL and used as L in effective length
calculation as per 5.6.3.

If ALM i.e., _m is not provided, automatic calculation of ALM is done based on moments
within the segment.

If SKR i.e., Kr is not provided, it is automatically calculated based on table 5.6.3(3)


considering restraint conditions are the end of the segment. If FR or PR is found at only one
of the end, Kr is assumed to be 0.85; if FR or PR is found at both the ends, 0.70 is used as Kr.

If SKT i.e., Kt is not provided, it is automatically calculated based on Table 5.6.3(1)


considering end restraints of the segment and section geometric information and segment
length.

If SKL i.e., Kl is not provided, it is automatically calculated based on Table 5.6.3(2)


considering end restraints of the segment, Load Height Position parameter, LHT and shear
force variation within the segment.

Notes
a. If PMEMBER list is not provided, all the PMEMBERS are restrained by same configuration.
b. It is not necessary to provide the restraint locations in sequence as the program sorts them
automatically.
c. Unless specified, PMEMBER ends are assumed to be Fully Restrained (F).

40 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1B.12 Physical Member Design

d. While designing any section of the member, effective restraints are searched on each side of
the section along the critical flange.
e. The types of restraints applied to the top and bottom flanges at each location determines the
effective section restraints. These are outlined in the table below:
Table 1B.8-Restraint Meanings in Critical and Noncritical Flanges
Case

Flange

Restraint on
a Critical
Flange

Restraint on
a Non-Critical
Flange

Effective
Section
Restraint

Nothing

Nothing

None

P or F

Nothing or U

Nothing or U

P or F

PR or FR

Nothing or U

FR

Nothing or U

PR or FR

PR

L, P or F

L, P, F, FR or
PR

FR or PR

L, P, F, FR or
PR

FR

I
II

III

IV

Note: The critical flange can change for each load case considered.

1B.12.4 Automated PMEMBER Design Calculations


The AS 4100 PMEMBER Design automates many design calculations, including those required for
segment / sub-segment design.
Table 1B.9-Automated PMEMBER AS 4100 Design Parameters and Calculations
Automated Design
Calculations

PMEMBER
Design
Parameter

compression member
b
section constant per AS
4100 6.3.3.

ALB

Comments

International Design Codes Manual 41

1B.12 Physical Member Design

Automated Design
Calculations

moment
m
modification factor per
AS 4100 5.6.1.1.

PMEMBER
Design
Parameter

Comments

ALM

Calculated based on moments


distribution for individual
segments and sub-segments.

f tensile strength per AS


u
4100 2.1.2.

FU

Based on nominal steel grade


specified using SGR design
parameter and section type.

f yield stress per AS 4100


y
2.1.1.

FYLD

Based on nominal steel grade


specified using SGR design
parameter and section type.

residual stress category


for AS 4100 Table 5.2 and
AS 4100 Table 6.2.4.

IST

Based on section type.

correction factor for


distribution of forces in a
tension member per AS
4100 7.3.

KT

Based on section type and eccentric


end connection specified using EEC
design parameter.

Load height position for


automated calculation of
the kl load height factor
per AS 4100 Table 5.6.3(2).

LHT

LHT is used for automating


calculation of kl load height factors
for segments and sub-segments, per
AS 4100 Table 5.6.3(2).
See "Load Height Position" on page
43 for details.

Segment and subsegment layout.

PBRACE

Refer to the Segment and SubSegment Layout section above for


details.

Nominal steel grade.

SGR

Based on section types.

k twist restraint factor as


t
per AS 4100 Table 5.6.3(1).

SKT

Based on effective end restraints for


each segment / sub-segment.

k load height factor as


l
per AS 4100 Table 5.6.3(2).

SKL

Based on effective end restraints for


each segment / sub-segment, and
LHT design parameter (refer above).

k lateral rotation
r
restraint factor as per AS
4100 Table 5.6.3(3).

SKR

Based on effective end restraints for


each segment / sub-segment. This
is where the distinction between
F and FR, as well as P and
PR is used.

42 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1B.12 Physical Member Design

1B.12.5 Load Height Position


When LHT is set to 1.0 to specify a top flange load height position, STAAD.Pro takes the top to be
the positive local y-axis of the member.
Note: This may not literally be the top flange for say a column or beam with a beta angle. The
local member axes can be viewed in the GUI by selecting Beam Orientation in the Diagrams
Labels dialog (or Ctrl+O keyboard shortcut).
To automate kl using AS 4100 Table 5.6.3(2), the longitudinal position of the load also needs to be
considered, i.e., as either within segment or at segment end.
To determine which of these applies, the shear forces at the ends of each design segment / subsegment is considered. If the shear force is found to have the same direction and magnitude at
both ends, it is assumed that loads act at the segment end.
If on the other hand the shear force at each end is found to have different directions or
magnitudes, loads are assumed to act within the segment.
Note: The above method includes an allowance for the self-weight of the member to be
considered, as the self-weight always acts through the shear center.
The net sum of the end shears is also used to determine if the load is acting in the positive or
negative local member y-axis direction. If LHT is set to 1.0 for top flange loading, the net sum is
used to determine whether the top flange loading is acting to stabilise or destabilise the member
for lateral torsional buckling. Negative local y-axis net loads act to destabilise the segments / subsegments, whereas positive local y-axis net loads act to stabilise segments / sub-segments.

1B.12.6 Example
PARAMETER 1
CODE AUSTRALIAN
DMAX 0.4 PMEMBER ALL
DMIN 0.25 PMEMBER ALL
KX 0.75 PMEMBER ALL
KY 1.0 PMEMBER ALL
LX 4.5 PMEMBER ALL
LY 6.0 PMEMBER ALL
LHT 0.0 PMEMBER ALL
NSC 0.9 PMEMBER ALL
NSF 1.0 PMEMBER ALL
PBRACE BOTTOM 0.0 F 1.0 F PMEMBER ALL
PBRACE TOP 0.0 P 0.5 L 1.0 P PMEMBER ALL
SGR 0.0 PMEMBER ALL
TRACK 2.0 PMEMBER ALL
CHECK CODE PMEMBER ALL

International Design Codes Manual 43

44 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2
British Codes

International Design Codes Manual 45

2 British Codes

46 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2A.1 Design Parameters

2A. British Codes - Concrete Design per BS8110


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the British code BS8110-1:1997
Structural use of concrete - Part 1: Code of practice for design and construction. Given the width
and depth (or diameter for circular columns) of a section, the program will calculate the required
reinforcement to resist the forces and moments.
Design of members per BS8110-1:1997 requires the STAAD British Std Design Codes SELECTCode
Pack.
Note: It is strongly recommended that you perform new concrete design using the RC Designer
Module. The following is provided to allow old STAAD files to be run.

2A.1 Design Parameters


The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform and control the design
to BS8110. These parameters not only act as a method to input required data for code calculations
but give the Engineer control over the actual design process. Default values of commonly used
parameters for conventional design practice have been chosen as the basis. Table 2A.1 contains a
complete list of available parameters with their default values.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 2A.1-British Concrete Design BS 8110 Parameters
Parameter
Name
CODE

Default
Value
-

Description

Must be specified as BRITISH to invoke design per


BS8110.
Design Code to follow. See section 5.52.2 of the
Technical Reference Manual.

BRACE

0.0

0.0 = Column braced in both directions.


1.0 = Column unbraced about local Z direction
only
2.0 = Column unbraced about local Y direction
only
3.0 = Column unbraced in both Y and Z
directions

International Design Codes Manual 47

2A.1 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default
Value

Description

CLEAR

20 mm

Clearance of reinforcement measured from


concrete surface to closest bar perimeter, in
current units.

DEPTH

YD

Depth of concrete member, in current units. This


value default is as provided as YD in MEMBER
PROPERTIES.

EFACE

0.0

Face of support location at end of beam, in


current units.
Note: Both SFACE & EFACE must be positive
numbers.

ELY

1.0

Member length factor about local Y direction for


column design.

ELZ

1.0

Member length factor about local Z direction for


column design.

FC

30 N/mm 2

Concrete Yield Stress / cube strength, in current


units

FYMAIN

460 N/mm 2 Yield Stress for main reinforcement, in current


units (For slabs, it is for reinforcement in both
directions)

FYSEC

460 N/mm 2 Yield Stress for secondary reinforcement a, in


current units. Applicable to shear bars in beams

MAX
MAIN

50mm

Maximum required reinforcement bar size


Acceptable bars are per MINMAIN above.

MINMAIN 8mm

Minimum main reinforcement bar size Acceptable


bar sizes: 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 32 40 50

MINSEC

8mm

Minimum secondary bar size a. Applicable to


shear reinforcement in beams

MMAG

1.0

Factor by which column design moments are


magnified

48 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2A.1 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default
Value

Description

NSE
CTION

10

Number of equally-spaced sections to be


considered in finding critical moment for beam
design. The upper limit is 20.

SERV

0.0

Serviceability checks:
0.0 = No serviceability check
performed.
1.0 = Perform serviceability check
for beams as if they were
continuous.
2.0 = Perform serviceability check
for beams as if they were simply
supported.
3.0 = Perform serviceability check
for beams as if they were cantilever
beams.

SFACE

0.0

Face of support location at start of beam, in


current units. (Only applicable for shear - use
MEMBER OFFSET for bending )

SRA

0.0

0.0 = Orthogonal reinforcement layout without


considering torsional moment Mxy -slabs only
-500 = Orthogonal reinforcement layout with Mxy
used to calculate Wood & Armer moments for
design.
A = skew angle considered in Wood & Armer
equations where A is the angle in degrees.

TRACK

0.0

0.0 = Critical Moment will not be printed with


beam design report. Column design gives no
detailed results.
1.0 = For beam gives min/max steel % and
spacing. For columns gives a detailed table of
output with additional moments calculated.
2.0 = Output of TRACK 1.0
List of design sag/hog moments and
corresponding required steel area at each section
of member

International Design Codes Manual 49

2A.2 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations

Parameter
Name
WIDTH

Default
Value
ZD

Description

Width of concrete member, in current units. This


value default is as provided as ZD in MEMBER
PROPERTIES.

2A.2 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations


STAAD provides the user with two methods of accounting for the slenderness effects in the analysis
and design of concrete members. The first method is equivalent to the procedure presented in
BS8110 Part 1 1985 Section 3.8.2.2 In this section, the code recognizes that additional moments
induced by deflection are present and states that these 'secondary' moments are accounted for by
the design formula in Section 3.8.3. This is the method used in the design for concrete in STAAD.
Alternatively STAAD houses a PDELTA ANALYSIS facility, which allows the effects of these second
order moments to be considered in the analysis rather than the design. In a PDELTA analysis, after
solving the joint displacements of the structure, the additional moments induced in the structure
are calculated. These can be compared to those calculated using the formulation of BS8110.

2A.3 Member Dimensions


Concrete members that are to be designed by STAAD must have certain section properties input
under the MEMBER PROPERTIES command. The following example demonstrates the required
input:
UNIT MM
MEMBER PROPERTIES
*RECTANGULAR COLUMN 300mm WIDE X 450mm DEEP
1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. ZD 300.
*CIRCULAR COLUMN 300mm diameter
11 13 PR YD 300.
* T-SECTION - FLANGE 1000.X 200.(YD-YB)
* - STEM 250(THICK) X 350.(DEEP)
14 PRISM YD 550. ZD 1000. YB 350. ZB 250.

In the above input, the first set of members are rectangular (450mm depth x 300mm width) and
the second set of members, with only depth and no width provided, will be assumed to be circular
with 300mm diameter. Note that area (AX) is not provided for these members. If shear area areas (
AY & AZ ) are to be considered in analysis, the user may provide them along with YD and ZD. Also
note that if moments of inertias are not provided, the program will calculate them from YD and
ZD. Finally a T section can be considered by using the third definition above.

2A.4 Beam Design


Beam design includes both flexure and shear. For both types of beam action, all active beam
loadings are scanned to create moment and shear envelopes and locate the critical sections. The
total number of sections considered is ten, unless that number is redefined with the NSECTION

50 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2A.4 Beam Design

parameter. From the critical moment values, the required positive and negative bar pattern is
developed with cut-off lengths calculated to include required development length.
Shear design as per BS8110 clause 3.4.5 has been followed and the procedure includes critical shear
values plus torsional moments. From these values, stirrup sizes are calculated with proper spacing.
The program will scan from each end of the member and provide a total of two shear regions at
each, depending on the change of shear distribution along the beam. If torsion is present, the
program will also consider the provisions of BS8110 - Part 2 -section 2.4. A table of shear and/or
combined torsion is then provided with critical shear.
Stirrups not bent up bars are assumed in the design. The example output below shows a sample
output of an actual reinforcement pattern developed by STAAD. The following annotations apply:
LEVEL
Serial number of the bar center which may contain one or more bar groups.
HEIGHT
Height of bar level from the soffit of the beam in relation to its local y axis.
BAR INFO
Reinforcement bar information specifying number of bars and their size.
FROM
Distance from the start of the beam to the start of the reinforcing bar.
TO
Distance from the start of the beam to the end of the reinforcing bar.
ANCHOR
States whether anchorage, either a hook or
(STA,END)
continuation, is needed at start (STA) or at the end (END).
The following is an example TRACK 2.0 beam design output:
====================================================================
B E A M N O.
13 D E S I G N R E S U L T S - FLEXURE
LEN - 1500. mm
FY - 460. FC - 30. SIZE - 300. X 300. mm
LEVEL
HEIGHT
BAR INFO
FROM
TO
ANCHOR
mm
mm
mm
STA END
------------------------------------------------------------------1
29.
4- 8 MM
467.
1500.
NO
YES
2
264.
4- 8 MM
0.
1158.
YES NO
REQUIRED REINF. STEEL SUMMARY :
------------------------------SECTION
REINF STEEL(+VE/-VE)
MOMENTS(+VE/-VE)
LOAD(+VE/-VE)
( MM )
(SQ. MM )
(KN-METER)
0.
0.0/
184.4
0.00/
19.71
0/
3
125.
0.0/
157.2
0.00/
16.80
0/
3
250.
0.0/
129.9
0.00/
13.89
0/
3
375.
0.0/
117.0
0.00/
10.98
0/
3
500.
0.0/
117.0
0.00/
8.07
0/
3
625.
0.0/
117.0
0.00/
5.16
0/
3
750.
0.0/
117.0
0.00/
2.25
0/
3
875.
117.0/
0.0
2.15/
0.00
1/
0

International Design Codes Manual 51

2A.5 Column Design

1000.
1125.
1250.
1375.
1500.
B E A M

117.0/
0.0
5.25/
0.00
1/
0
117.0/
0.0
8.36/
0.00
1/
0
117.0/
0.0
11.46/
0.00
1/
0
136.3/
0.0
14.57/
0.00
1/
0
165.3/
0.0
17.67/
0.00
1/
0
N O.
13 D E S I G N R E S U L T S - SHEAR
PROVIDE SHEAR LINKS AS FOLLOWS
|----------------------------------------------------------------|
| FROM - TO
| MAX. SHEAR | LOAD | LINKS | NO. | SPACING C/C |
|----------------|------------|------|-------|-----|-------------|
| END 1
749 mm |
24.8 kN |
1 | 8 mm | 5 | 187
mm
|
|
749
END 2 |
24.8 kN |
1 | 8 mm | 5 | 187
mm
|
|----------------------------------------------------------------|
___
7J____________________ 1500.X 300.X 300_____________________
8J____
|
|
||=========================================================
|
| 4No8 H 264.
0.TO 1158
|
|
|
|
| 5*8 c/c187
|
|
|
5*8 c/c187
|
|
4No8 H |29. 467.TO 1500
|
|
|
====================================================||
|
|
|___________________________________________________________________________|
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
oooo
|
|
oooo
|
|
oooo
|
|
|
| 4T8
|
| 4T8
|
| 4T8
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
| 4T8
|
| 4T8
|
| 4T8
|
|
|
|
oooo
|
|
oooo
|
|
oooo
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|_______________|
|_______________|
|_______________|
|_______________|

2A.5 Column Design


Columns are designed for axial force and biaxial bending at the ends. All active loadings are tested
to calculate reinforcement. The loading which produces maximum reinforcement is called the
critical load and is displayed. The requirements of BS8110 Part 1 - section 3.8 are followed, with the
user having control on the effective length in each direction by using the ELZ and ELY parameters
as described in Table 2A.1. Bracing conditions are controlled by using the BRACE parameter. The
program will then decide whether or not the column is short or slender and whether it requires
additional moment calculations. For biaxial bending, the recommendations of 3.8.4.5 of the code
are considered.
Column design is done for square, rectangular and circular sections. For rectangular and square
sections, the reinforcement is always assumed to be arranged symmetrically. This causes slightly
conservative results in certain cases. Below is a typical column design results.
Using parameter TRACK 1.0, the detailed output below is obtained. TRACK 0.0 would merely give
the bar configuration, required steel area and percentage, column size and critical load case.
====================================================================
C O L U M N
N O.
1 D E S I G N
R E S U L T S
FY - 460. FC -30. N/MM2
SQRE SIZE - 300. X 300. MM,
AREA OF STEEL REQUIRED =
940. SQ. MM.
BAR CONFIGURATION
REINF PCT.
LOAD
LOCATION
---------------------------------------------------12
10 MM
1.047
1
EACH END
(PROVIDE EQUAL NUMBER OF BARS AT EACH FACE)
---------------------------------------------------|BRACED /SLENDER in z E.L.z= 4500 mm (3.8.1.3 & 5)|

52 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2A.6 Slab Design

|BRACED /SLENDER in y E.L.y= 4500 mm (3.8.1.3 & 5)|


|END MOMS.
MZ1= -12 MZ2= -24 MY1= -15 MY2= -31|
|SLENDERNESS MOMTS. KNM: MOMZ=
2 MOMY=
2
|
|DESIGN LOADS KN METER: MOM.= 55 AXIAL LOAD=
74|
|DESIGNED CAP. KN METER: MOM.= 55 AXIAL CAP.=
74|
----------------------------------------------------

2A.6 Slab Design


Slabs are designed to BS8110 specifications. To design a slab, it must first be modeled using finite
elements. The command specifications are in accordance with Section 5.52 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
A typical example of element design output is shown in below. The reinforcement required to resist
the Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the reinforcement required to resist
the My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement (Fig. 4.1 ). The following parameters are
those applicable to slab design:
FYMAIN
Yield stress for all reinforcing steel
FC
Concrete grade
CLEAR
Distance from the outer surface to the edge of the bar. This is considered the same on
both surfaces.
SRA
Parameter which denotes the angle of the required transverse reinforcement relative to
the longitudinal reinforcement for the calculation of Wood & Armer design moments.
Other parameters, as shown in Table 2A.1 are not applicable.

2A.6.1 Wood & Armer Equations


Reference:Armer, G.S.T., discussion on Wood, R.H., "The Reinforcement of Slabs in Accordance
with Pre-Determined Field of Moments," Concrete, Vol. 2, No. 2, (1968): 69-76.
If the default value of zero is used for the parameter SRA, the design will be based on the Mx and
My moments which are the direct results of STAAD analysis. The SRA parameter (Set
Reinforcement Angle) can be manipulated to introduce Wood & Armer moments into the design
replacing the pure Mx, My moments. These new design moments allow the Mxy moment to be
considered when designing the section. Orthogonal or skew reinforcement may be considered. SRA
set to -500 will assume an orthogonal layout. If however a skew is to be considered, an angle is
given in degrees measured anticlockwise (positive) from the element local x-axis to the
reinforcement bar. The resulting Mx* and My* moments are calculated and shown in the design
format.

International Design Codes Manual 53

2A.7 Shear Wall Design

The design of the slab considers a fixed bar size of 16 mm in both directions with the longitudinal
bar being the layer closest to the slab exterior face. Typical output is as follows:
ELEMENT DESIGN SUMMARY-BASED ON 16mm BARS
----------------------------------------MINIMUM AREAS ARE ACTUAL CODE MIN % REQUIREMENTS.
PRACTICAL LAYOUTS ARE AS FOLLOWS:
FY=460, 6No.16mm BARS AT 150mm C/C = 1206mm2/metre
FY=250, 4No.16mm BARS AT 250mm C/C = 804mm2/metre
ELEMENT
LONG. REINF
MOM-X /LOAD
TRANS. REINF
MOM-Y /LOAD
(mm2/m)
(kN-m/m)
(mm2/m)
(kN-m/m)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------| WOOD & ARMER RESOLVED MOMENTS FOR ELEMENT:
47
UNITS: METRE kN
|
| LOAD
MX
MY
MXY
MX*
MY*/Ma*
ANGLE
|
|
1
-10.441
-13.347
1.270
0.000
0.000
0.000
TOP
|
|
1
-10.441
-13.347
1.270
-11.710
-14.617
0.000
BOTT |
|
3
-9.541
-11.995
0.986
0.000
0.000
0.000
TOP
|
|
3
-9.541
-11.995
0.986
-10.527
-12.981
0.000
BOTT |
-------------------------------------------------------------------------47 TOP :
195.
0.00 /
0
195.
0.00 /
0
BOTT:
229.
-11.71 /
1
329.
-14.62 /
1

2A.7 Shear Wall Design


Design of shear walls in accordance with BS 8110 has been added to the features of the program.
The program implements the provisions of BS 8110 for the design of shear walls. It performs inplane shear, compression, as well as in-plane and out-of-plane bending design of reinforcing. The
shear wall is modeled by a single or a combination of Surface elements. The use of the Surface
element enables the designer to treat the entire wall as one entity. It greatly simplifies the
modeling of the wall and adds clarity to the analysis and design output. The results are presented
in the context of the entire wall rather than individual finite elements thereby allowing users to
quickly locate required information.
The program reports shear wall design results for each load case/combination for user specified
number of sections given by SURFACE DIVISION (default value is 10) command. The shear wall is
designed at these horizontal sections. The output includes the required horizontal and vertical
distributed reinforcing, the concentrated (in-plane bending) reinforcing and the link required due
to out-of-plane shear.

2A.7.1 Design Parameters


START SHEARWALL DESIGN
CODE BRITISH
shearwall-parameters
DESIGN SHEARWALL LIST shearwall-list
END
The next table explains parameters used in the shear wall design command block above.

54 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2A.7 Shear Wall Design

Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 2A.2-Shear Wall Design Parameters
Parameter
Name
FYMAIN

Default
Value
460
Mpa

Description

Yield strength of steel, in current units.

30 Mpa

Compressive strength of concrete, in current


units.

Minimum size of horizontal reinforcing bars


(range 6 mm 36 mm). If input is 6 (integer
number) the program will assume 6 mm
diameter bar.

HMAX

36

Maximum size of horizontal reinforcing bars


(range 6 mm 36 mm). If input is 6 (integer
number) the program will assume 6 mm
diameter bar.

VMIN

Minimum size of vertical reinforcing bars (range


6mm 36mm). If input is 6 (integer number)
the program will assume 6 mm diameter bar.

VMAX

36

Maximum size of vertical reinforcing bars (range


6mm 36mm). If input is 6 (integer number)
the program will assume 6 mm diameter bar.

Minimum size of vertical reinforcing bars located


in edge zones (range 6mm 36mm). If input is 6
(integer number) the program will assume 6 mm
diameter bar.

EMAX

36

Maximum size of vertical reinforcing bars located


in edge zones (range 6mm 36mm). If input is 6
(integer number) the program will assume 6 mm
diameter bar.

LMIN

Minimum size of links (range 6mm 16mm). If


input is 6 (integer number) the program will
assume 6 mm diameter bar.

16

Maximum size of links (range 6mm 16mm). If


input is 6 (integer number) the program will
assume 6 mm diameter bar.

FC

HMIN

EMIN

LMAX

International Design Codes Manual 55

2A.7 Shear Wall Design

Parameter
Name
CLEAR

Default
Value
25 mm

Description
Clear concrete cover, in current units.
Reinforcement placement mode:

TWOLAYERED

0. single layer, each direction


1. two layers, each direction

KSLENDER

1.5

Slenderness factor for finding effective height.

1. Command SET DIVISION 12 indicates that the surface boundary node-to-node segments
will be subdivided into 12 fragments prior to finite element mesh generation.
2. Four surfaces are defined by the SURFACE INCIDENCES command.
3. The SUPPORTS command includes the new support generation routine. For instance, the
line 2 TO 5GEN PIN assigns pinned supports to all nodes between nodes 2 and 5. As the
node-to-node distances were previously subdivided by the SET DIVISION 12 command,
there will be an additional 11 nodes between nodes 2 and 5. As a result, all 13 nodes will be
assigned pinned supports. Please note that the additional 11 nodes are not individually
accessible to the user. They are created by the program to enable the finite element mesh
generation and to allow application of boundary constraints.
4. Surface thickness and material constants are specified by the SURFACE PROPERTY and
SURFACE CONSTANTS, respectively.
5. The shear wall design commands are listed between lines START SHEARWALL DES and
END. The CODE command selects the design code that will be the basis for the design. For
British code the parameter is BRITISH. The DESIGN SHEARWALL LIST command is
followed by a list of previously defined Surface elements intended as shear walls and/or shear
wall components.

2A.7.2 Technical Overview


The program implements provisions of section 3.9 of BS 8110:Part 1:1997 and relevant provisions as
referenced therein, for all active load cases. The wall is designed as unbraced reinforced wall. The
following steps are performed for each of the horizontal sections of the wall set using the SURFACE
DIVISION command (see Description above).

Checking of slenderness limit


The slenderness checking is done for out-of-plane direction. For out-of-plane direction, the wall is
assumed to be simply supported. Hence, the provisions of clause 3.9.3.2.2 and 3.9.4.2 are applicable.
The default effective height is 1.5 times the clear height. User can change the effective height. The
limit for slenderness is as per table 3.23 for unbraced wall, which is taken as 30.

56 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2A.7 Shear Wall Design

Design for in-plane bending (denoted by Mz in the shear wall force output)
Walls are assumed to be cantilever beams fixed at their base and carrying loads to the foundation.
Extreme compression fibre to centroid of tension (concentrated) reinforcement distance, d, is taken
as 0.8 horizontal length of the wall. Flexural design of the wall is carried out in accordance with
the provisions of clause no. 3.4.4. The flexural (concentrated vertical ) reinforcing is located at both
ends (edges) of the length of the wall. The edge reinforcement is assumed to be distributed over a
length of 0.2 times horizontal length on each side. This length is inclusive of the thickness of the
wall. Minimum reinforcements are according to table 3.25.

Design for in-plane shear (denoted by Fxy in the shear wall force output)
Limit on the nominal shear strength, v is calculated as per clause no. 3.4.5.2.
Nominal shear strength of concrete is computed as per table 3.8.
The design shear stress is computed as per clause no. 3.4.5.12 taking into consideration the effect of
axial load. The area of reinforcement is calculated and checked against the minimum area as per
clause no. 3.12.7.4.

Design for compression and out-of-plane vertical bending


This is denoted by Fy and My respectively in the shear wall force output.
The wall panel is designed as simply supported (at top and bottom), axially loaded with out-ofplane uniform lateral load, with maximum moments and deflections occurring at mid-height.
Design is done as per clause no. 3.8.4 for axially loaded column with uni-axial bending. The
minimum reinforcement percentage is as per table 3.25. The maximum reinforcement percentage of
vertical reinforcement is as per clause no. 3.12.6.3. Links if necessary are calculated as per the
provisions of clause 3.12.7.5.

Design for out-of-plane shear (denoted by Qy in the shear wall force output)
The out-of-plane shear arises from out-of-plane loading. The design shear stress is calculated as per
3.4.5.2 and shear strength of concrete section is calculated as per table 3.8 considering vertical
reinforcement as tension reinforcement.
Shear reinforcements in the form of links are computed as per table 3.7 and the provisions of clause
3.12.7.5.

International Design Codes Manual 57

2A.7 Shear Wall Design

Design for out-of-plane horizontal bending (denoted by Mx in the shear wall


force output)
The horizontal reinforcement already calculated from in-plane shear is checked against the whole
section subjected to out-of-plane bending and axial load. The axial load in this case is the in-plane
shear. The section is again designed as axially loaded column under uni-axial bending as per the
provisions of clause 3.8.4. Extra reinforcement in the form of horizontal bars, if necessary, is
reported.

2A.7.3 Example
The following example starts from the definition of shear wall and ends at the shear wall design.

SET DIVISION 12
SURFACE INCIDENCES
2 5 37 34 SUR 1
19 16 65 68 SUR 2
11 15 186 165 SUR 3
10 6 138 159 SUR 4

SURFACE PROPERTY
1 TO 4 THI 18
SUPPORTS
1 7 14 20 PINNED
2 to 5 gen pin
6 to 10 gen pin
11 to 15 gen pin
19 to 16 gen pin

SURFACE CONSTANTS
E 3150
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 8.68e-005
ALPHA 5.5e-006

START SHEARWALL DES


CODE BRITISH
UNIT NEW MMS
FC 25
FYMAIN 460
TWO 1
VMIN 12
HMIN 12
EMIN 12
DESIGN SHEA LIST 1 TO 4
END

2A.7.4 Shear Wall Design With Opening


The Surface element has been enhanced to allow design of shear walls with rectangular openings.
The automatic meshing algorithm has been improved to allow variable divisions along wall and
opening(s) edges. Design and output are available for user selected locations.

58 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2A.7 Shear Wall Design

Shear walls modeled in STAAD.Pro may include an unlimited number of openings. Due to the
presence of openings, the wall may comprise up with different wall panels.

Shear wall set-up


Definition of a shear wall starts with a specification of the surface element perimeter nodes,
meshing divisions along node-to-node segments, opening(s) corner coordinates, and meshing
divisions of four edges of the opening(s).
SURFACE INCIDENCE n1, ..., ni SURFACE s DIVISION sd1, ..., sdj RECOPENING x1 y1 z1 x2 y2 z2 x3 y3 z3 x4 y4 z4 DIVISION od1, ..., odk
Where:
n1, ..., ni -node numbers on the perimeter of the shear wall,
s -surface ordinal number,
sd1, ..., sdj - number of divisions for each of the node-to-node distance on the
surface perimeter,
x1 y1 z1 (...)-

coordinates of the corners of the opening,

od1, ..., odk-

divisions along edges of the opening.

Note: If the sd1, ..., sdj or the od1, ..., odk list does not include all node-to-node
segments, or if any of the numbers listed equals zero, then the corresponding
division number is set to the default value (=10, or as previously input by the SET
DIVISION command).
Default locations for stress/force output, design, and design output are set as follows:
SURFACE DIVISION X xd
SURFACE DIVISION Y yd
Where:
xd - number of divisions along X axis,
yd - number of divisions along Y axis.
Note: xd and yd represent default numbers of divisions for each edge of the surface where output
is requested. The output is provided for sections located between division segments. For example,
if the number of divisions = 2, then the output will be produced for only one section (at the
center of the edge).

International Design Codes Manual 59

2A.7 Shear Wall Design

Stress/force output printing


Values of internal forces may be printed out for any user-defined section of the wall. The general
format of the command is as follows:
PRINT SURFACE FORCE (ALONG ) (AT a) (BETWEEN d1, d2) LIST s1, ...,si
Where:
- local axis of the surface element (X or Y),
a - distance along the axis from start of the member to the full crosssection of the wall,
d1, d2 - coordinates in the direction orthogonal to , delineating a fragment of the
full cross-section for which the output is desired.**
s1, ...,si - list of surfaces for output generation
** The range currently is taken in terms of local axis. If the local axis is directed away from the
surface, the negative range is to be entered.
Note: If command ALONG is omitted, direction Y (default) is assumed. If command AT is
omitted, output is provided for all sections along the specified (or default) edge. Number of
sections will be determined from the SURFACE DIVISION X or SURFACE DIVISION Y input
values. If the BETWEEN command is omitted, the output is generated based on full cross-section
width.

Definition of wall panels


Input syntax for panel definition is as follows:
START PANEL DEFINITION
SURFACE i PANEL j ptype x1 y1 z1 x2 y2 z2 x3 y3 z3 x4 y4 z4
ENDPANEL DEFINITION
where:
i - ordinal surface number,
j - ordinal panel number,
ptype - WALL
x1 y1 z1 (...) - coordinates of the corners of the panel
Note: Design of COLUMN and BEAM panels is currently not available.

60 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2A.7 Shear Wall Design

Shear wall design


The program implements different provisions of design of walls as per code BS 8110. General syntax
of the design command is as follows:
START SHEARWALL DESIGN
(...)
DESIGN SHEARWALL (AT c) LIST s
TRACK tr
ENDSHEARWALL DESIGN
Parameter TRACK specifies how detailed the design output should be:
0 - indicates a basic set of results data (default),
1 - full design output will be generated.
If the command AT is omitted, the design proceeds for all cross sections of the wall or panels, as
applicable, defined by the SURFACE DIVISION X or SURFACE DIVISION Y input values.
a. No panel definition.
Design is performed for the specified horizontal full cross-section, located at a distance c
from the origin of the local coordinates system. If opening is found then reinforcement is
provided along sides of openings. The area of horizontal and vertical bars provided along
edges of openings is equal to that of the respective interrupted bars.
b. Panels have been defined.
Design is performed for all panels, for the cross-section located at a distance c from the start
of the panel.

International Design Codes Manual 61

62 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2B.1 General

2B. British Codes - Steel Design per BS5950:2000


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the British code BS 5950-1:2000
Structural use of steelwork in building - Part 1: Code of practice for design - Rolled and welded
sections, Incorporating Corrigendum No. 1.
Design of members per BS 5950-1:2000 requires the STAAD British Std Design Codes SELECTCode
Pack.

2B.1 General
The design philosophy embodied in BS5950:2000 is built around the concept of limit state design,
used today in most modern steel design codes. Structures are designed and proportioned taking
into consideration the limit states at which they become unfit for their intended use. Two major
categories of limit state are recognized - serviceability and ultimate. The primary considerations in
ultimate limit state design are strength and stability while that in serviceability limit state is
deflection. Appropriate safety factors are used so that the chances of limits being surpassed are
acceptably remote.
In the STAAD implementation of BS5950:2000, members are proportioned to resist the design loads
without exceeding the limit states of strength and stability. Accordingly, the most economic
section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria. This procedure is controlled by the
designer in specification of allowable member depths, desired section type or other such
parameters. The code checking portion of the program checks that code requirements for each
selected section are met and identifies the governing criteria.
The complete B.S.C. steel tables for both hot rolled and hollow sections are built into the program
for use in specifying member properties as well as for the actual design process. See section 2B.4 for
information regarding the referencing of these sections. In addition to universal beams, columns,
joists, piles, channels, tees, composite sections, beams with cover plates, pipes, tubes, and angles,
there is a provision for user provided tables.
STAAD.Pro 2006 and later have the additional option to design tapered I shaped (wide flange)
beams according to Annex G of BS5950. See Section 2B.13 for a complete description.

Single Angle Sections


Angle sections are un-symmetrical and when using BS 5950:2000 table 25 you must consider four
axes: two principal, u-u and v-v and two geometric, a-a and b-b. The effective length for the v-v
axis, Lvv, is taken as the LVV parameter or LY KY, if not specified. The a-a and b-b axes are
determined by which leg of the angle is fixed by the connection and should be specified using the
LEG parameter, see section 5B.6 for more information on the LEG parameter. The effective length
in the a-a axis is taken as LY KY and the effective length in the b-b axis as LZ KZ.
The following diagram shows the axes for angles which have been defined with either an ST or RA
specification and is connected by its longer leg (i.e., a-a axis is parallel to the longer leg).

International Design Codes Manual 63

2B.2 Analysis Methodology

Figure 2B.1 - Axis orientation for single angles

ST angle and USER


table angles

RAangle

2B.2 Analysis Methodology


Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Analysis is done for
the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. The user is allowed
complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to create
necessary loading situations. Depending upon the analysis requirements, regular stiffness analysis or
P-Delta analysis may be specified. Dynamic analysis may also be performed and the results
combined with static analysis results.

2B.3 Member Property Specifications


For specification of member properties, the steel section library available in STAAD may be used.
The next section describes the syntax of commands used to assign properties from the built-in steel
table. Member properties may also be specified using the User Table facility. Any user-defined
section may be specified, except for GENERAL or PRISMATIC sections. For more information on these
facilities, refer to Section 1.7 the STAAD Technical Reference Manual.

2B.4 Built-In Steel Section Library


The following information is provided for use when the built-in steel tables are to be referenced for
member property specification. These properties are stored in a database file. If called for, the
properties are also used for member design. Since the shear areas are built into these tables, shear
deformation is always considered during the analysis of these members.

64 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2B.4 Built-In Steel Section Library

Almost all BSI steel sections are available for input. A complete listing of the sections available in
the built-in steel section library may be obtained by using the tools of the graphical user interface.
Refer to Section 1.7.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional information.
Following are the descriptions of different types of sections available:

2B.4.1 Universal Beams, Columns, and Piles


All rolled universal beams, columns and pile sections are available. The following examples
illustrate the designation scheme.
20 TO 30 TA ST UB305X165X54
33 36 TA ST UC356X406X287
100 102 106 TA ST UP305X305X186

2B.4.2 Rolled Steel Joists


Joist sections may be specified as they are listed in BSI-80 with the weight omitted. In those cases
where two joists have the same specifications but different weights, the lighter section should be
specified with an "A" at the end.
10 TO 20 TA ST JO152X127
1 2 TA ST JO127X114A

2B.4.3 Channels
All rolled steel channel sections from the BSI table have been incorporated in STAAD. The
designation is similar to that of the joists. The same designation scheme as in BSI tables may be
used with the weight omitted.
10 TO 15 TA ST CH305X102
55 57 59 61 TA ST CH178X76

2B.4.4 Double Channels


Back-to-back double channels, with or without spacing between them, are available. The letter "D"
in front of the section name will specify a double channel (e.g., D CH102X51, D CH203X89, etc.)
51 52 53 TA D CH152X89
70 TO 80 TA D CH305X102 SP 5.

(specifies a double channel with a spacing of 5 length units)


Note: Face-to-face double channels can not be used in a CHECK CODE command.

2B.4.5 Tee Sections


Tee sections are not input by their actual designations, but instead by referring to the universal
beam shapes from which they are cut. For example,

International Design Codes Manual 65

2B.4 Built-In Steel Section Library

54 55 56 TA T UB254X102X22

(tee cut from UB254X102X22)

2B.4.6 Angles
All equal and unequal angles are available for analysis. Two types of specifications may be used to
describe an angle section, either a standard, ST specification or reversed angle, RA specification.
Note, however, that only angles specified with an RA specification can be designed.
The standard angle section is specified as follows:
15 20 25 TA ST UA200X150X18

This specification may be used when the local STAAD z-axis corresponds to the V-V axis specified
in the steel tables. If the local STAAD y-axis corresponds to the V-V axis in the tables, type
specification "RA" (reverse angle) may be used.
35 TO 45 TA RA UA200X150X18

2B.4.7 Double Angles


Short leg back-to-back or long leg back-to-back double angles can be specified by inputting the
word SD or LD, respectively, in front of the angle size. In case of an equal angle, either LD or SD
will serve the purpose. For example,
14 TO 20 TA LD UA200X200X16 SP 1.5
23 27 TA SD UA80X60X6

"SP" denotes spacing between the individual angle sections.


Note: If the section is defined from a Double Angle User Table, then the section properties must
be defined with an 11th value which defines the radius of gyration about an individual sections
principal v-v axis (See Technical Reference Manual, 5.19 User Steel Table Specification)

2B.4.8 Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections)


To designate circular hollow sections from BSI tables, use PIP followed by the numerical value of
diameter and thickness of the section in mm omitting the decimal section of the value provided
for diameter. The following example will illustrate the designation.
10 15 TA ST PIP213.2

(specifies a 21.3 mm dia. pipe with 3.2 mm wall thickness)


Circular hollow sections may also be provided by specifying the outside and inside diameters of the
section. For example,
1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0

(specifies a pipe with outside dia. of 25 and inside dia. of 20 in current length units)
Only code checking and no member selection will be performed if this type of specification is used.

66 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2B.5 Member Capacities

2B.4.9 Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections (Tubes)


Designation of tubes from the BSI steel table is illustrated below:
Figure 2B.2 - BSI tube nomenclature

Example:
15 TO 25 TA ST TUB160808.0

Tubes, like pipes, can also be input by their dimensions (Height, Width and Thickness) and not by
any table designations.
6 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5
(a tube that has a height of 8, a width of 6, and a wall thickness of 0.5 length units)

Note: Only code checking and no member selection is performed for TUBE sections specified this
way.

2B.5 Member Capacities


The basic measure of capacity of a beam is taken as the plastic moment of the section. This is a
significant departure from the standard practice followed in BS449, in which the limiting
condition was attainment of yield stress at the extreme fibres of a given section. With the
introduction of the plastic moment as the basic measure of capacity, careful consideration must be
given to the influence of local buckling on moment capacity. To assist this, sections are classified as
either Class 1, plastic, Class 2, compact, Class 3, semi-compact or Class 4, slender, which governs the
decision whether to use the plastic or the elastic moment capacity. The section classification is a
function of the geometric properties of the section. STAAD is capable of determining the section
classification for both hot rolled and built up sections. In addition, for slender sections, BS5950
recommends the use of a 'stress reduction factor' to reduce the design strength. This factor is again
a function of the geometry of the section and is automatically determined by STAAD for use in the
design process.

2B.5.1 Axial Tension


In members with axial tension, the tensile load must not exceed the tension capacity of the
member. The tension capacity of the member is calculated on the basis of the effective area as
outlined in Section 4.6 of the code. STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a given member per

International Design Codes Manual 67

2B.5 Member Capacities

this procedure, based on a user supplied net section factor (NSF-a default value of 1.0 is present but
may be altered by changing the input value - see Table 2B.1), proceeding with member selection or
code check accordingly. BS5950 does not have any slenderness limitations for tension members.

2B.5.2 Compression
Compression members must be designed so that the compression resistance of the member is
greater than the axial compressive load. Compression resistance is determined according to the
compressive strength, which is a function of the slenderness of the gross section, the appropriate
design strength and the relevant strut characteristics. Strut characteristics take into account the
considerable influence residual rolling and welding stresses have on column behavior. Based on
data collected from extensive research, it has been determined that sections such as tubes with low
residual stresses and Universal Beams and Columns are of intermediate performance. It has been
found that I-shaped sections are less sensitive to imperfections when constrained to fail about an
axis parallel to the flanges. These research observations are incorporated in BS5950 through the use
of four strut curves together with a selection of tables to indicate which curve to use for a
particular case. Compression strength for a particular section is calculated in STAAD according to
the procedure outlined in Annex C of BS5950 where compression strength is seen to be a function
of the appropriate Robertson constant (representing Strut Curve) corresponding Perry factor,
limiting slenderness of the member and appropriate design strength.
A departure from BS5950:1990, generally compression members are no longer required to be
checked for slenderness limitations, however, this option can be included by specifying a MAIN
parameter. Note, a slenderness limit of 50 is still applied on double angles checked as battened
struts as per clause 4.7.9.

2B.5.3 Axially Loaded Members With Moments


In the case of axially loaded members with moments, the moment capacity of the member must be
calculated about both principal axes and all axial forces must be taken into account. If the section is
plastic or compact, plastic moment capacities will constitute the basic moment capacities subject to
an elastic limitation. The purpose of this elastic limitation is to prevent plasticity at working load.
For semi-compact or slender sections, the elastic moment is used. For plastic or compact sections
with high shear loads, the plastic modulus has to be reduced to accommodate the shear loads. The
STAAD implementation of BS5950 incorporates the procedure outlined in section 4.2.5 and 4.2.6 to
calculate the appropriate moment capacities of the section.
For members with axial tension and moment, the interaction formula as outlined in section 4.8.2 is
applied based on effective tension capacity.
For members with axial compression and moment, two principal interaction formulae must be
satisfied Cross Section Capacity check (4.8.3.2) and the Member Buckling Resistance check (4.8.3.3
). Three types of approach for the member buckling resistance check have been outlined in
BS5950:2000 - the simplified approach (4.8.3.3.1), the more exact approach (4.8.3.3.2) and Annex I1
for stocky members. As noted in the code, in cases where neither the major axis nor the minor axis
moment approaches zero, the more exact approach may be more conservative than the simplified
approach. It has been found, however, that this is not always the case and STAAD therefore

68 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2B.5 Member Capacities

performs both checks, comparing the results in order that the more appropriate criteria can be
used.
Additionally the equivalent moment factors, m m and m , can be specified by the user or
x y
yx
calculated by the program.
Members subject to biaxial moments in the absence of both tensile and compressive axial forces are
checked using the appropriate method described above with all axial forces set to zero. STAAD also
carries out cross checks for compression only, which for compact/plastic sections may be more
critical. If this is the case, COMPRESSION will be the critical condition reported despite the
presence of moments.

2B.5.4 Shear
A member subjected to shear is considered adequate if the shear capacity of the section is greater
than the shear load on the member. Shear capacity is calculated in STAAD using the procedure
outlined in section 4.2.3, also 4.4.5 and Annex H3 if appropriate, considering the appropriate shear
area for the section specified.

2B.5.5 Lateral Torsional Buckling


Since plastic moment capacity is the basic moment capacity used in BS5950, members are likely to
experience relatively large deflections. This effect, coupled with lateral torsional buckling, may
result in severe serviceability limit state. Hence, lateral torsional buckling must be considered
carefully.
The procedure to check for lateral torsional buckling as outlined in section 4.3 has been
incorporated in the STAAD implementation of BS5950. According to this procedure, for a member
subjected to moments about the major axis, the 'equivalent uniform moment' on the section must
be less than the lateral torsional buckling resistance moment. For calculation of the buckling
resistance moment, the procedure outlined in Annex B.2 has been implemented for all sections
with the exception of angles. In Annex B.2., the resistance moment is given as a function of the
elastic critical moment, Perry coefficient, and limiting equivalent slenderness, which are calculated
within the program; and the equivalent moment factor, m , which is determined as a function of
LT
the loading configuration and the nature of the load (stabilizing, destabilizing, etc).

2B.5.6 RHS Sections - Additional Provisions


Rectangular Hollow sections are treated in accordance with S.C.I. recommendations in cases when
the plastic axis is in the flange. In such cases, the following expressions are used to calculate the
reduced plastic moduli:
For n 2t(D-2t)/A
A

2D (B t )
1 n
4(B t )
A
2

S rx =

+ n 1

For n 2t(B-2t)/A

International Design Codes Manual 69

2B.6 Design Parameters

2B (D t )
1 n
4(D t )
A
2

S ry =

+ n 1

2B.6 Design Parameters


Available design parameters to be used in conjunction with BS5950 are listed in table 2B.1 along
with their default values.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number till it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 2B.1-British Steel Design BS5950:2000 Parameters
Parameter
Name

Default Value

Description
Must be specified as BS5950

CODE

Design Code to follow.


See section 5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.

AD

Depth at end/2

Distance between the reference axis and


the axis of restraint. See G.2.3
Beam divisions
0. Design only for end moments or
those locations specified by the
SECTION command.

BEAM

3.0

1. Calculate forces and moments at


12th points along the member.
Establish the location where Mz
is the maximum. Use the forces
and moments at that location.
Clause checks at one location.
2. Same as BEAM = 1.0 but
additional checks are carried out
for each end.
3. Calculate moments at 12th points
along the member. Clause
checks at each location
including the ends of the
member.

70 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2B.6 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default Value

Description
Deflection check method. See Note 1
below.

CAN

0. Deflection check based on the


principle that maximum
deflection occurs within the
span between DJ1 and DJ2.
1. Deflection check based on the
principle that maximum
deflection is of the cantilever
type (see note below)
Specifies the method used to calculate
Mb.

CB

1. Value of Mb from Clause 4.3.6 is


used (default).
2. Value of Mbs from Clause 4.7.7 is
used.

DFF

DJ1

None
(Mandatory for
deflection check,
TRACK 4.0)
Start Joint
of member

"Deflection Length" / Maxm. allowable


local deflection
See Note 1d below.
Joint No. denoting starting point for
calculation of "Deflection Length."
See Note 1 below.

DJ2

End Joint of
member

Joint No. denoting end point for


calculation of "Deflection Length."
See Note 1 below.

DMAX *

100.0cm

Maximum allowable depth

DMIN *

0.0 cm

Minimum allowable depth


Clauses 4.8.3.3.1 and 4.8.3.3.2

ESTIFF

0.0

0.0 = Fail ratio uses MIN


of 4.8.3.3.1, 4.8.3.3.2. and
Annex I1 checks.
1.0 = Fail ratio uses MAX
of 4.8.3.3.1, 4.8.3.3.2. and
Annex I1 checks.

International Design Codes Manual 71

2B.6 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default Value

Description

KY

1.0

K factor value in local y - axis. Usually,


this is the minor axis.

KZ

1.0

K factor value in local z - axis. Usually,


this is the major axis.

0.0

Valid range from 0 7 and 10. The


values correspond to table 25 of BS5950
for fastener conditions. See note 2
below.

LEG

Maximum of Lyy
LVV *

and Lzz
(Lyy is a term
used
by BS5950)

Used in conjunction with LEG for Lvv


as per BS5950 table 25 for double
angles. See note 6 below.

LY *

Member Length

Length in local y - axis (current units)


to calculate (KY)(LY)/Ryy slenderness
ratio.

LZ *

Member Length

Length in local z - axis (current units)


to calculate (KZ)(LZ)/Rzz slenderness
ratio.

MLT

1.0

Equivalent moment factor for lateral


torsional buckling as defined in clause
4.8.3.3.4

MX

1.0

Equivalent moment factor for major


axis flexural buckling as defined in
clause 4.8.3.3.4

MY

1.0

Equivalent moment factor for minor


axis flexural buckling as defined in
clause 4.8.3.3.4

MYX

1.0

Equivalent moment factor for minor


axis lateral flexural buckling as defined
in clause 4.8.3.3.4

NSF

1.0

Net section factor for tension members.

72 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2B.6 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default Value

Description
Transverse stiffener spacing (a in
Annex H1)

PNL *

0.0

0.0 = Infinity
Any other value used in the
calculations.

PY *

Set according to
steel grade (SGR)

Design strength of steel


Slenderness limit for members with
compression forces, effective length/
radius of gyration, for a given axis:
0.0 = Slenderness not
performed.

MAIN

0.0

1.0 = Main structural


member (180)
2.0 = Secondary member.
(250)
3.0 = Bracing etc (350)

RATIO

1.0

Permissible ratio of the actual


capacities.
Controls the sections to try during a
SELECT process.
0.0 = Try every section of
the same type as original

SAME**

0.0

1.0 = Try only those


sections with a similar
name as original, e.g., if
the original is an HEA
100, then only HEA
sections will be selected,
even if there are HEMs in
the same table.

International Design Codes Manual 73

2B.6 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default Value

Description
Identify Section type for section
classification
0.0 = Rolled Section

SBLT

0.0
1.0 = Built up Section
2.0 = Cold formed
section

SWAY

none

Specifies a load case number to provide


the sway loading forces in clause
4.8.3.3.4 (See additional notes)
Steel Grade per BS4360
0.0 = Grade S 275

SGR

0.0

1.0 = Grade S 355


2.0 = Grade S 460
3.0 = As per GB 1591 16
Mn
LImit of moment capacity in Cl 4.2.5.1:

TB

0.0

0 = Mc limit 1.5pyZ
1= Mc limit 1.2 pyZ
Output details
0.0 = Suppress all
member capacity info.

TRACK

0.0

1.0 = Print all member


capacities.
2.0 = Print detailed
design sheet.
4.0 = Deflection Check
(separate check to main
select / check code)

UNF

74 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1.0

Factor applied to unsupported length


for Lateral Torsional Buckling effective
length per section 4.3.6.7 of BS5950.

2B.6 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

UNL *

Default Value

Member Length

Description
Unsupported Length for calculating
Lateral Torsional Buckling resistance
moment section 4.3.6.7 of BS5950.
Weld Type, see AISC steel design

1.0 closed
WELD
2.0 open

1.0 = Closed sections.


Welding on one side only
(except for webs of wide
flange and tee sections)
2.0 = Open sections.
Welding on both sides
(except pipes and tubes)

* current units must be considered.


**For angles, if the original section is an equal angle, then the selected section will be an equal
angle and vice versa for unequal angles.
Note: There was an NT parameter in STAAD.Pro 2005 build 1003 which is now automatically
calculated during the design as it is load case dependant.

2B.6.1 Notes
1. CAN, DJ1, and DJ2 Deflection
a. When performing the deflection check, you can choose between two methods. The
first method, defined by a value 0 for the CAN parameter, is based on the local
displacement. Local displacement is described in Section 5.44 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
If the CAN parameter is set to 1, the check will be based on cantilever style deflection.
Let (DX1, DY1, DZ1) represent the nodal displacements (in global axes) at the node
defined by DJ1 (or in the absence of DJ1, the start node of the member). Similarly,
(DX2, DY2, DZ2) represent the deflection values at DJ2 or the end node of the
member.
Compute Delta = SQRT((DX2 - DX1)2 + (DY2 - DY1)2 + (DZ2 - DZ1)2)
Compute Length = distance between DJ1 & DJ2 or, between start node and end node,
as the case may be.
Then, if CAN is specified a value 1, dff = L/Delta
Ratio due to deflection = DFF/dff

International Design Codes Manual 75

2B.6 Design Parameters

b. If CAN = 0, deflection length is defined as the length that is used for calculation of
local deflections within a member. It may be noted that for most cases the
Deflection Length will be equal to the length of the member. However, in some
situations, the Deflection Length may be different. A straight line joining DJ1 and
DJ2 is used as the reference line from which local deflections are measured.
For example, refer to the figure below where a beam has been modeled using four
joints and three members. The Deflection Length for all three members will be
equal to the total length of the beam in this case. The parameters DJ1 and DJ2 should
be used to model this situation. Thus, for all three members here, DJ1 should be 1
and DJ2 should be 4.

D = Maximum local deflection for members 1, 2, and 3.


PARAMETERS
DFF 300. ALL
DJ1 1 ALL
DJ2 4 ALL

c. If DJ1 and DJ2 are not used, "Deflection Length" will default to the member length
and local deflections will be measured from original member line.
d. It is important to note that unless a DFF value is specified, STAAD will not perform a
deflection check. This is in accordance with the fact that there is no default value for
DFF.
e. The above parameters may be used in conjunction with other available parameters for
steel design.
2. LEG follows the requirements of BS5950 table 28. This table concerns the fastener restraint
conditions for angles, double angles, tee sections and channels for slenderness. The following
values are available:
Table 2B.2- LEG Parameter values
Clause

Bold
Configuration

Leg

LEG
Parameter

short leg

1.0

long leg

3.0

short leg

0.0

long leg

2.0

(a) - 2 bolts
4.7.10.2
Single Angle
(b) - 1 bolts

76 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2B.6 Design Parameters

Clause

Bold
Configuration

Leg

LEG
Parameter

short leg

3.0

long leg

7.0

short leg

2.0

long leg

6.0

long leg

1.0

short leg

5.0

long leg

0.0

short leg

4.0

(a) - 2 bolts

(b) - 1 bolts
4.7.10.3 Double
Angles
(c) - 2 bolts

(d) - 1 bolts
(a) - 2 or more rows of bolts

1.0

(b) - 1 row of bolts

0.0

(a) - 2 or more rows of bolts

1.0

(b) - 1 row of bolts

0.0

4.7.10.4 Channels

4.7.10.5 Tee Sections

The slenderness of single and double angle, channel and tee sections are specified in BS 5950
table 25 depending on the connection provided at the end of the member. To define the
appropriate connection, a LEG parameter should be assigned to the member.
The following list indicates the value of the LEG parameter required to match the BS5950
connection definition:
Clause 4.7.10.2 Single Angle:
a. 2 Bolts: Short leg = 1.0, Long Leg = 3.0
b. 1 Bolt: Short Leg = 0.0, Long Leg = 2.0
For single angles, the slenderness is calculated for the geometric axes, a-a and b-b as well as
the weak v-v axis. The effective lengths of the geometric axes are defined as:
La = KY * KY
Lb = KZ * LZ
The slenderness calculated for the v-v axis is then used to calculate the compression strength
p for the weaker principal axis (z-z for ST angles or y-y for RA specified angles). The
c
maximum slenderness of the a-a and b-b axes is used to calculate the compression strength
p for the stronger principal axis.
c

International Design Codes Manual 77

2B.6 Design Parameters

Alternatively for single angles where the connection is not known or Table 25 is not
appropriate, by setting the LEG parameter to 10, slenderness is calculated for the two
principal axes y-y and z-z only. The LVV parameter is not used.
For double angles, the LVV parameter is available to comply with note 5 in table 25. In
addition, if using double angles from user tables, (Technical Reference Manual section 5.19)
an eleventh value, r , should be supplied at the end of the ten existing values corresponding
vv
to the radius of gyration of the single angle making up the pair.
3. PY Steel Design Strength
The design parameter PY should only be used when a uniform design strength for an entire
structure or a portion thereof is required. Otherwise the value of PY will be set according to
the stipulations of BS5950 table 9 in which the design strength is seen as a function of cross
sectional thickness for a particular steel grade (SGR parameter) and particular element
considered. Generally speaking this option is not required and the program should be
allowed to ascertain the appropriate value.
4. UNL, LY, and LZ Relevant Effective Length
The values supplied for UNL, LY and LZ should be real numbers greater than zero in current
units of length. They are supplied along with or instead of UNF, KY and KZ (which are
factors, not lengths) to define lateral torsional buckling and compression effective lengths
respectively. Please note that both UNL or UNF and LY or KY values are required even
though they are often the same values. The former relates to compression flange restraint for
lateral torsional buckling while the latter is the unrestrained buckling length for
compression checks.
5. TRACK Control of Output Formats
When the TRACK parameter is set to 0.0, 1.0, or 2.0, member capacities will be printed in
design related output (code check or member selection) in kilonewtons per square meter.
TRACK 4.0 causes the design to carry out a deflection check, usually with a different load
list to the main code check. The members that are to be checked must have the parameters
DFF, DJ1, and DJ2 set.

6. MX, MY, MYX, and MLT Equivalent Moment Factors


The values for the equivalent moment factors can either be specified directly by the user as a
positive value between 0.4 and 1.0 for MX, MY and MYX and 0.44 and 1.0 for MLT.
The program can be used to calculate the values for the equivalent moment factors by
defining the design member with a GROUP command (see the Technical Reference Manual
section 5.16 Listing of Members/Elements/Joints by Specification of GROUPS). The nodes
along the beam can then be defined as the location of restraint points with J settings.

78 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2B.6 Design Parameters

Additionally for the MLT parameter, the joint can be defined as having the upper flange
restrained (positive local Y) with the a U setting or the lower flange restrained (negative
local Y) with a L setting.
For example, consider a series of 5 beam elements as a single continuous member as shown
below:

To enable the steel design, the beam needs to be defined as a group, called MainBeam:
START GROUP DEFINITION
MEMBER
_MainBeam 11 2 38 12 3
END GROUP DEFINITION

Note: This can be done in the User Interface by selecting Tools > Create New Group.
Therefore, this 5 beam member has 6 joints such that:
Joint 1 = Node 3
Joint 2 = Node 1
Joint 3 = Node 33
Joint 4 = Node 14
Joint 5 = Node 7
Joint 6 = Node 2
a. Consider MX, MY and MYX
Say that this member has been restrained in its major axis (local Y) only at the ends.
In the minor axis (local Z) it has been restrained at the ends and also at node number

International Design Codes Manual 79

2B.6 Design Parameters

33 (joint 3). For local flexural buckling, it has only been restrained at its ends.
Hence:
For the major axis, local Y axis:
MX _MainBeam J1 J6
For the minor axis, local Z axis:
MY _ MainBeam J1 J3 J6
For the lateral flexural buckling, local X axis:
MYX _ MainBeam J1 J6
b. Consider MLT
Say that this member has been restrained at its ends against lateral torsional buckling and
the top flange has been restrained at node number 33 (joint 3) and only the lower flange at
node number 7, (joint 5). Hence:
MLT _MainBeam J1 T3 L5 J6
To split the beam into two buckling lengths for L at joint 14:
y

MY _groupname J1 J4 J6
7. SWAY Sway Loadcase
This parameter is used to specify a load case that is to be treated as a sway load case in the
context of clause 4.8.3.3.4. This load case would be set up to represent the k
M
amp s
mentioned in this clause and the steel design module would add the forces from this load
case to the forces of the other load case it is designed for.
Note that the load case specified with this parameter will not be designed as a separate load
case. The following is the correct syntax for the parameter:
Parameter

Default Value

Description

Name
SWAY

(load case
number)

ALL
MEMBER (member list)
_(group name)

Example
SWAY 5 MEM 1 to 10
SWAY 6 _MainBeams

80 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2B.7 Design Operations

2B.7 Design Operations


STAAD contains a broad set of facilities for the design of structural members as individual
components of an analyzed structure. The member design facilities provide the user with the ability
to carry out a number of different design operations. These facilities may be used selectively in
accordance with the requirements of the design problem.
The operations to perform a design are:
l

Specify the load cases to be considered in the design; the default is all load cases.

Specify design parameter values, if different from the default values.

Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection along with the list of
members.

These operations may be repeated by the user any number of times depending upon the design
requirements.

2B.8 Code Checking


The purpose of code checking is to ascertain whether the provided section properties of the
members are adequate. The adequacy is checked as per BS5950. Code checking is done using the
forces and moments at specific sections of the members. If no sections are specified, the program
uses the start and end forces for code checking.
When code checking is selected, the program calculates and prints whether the members have
passed or failed the checks; the critical condition of BS5950 code (like any of the BS5950
specifications for compression, tension, shear, etc.); the value of the ratio of the critical condition
(overstressed for value more than 1.0 or any other specified RATIO value); the governing load case,
and the location (distance from the start of the member of forces in the member where the critical
condition occurs).
Code checking can be done with any type of steel section listed in Section 2B.4 or any of the user
defined sections as described in Section 1.7.3 of the Technical Reference Manual, except profiles
defined in GENERAL and ISECTION tables.
Note: PRISMATIC sections are also not acceptable steel sections for design per BS5950 in
STAAD.Pro.
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code Checking.
Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification of the Code
Checking command.

2B.9 Member Selection


STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified members. Once an analysis has been
performed, the program can select the most economical section, i.e., the lightest section, which

International Design Codes Manual 81

2B.10 Tabulated Results of Steel Design

fulfills the code requirements for the specified member. The section selected will be of the same
type section as originally designated for the member being designed. Member selection can also be
constrained by the parameters DMAX and DMIN, which limits the maximum and minimum depth
of the members.
Member selection can be performed with all the types of steel sections with the same limitations as
defined in section 2B.8 Code Checking.
Selection of members, whose properties are originally input from a user created table, will be
limited to sections in the user table.
Member selection cannot be performed on members whose section properties are input as prismatic
or as above limitations for code checking.
Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification of
the Member Selection command.

2B.10 Tabulated Results of Steel Design


For code checking or member selection, the program produces the results in a tabulated fashion.
The items in the output table are explained as follows:
MEMBER
refers to the member number for which the design is performed.
TABLE
refers to steel section name, which has been checked against the steel code or has been
selected.
RESULTS
prints whether the member has PASSED or FAILED. If the RESULT is FAIL, there will be
an asterisk (*) mark on front of the member.
CRITICAL COND
refers to the section of the BS5950 code which governs the design.
RATIO
prints the ratio of the actual stresses to allowable stresses for the critical condition.
Normally a value of 1.0 or less will mean the member has passed.
LOADING
provides the load case number, which governed the design

82 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2B.10 Tabulated Results of Steel Design

FX, MY, and MZ


provide the axial force, moment in local Y-axis and the moment in local z-axis
respectively. Although STAAD does consider all the member forces and moments (except
torsion) to perform design, only FX, MY and MZ are printed since they are the ones
which are of interest, in most cases.
LOCATION
specifies the actual distance from the start of the member to the section where design
forces govern.
TRACK
If the parameter TRACK is set to 1.0, the program will block out part of the table and will
print the allowable bending capacities in compression (MCY & MCZ) and reduced
moment capacities (MRY & MRZ), allowable axial capacity in compression (PC) and
tension (PT) and shear capacity (PV). TRACK 2.0 will produce the design results as
shown in section 2B.9.
An example of each TRACK setting follows:

2B.10.1 Example output for TRACK 0.0


MEMBER

TABLE

RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST UC305X305X118 PASS
BS-4.3.6
0.769
3
179.66 C
0.00
334.46
0.00

2B.10.2 Example output for TRACK 1.0


MEMBER

TABLE

RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST UC305X305X118 PASS
BS-4.3.6
0.769
3
179.66 C
0.00
334.46
0.00
|---------------------------------------------------------------------|
| CALCULATED CAPACITIES FOR MEMB
1 UNIT - kN,m SECTION CLASS 1 |
|MCZ= 519.4 MCY= 234.3 PC= 2455.9 PT=
0.0 MB= 435.0 PV= 600.1|
| BUCKLING CO-EFFICIENTS mLT = 1.00, mx = 1.00, my = 1.00, myx = 1.00 |
| PZ= 3975.00
FX/PZ =
0.05
MRZ= 516.9
MRY= 234.3
|
|---------------------------------------------------------------------|

2B.10.3 Example output for TRACK 2.0


MEMBER

TABLE

RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST UC305X305X118 PASS
BS-4.3.6
0.769
3
179.66 C
0.00
334.46
0.00
=======================================================================
MATERIAL DATA
Grade of steel
= S 275
Modulus of elasticity
= 210 kN/mm2
Design Strength (py)
= 265 N/mm2
SECTION PROPERTIES (units - cm)

International Design Codes Manual 83

2B.11 Plate Girders

Member Length =
600.00
Gross Area = 150.00 Net Area = 127.50 Eff. Area = 150.00
z-z axis
y-y axis
Moment of inertia
:
27700.004
9060.001
Plastic modulus
:
1960.000
895.000
Elastic modulus
:
1761.526
589.460
Effective modulus
:
1960.000
895.000
Shear Area
:
103.471
37.740
DESIGN DATA (units - kN,m)
BS5950-1/2000
Section Class
:
PLASTIC
Squash Load
:
3975.00
Axial force/Squash load :
0.045
z-z axis
y-y axis
Compression Capacity
:
3551.7
2455.9
Moment Capacity
:
519.4
234.3
Reduced Moment Capacity :
516.9
234.3
Shear Capacity
:
1645.2
600.1
BUCKLING CALCULATIONS (units - kN,m)
(axis nomenclature as per design code)
x-x axis
y-y axis
Slenderness
:
44.153
77.203
Radius of gyration (cm) :
13.589
7.772
Effective Length
:
6.000
6.000
LTB Moment Capacity (kNm) and LTB Length (m):
435.00,
6.000
LTB Coefficients & Associated Moments (kNm):
mLT =
1.00 :
mx =
1.00
: my =
1.00
: myx =
1.00
Mlt = 334.46 :
Mx = 334.46 : My =
0.00
:
My =
0.00
CRITICAL LOADS FOR EACH CLAUSE CHECK (units- kN,m):
CLAUSE
RATIO LOAD
FX
VY
VZ
MZ
MY
BS-4.2.3-(Y)
0.143
3
85.6
BS-4.3.6
0.769
3
85.6
334.5
BS-4.7
(C)
0.098
1
239.7
BS-4.8.3.2
0.647
3
179.7
85.6
0.0
334.5
0.0
BS-4.8.3.3.1
0.842
3
179.7
334.5
0.0
BS-4.8.3.3.2
0.842
3
179.7
334.5
0.0
ANNEX I.1
0.714
3
179.7
334.5
0.0
Torsion and deflections have not been considered in the design.

2B.11 Plate Girders


Sections will be considered for the Plate Girder checks (BS 5950 Section 4.4) if d/t > 70 for rolled
sections or d/t >62 for welded sections. The parameter SBLT should be used to identify sections
as rolled or welded; see the parameter list for more information.
If the plate girder has intermediate stiffeners, the spacing is set with the PNL parameter. These are
then used to check against the code clauses 4.4.3.2 - Minimum web thickness for serviceability
and 4.4.3.3 - Minimum web thickness to avoid compression flange buckling. The following
printout is then included if a TRACK 2.0 output is selected:
Shear Buckling check is required: Vb = 1070 kN : qw
= 118 N/mm2
d
= 900 mm :
t = 10 mm
: a = 200 mm : pyf = 275 N/mm2
BS-4.4.3.2 status = PASS
: BS-4.4.3.3 status = PASS

The section is then checked for shear buckling resistance using clause 4.4.5.2 - Simplified method
and the result is included in the ratio checks.

84 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2B.12 Composite Sections

2B.12 Composite Sections


Sections that have been defined as acting compositely with a concrete flange either from a standard
database section using the CM option, or from a modified user WIDE FLANGE database with the
additional composite parameters, cannot be designed with BS5950:2000.

2B.13 Design of Tapered Beams


Sections will be checked as tapered members provided that are defined either as a Tapered I section
or from a USERtable.
Example using a Tapered I section:
UNIT CM
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 TO 5 TAPERED 100 2.5 75 25 4 25 4

Example using a USER table:


START USER TABLE
TABLE 1
UNIT CM
ISECTION
1000mm_TAPER
100 2.5 75 25 4 25 4 0 0 0
750mm_TAPER
75 2.5 50 25 4 25 4 0 0 0
END

You must specify the effective length of unrestrained compression flange using the parameter UNL.
The program compares the resistance of members with the applied load effects, in accordance with
BS 5950-1:2000. Code checking is carried out for locations specified by the user via the SECTION
command or the BEAM parameter. The results are presented in a form of a PASS/FAIL identifier and
a RATIO of load effect to resistance for each member checked. The user may choose the degree of
detail in the output data by setting the TRACK parameter.
The beam is designed as other wide flange beams apart from the Lateral Torsional Buckling check
which is replaced by the Annex G.2.2. check.

2B.13.1 Design Equations


A beam defined with tapered properties as defined above will be checked as a regular wide flange
(e.g., UB or UC), except that the following is used in place of clause 4.3.6, the lateral torsional
buckling check.

2B.13.2 Check Moment for Taper Members as per clause G.2.2


The following criterion is checked at each defined check position in the length of the member
defined by the BEAM parameter.
Mxi Mbi (1 - Fc/Pc)

International Design Codes Manual 85

2B.13 Design of Tapered Beams

Where:
F is the longitudinal compression at the check location;
c

M is the buckling resistance moment M from 4.3.6 for an equivalent slenderness


bi
b
, see G.2.4.2, based on the appropriate modulus S, S , Z or Z of the cross-section
TB
eff
eff
at the point i considered;
M is the moment about the major axis acting at the point i considered;
xi

P is the compression resistance from 4.7.4 for a slenderness . , see G.2.3, based on
c
TC y
the properties of the minimum depth of cross-section within the segment length L

2B.13.3 G.2.3 Slenderness lTC


TC = y
Where:
2

1 + (2a / h s )

y=
2
2
1
+
(2
a
/
h
)
+
0.05(

/
x
)
s

0.5

= Ly /ry
Where:
a is the distance between the reference axis and the axis of restraint,
h is the distance between the shear centers of the flanges;
s

L is the length of the segment;


y

r is the radius of gyration for buckling about the minor axis;


y

x is the torsional index

2B.13.4 G.2.4.2 Equivalent slenderness ITB for tapered members


TB = cntt
Where, for a two-flange haunch:
4a / h s

vt =
2
2
1 + (2a / h s ) + 0.05( / x )

0.5

Where:
C is the taper factor, see G.2.5;

2B.13.5 G.2.5 Taper factor


For an I-section with D 1.2B and x 20, the taper factor, c, is as follows:

86 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2B.13 Design of Tapered Beams

c = 1+

3
x 9

D m ax
D m in

2/ 3

Where:
D
D

max
min

is the maximum depth of cross-section within the length Ly, see Figure G.3;
is the minimum depth of cross-section within the length Ly, see Figure G.3;

x is the torsional index of the minimum depth cross-section, see 4.3.6.8


Otherwise, c is taken as 1.0 (unity).

International Design Codes Manual 87

88 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2C.1 General Comments

2C. British Codes - Design per BS5400


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the British code BS 5400:Part 3:1982 Steel,
concrete and composite bridges Part 3. Code of practice for design of steel bridges and Amd No.
4051 and Amd No. 6488.
Design of members per BS 5400:Part 3:1982 requires the STAAD British Specialized Design Codes
SELECTCode Pack. It does not come as standard with British versions.

2C.1 General Comments


The British Standard, BS5400 adopts the limit state design philosophy and is applicable to steel,
concrete, and composite construction. The code is in ten parts covering various aspects of bridge
design. The implementation of part 3, Code of practice for design of steel bridges, in STAAD is
restricted in its scope to simply supported spans. It is assumed that the depth remains constant and
both construction and composite stages of steel I-Sections can be checked. The following sections
describe in more detail features of the design process currently available in STAAD.

2C.2 Shape Limitations


The capacity of sections could be limited by local buckling if the ratio of flange outstand to
thickness is large. In order to prevent this, the code sets limits to the ratio as per clause 9.3.2. In the
event of exceeding these limits, the design process will terminate with reference to the clause.

2C.3 Section Class


Sections are further defined as compact or noncompact. In the case of compact sections, the full
plastic moment capacity can be attained. In the case of noncompact sections, local buckling of
elements may occur prior to reaching the full moment capacity and for this reason the extreme
fibre stresses are limited to first yield. In STAAD, section types are determined as per clause 9.3.7
and the checks that follow will relate to the type of section considered.

2C.4 Moment Capacity


Lateral torsional buckling may occur if a member has unrestrained elements in compression. The
code deals with this effect by limiting the compressive stress to a value depending on the
slenderness parameter which is a modified form of the ratio Le/Ry. Le is the effective length
governed by the provision of lateral restraints satisfying the requirements of clause 9.12.1. Once the
allowable compressive stress is determined then the moment capacity appropriate to the section
type can be calculated. STAAD takes the effective length as that provided by the user, defaulting to
the length of the member during construction stage and as zero, assuming full restraint
throughout, for the composite stage. The program then proceeds to calculate the allowable
compressive stress based on appendix G7 from which the moment capacity is then determined.

International Design Codes Manual 89

2C.5 Shear Capacity

2C.5 Shear Capacity


The shear capacity, as outlined in clause is a function of the limiting shear strength, l, which is
dependant on the slenderness ratio. STAAD follows the iterative procedure of appendix G8 to
determine the limiting shear strength of the web panel. The shear capacity is then calculated based
on the formula given under clause 9.9.2.2.

2C.6 Design Parameters


Available design parameters to be used in conjunction with BS5400 are listed in table 2C.1.
Depending on the value assigned to the WET parameter, you can determine the stage under
consideration. For a composite design check, taking into consideration the construction stage, two
separate analyses are required. In the first, member properties are non-composite and the WET
parameter is set to 1.0 . In the second, member properties should be changed to composite and the
WET parameter set to 2.0. Member properties for composite or non-composite sections should be
specified from user provided tables (refer to section 5.19 of the manual for specification of user
tables). Rolled sections, composite or non-composite, come under WIDE FLANGE section-type and
built-up sections under ISECTION. When specifying composite properties the first parameter is
assigned a negative value and four additional parameters provided giving details of the concrete
section. See user table examples provided.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 2C.1-BS5400 Design Parameters
Parameter
Name

Default
Value

Description

Specify the criteria used for the design of compression


members with moments.

ESTIFF

0. Member passes if either Cl. 4.8.3.3.1 or Cl.


4.8.3.3.2 check.
1. Member passes if both Cl. 4.8.3.3.1 and Cl.
4.8.3.3.2 check.
KY

1.0

K value for bending about Y-axis. Usually this is


minor axis.

KZ

1.0

K value for bending about Z-axis. Usually this is


major axis.

LY

Member
Length

Length to calculate slenderness ratio for bending


about Y-axis, in current units of length.

LZ

Member
Length

Length to calculate slenderness ratio for bending


about Z-axis, in current units of length.

90 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2C.6 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name
MAIN

Default
Value
1.0

Description

Grade of concrete:
1. 30 N/mm2
2. 40 N/mm2
3. 50 N/mm2

NSF

1.0

Net section factor for tension members.

PY

Yield stress of steel.


Set according to Design Strength of steel SGR

RATIO
SBLT

1
0.0

Permissible ratio of actual to allowable stresses.


Steel
0.0 = Rolled Section
1.0 = Built up Section

SGR

0.0

Steel Grade per BS4360


0. Grade 43
1. Grade 50
2. Grade 55

TRACK

1.0

Used to control the level of detail in the output


0. Suppress all member capacities
1. Print all member capacities

UNL

Member
Length

WET

0.0

Unsupported length for calculating allowable


compressive bending stress, in current units of
length.
Used to specify the stage of construction.
0. Wet stage with no data saved for composite
stage
1. Wet stage with data saved for composite stage
2. Composite and wet stage combined
3. Composite stage only

International Design Codes Manual 91

2C.7 Composite Sections

2C.7 Composite Sections


The definition of composite sections has been provided for in the standard sections definition (refer
to Section 5.20.1 of the Technical Reference Manual for details). This is purely for analysis and for
obtaining the right section properties. It uses the American requirement of 18 times depth (CT) as
the effective depth. For more control with British sections two new options are available in user
provided tables.

2C.7.1 Wide Flange Composite


Using the standard definition of I sections in WIDE FLANGE, 4 additional values can now be
provided. The first is the width of concrete to the left of center of the steel web (b1). The second is
the concrete width to the right (b2). The third is the concrete depth (d1) to be considered. The last
is the modular ratio. The above values are accepted in the program by adding a '-' at the first
position on the first line of data. The program now awaits four extra values on line 2 as described
above. If (-) is provided on the second line the program requires another 2 breadths + 1 thickness
for the bottom plate.

2C.7.2 I Section
The same is true for ISECTION definition in user table.

2C.7.3 Example
UNIT CM
WIDE FLANGE
C45752
-66.5 44.98 .76 15.24 1.09 21345 645 21.3 34.185 33.223
150 150 30 10
ISECTION
PG9144
-92.05 2.15 92.05 42.05 3.66 42.05 3.66 197.9 153.9 1730
40 40 12 1

The larger British sections have been coded as USER TABLES under wide flange and are
available on request to any existing user. Please note however that composite design is not
available in this portion of STAAD.

92 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2D.1 Design Process

2D. British Codes - Design per BS8007


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the British code BS8007:1987 Design
of concrete structures for retaining aqueous liquids. It is recommended that the design of the
structure is carried out according to BS8110, unless modified by the recommendations given in
BS8007.
Design of members per BS8007:1987 requires the STAAD British Specialized Design Codes
SELECTCode Pack. It does not come as standard with British versions.
The information in this section is to be used in conjunction with the BS8110. See "British Codes Concrete Design per BS8110" on page 47

2D.1 Design Process


The design process is carried out in three stages.
1. Ultimate Limit States
The program is structured so that ultimate design is first carried out in accordance with
recommendations given in BS8110. All active design load cases are considered in turn and a
tabulated output is printed showing possible reinforcement arrangements. 12, 16, and 20 mm
bars are considered with possible spacings from 100,125,150,175, and 200 mm. Within these
spacings, the layout providing the closest area of steel is printed under each bar size.
Longitudinal and transverse moments together with critical load cases for both hogging and
sagging moments are also printed. Minimum reinforcement is in any case checked and
provided in each direction. Wood & Armer moments may also be included in the design.
2. Serviceability Limit States
In the second stage, flexural crack widths under serviceability load cases are calculated. The
first and every other occurring design load case is considered as a serviceability load case and
crack widths are calculated based on bar sizes and spacings proposed at the ultimate limit
state check.
Crack widths due to longitudinal and transverse moments are calculated directly under
bars, midway between and at corners. A tabulated output indicating critical serviceability
load cases and moments for top and bottom of the slab is then produced.
3. Thermal crack widths
Finally thermal, crack width calculations are carried out. Through available parameters, the user is
able to provide information on the type of slab, temperature range and crack width limits.
Surface zone depths are determined based on the type of slab and critical areas of reinforcements
are calculated and printed in a tabulated form.
Four bar sizes are considered and for each, max crack spacing, Smax and crack widths are calculated
for the critical reinforcements and printed under each bar size.
Maximum bar spacing to limit crack widths to the user's limit is also printed under each bar size.

International Design Codes Manual 93

2D.2 Design Parameters

2D.2 Design Parameters


The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform and control the design
to BS8007.
These parameters not only act as a method to input required data for code calculations but give the
Engineer control over the actual design process. Default values of commonly used values for
conventional design practice have been chosen as the basis. Table 2D.1 contains a complete list of
available parameters with their default values.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 2D.1-BS8007 Design Parameters
Parameter Default
Name
Value

Description

FC

30
N/mm 2

Concrete grade, in current units of length and force.

CLEAR

20 mm

Distance from the outer surface to the edge of the bar,


in current units of length. This is considered the
same on both surfaces.

0.0

Orthogonal reinforcement layout without considering


torsional moment Mxy - slabs on -500.
orthogonal reinforcement layout with Mxy used to
calculate Wood & Armer moments for design.

SRA

A* Skew angle considered in Wood & Armer


equations. A* is any angle in degrees.
SCON

Parameter which indicates the type of slab ee. ground


or suspended as defined in BS8007
1 = Suspended Slab
2 = Ground Slab

TEMP

CRACK *

30C

0.2 mm

Temperature range to be considered in thermal crack


width calculations
Limiting thermal crack width, in current units of
length.

* Provided in current unit systems

94 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2D.3 Structural Model

2D.3 Structural Model


Structural slabs that are to be designed to BS8007 must be modeled using finite elements. Refer to
Section 1.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for information on the sign convention used in the
program for defining elements
It is recommended to connect elements in such a way that the positive local z axis points outwards
away, from the center of the container. In this manner the "Top" of elements will consistently fall
on the outer surface and internal pressure loads will act in the positive direction of the local z axis.
An example of a rectangular tank is provided to demonstrate the above procedure.
Element properties are based on the thickness given under ELEMENT PROPERTIES command. The
following example demonstrates the required input for a 300 mm slab modeled with ten elements.
UNIT MM
ELEMENT PROPERTIES
1 TO 10 THI 300.0

2D.4 Wood & Armer Moments


This is controlled by the SRA parameter. If the default value of zero is used, the design will be based
on the Mx and My moments which are the direct results of STAAD analysis. The SRA parameter
(Set Reinforcement Angle) can be manipulated to introduce Wood & Armer moments into the
design replacing the pure Mx, My moments. These new design moments allow the Mxy moment to
be considered when designing the section. Orthogonal or skew reinforcement may be considered.
SRA set to -500 will assume an orthogonal layout. If however a skew is to be considered, an angle is
given in degrees, measured between the local element x axis anti-clockwise (positive). The resulting
Mx* and My* moments are calculated and shown in the design format.

International Design Codes Manual 95

96 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2E.1 Cross-Sectional Properties

2E. British Codes - Design per British Cold Formed Steel


Code
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the British code BS 5950-5:1998
Structural use of steelwork in building - Part 5: Code of practice for design of cold formed thin
gauge sections . The program allows design of single (non-composite) members in tension,
compression, bending, shear, as well as their combinations. Cold work of forming strengthening
effects have been included as an option.
Design of members per BS 5950-1:2000 requires the STAAD British Std Design Codes SELECTCode
Pack.

2E.1 Cross-Sectional Properties


The user specifies the geometry of the cross-section by selecting one of the section shape
designations from the Gross Section Property Tables published in the The Steel Construction
Institute, (Design of Structures using Cold Formed Steel Sections).
The Tables are currently available for the following shapes:
l

Channel with Lips

Channel without Lips

Z with Lips

Pipe

Tube

Shape assignment may be done using the General |Property page of the graphical user interface
(GUI) or by specifying the section designation symbol in the input file.
The properties listed in the tables are gross section properties. STAAD.Pro uses unreduced section
properties in the structure analysis stage. Both unreduced and effective section properties are used
in the design stage, as applicable.

2E.2 Design Procedure


The following two design modes are available:

2E.2.1 Code Checking


The program compares the resistance of members with the applied load effects, in accordance with
BS 5950-5:1998. Code checking is carried out for locations specified by the user via the SECTION
command or the BEAM parameter. The results are presented in a form of a PASS/FAIL identifier

International Design Codes Manual 97

2E.3 Design Equations

and a RATIO of load effect to resistance for each member checked. The user may choose the degree
of detail in the output data by setting the TRACK parameter.
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code Checking.
Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification of the Code
Checking command.

2E.2.2 Member Selection


The user may request that the program search the cold formed steel shapes database (BS standard
sections) for alternative members that pass the code check and meet the least weight criterion. In
addition, a minimum and/or maximum acceptable depth of the member may be specified. The
program will then evaluate all database sections of the type initially specified (i.e., channel, angle,
etc.) and, if a suitable replacement is found, presents design results for that section. If no section
satisfying the depth restrictions or lighter than the initial one can be found, the program leaves the
member unchanged, regardless of whether it passes the code check or not.
Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification of
the Member Selection command.
The program calculates effective section properties in accordance with Section 4 of the subject code.
Cross-sectional properties and overall slenderness of members are checked for compliance with:
l

Clause 6.2.2, Maximum Effective Slenderness Ratio for members in Compression

Clause 4.2, Maximum Flat Width Ratios for Elements in Compression

2E.3 Design Equations


2E.3.1 Tensile Strength
The allowable tensile strength, as calculated in STAAD as per BS5950-5, section 7 is described
below.
The tensile strength, P of the member should be determined from clause 7.2.1
t

Pt = Aepy
Where:
A is the net area An determined in accordance with cl.3.5.4
e

p is the design strength


y

98 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2E.3 Design Equations

2E.3.2 Combined bending and tension


As per clause 7.3 of BS 5950-5:1998 members subjected to both axial tension and bending should be
proportioned such that the following relationships are satisfied at the ultimate limit state
Ft/Pt +Mz/Mcz +My /Mcy 1
Mz/Mcz 1
and
My /Mcy 1
Where
F is the applies tensile strength
t

P is the tensile capacity determined in accordance with clause 7.2.1 of the subject code
t

M ,M ,M ,M
z

cz

cy

are as defined in clause 6.4.2 of the subject code

2E.3.3 Compressive Strength


The allowable Compressive strength, as calculated in STAAD as per BS5950-5, section 6 is described
below
For sections symmetrical about both principal axes or closed cross-sections which are not subjected
to torsional flexural buckling, the buckling resistance under axial load, Pc, may be obtained from
the following equation as per clause 6.2.3 of the subject code
PEPcs

Pc =
+

PEPcs

For Sections symmetrical about a single axis and which are not subject to torsional flexural
buckling, the buckling resistance under axial load, Pc, may be obtained from the following
equation as per clause 6.2.4 of the subject code
P c =

M c Pc
(M c + Pce s )

Where the meanings of the symbols used are indicated in the subject clauses.

2E.3.4 Torsional flexural buckling


Design of the members which have at least one axis of symmetry, and which are subject to torsional
flexural buckling should be done according to the stipulations of the clause 6.3.2 using factored
slenderness ratio LE/r in place of actual slenderness ratio while reading Table 10 for the value of
Compressive strength(p ).
c

Where:

International Design Codes Manual 99

2E.3 Design Equations

= (PE/PTF) when PE >PTF


= 1, otherwise
Where the meanings of the symbols used are indicated in the subject clause.

2E.3.5 Combined bending and compression


Members subjected to both axial compression and bending should be checked for local capacity and
overall buckling
Local capacity check as per clause 6.4.2 of the subject code
Fc/Pcs +Mz/Mcz +My /Mcy 1

2E.3.6 Overall buckling check as per clause 6.4.3 of the subject code
For Beams not subjected to lateral buckling, the following relationship should be satisfied
Fc
Pc

Mz

C bxM cz 1

Fc
P Ez

My
F

C byM cy 1 c
P Ey

For Beams subjected to lateral buckling, the following relationship should be satisfied
Fc
Pc

Mz
Mb

My
F

C byM cy 1 c
P
Ey

F is the applied axial load


c

P is the short strut capacity as per clause 6.2.3


cs

M is the applied bending moment about z axis


z

M is the applied bending moment about y axis


y

M is the moment capacity in bending about the local Z axis in the absence of F and
cz
c
M , as per clause 5.2.2 and 5.6
y

M is the moment capacity in bending about the local Y axis, in the absence of F and
cy
c
M ,as per clause 5.2.2 and 5.6
z

M- is the lateral buckling resistance moment as per clause 5.6.2


b

P is the flexural buckling load in compression for bending about the local Z axis
Ez

P is the flexural buckling load in compression for bending about the local Y axis
Ey

C ,C
bz

by

are taken as unity unless their values are specified by the user

M , M , and M are calculated from clause numbers 5.2.2 and 5.6 in the manner described herein
cz
cy
b
below.

100 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2E.3 Design Equations

2E.3.7 Calculation of moment capacities


For restrained beams, the applied moment based on factored loads should not be greater then the
bending moment resistance of the section, M
c

Mcz = Szz x po
Mcy = Syy x po
D

po = 1.13 0.0019 w
t

Ys
280

p y

Where
M is the Moment resistance of the section in z axis
cz

M is the Moment resistance of the section in z axis


cz

p is the limiting stress for bending elements under stress gradient and should not
o
greater then design strength p
y

For unrestrained beams the applied moment based on factored loads should not be greater than
the smaller of the bending moment resistance of the section , M , and the buckling resistance
c
moment of the beam, M
b

Then buckling resistance moment, M may be calculated as follows


b,

ME M y

Mb =
B +

Mc

B ME M y

B = [My +(1 +)ME]/2


M is the yield moment of the section , product of design strength p and elastic
Y
y
modules of the gross section with respect to the compression flange Zc
M is the elastic lateral buckling resistance as per clause 5.6.2.2
E

is the Perry coefficient


Please refer clause numbers 5.2.2 and 5.6 of the subject code for a detailed discussion regarding the
parameters used in the abovementioned equations.

2E.3.8 Shear Strength


The maximum shear stress should not be greater then 0.7 p as per clause 5.4.2
y

The average shear stress should not exceed the lesser of the shear yield strength, p or the shear
v
buckling strength, q as stipulated in clause 5.4.3 of the subject code.
cr

The parameters are calculated as follows :


pv = 0.6py

International Design Codes Manual 101

2E.4 Design Parameters

qcr = (1000t/D)2 N/mm2


Pv = Amin(pv , qcr)
Where:
P is the shear capacity in N/mm 2
v

p is the design strength in N/mm 2


y

t is the web thickness in mm


D is the web depth in mm

2E.3.9 Combined bending and Shear


For beam webs subjected to both bending and shear stresses the member should be designed to
satisfy the following relationship as per the stipulations of clause 5.5.2 of the subject code
(Fv /Pv )2 + (M/Mc)2 1
Where:
F is the shear force
v

M is the bending moment acting at the same section as F

M is the moment capacity determined in accordance with 5.2.2


c

2E.4 Design Parameters


The design parameters outlined in Table 2E.1 are used to control the design procedure. These
parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus allow the
engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs.
The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for
conventional design. Depending on the particular design requirements, some or all of these
parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 2E.1-British Cold Formed Steel Design Parameters
Parameter Name
CODE

Default Value
BS5950 COLD

Description
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the
Technical Reference Manual.

102 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2E.4 Design Parameters

Parameter Name

Default Value

Description

BEAM

1.0

When this parameter is set to


1.0 (default), the adequacy of
the member is determined by
checking a total of 13 equally
spaced locations along the
length of the member. If the
BEAM value is 0.0, the 13
location check is not
conducted, and instead,
checking is done only at the
locations specified by the
SECTION command (See
STAAD manual for details. For
TRUSS members only start and
end locations are designed.

CMZ

1.0

Coefficient of equivalent
uniform bending C . See
b
BS:5950-5:1998,5.6. Used for
Combined axial load and
bending design.

CMY

1.0

Coefficient of equivalent
uniform bending C . See
b
BS:5950-5:1998,5.6. Used for
Combined axial load and
bending design.

CWY

1.0

Specifies whether the cold


work of forming strengthening
effect should be included in
resistance computation. See
BS:5950-5:1998,3.4
0 effect should
not be included
1 effect should
be included

International Design Codes Manual 103

2E.4 Design Parameters

Parameter Name
FLX

Default Value

Description

Specifies whether torsionalflexural buckling restraint is


provided or is not necessary for
the member. See BS:59505:1998, 5.6
Values:
0 Section
subject to
torsional flexural
buckling
1 Section not
subject to
torsional flexural
buckling

FU

430 MPa

Ultimate tensile strength of


steel in current units.

FYLD

250 MPa

Yield strength of steel in


current units.

KX

1.0

Effective length factor for


torsional buckling. It is a
fraction and is unit-less. Values
can range from 0.01 (for a
column completely prevented
from buckling) to any user
specified large value. It is used
to compute the KL/R ratio for
twisting for determining the
capacity in axial compression.

KY

1.0

Effective length factor for


overall buckling about the local
Y-axis. It is a fraction and is
unit-less. Values can range
from 0.01 (for a column
completely prevented from
buckling) to any user specified
large value. It is used to
compute the KL/R ratio for
determining the capacity in
axial compression.

104 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2E.4 Design Parameters

Parameter Name

Default Value

Description

KZ

1.0

Effective length factor for


overall buckling in the local Zaxis. It is a fraction and is unitless. Values can range from 0.01
(for a member completely
prevented from buckling) to
any user specified large value. It
is used to compute the KL/R
ratio for determining the
capacity in axial compression.

LX

Member length

Unbraced length for twisting.


It is input in the current units
of length. Values can range
from 0.01 (for a member
completely prevented from
torsional buckling) to any user
specified large value. It is used
to compute the KL/R ratio for
twisting for determining the
capacity in axial compression.

LY

Member length

Effective length for overall


buckling in the local Y-axis. It
is input in the current units of
length. Values can range from
0.01 (for a member completely
prevented from buckling) to
any user specified large value. It
is used to compute the KL/R
ratio for determining the
capacity in axial compression.

LZ

Member length

Effective length for overall


buckling in the local Z-axis. It
is input in the current units of
length. Values can range from
0.01 (for a member completely
prevented from buckling) to
any user specified large value. It
is used to compute the KL/R
ratio for determining the
capacity in axial compression.

International Design Codes Manual 105

2E.4 Design Parameters

Parameter Name
MAIN

Default Value
0

Description
Specify the design for
slenderness against the
maximum slenderness as per
Clause 6.2.2:
0 Do not check
slenderness ratio
1 Check
members
resisting normal
loads (180)
2 - Check
members
resisting selfweight and wind
loads (250)
3 - Check
members
resisting reversal
of stress (350)

NSF

DMAX

1.0

2540.0
cm.

RATIO

106 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1.0

Net section factor for tension


members
Maximum allowable depth. It
is input in the current units of
length.
Permissible ratio of actual to
allowable stresses

2E.5 Verification Problem

Parameter Name

Default Value

Description

This parameter is used to


control the level of detail in
which the design output is
reported in the output file. The
allowable values are:

TRACK

0 - Prints only
the member
number, section
name, ratio, and
PASS/FAIL status.
1 - Prints the
design summary
in addition to
that printed by
TRACK 1
2 - Prints
member and
material
properties in
addition to that
printed by
TRACK 2.

2E.5 Verification Problem


Shown below is a verification example for reference purposes.
In this problem, we have assigned Channel sections with lips to different members. Member
numbers 28 to 31 have been assigned section 230CLHS66X16,member numbers 3 TO 6 and 15 TO 19
have been assigned the section 230CLMIL70X30 and member numbers 1, 2, 7 TO 14 have been
assigned the section 170CLHS56X18. These members have been designed as per BS 5950 Part 5.
Other sections have been assigned from the AISI shapes database (American cold-formed steel)
and designed in accordance with that code.

2E.5.1 Solution
A. Bending Check
As per Clause 5.2.2.2 of BS 5950 Part 5 the limiting compressive
stress, p , for stiffened webs is given by the minimum of
o

International Design Codes Manual 107

2E.5 Verification Problem

po = 1.13 0.0019 w
t

Ys
280

p y

p0 = Py, where Py = Min (FYLD, 0.84FU) = 361.2 N/mm2


So that
p0 = [1.13 - 0.0019(170/1.8)(279.212/280)1/2 ]361.2 = 332.727 N/mm2
The limiting compressive moments in local Y and Z axes will be given by
Mcz = Szzpo = 27,632.4(332.727) = 9.19(10)6 Nmm
Mcy = Syy po = 27,632.4(5,427.50) = 3.46(10)6 Nmm
Maximum bending moment about local Z = 2159 Nm at node 7
Maximum bending moment about local Y = 19.755 Nm at node 7
Bending Ratio Z = 2.15 X106 / 9.19 X106 = 0.235
Bending Ratio Y = 19755.3 / 3.46 X106 = 0.0057
Biaxial Bending ratio = 0.235 +0.0057 = 0.2407
Buckling resistance moment M

As per section 5.6.2, the buckling resistance moment


ME M y

Mb =
B +

Mc

B ME M y

Where:
The Yield moment of section is given by
MY = Szz po = 9.19(10)6 Nmm
The elastic buckling resistance moment as per clause 5.6.2.2 is calculated to be
ME = 4.649(10)6 Nmm
And
B = [My +(1 +)ME]/2
So that
B = [9.19(10)6 + (1 +0.0)4.649(10)6 ]/2 = 2.325(10)10
Which yields
6

4.649(10) 9.19(10)

Mb =
10

2.325(10) +

B. Compression Check

108 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

10

= 9.98(10)6N mm

2.325(10)
4.649(10) 9.19(10)

2E.5 Verification Problem

The Axial force induced in member# 1 is 3,436.75 N


The elastic flexural buckling load P = 1.185(10)6 N
E

The short strut capacity (Pcs ) is given by


Aeffpy = 457.698(344) = 157,448 N
Perry Coefficient () = 0.02074
= [Pcs +(1 +)PE]/2 = 683,512.45 N
Buckling resistance
PEPcs

Pc =

= 153, 782N

PEPcs

For Channel section (being singly symmetric), Buckling Resistance as per clause 6.2.4 is
P c =

M c Pc
(M c + Pce s )

Where:
The limiting compressive moment, M , in the relevant directionis equal to 9.19(10)6
c
Nmm,as calculated above
And the distance, e , of the geometric neutral axis of the gross cross section and that of the
s
effective cross section is equal to 38.24 m
So that,
6

P c =

9.19(10) 153, 782


9.19(10)6 + 153, 782 38.24

= 93, 788.7N

Compression ratio = 3,436.75/93,788.7 = 0.0366


C. Axial Compression and Bending
Fc
Pc

Mz
Mb

My
F

C byM cy 1 c
P Ey

3,436.75/93,788.7 +2.15(10)6/(9.98(10)6 ) +19,755.3/[1.0 *3.46(10)6(1 - 3,436.75/1.185(10)6 )] =


0.2578
Local capacity check as per clause 6.4.2
Fc
Pcs

Mz
M cz

My
M cy

3, 436.75
457.698(379.212)

2.15(10)

9.19(10)

19, 755.3
1.81(10)6

= 0.2647

Overall buckling check per 6.4.3

International Design Codes Manual 109

2E.5 Verification Problem

Fc
Pc

Mz

C bxM cz 1

Fc
P Ez

My
F

C byM cy 1 c
P
Ey

= 0.2773
D. Shear Check as per clause 5.4.2 and 5.4.3
pv = 0.6py = 0.6(379.212) = 227.52 N/mm2
qcr = (1000t/D)2 = (10001.8/170)2 = 112.11 N/mm2
Pv = Amin(pv , qcr)
Shear resistance Y = 33,579.4 N
Shear resistance Z = 21,148.6 N
Shear Ratio Y = 5,627.72/33,579.4 = 0.1675
Shear Ratio Z = 5,627.72/21,148.6 = 0.0031
E. Shear Check with Bending as per clause 5.5.2
Shear with bending on Z
(Fv /Pv )2 + (Mz/Mcz)2 = (5,627.72/33,579.4)2 +[2.15106 /(9.19106 )]2 = 0.08327
Shear with bending on Y
(Fv /Pv )2 + (My /Mcy )2 = (67.114/21,148.6)2 +[19,755.3/(3.46106 )]2 = 0.000043

2E.5.2 Comparison
Table 2E.2-Comparison for verification problem
Criteria

STAAD.ProResult

Hand
Difference
Calculation

Axial compression ratio

0.037

0.0366

none

Axial compression and


bending interaction ratio
(overall buckling)

0.278

0.2773

none

Bending Z ratio

0.236

0.235

none

Bending Y ratio

0.006

0.0057

none

Biaxial bending ratio

0.2407

0.241

none

Shear Z ratio

0.168

0.1675

none

Shear Y ratio

0.003

0.0031

none

110 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2E.5 Verification Problem

Criteria

STAAD.ProResult

Hand
Difference
Calculation

Bending Z and Shear Y


interaction ratio

0.084

0.08327

none

Bending Y and Shear Z


interaction ratio

0.000

0.000043

none

2E.5.3 Input File


STAAD SPACE
SET ECHO OFF
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT FEET KIP
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 5 0; 2 0 5 10; 3 10 5 0; 4 10 5 10; 5 5 5 0; 6 5 5 10; 7 0 5 2; 8 0 5 4;
9 0 5 6; 10 0 5 8; 11 10 5 2; 12 10 5 4; 13 10 5 6; 14 10 5 8; 15 5 5 2;
16 5 5 4; 17 5 5 6; 18 5 5 8; 19 10 0 0; 20 10 0 10; 21 0 0 10; 22 0 0 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 7; 2 3 11; 3 1 5; 4 2 6; 5 5 3; 6 6 4; 7 7 8; 8 8 9; 9 9 10; 10 10 2;
11 11 12; 12 12 13; 13 13 14; 14 14 4; 15 5 15; 16 15 16; 17 16 17; 18 17 18;
19 18 6; 20 7 15; 21 15 11; 22 8 16; 23 16 12; 24 9 17; 25 17 13; 26 10 18;
27 18 14; 28 1 22; 29 2 21; 30 3 19; 31 4 20; 32 1 21; 33 21 4; 34 4 19;
35 19 1; 36 2 20; 37 20 3; 38 3 22; 39 22 2;
MEMBER PROPERTY COLDFORMED AMERICAN
32 TO 39 TABLE ST 3LU3X060
20 TO 27 TABLE ST 3HU3X075
MEMBER PROPERTY COLDFORMED BRITISH
28 TO 31 TABLE ST 230CLHS66X16
3 TO 6 15 TO 19 TABLE ST 230CLMIL70X30
1 2 7 TO 14 TABLE ST 170CLHS56X18
UNIT MMS
PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES LIST 32 20 28 3 1
SUPPORTS
19 TO 22 PINNED
UNIT FEET
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC STEEL
E 4.176e+006
POISSON 0.3
DENSITY 0.489024
ALPHA 6.5e-006
DAMP 0.03
END DEFINE MATERIAL
CONSTANTS
BETA 90 MEMB 20 TO 27
MATERIAL STEEL MEMB 1 TO 39
MEMBER TENSION
32 TO 39
UNIT FEET KIP
LOAD 1 VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL
MEMBER LOAD
3 TO 6 20 TO 27 UNI GY -0.3 0 5
JOINT LOAD
1 2 FX 0.6
2 4 FZ -0.6
PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT STATICS CHECK
UNIT KGS CM
PRINT JOINT DISP LIST 1 4 16
PRINT SUPPORT REACTIONS

International Design Codes Manual 111

2E.5 Verification Problem

PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 3 24 28


UNIT KIP INCH
PARAMETER 1
CODE AISI
FYLD 55 ALL
CWY 1 ALL
BEAM 1 ALL
TRACK 2 ALL
CHECK CODE MEMB 20 21
PARAMETER 2
CODE BS5950 COLD
TRACK 2 MEMB 1 TO 19 28 TO 31
CHECK CODE MEMB 1 2
FINISH

2E.5.4 Output
The excerpts from the design output for member number 1 are as follows:
STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING - (BS5950-5-v1.1)
***********************
UNITS : MM, KN, KNM, MPA
------------------------------------------------------------------------------| MEMBER#
1 SECTION: 170CLHS56X18
LEN:
609.60 LOCATION:
609.60 |
| STATUS: PASS RATIO = 0.278 GOV.MODE: 6.4-Bend + Compress GOV.LOAD:
1
|
|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
MATERIAL DATA:
Yield strength of steel
:
379.21 N/mm2
Ultimate tensile strength
:
430.00 N/mm2
SECTION PROPERTIES:(units - cm)
Section Name
:
170CLHS56X18
Member Length
:
60.96
Gross Area(Ag)
:
5.45
Net Area (Ae):
4.58
z-z axis
y-y axis
Moment of inertia (I)
:
237.27
21.93
Moment of inertia (Ie)
:
235.46
19.42
Elastic modulus (Zet)
:
27.85
5.20
Elastic modulus (Zec)
:
27.55
10.42
DESIGN DATA:
z-z axis
y-y axis
Compression Capacity (Pc) :
93.70
Moment Capacity (Mc)
:
9.17
3.47
Shear Capacity (Pv)
:
21.00
33.50
LTB Capacity (Mb)
:
9.17
EACH CLAUSE CHECK UNDER CRITICAL LOAD :
CLAUSE
COMBINATION
RATIO
BS-6.3
Compression ratio - Axial
0.037
BS-6.4
Bend-Compression ratio
0.278
BS-5.1
Bending Ratio - Z
0.236
BS-5.1
Bending Ratio - Y
0.006
BS-5.1
Biaxial Bending Ratio
0.241
BS-5.4
Shear Ratio - Z
0.168
BS-5.4
Shear Ratio - Y
0.003
BS-5.5.2
Bending -Z & Shear - Y Ratio
0.084
BS-5.5.2
Bending -Y & Shear - Z Ratio
0.000
Torsion and deflections have not been considered in the design.

112 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3
Canadian Codes

International Design Codes Manual 113

3 Canadian Codes

114 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design

3A. Canadian Codes - Concrete Design per CSA Standard


A23.3-94
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the Candadian code CSAA23.3 1994
Design of Concrete Structures. Given the width and depth (or diameter for circular columns) of a
section, the program will calculate the required reinforcement to resist the forces and moments.
Design of members per CSAA23.3 1994 requires the STAAD CAN/AUS/SA Design Codes
SELECTCode Pack.

3A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design


The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed.
l

For Beams - Prismatic (Rectangular, Square & Tee)

For Columns - Prismatic (Rectangular, Square and Circular)

For Slabs - 4-noded Plate Elements

3A.2 Member Dimensions


Concrete members that are to be designed by STAAD must have certain section properties input
under the MEMBER PROPERTIES command. The following example demonstrates the required
input:
UNIT MM
MEMBER PROPERTIES
1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. ZD 300.
11 14 PR YD 300.

In the above input, the first set of members are rectangular (450mm depth and 300mm width) and
the second set of members, with only depth and no width provided, will be assumed to be circular
with a 300mm diameter

3A.3 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations


STAAD provides the user with two methods of accounting for the slenderness effect in the analysis
and design of concrete members. The first method is equivalent to the procedure presented in CSA
STANDARD A23.3-94 Clause 10.13. STAAD accounts for the secondary moments, due to axial loads
and deflections, when the PDELTA ANALYSIS command is used. After solving for the joint
displacements of the structure, the program calculates the additional moments induced in the
structure due to the P-Delta effect. Therefore, by performing a P-Delta analysis, member forces are
calculated which will require no user modification before beginning member design. Refer to
Section 5.37.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional details on this analysis facility.

International Design Codes Manual 115

3A.4 Design Parameters

The second method by which STAAD allows the user to account for the slenderness effect is
through user supplied moment magnification factors (see the parameter MMAG in Table 3A.1). Here
the user approximates the additional moment by supplying a factor by which moments will be
multiplied before beginning member design. This second procedure allows slenderness to be
considered in accordance with Clause 10.14 of the code.
Note: STAAD does not factor loads automatically for concrete design. All the proper factored
loads must be provided by the user before the ANALYSIS specification.
While performing a P-Delta analysis, all load cases must be defined as primary load cases. If the
effects of separate load cases are to be combined, it should be done either by using the REPEAT
LOAD command or by specifying the load information of these individual loading cases under one
single load case. Usage of the LOAD COMBINATION command will yield incorrect results for P-Delta
Analysis in STAAD.Pro.

3A.4 Design Parameters


The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform design per CSA
STANDARD A23.3-94. These parameters not only act as a method to input required data for code
calculations but give the engineer control over the actual design process. Default values, which are
commonly used numbers in conventional design practice, have been used for simplicity. Table 3A.1
contains a list of available parameters and their default values. It is necessary to declare length and
force units as Millimeter and Newton before performing the concrete design.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 3A.1-Canadian Concrete Design CSA-A23.3-94 Parameters
Parameter
Name

Default
Value

Description

CLB

40mm

Clear cover to reinforcing bar at bottom of cross


section.

CLS

40mm

Clear cover to reinforcing bar along the side of


the cross section.

CLT

40mm

Clear cover to reinforcing bar at top of cross


section.

YD

Depth of the concrete member. This value


defaults to YD as provided under MEMBER
PROPERTIES.

DEPTH

116 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3A.4 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name
EFACE

Default
Value
0.0 Face of
Support

Description

Distance of face of support from end node of


beam. Used for shear and torsion calculation.
Note: Both SFACE & EFACE must be positive
numbers.

FC

30 N/mm 2

Specified compressive strength of concrete.

FYMAIN

400N/mm 2

Yield Stress for main reinforcing steel.

FYSEC

400 N/mm 2

Yield Stress for secondary reinforcing steel.

MAXMAIN

Number 55
bar

Maximum main reinforcement bar size.

MINMAIN

Number 10
bar

Minimum main reinforcement bar size

MINSEC

Number 10
bar

Minimum secondary (stirrup) reinforcement bar


size.

MMAG

1.0

A factor by which the column design moments


will be magnified.

NSE
CTION

12

Number of equally-spaced sections to be


considered in finding critical moments for beam
design.

REINF

0.0

Tied Column. A value of 1.0 will mean spiral.

SFACE

0.0

Distance of face of support from start node of


beam. Used for shear and torsion calculation.
Note: Both SFACE & EFACE must be positive
numbers.

TRACK

0.0

0. Critical Moment will not be printed out


with beam design report.
1. Moments will be printed.

WIDTH

ZD

Width of the concrete member. This value


defaults to ZD as provided under MEMBER
PROPERTIES.

International Design Codes Manual 117

3A.5 Beam Design

3A.5 Beam Design


Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. For all these forces, all active beam loadings are
scanned to create moment and shear envelopes, and locate critical sections. The total number of
sections considered is thirteen (start, end, and 11 intermediate), unless that number is redefined
with the NSECTION parameter.

3A.5.1 Design for Flexure


Design for flexure is performed per the rules of Chapter 10 of CSA Standard A23.3-94. Maximum
sagging (creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the beam) and hogging (creating tensile stress
at the top face) moments are calculated for all active load cases at each of the thirteen sections.
Each of these sections are designed to resist the critical sagging and hogging moments. Currently,
design of singly reinforced sections only is permitted. If the section dimensions are inadequate as a
singly reinforced section, such a message will be printed in the output. Flexural design of beams is
performed in two passes. In the first pass, effective depths of the sections are determined with the
assumption of single layer of assumed reinforcement and reinforcement requirements are
calculated. After the preliminary design, reinforcing bars are chosen from the internal database in
single or multiple layers. The entire flexure design is performed again in a second pass taking into
account the changed effective depths of sections calculated on the basis of reinforcement provided
after the preliminary design. Final provision of flexural reinforcements are made then. Efforts have
been made to meet the guideline for the curtailment of reinforcements as per CSA Standard A23.394. Although exact curtailment lengths are not mentioned explicitly in the design output (which
finally will be more or less guided by the detailer taking into account other practical
considerations), the user has the choice of printing reinforcements provided by STAAD at 13 equally
spaced sections from which the final detailed drawing can be prepared.
The following annotations apply to the output for Beam Design.
LEVEL
Serial number of bar level which may contain one or more bar group.
HEIGHT
Height of bar level from the bottom of beam.
BAR INFOrmation
Reinforcement bar information specifying number of bars and size.
FROM
Distance from the start of the beam to the start of the rebar.
TO
Distance from the start of the beam to the end of the rebar.

118 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3A.6 Column Design

ANCHOR
(STA,END)
States whether anchorage, either a hook or continuation, is needed at start (STA) or at
the end (END) of the bar.

3A.5.2 Design for Shear and Torsion


Design for shear and torsion is performed per the rules of Chapter 11 of CSA Standard A23.3-94.
Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments. Shear design is
performed at the start and end sections. The location along the member span for design is chosen
as the effective depth + SFACE at the start, and effective depth + EFACE at the end. The load case
which gives rise to the highest stirrup area for shear & torsion is chosen as the critical one. The
calculations are performed assuming 2-legged stirrups will be provided. The additional longitudinal
steel area required for torsion is reported.
The stirrups are assumed to be U-shaped for beams with no torsion, and closed hoops for beams
subjected to torsion.

3A.5.3 Example of Input


Example of Input Data for Beam Design
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE CANADA
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FYSEC 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLEAR 25 MEMB 2 TO 6
MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6
TRACK 1.0 MEMB 2 TO 9
DESIGN BEAM 2 TO 9
END CONCRETE DESIGN

3A.6 Column Design


Column design is performed per the rules of Chapters 7 & 8 of the CSA Standard A23.3-94.
Columns are designed for axial force and biaxial moments at the ends. All active loadings are tested
to calculate reinforcement. The loading which produces maximum reinforcement is called the
critical load. Column design is done for square, rectangular and circular sections. For rectangular
and square sections, the reinforcement is always assumed to be equally distributed on each side.
That means the total number of bars will always be a multiple of four (4). This may cause slightly
conservative results in some cases.
Example of Input Data for Column Design
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN

International Design Codes Manual 119

3A.7 Slab/Wall Design

CODE CANADIAN
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLEAR 25 MEMB 2 TO 6
MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6
DESIGN COLUMN 2 TO 6
END CONCRETE DESIGN

3A.7 Slab/Wall Design


To design a slab or wall, it must be modeled using finite elements. The commands for specifying
elements are in accordance with the relevant sections of the Technical Reference Manual.
Elements are designed for the moments Mx and My using the same principles as those for beams in
flexure. The width of the beam is assumed to be unity for this purpose. These moments are
obtained from the element force output (see Section 3.8 of the Technical Reference Manual). The
reinforcement required to resist Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the
reinforcement required to resist My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement. The effective
depth is calculated assuming #10 bars are provided. The parameters FYMAIN, FC, CLT, and CLB listed
in Table 3A.1 are relevant to slab design. Other parameters mentioned in Table 3A.1 are not
applicable to slab design. The output consists only of area of steel required. Actual bar arrangement
is not calculated because an element most likely represents just a fraction of the total slab area.
Figure 3A.1 - Element moments: Longitudinal (L) and Transverse (T)

Example of Input Data for Slab/Wall Design


UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE CANADA
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLB 40 ALL
DESIGN ELEMENT 15 TO 20
END CONCRETE DESIGN

120 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3B.1 General Comments

3B. Canadian Codes - Steel Design per CSA Standard


CAN/CSA-S16-01
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Canadian code CAN/CSA-S16-01
Limit States Design of Steel Structures.
Design of members per CAN/CSA-S16-01 requires the STAAD CAN/AUS/SA Design Codes
SELECTCode Pack.

3B.1 General Comments


The design of structural steel members in accordance with the specification CAN/CSA S16-01 Limit
States Design of Steel Structures is can be used in STAAD.Pro. This code supercedes the previous
edition of the code CAN/CSA S16.1-94.
The design philosophy embodied in this specification is based on the concept of limit state design.
Structures are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which they
would become unfit for their intended use. Two major categories of limit-states are recognized ultimate and serviceability. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength
and stability, while that in serviceability is deflection. Appropriate load and resistance factors are
used so that a uniform reliability is achieved for all steel structures under various loading
conditions and at the same time the probability of limits being surpassed is acceptably low.
In the STAAD.Pro implementation, members are proportioned to resist the design loads without
exceeding the limit states of strength, stability and serviceability. Accordingly, the most economic
section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria as augmented by the designer in
specification of allowable member depths, desired section type, or other such parameters. The code
checking portion of the program checks whether code requirements for each selected section are
met and identifies the governing criteria.
The following sections describe the salient features of the STAAD.Pro implementation of
CAN/CSA-S16-01. A detailed description of the design process along with its underlying concepts
and assumptions is available in the specification document.

3B.2 Analysis Methodology


The elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Analysis is done
for the specified primary and combination loading condition. You are allowed complete flexibility
in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to create necessary loading
situations. Depending upon the analysis requirements, regular stiffness analysis or P-Delta analysis
may be specified. Dynamic analysis may also be performed and the results combined with static
analysis results.

International Design Codes Manual 121

3B.3 Member Property Specifications

3B.3 Member Property Specifications


For specification of member properties, the steel section library available in STAAD.Pro may be
used. The next section describes the syntax of commands used to assign properties from the builtin steel table. Member properties may also be specified using the User Table facility. For more
information on these facilities, refer to the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference Manual.

3B.4 Built-in Steel Section Library


The following information is provided for use when the built-in steel tables are to be referenced for
member property specification. These properties are stored in a database file. If called for, the
properties are also used for member design. Since the shear areas are built into these tables, shear
deformation is always considered during the analysis of these members.
Almost all Canadian steel sections are available for input. A complete listing of the sections
available in the built-in steel section library may be obtained by using the tools of the graphical
user interface.
Following is the description of the different types of sections available:

3B.4.1 Welded Wide Flanges (WW shapes)


Welded wide flange shapes listed in the CSA steel tables can be designated using the same scheme
used by CSA. The following example illustrates the specification of welded wide flange shapes.
100 TO 150 TA ST WW400X444
34 35 TA ST WW900X347

3B.4.2 Wide Flanges (W shapes)


Designation of wide flanges in STAAD is the same as that in CSA tables. For example,
10 TO 75 95 TO 105 TA ST W460X106
100 TO 200 TA ST W610X101

3B.4.3 S, M, HP shapes
In addition to welded wide flanges and regular wide flanges, other I shaped sections like S, M and
HP shapes are also available. The designation scheme is identical to that listed in the CSA tables.
While specifying the sections, it should be remembered that the portion after the decimal point
should be omitted. Thus, M310X17.6 should be specified as M310X17 and S180X22.8 should be
specified as S180X22. Examples illustrating specifications of these shapes are provided below.
10 TO 20 BY 2 TA ST S510X98
45 TO 55 TA ST M150X6
88 90 96 TA ST HP310X79

122 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3B.4 Built-in Steel Section Library

3B.4.4 Channel Sections (C & MC shapes)


C and MC shapes are designated as shown in the following example. As in S, M and HP sections,
the portion after the decimal point must be omitted in section designations. Thus, MC250X42.4
should be designated as MC250X42.
55 TO 90 TA ST C250X30
30 TO 45 TA ST MC200X33

3B.4.5 Double Channels


Back-to-back double channels, with or without spacing between them, are specified by preceding
the section designation by the letter D. For example, a back-to-back double channel section
C200X28 without any spacing in between should be specified as:
100 TO 120 TA D C200X28

If a spacing of 2.5 length units is used, the specification should be as follows:


100 TO 120 TA D C200X28 SP 2.5

Note that the specification SP after the section designation is used for providing the spacing. The
spacing should always be provided in the current length unit.

3B.4.6 Angles
To specify angles, the angle name is preceded by the letter L. Thus, a 200X200 angle with a 25mm
thickness is designated as L200X200X25. The following examples illustrate angle specifications.
75 TO 95 TA ST L100X100X8
33 34 35 TA ST L200X100X20

Note that the above specification is for standard angles. In this specification, the local z-axis (see
Fig. 2.6 in the Technical Reference Manual) corresponds to the Y-Y axis shown in the CSA table.
Another common practice of specifying angles assumes the local y-axis to correspond to the Y-Y
axis. To specify angles in accordance with this convention, the reverse angle designation facility has
been provided. A reverse angle may be specified by substituting the word ST with the word RA.
Refer to the following example for details.
10 TO 15 TA RA L55X35X4

The local axis systems for STANDARD and REVERSE angles is shown in Fig. 2.6 of the STAAD
Technical Reference manual.

3B.4.7 Double Angles


To specify double angles, the specification ST should be substituted with LD (for long leg back-toback) or SD (short leg back-to-back). For equal angles, either SD or LD will serve the purpose.
Spacing between angles may be provided by using the word SP followed by the value of spacing (in
current length unit) after section designation.
25 35 45 TA LD L150X100X16

International Design Codes Manual 123

3B.4 Built-in Steel Section Library

80 TO 90 TA SD L125X75X6 SP 2.5

The second example above describes a double angle section consisting of 125X75X6 angles with a
spacing of 2.5 length units.

3B.4.8 Tees
Tee sections obtained by cutting W sections may be specified by using the T specification instead of
ST before the name of the W shape. For example:
100 TO 120 TA T W200X42

will describe a T section cut from a W200X42 section.

3B.4.9 Rectangular Hollow Sections


These sections may be specified in two possible ways. Those sections listed in the CSA tables may be
specified as follows.
55 TO 75 TA ST TUB80X60X4

In addition, any tube section may be specified by using the DT(for depth), WT(for width), and TH
(for thickness) specifications.
For example:
100 TO 200 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5

will describe a tube with a depth of 8 in., width of 6 in. and a wall thickness of 0.5 inches. Note
that the values of depth, width and thickness must be provided in current length unit.

3B.4.10 Circular Hollow Sections


Sections listed in the CSA tables may be provided as follows:
15 TO 25 TA ST PIP33X2.5

124 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3B.4 Built-in Steel Section Library

In addition to sections listed in the CSA tables, circular hollow sections may be specified by using
the OD (outside diameter) and ID (inside diameter) specifications. For example:
70 TO 90 TA ST PIPE OD 10.0 ID 9.0

will describe a pipe with an outside diameter of 10 length units and inside diameter of 9.0 length
units. Note that the values of outside and inside diameters must be provided in terms of current
length unit.
Sample input file to demonstrate usage of Canadian shapes
STAAD SPACE
UNIT METER KNS
JOINT COORD
1 0 0 0 17 160 0 0
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2 16
UNIT CM
MEMBER PROPERTIES CANADIAN
* W SHAPES
1 TA ST W250X18
* WW SHAPES
2 TA ST WW700X185
* S SHAPES
3 TA ST S200X27
* M SHAPES
4 TA ST M130X28
* HP SHAPES
5 TA ST HP310X132
* MC CHANNELS
6 TA ST MC150X17
* C CHANNELS
7 TA ST C180X18
* DOUBLE CHANNELS
8 TA D C250X37 SP 1.0
* ANGLES
9 TA ST L55X35X5
* REVERSE ANGLES
10 TA RA L90X75X5
* DOUBLE ANGLES, LONG LEG BACK TO BACK
11 TA LD L100X90X6 SP 2.0
* DOUBLE ANGLES, SHORT LEG BACK TO BACK
12 TA SD L125X75X6 SP 2.5
* TUBES
13 TA ST TUB120807
* TUBES
14 TA ST TUBE DT 16.0 WT 8.0 TH 0.8
* PIPES
15 TA ST PIP273X6.3
* PIPES
16 TA ST PIPE OD 16.0 ID 13.0

International Design Codes Manual 125

3B.5 Section Classification

PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES


FINISH

3B.5 Section Classification


The CSA specification allows inelastic deformation of section elements. Thus, local buckling
becomes an important criterion. Steel sections are classified as plastic (Class 1), compact (Class 2),
noncompact (Class 3), or slender element (Class 4) sections depending upon their local buckling
characteristics (See Clause 11.2 and Table 1 of CAN/CSA-S16-01). This classification is a function of
the geometric properties of the section. The design procedures are different depending on the
section class. STAAD.Pro determines the section classification for the standard shapes and user
specified shapes.
Note: The design of Class 4 sections requires STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 2) build 2007.07 or
higher. Otherwise, design is performed for sections that fall into the category of Class 1,2 or 3
sections only.

3B.6 Member Resistances


The member resistances are calculated in STAAD.Pro according to the procedures outlined in
section 13 of the specification. These depend on several factors such as members unsupported
lengths, cross-sectional properties, slenderness factors, unsupported width to thickness ratios and so
on. Note that the program automatically takes into consideration appropriate resistance factors to
calculate member resistances. Explained here is the procedure adopted in STAAD.Pro for
calculating the member resistances.
Note: The design of Class 4 sections requires STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 2) build 2007.07 or
higher.

3B.6.1 Nomenclature
A = Area.
A = Effective area.
e

A = Area of flange.
f

A = Area of web.
w

b = Effective Flange width.


e

C = Compressive force in a member or component under factored load.


f

C = Factored compressive resistance.


r
C = Warping torsional constant.
w

C = Axial compressive load at yield stress.


y

D = Outside diameter of pipe section.

126 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3B.6 Member Resistances

E = Elastic modulus of steel.


F = Elastic critical buckling stress.
e

F = Yield strength.
y

ye

= Effective yield stress of section in compression to account for elastic local buckling.

h = Clear depth of web.


K = Effective length factor.
L = Length or span of member.
M = Bending moment in a member or component under factored load.
f

M = Factored moment resistance of a member.


r

M = Yield moment resistance.


y

S = Elastic section modulus.


S = Effective section modulus.
e

W = Web thickness.
= Non-dimensional slenderness parameter in column formula.
= Effective non-dimensional slenderness parameter in column formula considering effective
ye
yield stress.
= Resistance factor

3B.6.2 Members Subject to Axial Forces


Axial Tension
The criteria governing the capacity of tension members is based on two limit states. The limit state
of yielding in the gross section is intended to prevent excessive elongation of the member. The
second limit state involves fracture at the section with the minimum effective net area. The net
section area may be specified by the user through the use of the parameter NSF (see Table 3B.1).
STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a member based on these two limits states per Cl.13.2 of
CAN/CSA-S16-01. Parameters FYLD, FU, and NSF are applicable for these calculations.

Axial Compression
The compressive resistance of columns is determined based on Clause 13.3 of the code. The
equations presented in this section of the code assume that the compressive resistance is a function
of the compressive strength of the gross section (Gross section Area times the Yield Strength) as
well as the slenderness factor (KL/r ratios). The effective length for the calculation of compression

International Design Codes Manual 127

3B.6 Member Resistances

resistance may be provided through the use of the parameters KT, KY, KZ, LT, LY, and LZ (see Table
3B.1). Some of the aspects of the axial compression capacity calculations are :
1. For frame members not subjected to any bending, and for truss members, the axial
compression capacity in general column flexural buckling is calculated from Cl.13.3.1 using
the slenderness ratios for the local Y-Y and Z-Z axis. The parameters KY, LY, KZ and LZ are
applicable for this.
2. For single angles, which are frame members not subjected to any bending or truss members,
the axial compression capacity in general column flexural buckling and local buckling of
thin legs is calculated using the rules of the AISC - LRFD code, 2nd ed., 1994. The reason for
this is that the Canadian code doesnt provide any clear guidelines for calculating this value.
The parameters KY, LY, KZ, and LZ are applicable for this.
3. The axial compression capacity is also calculated by taking flexural-torsional buckling into
account. The rules of Appendix D, page 1-109 of CAN/CSA-S16-01are used for this purpose.
Parameters KT and LT may be used to provide the effective length factor and effective length
value for flexural-torsional buckling. Flexural-torsional buckling capacity is computed for
single channels, single angles, Tees and Double angles.
4. The variable n in Cl.13.3.1 is assumed as 2.24 for WWF shapes and 1.34 for all other shapes.
5. While computing the general column flexural buckling capacity of sections with axial
compression + bending, the special provisions of 13.8.1(a), 13.8.1(b) and 13.8.1(c) are applied.
For example, Lambda = 0 for 13.8.1(a), K=1 for 13.8.1(b), etc.)
For Class 4 members subjected to axial compression, factored compressive resistance should be
determined by either of the following equations.
Cr= Ae Fy (1+2n )-1n

a.

Where:
n = 1.34
= (Fy /Fe )
Fe=(2 E)/(KL/r)2
Ae is calculated using reduced element widths meeting the maximum width to thickness
ratio specified in Table 1.
Effective width required for the calculation of effective area Ae, for different section shapes
are as follows.
l

For flanges of I-section, T-section and channel section and legs of angle section
be= 200t/(Fy )

For stem of T-section


be= 340t/(Fy )

For flanges of HSS rectangular or Tube sections

128 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3B.6 Member Resistances

be= 670t/((Fy )
l

For circular HSS or Pipe section


D= 23000t/(Fy
Cr= AFye (1+ye2n )-1n

b.

Where:
n = 1.34
ye = (Fye/F_e )
Fe=(2 E)/(KL/r)2
With an effective yield stress, F , determined from the maximum width (or diameter)-toye
thickness ratio meeting the limit specified in Table 1.
Following are the expressions for effective yield stress for different shaped section.
l

For I-section, T-section, channel section and angle section


Fye= 40000/(b/t)2

For rectangular HSS section


Fye= 448900/(b/t)2

For circular HSS section


Fye= 23000/(D/t)

3B.6.3 Members Subject to Bending


The laterally unsupported length of the compression flange for the purpose of computing the
factored moment resistance is specified in STAAD with the help of the parameter UNL. If UNL is
less than one tenth the member length (member length is the distance between the joints of the
member), the member is treated as being continuously laterally supported. In this case, the
moment resistance is computed from Clause 13.5 of the code. If UNL is greater than or equal to one
tenth the member length, its value is used as the laterally unsupported length. The equations of
Clause 13.6 of the code are used to arrive at the moment of resistance of laterally unsupported
members. Some of the aspects of the bending capacity calculations are :
1. The weak axis bending capacity of all sections except single angles is calculated as
For Class 1 & 2 sections, Py Fy
For Class 3 sections, Sy Fy
where
= Resistance factor = 0.9
P = Plastic section modulus about the local Y axis
y

International Design Codes Manual 129

3B.6 Member Resistances

S = Elastic section modulus about the local Y axis


y

F = Yield stress of steel


y

2. For single angles, the bending capacities are calculated for the principal axes. The
specifications of Section 5, page 6-283 of AISC-LRFD 1994, 2nd ed., are used for this purpose
because the Canadian code doesnt provide any clear guidelines for calculating this value.
3. For calculating the bending capacity about the Z-Z axis of singly symmetric shapes such as
Tees and Double angles, CAN/CSA-S16-01 stipulates in Clause 13.6(d), page 1-31, that a
rational method, such as that given in SSRCs Guide to Stability Design Criteria of Metal
Structures, be used. Instead, STAAD uses the rules of Section 2c, page 6-55 of AISC-LRFD
1994, 2nd ed.

Laterally Supported Class 4 members subjected to bending


i. When both the web and compressive flange exceed the limits for Class 3 sections, the
member should be considered as failed and an error message will be thrown.
ii. When flanges meet the requirements of Class 3 but web exceeds the limits for Class 3,
resisting moment shall be determined by the following equation.

A h
M r = M r 1 0.0005 w
Af w

1, 900
Mf / s

Where Mr = factored moment resistance as determined by Clause 13.5 or 13.6 but not to
exceed My = factored moment resistance for Class 3 sections = My
If axial compressive force is present in addition to the moment, modified moment resistance
should be as follows.
1 0.65Cf / (C y )

A h
M r = M r 1 0.0005 w 1, 900

Af w
Mf / s

Cy = A Fy
S = Elastic section modulus of steel section.
iii. For sections whose webs meet the requirements of Class 3 and whose flanges exceed the
limit of Class 3, the moment resistance shall be calculated as
Mr = Se Fy
Where:
S = effective section modulus determined using effective flange width.
e

For Rectangular HSS section, effective flange width


be= 670 t/(Fy )

130 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3B.6 Member Resistances

For I-section, T-section, Channel section, effective flange width and for Angle section,
effective length width
be= 200 t/(Fy )
But shall not exceed 60 t

Laterally Unsupported Class 4 members subjected to bending


As per clause 13.6(b) the moment resistance for class-4 section shall be calculated as follows
i. When Mu > 0.67My

M r = 1.15M y1

0.28M y
Mu

M should not exceed SeFy


r
ii. When Mu 0.67My
Mr=Mu
Where, as per clause 13.6(a),
Mu =(2 )/L (EIy GJ + (E/L)2 Iy Cw )
For unbraced length subjected to end moments2 =1.75 + 1.05k + 0.3k2 2.5
When bending moment at any point within the unbraced length is larger than the larger end
moment or when there is no effective lateral support for the compression flange at one of the ends
of unsupported length2 = 1.0
k = Ratio of the smaller factored moment to the larger moment at opposite ends of the unbraced
length, positive for double curvature and negative for single curvature.
Se = effective section modulus determined using effective flange width.
l

For Rectangular HSS section, effective flange width


be= 670t/(Fy )

For I-section, T-section, Channel section, effective flange width and for Angle section,
effective length width
be= 200t/(Fy )
But shall not exceed 60t.

This clause is applicable only for I shaped and Channel shaped section as there is no guide line in
the code for other sections.

International Design Codes Manual 131

3B.7 Design Parameters

3B.6.4 Members Subject to Combined Forces


Axial compression and bending
The member strength for sections subjected to axial compression and uniaxial or biaxial bending is
obtained through the use of interaction equations. In these equations, the additional bending
caused by the action of the axial load is accounted for by using amplification factors. Clause 13.8 of
the code provides the equations for this purpose. If the summation of the left hand side of these
equations exceed 1.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (See "Design
Parameters" on page 132), the member is considered to have failed under the loading condition.

Axial tension and bending


Members subjected to axial tension and bending are also designed using interaction equations.
Clause 13.9 of the code is used to perform these checks. The actual RATIO is determined as the value
of the left hand side of the critical equation.

3B.6.5 Shear
The shear resistance of the cross section is determined using the equations of Clause 13.4 of the
code. Once this is obtained, the ratio of the shear force acting on the cross section to the shear
resistance of the section is calculated. If any of the ratios (for both local Y & Z axes) exceed 1.0 or
the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table 3B.1), the section is considered
to have failed under shear. The code also requires that the slenderness ratio of the web be within a
certain limit (See Cl.13.4.1.3, page 1-29 of CAN/CSA-S16-01). Checks for safety in shear are performed
only if this value is within the allowable limit. Users may by-pass this limitation by specifying a
value of 2.0 for the MAIN parameter.

3B.7 Design Parameters


The design parameters outlined in Table 3B.1 may be used to control the design procedure. These
parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus allow the
engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs.
The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for
conventional design. Depending on the particular design requirements, some or all of these
parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.

132 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3B.7 Design Parameters

Table 3B.1-Canadian Steel Design CSA-S16-01 Parameters


Parameter Name

Default Value

Description

1.0

0.0 = design only for


end moments and
those at locations
specified by
SECTION command.

CODE
BEAM

1.0 = Perform design


for moments at
twelfth points along
the beam.
CB

1.0

Greater than 0.0 and


less than 2.5 : Value
of Omega_2 (Cl.13.6)
to be used for
calculation.
Equal to 0.0 :
Calculate Omega_2

CMY

1.0

1.0 = Do not
calculate Omega-1 for
local Y axis.
2.0 = Calculate
Omega-1 for local Y
axis.
Used in Cl.13.8.4 of
code

CMZ

1.0

1.0 = Do not
calculate Omega-1 for
local Z axis.
2.0 = Calculate
Omega-1 for local Z
axis.
Used in Cl.13.8.4 of
code

DFF

None(Mandatory for
deflection check)

Deflection
Length/Maxm.
Allowable local
deflection.

International Design Codes Manual 133

3B.7 Design Parameters

Parameter Name

Default Value

Description

DJ1

Start Joint of member

Joint No. denoting


start point for
calculation of
deflection length

DJ2

End Joint of member

Joint No. denoting


end point for
calculation of
deflection length

DMAX

45.0 in.

Maximum allowable
depth (Applicable for
member selection)

DMIN

0.0 in.

Minimum required
depth (Applicable for
member selection)

FYLD

300.0 MPa

Yield strength of
steel.

FU

345.0 MPa

Ultimate strength of
steel.

KT

1.0

K value for flexural


torsional buckling.

KY

1.0

K value for general


column flexural
buckling about the
local Y-axis. Used to
calculate slenderness
ratio.

KZ

1.0

K value for general


column flexural
buckling about the
local Z-axis. Used to
calculate slenderness
ratio.

LT

Member Length

134 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

Length for flexural


torsional buckling.

3B.7 Design Parameters

Parameter Name

Default Value

Description

LY

Member Length

Length for general


column flexural
buckling about the
local Y-axis. Used to
calculate slenderness
ratio.

LZ

Member Length

Length for general


column flexural
buckling about the
local Z-axis. Used to
calculate slenderness
ratio.

MAIN

0.0

0.0 = Check
slenderness ratio
against the limits.
1.0= Suppress the
slenderness ratio
check.
2.0 = Check
slenderness ratio only
for column buckling,
not for web (See
Section 3B.6, Shear)

NSF

1.0

Net section factor for


tension members.

RATIO

1.0

Permissible ratio of
actual load effect to
the design strength.

TRACK

0.0

0.0 = Report only


minimum design
results.
1.0 = Report design
strengths also.
2.0 = Provide full
details of design.

International Design Codes Manual 135

3B.8 Code Checking

Parameter Name

Default Value

Description

UNB

Member Length

Unsupported length
in bending
compression of the
bottom flange for
calculating moment
resistance.

UNT

Member Length

Unsupported length
in bending
compression of the
top flange for
calculating moment
resistance.

3B.8 Code Checking


The purpose of code checking is to check whether the provided section properties of the members
are adequate. The adequacy is checked as per the CAN/CSA-S16-01 requirements.
Code checking is done using forces and moments at specified sections of the members. If the
BEAM parameter for a member is set to 1, moments are calculated at every twelfth point along the
beam. When no sections are specified and the BEAM parameter is set to zero (default), design will
be based on member start and end forces only. The code checking output labels the members as
PASSed or FAILed. In addition, the critical condition, governing load case, location (distance from
the start joint) and magnitudes of the governing forces and moments are also printed. The extent
of detail of the output can be controlled by using the TRACK parameter.
Example of commands for CODE CHECKING:
UNIT NEWTON METER
PARAMETER
CODE CANADIAN
FYLD 330E6 MEMB 3 4
NSF 0.85 ALL
KY 1.2 MEMB 3 4
UNL 15 MEMB 3 4
RATIO 0.9 ALL
CHECK CODE MEMB 3 4

3B.9 Member Selection


The member selection process basically involves determination of the least weight member that
PASSes the code checking procedure based on the forces and moments of the most recent analysis.
The section selected will be of the same type as that specified initially. For example, a member
specified initially as a channel will have a channel selected for it. Selection of members whose

136 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3B.10 Tabulated Results of Steel Design

properties are originally provided from a user table will be limited to sections in the user table.
Member selection cannot be performed on TUBES, PIPES or members listed as PRISMATIC.
Example of commands for MEMBER SELECTION:
UNIT NEWTON METER
PARAMETER
FYLD 330E6 MEMB 3 4
NSF 0.85 ALL
KY 1.2 MEMB 3 4
UNL 15 MEMB 3 4
RATIO 0.9 ALL
SELECT MEMB 3 4

3B.10 Tabulated Results of Steel Design


Results of code checking and member selection are presented in a tabular format. The term
CRITICAL COND refers to the section of the CAN/CSA-S16-01 specification which governed the
design.
If the TRACK parameter is set to 1.0, factored member resistances will be printed. Following is a
description of some of the items printed.
CR
Factored compressive resistance
TR
Factored tensile resistance
VR
Factored shear resistance
MRZ
Factored moment resistance (about z-axis)
MRY
Factored moment resistance (about y-axis)
Further details can be obtained by setting TRACK to 2.0.
CR1
CAPACITY (C ) PER 13.8.2(a)
r

CR2
CAPACITY (C ) PER 13.8.2(b)
r

CRZ
SEE 13.8.2(b) for uniaxial bending (called C

RX

in that Clause)

International Design Codes Manual 137

3B.11 Verification Problems

CTORFLX
Capacity in accordance with 13.8.2(c)

3B.11 Verification Problems


In the next few pages are included several verification examples for reference purposes. Since the
S16-01 code is similar in many respects to the previous edition of the code (CAN/CSA S16.1-94), the
solved examples of the 1994 edition of the CISC Handbook have been used as reference material for
these examples.

3B.11.1 Verification Problem No. 1


Steel beam with uniform load, wide flange section. Static analysis, 3D beam element.
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as /SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/can_
ver_prob1.std

Reference
CAN/CSA-S16.1-94, National Standard of Canada, Limit States Design of Steel Structures. The
Canadian Standards Association, 1994 with CISC (Canadian Institute of Steel Construction)
handbook. CISC Example 1 page 5-91.

Problem
Find the interaction ratio, beam resistance and beam deflection.

Given
E = 200000 MPa (STEEL)
F = 300 Mpa CSA G40.21-M
y

Simply supported beam has a 8.0 m span; Ky is 1.0, Kz 1.0, unsupported length 1.0 m
Allowable Live Load deflection, L/300 = 8000/300 = 27 mm
Factored Uniform Load IS 7 kN/m DEAD, 15 kN/m LIVE.
Steel section is W410X54

138 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3B.11 Verification Problems

Comparison
Table 3B.2-CAN/CSA-S16 Verification Problem 1 comparison
Critera

Reference STAAD.Pro Difference

Interaction Ratio

0.88

0.883

none

Beam Resistance
(kNm)

284

283.20

none

Beam Deflection
(mm)

21

20.81

none

STAAD Output
****************************************************
*
*
*
STAAD.Pro
*
*
Version
Bld
*
*
Proprietary Program of
*
*
Research Engineers, Intl.
*
*
Date=
*
*
Time=
*
*
*
*
USER ID:
*
****************************************************
1. STAAD SPACE VERIFICATION CISC 1994 HANDBOOK EXAMPLE PAGE 5-91
3. * CISC EXAMPLE 1 PAGE 5-91, LIMIT STATES DESIGN, CSA-S16.1-94
4. * SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM WITH UNIFORM LOAD
5. * LIVE LOAD DEFLECTION OF L/300
7. UNIT MMS KN
8. JOINT COORDINATES
9. 1 0 0 0; 2 8000 0 0
10. MEMBER INCIDENCES
11. 1 1 2
13. MEMBER PROPERTY CANADIAN
14. 1 TABLE ST W410X54
16. CONSTANTS
17. E STEEL ALL
18. POISSON 0.3 ALL
20. SUPPORTS
21. 1 PINNED
22. 2 FIXED BUT MY MZ
24. UNIT METER KN
25. LOAD 1 DEAD
26. MEMBER LOAD
27. 1 UNI GY -7
29. LOAD 2 LIVE
30. MEMBER LOAD
31. 1 UNI GY -15
33. LOAD COMB 3 1.25DL + 1.5 LL
34. 1 1.25 2 1.5
36. PERFORM ANALYSIS
P R O B L E M
S T A T I S T I C S
----------------------------------NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS =
2/
1/
2
ORIGINAL/FINAL BAND-WIDTH=
1/
1/
5 DOF
TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES =
2, TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM =
5

International Design Codes Manual 139

3B.11 Verification Problems

SIZE OF STIFFNESS MATRIX =


1 DOUBLE KILO-WORDS
REQRD/AVAIL. DISK SPACE =
12.0/ 19641.6 MB
37. LOAD LIST 2
38. PRINT SECTION DISPLACEMENTS
MEMBER SECTION DISPLACEMENTS
---------------------------UNIT =INCHES FOR FPS AND CM FOR METRICS/SI SYSTEM
MEMB LOAD
GLOBAL X,Y,Z DISPL FROM START TO END JOINTS AT 1/12TH PTS
1
2
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
-0.5471
0.0000
0.0000
-1.0528
0.0000
0.0000
-1.4824
0.0000
0.0000
-1.8086
0.0000
0.0000
-2.0120
0.0000
0.0000
-2.0812
0.0000
0.0000
-2.0120
0.0000
0.0000
-1.8086
0.0000
0.0000
-1.4824
0.0000
0.0000
-1.0528
0.0000
0.0000
-0.5471
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
MAX LOCAL DISP =
2.08115
AT
400.00 LOAD
2
L/DISP=
384
************ END OF SECT DISPL RESULTS ***********
40. LOAD LIST 3
41. PARAMETER
42. CODE CANADIAN
43. TRACK 2 ALL
44. UNL 1 ALL
45. FYLD 300000 ALL
46. BEAM 1 ALL
47. CHECK CODE ALL
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING - (CAN/CSA-S16-01)
******************************************
ALL UNITS ARE - KNS MET (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER
TABLE
RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST
W410X54
(CANADIAN SECTIONS)
PASS
CSA-13.8.2+
0.883
3
0.00 C
0.00
-250.00
4.00
MEMBER PROPERTIES (UNIT = CM)
----------------------------CROSS SECTION AREA = 6.84E+01
MEMBER LENGTH = 8.00E+02
IZ = 1.86E+04
SZ = 9.26E+02
PZ = 1.05E+03
IY = 1.02E+03
SY = 1.15E+02
PY = 1.77E+02
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (UNIT = MPA)
-------------------------------FYLD = 300.0
FU = 345.0
SECTION CAPACITIES (UNIT - KN,M)
--------------------------------CR1 = 1.846E+03
CR2 = 2.732E+02
CRZ = 1.570E+03
CTORFLX = 2.732E+02
TENSILE CAPACITY
= 1.805E+03
COMPRESSIVE CAPACITY = 2.732E+02
FACTORED MOMENT RESISTANCE : MRY = 4.778E+01
MRZ = 2.832E+02
FACTORED SHEAR RESISTANCE : VRY = 5.379E+02
VRZ = 4.604E+02
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
-------------------------NET SECTION FACTOR FOR TENSION = 1.000
KL/RY = 207.170
KL/RZ =
48.447
ALLOWABLE KL/R = 300.000
UNSUPPORTED LENGTH OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE (M) = 1.000
OMEGA-1 (Y-AXIS) = 1.00
OMEGA-1 (Z-AXIS) = 1.00
OMEGA-2 = 1.00
SHEAR FORCE (KNS) : Y AXIS = 0.000E+00
Z AXIS = 0.000E+00
SLENDERNESS RATIO OF WEB (H/W) = 5.08E+01
48. STEEL TAKE OFF ALL
STEEL TAKE-OFF
-------------PROFILE
LENGTH(METE)
WEIGHT(KN )
In Steel Takeoff the density of steel is assumed for members with no density.
ST W410X54
8.00
4.203
PRISMATIC STEEL
0.00
0.000
---------------TOTAL =
4.203

140 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3B.11 Verification Problems

************ END OF DATA FROM INTERNAL STORAGE ************


49. FINISH

3B.11.2 Verification Problem No. 2


Steel beam/column, wide flange section. Static Analysis, 3D beam element.
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as /SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/can_
ver_prob2.std

Reference
CAN/CSA-S16.1-94, National Standard of Canada, Limit States Design of Steel Structures. The
Canadian Standards Association, 1994 with CISC (Canadian Institute of Steel Construction)
handbook. CISC Handbook Example, Page 4_106.

Problem
Find the interaction ratio, beam and column resistance.

Given
E = 200000 MPa (STEEL).
F = 300 MPa CSA G40.21-M
y

Simply supported beam/column has a 3.7 m span, Ky is 1.0, Kz 1.0


factored axial load is 2000 kN and end moments of
200 kN*m and 300 kN*m
Steel section is W310X129

Comparison
Table 3B.3-CAN/CSA-S16 Verification Problem2 comparison
Critera

Reference STAAD.Pro Difference

Interaction Ratio

0.96

0.98

2%

Beam Resistance
(kNm)

583

584

none

Column
Resistance (kN)

3,800

3,820

none

International Design Codes Manual 141

3B.11 Verification Problems

STAAD Output
****************************************************
*
*
*
STAAD.Pro
*
*
Version
Bld
*
*
Proprietary Program of
*
*
Research Engineers, Intl.
*
*
Date=
*
*
Time=
*
*
*
*
USER ID:
*
****************************************************
1. STAAD SPACE VERIFICATION CISC 1994 HANDBOOK EXAMPLE PAGE 4-106
2. *
3. * COMPRESSION + MAJOR AXIS BENDING
4. *
5. UNIT METER KN
6. JOINT COORDINATES
7. 1 0 0 0; 2 0 3.7 0
8. *
9. MEMBER INCIDENCES
10. 1 1 2
11. *
12. MEMBER PROPERTY CANADIAN
13. 1 TABLE ST W310X129
14. *
15. CONSTANTS
16. E STEEL ALL
17. POISSON STEEL ALL
18. *
19. SUPPORTS
20. 1 FIXED BUT MX MZ
21. 2 FIXED BUT FY MY MZ
22. *
23. LOAD 1 FACTORED LOAD
24. JOINT LOAD
25. 2 FY -2000
26. 2 MZ 200
27. 1 MZ 300
28. *
29. PDELTA 3 ANALYSIS
P R O B L E M
S T A T I S T I C S
----------------------------------NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS =
2/
1/
2
ORIGINAL/FINAL BAND-WIDTH=
1/
1/
5 DOF
TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES =
1, TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM =
5
SIZE OF STIFFNESS MATRIX =
1 DOUBLE KILO-WORDS
REQRD/AVAIL. DISK SPACE =
12.0/ 19641.2 MB
++ Adjusting Displacements
8:54:35
++ Adjusting Displacements
8:54:35
++ Adjusting Displacements
8:54:35
31. PRINT MEMBER FORCES
MEMBER END FORCES
STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE
----------------ALL UNITS ARE -- KN
METE
MEMBER LOAD JT
AXIAL
SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z
TORSION
MOM-Y
MOM-Z
1
1
1
2000.00
135.14
0.00
0.00
0.00
300.00
2 -2000.00
-135.14
0.00
0.00
0.00
200.00
************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT **************
33. PARAMETER
34. CODE CANADIAN
35. TRACK 2 ALL

142 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3B.11 Verification Problems

36.
37.
38.
39.

FYLD 300000 ALL


LY 3.7 ALL
LZ 3.7 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING - (CAN/CSA-S16-01)
******************************************
ALL UNITS ARE - KNS MET (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER
TABLE
RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST
W310X129
(CANADIAN SECTIONS)
PASS
CSA-13.8.2C
0.980
1
2000.00 C
0.00
300.00
0.00
MEMBER PROPERTIES (UNIT = CM)
----------------------------CROSS SECTION AREA = 1.65E+02
MEMBER LENGTH = 3.70E+02
IZ = 3.08E+04
SZ = 1.94E+03
PZ = 2.16E+03
IY = 1.00E+04
SY = 6.51E+02
PY = 9.90E+02
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (UNIT = MPA)
-------------------------------FYLD = 300.0
FU = 345.0
SECTION CAPACITIES (UNIT - KN,M)
--------------------------------CR1 = 4.459E+03
CR2 = 3.820E+03
CRZ = 4.296E+03
CTORFLX = 3.820E+03
TENSILE CAPACITY
= 4.359E+03
COMPRESSIVE CAPACITY = 3.820E+03
FACTORED MOMENT RESISTANCE : MRY = 2.672E+02
MRZ = 5.840E+02
FACTORED SHEAR RESISTANCE : VRY = 7.419E+02
VRZ = 1.505E+03
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
-------------------------NET SECTION FACTOR FOR TENSION = 1.000
KL/RY =
47.477
KL/RZ =
27.094
ALLOWABLE KL/R = 200.000
UNSUPPORTED LENGTH OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE (M) = 3.700
OMEGA-1 (Y-AXIS) = 1.00
OMEGA-1 (Z-AXIS) = 1.00
OMEGA-2 = 1.00
SHEAR FORCE (KNS) : Y AXIS = 1.351E+02
Z AXIS = 0.000E+00
SLENDERNESS RATIO OF WEB (H/W) = 2.12E+01
40. STEEL MEMBER TAKE OFF ALL
STEEL TAKE-OFF
-------------PROFILE
LENGTH(METE)
WEIGHT(KN )
In Steel Takeoff the density of steel is assumed for members with no density.
ST W310X129
3.70
4.694
PRISMATIC STEEL
0.00
0.000
---------------TOTAL =
4.694
MEMBER
PROFILE
LENGTH
WEIGHT
(METE)
(KN )
1
ST W310X129
3.70
4.694
************ END OF DATA FROM INTERNAL STORAGE ************
42. FINISH

3B.11.3 Verification Problem No. 3


Steel beam/column, wide flange section. Static Analysis, 3D beam element.
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as /SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/can_
ver_prob3.std

International Design Codes Manual 143

3B.11 Verification Problems

Reference
CAN/CSA-S16.1-94, National Standard of Canada, Limit States Design of Steel Structures. The
Canadian Standards Association, 1994 with CISC (Canadian Institute of Steel Construction)
handbook. CISC Handbook Example, Page 4-108.

Problem
Find the interaction ratio, beam and column resistance.

Given
E = 200000 MPa (STEEL).
F = 300 MPa CSA G40.21-M
y

Simply supported beam/column has a 3.7 m span, Ky is 1.0, Kz 1.0, Lu = 3.7 m


factored axial load is 2000 kN and end moments of
200 kN*m and 300 kN*m in the strong axis and 100 kN*m at each end in the weak axis.
Steel section is W310X143.

Comparison
Table 3B.4-CAN/CSA-S16 Verification Problem 3
comparison
Criteria

Reference STAAD.Pro Difference

Interaction Ratio

0.998

1.00

none

Beam Resistance,
Weak axis
(kNm)

300

299

none

Beam Resistance,
Strong axis
(kNm)

630

650

3.2%

4,200

4,222

none

Column
Resistance (kN)

STAAD Output
****************************************************
*
*
*
STAAD.Pro
*

144 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3B.11 Verification Problems

*
Version
Bld
*
*
Proprietary Program of
*
*
Research Engineers, Intl.
*
*
Date=
*
*
Time=
*
*
*
*
USER ID:
*
****************************************************
1. STAAD SPACE VERIFICATION CISC 1994 HANDBOOK EXAMPLE PAGE 4-108
2. *
3. * ( COMPRESSION + BIAXIAL BENDING )
4. *
5. UNIT METER KN
6. JOINT COORDINATES
7. 1 0 0 0; 2 0 3.7 0
8. *
9. MEMBER INCIDENCES
10. 1 1 2
11. *
12. MEMBER PROPERTY CANADIAN
13. 1 TABLE ST W310X143
14. *
15. CONSTANTS
16. E STEEL ALL
17. POISSON STEEL ALL
18. *
19. SUPPORTS
20. 1 FIXED BUT MX MZ
21. 2 FIXED BUT FY MX MY MZ
22. *
23. LOAD 1 FACTORED LOAD
24. JOINT LOAD
25. 2 FY -2000
26. 2 MZ 200
27. 2 MX 100
28. 1 MZ 300
29. 1 MX 100
30. *
31. PERFORM ANALYSIS
P R O B L E M
S T A T I S T I C S
----------------------------------NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS =
2/
1/
2
ORIGINAL/FINAL BAND-WIDTH=
1/
1/
6 DOF
TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES =
1, TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM =
6
SIZE OF STIFFNESS MATRIX =
1 DOUBLE KILO-WORDS
REQRD/AVAIL. DISK SPACE =
12.0/ 19641.2 MB
33. PARAMETER
34. CODE CANADIAN
35. CMY 2 ALL
36. CMZ 2 ALL
37. CB 1 ALL
38. TRACK 2 ALL
39. FYLD 300000 ALL
40. CHECK CODE ALL
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING - (CAN/CSA-S16-01)
******************************************
ALL UNITS ARE - KNS MET (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER
TABLE
RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================
*
1 ST
W310X143
(CANADIAN SECTIONS)
FAIL
CSA-13.8.2A
1.000
1
2000.00 C
-100.00
300.00
0.00
MEMBER PROPERTIES (UNIT = CM)
----------------------------CROSS SECTION AREA = 1.82E+02
MEMBER LENGTH = 3.70E+02

International Design Codes Manual 145

3B.11 Verification Problems

IZ = 3.47E+04
SZ = 2.15E+03
PZ = 2.41E+03
IY = 1.12E+04
SY = 7.28E+02
PY = 1.11E+03
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (UNIT = MPA)
-------------------------------FYLD = 300.0
FU = 345.0
SECTION CAPACITIES (UNIT - KN,M)
--------------------------------CR1 = 4.912E+03
CR2 = 4.222E+03
CRZ = 4.737E+03
CTORFLX = 4.222E+03
TENSILE CAPACITY
= 4.802E+03
COMPRESSIVE CAPACITY = 4.912E+03
FACTORED MOMENT RESISTANCE : MRY = 2.987E+02
MRZ = 6.504E+02
FACTORED SHEAR RESISTANCE : VRY = 8.037E+02
VRZ = 1.678E+03
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
-------------------------NET SECTION FACTOR FOR TENSION = 1.000
KL/RY =
47.077
KL/RZ =
26.802
ALLOWABLE KL/R = 200.000
UNSUPPORTED LENGTH OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE (M) = 3.700
OMEGA-1 (Y-AXIS) = 0.40
OMEGA-1 (Z-AXIS) = 0.40
OMEGA-2 = 1.00
SHEAR FORCE (KNS) : Y AXIS = 1.351E+02
Z AXIS = 5.405E+01
SLENDERNESS RATIO OF WEB (H/W) = 1.98E+01
41. STEEL MEMBER TAKE OFF ALL
STEEL TAKE-OFF
-------------PROFILE
LENGTH(METE)
WEIGHT(KN )
In Steel Takeoff the density of steel is assumed for members with no density.
ST W310X143
3.70
5.171
PRISMATIC STEEL
0.00
0.000
---------------TOTAL =
5.171
MEMBER
PROFILE
LENGTH
WEIGHT
(METE)
(KN )
1
ST W310X143
3.70
5.171
************ END OF DATA FROM INTERNAL STORAGE ************
42. FINISH

3B.11.4 Verification Problem No. 4


A slender, cantilever beam subjected to a uniform load. Static analysis, 3D beam element.

Reference
CISC Example 1, page 5-91, Limit State Design, CSA-S16.1-94

Problem
A cantilever beam of length 4 meter is subjected to uniformly distributed load of 3 KN/Meter in
both major and minor axis. Axial compression of 8 KN is also applied to the member. User defined
steel section Sect_Class-4 from is assigned to the member.

Given
Design forces
8.0 KN (Compression)

146 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3B.11 Verification Problems

6.0 KNm (Bending-Y)


6.0 KNm (Bending-Z)
6.0 KN (Shear-Y)
6.0 KN (Shear-Z)
Section Properties(Sect_Class-4):
Area = 2766 mm 2
Depth of section, D = 150 mm
Thickness of web Tw = 7 mm
Width of flange Bf = 150 mm
Thickness of flange Tf = 6 mm
Moment of inertia about Z axis, Iz = 1086.96X104 mm 4
Moment of inertia about Y axis, Iy = 337.894X104 mm 4
Moment of inertia about X axis, Ix = 3.7378X104 mm 4
Warping constant, Cw = 1.752X1010 mm 6
Member Length L = 2 m, Unbraced length = 100mm.
Material
FYLD = 300 MPa
E = 2.05E+05 MPa
G = E/2.6 MPa

Solution
Slenderness Ratio
Effective Length factor along Local Y-Axis = KY = 1
Effective Length factor along Local Z-Axis = KZ = 1
Slenderness ratio about Z axis, L/Rz = 31.9
Slenderness ratio about Y axis, L/Ry = 57.22
Maximum Slenderness Ratio, L/Rmax = 57.22

Section Classification
Bf/Tf = 150*0.5/6 = 12.5 > 200/sqrt(Fy) = 11.54

International Design Codes Manual 147

3B.11 Verification Problems

Flange is Class 4.
d/Tw = (150-2.0*6)/7 = 19.714
(1100/sqrt(Fy))*(1-0.39*Cf/*Cy)=(1100/sqrt(300))*(1-0.39*8000/(0.9*2766*300)) = 63.24
Web is Class 1.
Overall section is Class 4 section.

Check against axial compression (Clause 13.3.3)


Effective width, Beff = 200*Tf/sqrt(300) = 69.24
Effective area, Aeff = 69.24*6*4+(150-2*6)*7 = 2627.76 mm 4.
Effective yield stress, FYLDeff =40000/(0.5*Bf/Tf)4 =256 MPa.
As per Clause 13.3.3(a),
Elastic critical buckling, Fe = 4*E/ L_Rmax4 = 617.956 MPa.
Non-dimensional slenderness ratio, = sqrt(FYLD/Fe) =0.697
Axial compressive resistance, Cr = *Aeff*FYLD*(1+0.697^(2*1.34))^(-1/1.34) = 557886.104 N.
As per Clause 13.3.3(b),
Elastic critical buckling, Fe = 4*E/ L_Rmax4 = 617.956 MPa.
Effective non-dimensional slenderness ratio, eff = sqrt(FYLDeff/Fe) = 0.644
Axial compressive resistance, Cr = *Area*FYLDeff*(1+0.644^(2*1.34))^(-1/1.34) = 521726.94 N.
Axial compressive resistance Min(557886.104, 521726.94) = 521726.94 N.

Check against bending (Clause 13.5(c))


As the web of the section meets the requirement of Class 3 and flange exceeds Class 3 limit, flexural
resistance should be calculated as per clause 13.5(c).iii.
Effective moment of inertia about Z axis,
Izeff =2*(2*69.24*63)/12 + 2*(2*69.24*6)*(150-6)*(150-6)/4 + (7*(150-2*6)3)/12
=10152591.12 mm 4.
Effective section modulus about Z axis,
Szeff = 10152591.12*2/150 = 135367.88 mm 3.
Effective moment of inertia about Y axis,
Iyeff =(2*6*(2*69.24)3)/12 +(0.5*(150-6)*73)/12 =2657648.856 mm 4.
Effective section modulus about Y axis,

148 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3B.11 Verification Problems

Syeff = 2657648.856/69.24 = 38383.144 mm 3.


Major axis bending resistance if member is laterally supported,
Mrz1 = *Szeff*FYLD= 0.9*135367.88*300 =36549327.6 N-mm.
Minor axis bending resistance,
Mry = *Syeff*FYLD = 0.9*38383.144*300 = 10363448.88 N-mm.
If the member is laterally unsupported major axis bending resistance is determined by clause 13.6
(b).
As the value of one of the end moments is 0.0, 2 = 1.75.
Where, as per clause 13.6(a),
Mu = (1.75*3.14/2000)*sqrt(205000*337.894X104*78846.154*3.7378X104 +
(3.14*205000/2000)4*337.894X104*1.752X10^10) =2.48X108
My = Sz*FYLD = (1086.96X104X2/150) *300 =43478400.
Since Mu > 0.65My,
Moment of resistance Mrz2 = 1.15*0.9*43478400*(1-0.28*43478400/2.48X108) =42791153.71 N-mm =
42.79 KN-m.
Mrz2 should not be more than Mrz1. Since, Mrz2 > Mrz1 in this example, Mrz2 = Mrz1.
Mrz2 = 36549327.6 N-mm = 36.549 KN-m

Comparison
Table 3B.5-CAN/CSA-S16 Verification Problem 4 comparison
Criteria

Hand
Calculation

STAAD.Pro Result

Comments

Axial
compressive
resistance

521.73 KN

5.219X102 KN

none

Major axis
bending
resistance

36.549 KNm

36.57 KN-m

none

Minor axis
bending
resistance

10.363 KNm

10.38 KN-m

none

STAAD Output
****************************************************

International Design Codes Manual 149

3B.11 Verification Problems

*
*
*
STAAD.Pro V8i SELECTseries2
*
*
Version 20.07.07.XX
*
*
Proprietary Program of
*
*
Bentley Systems, Inc.
*
*
Date=
AUG 17, 2010
*
*
Time=
17: 6:23
*
*
*
*
USER ID: Bentley
*
****************************************************

1. STAAD SPACE VERIFICATION CISC 1994 HANDBOOK EXAMPLE PAGE 5-91


INPUT FILE: s-16-01 verification example.STD
2. START JOB INFORMATION
3. ENGINEER DATE 16-FEB-10
4. END JOB INFORMATION
5. * CISC EXAMPLE 1 PAGE 5-91, LIMIT STATES DESIGN, CSA-S16.1-94
6. * SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM WITH UNIFORM LOAD
7. * LIVE LOAD DEFLECTION OF L/300
8. UNIT MMS KN
9. JOINT COORDINATES
10. 1 0 0 0; 2 2000 0 0
11. MEMBER INCIDENCES
12. 1 1 2
13. START USER TABLE
14. TABLE 1
15. UNIT METER KN
16. WIDE FLANGE
17. SECT_CLASS-4
18. 0.002766 0.15 0.007 0.15 0.006 1.08696E-005 3.37894E-006 3.7378E-008 19. 0.00105 0.0018
20. END
21. UNIT METER KN
22. DEFINE MATERIAL START
23. ISOTROPIC MATERIAL1
24. E 2.05E+008
25. POISSON 0.3
26. ISOTROPIC STEEL
27. E 2.05E+008
28. POISSON 0.3
29. DENSITY 76.8195
30. ALPHA 1.2E-005
31. DAMP 0.03
32. END DEFINE MATERIAL
33. MEMBER PROPERTY
34. 1 UPTABLE 1 SECT_CLASS-4
35. UNIT MMS KN
36. CONSTANTS
37. MATERIAL STEEL ALL
38. SUPPORTS
39. 1 FIXED
40. UNIT METER KN
41. LOAD 1 LC1
42. MEMBER LOAD
43. 1 UNI GY -3
44. 1 UNI GZ -3
45. JOINT LOAD
46. 2 FX -8
47. PERFORM ANALYSIS

P R O B L E M
S T A T I S T I C S
----------------------------------NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS =

150 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

2/

1/

3B.11 Verification Problems

SOLVER USED IS THE IN-CORE ADVANCED SOLVER


TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES =

1, TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM =

48. LOAD LIST 1


49. PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 1
VERIFICATION CISC 1994 HANDBOOK EXAMPLE PAGE 5-91

MEMBER END FORCES


----------------ALL UNITS ARE -- KN
MEMBER

-- PAGE NO.

STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE


METE

(LOCAL )

LOAD

JT

AXIAL

SHEAR-Y

SHEAR-Z

TORSION

MOM-Y

MOM-Z

1
2

8.00
-8.00

6.00
0.00

6.00
0.00

0.00
0.00

-6.00
0.00

6.00
0.00

************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT **************

50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.

PARAMETER 1
CODE CANADIAN
CB 0 ALL
TRACK 2 ALL
FYLD 300000 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL

STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING - (CAN/CSA-S16-01 ) V2.0


********************************************

ALL UNITS ARE - KNS


MEMBER

MET

(UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)

TABLE

RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================

1 ST

SECT_CLASS-4
PASS
8.00 C

(UPT)
CSA-13.8.3B
-6.00

0.760
6.00

1
0.00

MEMBER PROPERTIES (UNIT = CM)


----------------------------CROSS
IZ =
IY =
IX =

SECTION AREA = 2.77E+01


1.09E+03
SZ = 1.45E+02
3.38E+02
SY = 4.51E+01
3.74E+00
CW = 1.75E+04

MEMBER LENGTH =
PZ = 1.63E+02
PY = 6.92E+01

2.00E+02

EFFECTIVE MEMBER PROPERTIES FOR CLASS-4 SECTION(UNIT = CM)


---------------------------------------------------------EFFECTIVE CROSS SECTION AREA = 2.63E+01
EFFECTIVE IZ = 1.02E+03
EFFECTIVE SZ =
EFFECTIVE IY = 2.66E+02
EFFECTIVE SY =
EFFECTIVE YILED STRESS = 256.0

1.35E+02
3.85E+01

MPA

International Design Codes Manual 151

3B.11 Verification Problems

COMPRESSIVE CAPACITIES FOR CLASS 4 SECTION(UNIT = MPA)


-----------------------------------------------------BASED ON EFFECTIVE AREA
CR1 = 7.098E+02
CR2 =
CTORFLX = 5.582E+02

5.582E+02

CRZ =

6.705E+02

BASED ON EFFECTIVE YIELD STRENGTH


CR1 = 6.373E+02
CR2 = 5.219E+02
CTORFLX = 5.219E+02

CRZ =

6.084E+02

MATERIAL PROPERTIES (UNIT = MPA)


-------------------------------FYLD = 300.0

FU = 345.0

E =

2.05E+05

G =

7.88E+04

SECTION CAPACITIES (UNIT - KN,M)


--------------------------------CR1 = 6.373E+02
CR2 = 5.219E+02
SECTION CLASS 4
CRZ = 6.084E+02
CTORFLX = 5.219E+02
TENSILE CAPACITY
= 7.300E+02
COMPRESSIVE CAPACITY = 5.219E+02
FACTORED MOMENT RESISTANCE : MRY = 1.038E+01
MRZ = 3.657E+01
FACTORED SHEAR RESISTANCE

MU =
: VRY =

2.486E+02
1.871E+02

VRZ =

3.208E+02

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
-------------------------NET SECTION FACTOR FOR TENSION = 1.000
KL/RY =
57.222
KL/RZ =
31.904
ALLOWABLE KL/R = 200.000
UNSUPPORTED LENGTH OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE (M) = 2.000
OMEGA-1 (Y-AXIS) = 1.00
OMEGA-1 (Z-AXIS) = 1.00
OMEGA-2 = 1.75
SHEAR FORCE (KNS) : Y AXIS = 6.000E+00
Z AXIS = 6.000E+00
SLENDERNESS RATIO OF WEB (H/W) = 1.97E+01
56. FINISH

*********** END OF THE STAAD.Pro RUN ***********


**** DATE= AUG 17,2010

TIME= 17: 6:28 ****

************************************************************
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152 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3B.11 Verification Problems

************************************************************

International Design Codes Manual 153

154 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3C.1 Cross-Sectional Properties

3C. Canadian Codes - Design Per Canadian Cold Formed


Steel Code S136-94
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Canadian code S136-94 Specification
for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members, including revisions dated May, 1995. The
program allows design of single (non-composite) members in tension, compression, bending, shear,
as well as their combinations. For laterally supported members in bending, the Initiation of
Yielding method has been used. Cold work of forming strengthening effects have been included as
an option.
Design of members per S136-94 requires the STAAD CAN/AUS/SA Design Codes SELECTCode
Pack.

3C.1 Cross-Sectional Properties


The user specifies the geometry of the cross-section by selecting one of the section shape
designations from the Gross Section Property Tables published in the "Cold-Formed Steel Design
Manual", AISI, 1996 Edition.
The Tables are currently available for the following shapes:
l

Channel with Lips

Channel without Lips

Angle with Lips

Angle without Lips

Z with Lips

Z without Lips

Hat

Shape selection may be done using the member property pages of the graphical user interface (GUI)
or by specifying the section designation symbol in the input file.
The properties listed in the tables are gross section properties. STAAD.Pro uses unreduced section
properties in the structure analysis stage. Both unreduced and effective section properties are used
in the design stage, as applicable.

3C.2 Design Procedure


The following two design modes are available:

International Design Codes Manual 155

3C.2 Design Procedure

3C.2.1 Code Checking


The program compares the resistance of members with the applied load effects, in accordance with
CSA 136. Code checking is carried out for locations specified via the SECTION command or the
BEAM parameter. The results are presented in a form of a PASS/FAIL identifier and a RATIO of
load effect to resistance for each member checked. You may choose the degree of detail in the
output data by setting the TRACK parameter.
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code Checking.
Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification of the Code
Checking command.

3C.2.2 Member Selection


You may request that the program search the cold formed steel shapes database (AISI standard
sections) for alternative members that pass the code check and meet the least weight criterion. In
addition, a minimum and/or maximum acceptable depth of the member may be specified. The
program will then evaluate all database sections of the type initially specified (i.e., channel, angle,
etc.) and, if a suitable replacement is found, present design results for that section. If no section
satisfying the depth restrictions or lighter than the initial one can be found, the program leaves the
member unchanged, regardless of whether it passes the code check or not.
Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification of
the Member Selection command.

3C.2.3 Code Sections Implemented


The program calculates effective section properties in accordance with Clauses 5.6.2.1 through 3 and
5.6.2.6 through 8. Cross-sectional properties and overall slenderness of members are checked for
compliance with
l

Clause 5.3, Maximum Effective Slenderness Ratio for members in Compression

Clause 5.4, Maximum Flat Width Ratios for Elements in Compression

Clause 5.5, Maximum Section Depths.

The program will check member strength in accordance with Clause 6 of the Standard as follows:
l

Resistance factors listed in Clauses 6.2 (a), (b), and (e) are used, as applicable.

Members in tension - Resistance is calculated in accordance with Clauses 6.3.1 and 6.3.2.

Members in bending and shear

Resistance calculations are based on Clauses:

156 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3C.3 Design Parameters

6.4.1 General,

6.4.2 and 6.4.2.1 Laterally Supported Members, compressive limit stress based on Initiation of
Yielding,

6.4.3 Laterally Unsupported Members,

6.4.4 Channels and Z-Shaped Members with Unstiffened Flanges - additional limitations,

6.4.5 Shear in Webs,

6.4.6 Combined Bending and Shear in Webs.

Members in compression
Resistance calculations are based on Clauses:

6.6.1.1, 6.6.1.2 (a) and (d), and 6.6.1.3 General,

6.6.2 Sections Not Subject to Torsional-Flexural Buckling,

6.6.3 Singly Symmetric Sections,

6.6.4 Point-Symmetric Sections,

6.6.5 Cylindrical Tubular Sections.

Members in compression and bending


Resistance calculations are based on Clause 6.7.1, Singly and Doubly Symmetric Sections.
Input for the coefficients of uniform bending must be provided.

3C.3 Design Parameters


The following table contains the input parameters for specifying values of design variables and
selection of design options.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 3C.1-Canadian Cold Formed Steel Design Parameters
Parameter
Name
CODE

Default Value

Description

Must be specified S136.


Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.

International Design Codes Manual 157

3C.3 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default Value

Description

BEAM

1.0

When this parameter is set to 1.0 (default),


the adequacy of the member is determined
by checking a total of 13 equally spaced
locations along the length of the member.
If the BEAM value is 0.0, the 13 location
check is not conducted, and instead,
checking is done only at the locations
specified by the SECTION command (See
STAAD manual for details). If neither the
BEAM parameter nor any SECTION
command is specified, STAAD will
terminate the run and ask the user to
provide one of those 2 commands. This
rule is not enforced for TRUSS members.

CMZ

1.0

Coefficient of equivalent uniform bending


. See CSA 136, 6.7.2. Used for Combined
z
axial load and bending design. Values
range from 0.4 to 1.0.

CMY

0.0

Coefficient of equivalent uniform bending


. See CSA 136, 6.7.2. Used for Combined
y
axial load and bending design. Values
range from 0.4 to 1.0.

CWY

Specifies whether the cold work of forming


strengthening effect should be included in
resistance computation. See CSA 136, 5.2.
0. effect should not be included
1. effect should be included

DMAX

1000.0

Maximum depth permissible for the


section during member selection. This
value must be provided in the current
units.

DMIN

0.0

Minimum depth required for the section


during member selection. This value must
be provided in the current units.

158 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3C.3 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name
FLX

Default Value

Description

Specifies whether torsional-flexural


buckling restraint is provided or is not
necessary for the member. See CSA 136,
6.6.2
0. Section subject to torsional flexural
buckling and restraint not provided
1. restraint provided or unnecessary

FU

450 MPa

Ultimate tensile strength of steel in


current units.

FYLD

350 MPa

Yield strength of steel in current units.

KT

1.0

Effective length factor for torsional


buckling. It is a fraction and is unit-less.
Values can range from 0.01 (for a column
completely prevented from torsional
buckling) to any user specified large value.
It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for
twisting for determining the capacity in
axial compression.

KY

1.0

Effective length factor for overall column


buckling about the local Y-axis. It is a
fraction and is unit-less. Values can range
from 0.01 (for a column completely
prevented from buckling) to any user
specified large value. It is used to compute
the KL/R ratio for determining the
capacity in axial compression.

KZ

1.0

Effective length factor for overall column


buckling in the local Z-axis. It is a fraction
and is unit-less. Values can range from 0.01
(for a column completely prevented from
buckling) to any user specified large value.
It is used to compute the KL/R ratio for
determining the capacity in axial
compression.

International Design Codes Manual 159

3C.3 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default Value

Description

LT

Member
length

Unbraced length for twisting. It is input in


the current units of length. Values can
range from 0.01 (for a column completely
prevented from torsional buckling) to any
user specified large value. It is used to
compute the KL/R ratio for twisting for
determining the capacity in axial
compression.

LY

Member
length

Effective length for overall column


buckling in the local Y-axis. It is input in
the current units of length. Values can
range from 0.01 (for a column completely
prevented from buckling) to any user
specified large value. It is used to compute
the KL/R ratio for determining the
capacity in axial compression.

LZ

Member
length

Effective length for overall column


buckling in the local Z-axis. It is input in
the current units of length. Values can
range from 0.01 (for a column completely
prevented from buckling) to any user
specified large value. It is used to compute
the KL/R ratio for determining the
capacity in axial compression.

NSF

1.0

Net section factor for tension members,


See CSA 136, 6.3.1.

STIFF

Member
length

Spacing in the longitudinal direction of


shear stiffeners for stiffened flat webs. It is
input in the current units of length. See
section CSA 136, 6.4.5

160 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3C.3 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name
TRACK

Default Value

Description

This parameter is used to control the level


of detail in which the design output is
reported in the output file. The allowable
values are:
0. Prints only the member number,
section name, ratio, and PASS/FAIL
status.
1. Prints the design summary in
addition to that printed by TRACK
1
2. Prints member and material
properties in addition to that
printed by TRACK 2.

TSA

Specifies whether bearing and


intermediate transverse stiffeners satisfy
the requirements of CSA 136, 6.5. If true,
the program uses the more liberal set of
interaction equations in 6.4.6.
0. stiffeners do not comply with 6.5
1. stiffeners comply with 6.5

International Design Codes Manual 161

162 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3D.1 General Comments

3D. Canadian Codes - Wood Design Per CSA Standard


CAN/CSA-086-01
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing timber design based on the Canadian code CSA 086-01 Wood
Design Standard.
Design of members per CSA 086-01 requires the STAAD CAN/AUS/SA Design Codes SELECTCode
Pack.

3D.1 General Comments


The design philosophy of this specification is based on the concept of limit state design. Structures
are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which they would
become unfit for their intended use. Two major categories of limit-state are recognized - ultimate
and serviceability. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength and
stability, while that in serviceability is deflection. Appropriate load and resistance factors are used so
that a uniform reliability is achieved for the entire structure under various loading conditions and
at the same time the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote.
In the STAAD implementation, the code checking portion of the program checks whether code
requirements for each selected section are met and identifies the governing criteria.
The following sections describe the salient features of the STAAD implementation of CSA086-01. A
detailed description of the design process along with its underlying concepts and assumptions is
available in the specification document.

3D.2 Analysis Methodology


Analysis is done for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. The
user is allowed complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load
factors to create necessary loading situations.

3D.3 Member Property Specifications


A timber section library consisting of Sawn and Glulam timber is available for member property
specification.
For specification of member properties, for Sawn timber the timber section library available in
STAAD may be used. The next section describes the syntax of commands used to assign properties
from the built-in timber table.
For Glulam timber, member properties can be specified using the YD (depth) and ZD (width)
specifications and selecting Combination and Species specifications from the built-in table. The
assignment is done with the help of the PRISMATIC option (Refer to Section 5.20 of the Technical
Reference Manual)

International Design Codes Manual 163

3D.4 Built-in Timber Section Library

3D.4 Built-in Timber Section Library


The following information is provided for use when the built-in timber tables are to be referenced
for member property specification. These properties are stored in a database file. If called for, the
properties are also used for member design.
Following are the description of the different types of species combination available:

3D.4.1 Douglas Fir-Larch


The following example illustrates the specification of Douglas Fir-Larch species combination.
100 TO 150 TABLE ST DFL_SelStr_2X2_BM

3D.4.2 Hem-Fir
Designation of Hem-Fir species combination in STAAD is as follows.
100 TO 150 TABLE ST Hem-Fir_SelStr_2X10_BM

3D.4.3 Northern Species


Designation of Northern species combination in STAAD is as follows.
100 TO 150 TABLE ST Northern_SelStr_3X12_BM

3D.4.4 Spruce-Pine-Fir
Designation of Spruce-Pine-Fir species combination in STAAD is as follows.
100 TO 150 TABLE ST SPF_SelStr_3X8_BM

3D.4.5 Glu Laminated timber


Designation of Glu-lam timber in STAAD involves defining the material, specifying the dimensions,
and associating the material with the member through the CONSTANTS command.
UNIT CM KN
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC GLT_D.Fir-L-24f-EX
E 51611.7
POISSON 0.15

164 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3D.5 Member Resistance

DENSITY 2.5e-005
ALPHA 1.2e-011
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY TIMBER CANADIAN
1 PRIS YD 12 ZD 6
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL GLT_D.Fir-L-24f-EX MEMB 1

3D.4.6 Example
Sample input file to demonstrate usage of Canadian timber
STAAD PLANE EXAMPLE FOR DIMENSIONAL LUMBER
UNIT FEET POUND
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 6 0 0; 3 12 0 0; 4 18 0 0;
5 24 0 0; 6 6 3 0; 7 12 6 0; 8 18 3 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2; 2 2 3; 3 3 4; 4 4 5; 5 1 6; 6 6 7; 7 7 8; 8 8 5;
9 2 6; 10 3 7; 11 4 8; 12 6 3; 13 3 8;
UNIT FEET POUND
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC SPF_SelStr_4X10_BM
E 1224
POISSON 0.15
DENSITY 25
ALPHA 5.5e-006
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY tim can
1 TO 4 9 TO 11 TABLE ST SPF_SelStr_4X10_BM
5 TO 8 12 13 TABLE ST SPF_SelStr_4X10_BM
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL SPF_SelStr_4X10_BM memb 1 TO 4 9 TO 11
MATERIAL SPF_SelStr_4X10_BM memb 5 TO 8 12 13
PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES
FINISH

3D.5 Member Resistance


The member resistances are calculated in STAAD according to the procedures outlined in section 5
(for sawn lumber) and 6 (for Glulam) of CSA086-01.
These depend on several adjustment factors as follows:
KD
Load duration factor (Clause 4.3.2.2-CSA086-01, Table 4.3.2.2)

International Design Codes Manual 165

3D.5 Member Resistance

KH
System factor(Clause 5.4.4 and 6.4.3 and Table 5.4.4 -CSA086-01)
K_T
Treatment factor(Clause 5.4.3 and 6.4.4 -CSA086-01)
KSB
Service condition factor applicable to Bending at extreme fibre (Table 5.4.2 and 6.4.2 CSA086-01)
KSV
Service condition factor applicable to longitudinal shear (Table 5.4.2 and 6.4.2 CSA086-01)
KSC
Service condition factor applicable to Compression parallel to the grain (Table 5.4.2 and
6.4.2 CSA086-01)
K_SCP
Service condition factor applicable to Compression perpendicular to the grain (Table 5.4.2
and 6.4.2 CSA086-01)
KSE
Service condition factor applicable to modulus of elasticity (Table 5.4.2 and 6.4.2
CSA086-01)
KST
Service condition factor applicable to tension parallel to the grain (Table 5.4.2 and 6.4.2
CSA086-01)
KZB
Size factor applicable to bending (Clause 5.4.5 and Table 5.4.5 -CSA086-01)
KZV
size factor applicable to shear(Clause 5.4.5 and Table 5.4.5 -CSA086-01)
KZT
size factor applicable to tension parallel to grain (Clause 5.4.5 and Table 5.4.5 -CSA086-01)
KZCP
size factor applicable to compression perpendicular to grain (Clause 5.4.5 and Table 5.4.5 CSA086-01)
K_ZC
size factor applicable to compression parallel to grain (Clause 5.4.5 and Table 5.4.5 CSA086-01)
CHIX
Curvature factor (Clause 6.5.6.5.2-CSA086-01)

166 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3D.5 Member Resistance

CV
shear load coefficient (Table 6.5.7.4A- CSA086-01)
KN
Notch factor(Clause 5.5.5.4-CSA086-01)
All of these factors must be specified as input according to the classification of timber and stress
grade.
Explained here is the procedure adopted in STAAD for calculating the member resistances.

3D.5.1 Axial Tension


i. For Sawn timber
The criterion governing the capacity of tension members is based on one limit state. The
limit state involves fracture at the section with the minimum effective net area. The net
section area may be specified by the user through the use of the parameter NSF (see Table
3B.1). STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a member based on this limit state per Clause
5.5.9 of CSA086-01.
ii. For Glulam timber
The design of glulam tension members differs from sawn timber since CSA 086-01 assigns
different specified strength for gross and net section. The specified strength at net section is
slightly higher than the strength of the gross section. Therefore, Glulam tension members
are designed based on two limit states. The first one is the limit state of yielding in the gross
section. The second limit state involves fracture at the section with the minimum effective
net area. The net-section area may be specified by the user through the use of the parameter
NSF (see Table 3B.1). STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a member based on these two
limits states per Clause.6.5.11 of CSA086-01.

3D.5.2 Axial Compression


The compressive resistance of columns is determined based on Clause.5.5.6 and Clause.6.5.8.4 of
CSA086-01. The equations presented in this section of the code assume that the compressive
resistance is a function of the compressive strength of the gross section (Gross section Area times
the Yield Strength) as well as the slenderness factor (Kc). The effective length for the calculation of
compression resistance may be provided through the use of the parameters KX, KY, KZ, LX, LY and
LZ (see Table 3B.1).

3D.5.3 Bending
The bending resistance of Sawn members are determined based on Clause 5.5.4 of CSA086-01 and
for glulam members are determined based on Clause 6.5.6.5 of CSA086-01. The allowable stress in
bending is multiplied by Lateral stability factor, KL to take in account whether lateral support is
provided at points of bearing to prevent lateral displacement and rotation

International Design Codes Manual 167

3D.6 Design Parameters

3D.5.4 Axial compression and bending


The member strength for sections subjected to axial compression and uni-axial or biaxial bending is
obtained through the use of interaction equations. Clause 5.5.10 and 6.5.12 of the code provides the
equations for this purpose. If the summation of the left hand side of these equations exceeds 1.0 or
the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table 3B.1), the member is considered
to have FAILed under the loading condition.

3D.5.5 Axial tension and bending


The member strength for sections subjected to axial tension and uniaxial or biaxial bending is
obtained through the use of interaction equations. Clause 5.5.10 and 6.5.12 of the code provides the
equations for this purpose. If the summation of the left hand side of these equations exceeds 1.0 or
the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table 3B.1), the member is considered
to have FAILed under the loading condition.

3D.5.6 Shear
The shear resistance of the cross section is determined using the equations of Clause 5.5.5 and
6.5.7.2 of the code. Once this is obtained, the ratio of the shear force acting on the cross section to
the shear resistance of the section is calculated. If any of the ratios (for both local Y & Z axes)
exceed 1.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table 3B.1), the section
is considered to have failed under shear.

3D.6 Design Parameters


The design parameters outlined in Table below may be used to control the design procedure. These
parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus allows the
engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs.
The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for
conventional design. Depending on the particular design requirements, some or all of these
parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 3D.1-Canadian Timber Design Parameters
Parameter
Name
CODE

Default Value

Description

Must be specified as TIMBER CANADIAN.


Design Code to follow. See section 5.51.1 of
the Technical Reference Manual.

168 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3D.6 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default Value

Description

CHIX

1.0

Curvature Factor for Compression [Clause


6.5.6.5.2]

CV

1.0

Shear Load Coefficient [Table 6.5.7.4A]

KD

1.0

Load Duration Factor [Clause.4.3.2, Table


4.3.2]

KH

1.0

System Factor [Clause 5.4.4/6.4.3, Table


5.4.4]

KN

1.0

Notch Factor [Clause 5.4.7.2.2]

KSB

1.0

Service Condition Factor for Bending at


Extreme Fibre
Applicable for bending at extreme fibre
[Table 5.4.2 and 6.4.2]

KSC

1.0

Service Condition Factor for Compression,


Applicable for compression parallel to grain
[Table 5.4.2 and 6.4.2]

KSE

1.0

Service Condition Factor for Modulus of


Elasticity,
Applicable for modulus of elasticity [Table
5.4.2 and 6.4.2]

KST

1.0

Service Condition Factor for Tension,


Applicable for tension parallel to grain
[Table 5.4.2 and 6.4.2]

KSV

1.0

Service Condition Factor for Shear,


Applicable for longitudinal shear [Table
5.4.2 and 6.4.2]

KX

1.0

K value for flexural torsional buckling

KY

1.0

K value in local Y-axis, usually minor axis

KZ

1.0

K value in local Z-axis, usually major axis

KZB

1.0

Size Factor for Bending,


Applicable for bending [Clause.5.4.5 and
Table 5.4.5]

International Design Codes Manual 169

3D.7 Code Checking

Parameter
Name

Default Value

KZCP

1.0

Description

Size Factor for Compression,


Applicable for compression perpendicular
to grain [Clause .5.4.5 and Table 5.4.5]

KZT

1.0

Size Factor for Tension,


Applicable for tension parallel to grain
[Clause 5.4.5 and Table 5.4.5]

KZV

1.0

Size Factor for Shear [Clause 5.4.5 and


Table 5.4.5]

K_SCP

1.0

Service Condition Factor for Compression,


Applicable for compression perpendicular
to grain [Clause 5.4.2 and Table 6.4.2]

K_T

1.0

Treatment Factor [Clause 5.4.3/6.4.4]

K_ZC

1.0

Size Factor for Compression,


Applicable for compression parallel to grain
[Clause 5.4.5 and Table 5.4.5]

LX

Member
length

Length for flexural torsional buckling

LY

Member
length

Length in local Y axis for slenderness value


KL/r

LZ

Member
length

Length in local Z axis for slenderness value


KL/r

NSF

1.0

Net section factor for tension members

RATIO

1.0

Permissible Ratio of Actual to Allowable


Value

3D.7 Code Checking


The purpose of code checking is to check whether the provided section properties of the members
are adequate. The adequacy is checked as per the CSA086-01 requirements.
Code checking is done using forces and moments at specified sections of the members. The code
checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. In addition, the critical condition,
governing load case, location (distance from the start joint) and magnitudes of the governing
forces and moments are also printed.

170 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3D.8 Member Selection

Refer to Section 4.4 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code Checking.
Refer to Section 5.51.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification of the Code
Checking command.
PARAMETER
CODE TIMBER CAN
KD 0.99 ALL
KH 0.99 ALL
K_T 0.99 ALL
KSB 0.99 ALL
KSV 0.99 ALL
KSC 0.99 ALL
KSE 0.99 ALL
KST 0.99 ALL
KZB 0.99 ALL
KZV 0.99 ALL
KZT 0.99 ALL
KZCP 0.99 ALL
K_ZC 0.99 ALL
CV 0.99 ALL
KN 0.99 ALL
K_SCP 0.99 ALL
CHIX 0.99 ALL
RATIO 0.99 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL
FINISH

3D.8 Member Selection


Member selection based CSA086-2001 is not available.

3D.9 Tabulated Results of Timber Design


Results of code checking and member selection are presented in a tabular format. The term
CRITICAL COND refers to the section of the CSA086-01 specification, which governed the design.
Pu
Actual Load in Compression
Tu
Actual Load in Tension
Muy
Ultimate moment in y direction
Muz
Ultimate moment in z direction
V
Ultimate shear force

International Design Codes Manual 171

3D.10 Verification Problems

SLENDERNESS_Y
Actual Slenderness ratio in y direction
SLENDERNESS_Z
Actual Slenderness ratio in z direction
PY
Factored Compressive capacity in y direction
PZ
Factored Compressive capacity in z direction
T
Factored tensile capacity
MY
Factored moment of resistance in y direction
MZ
Factored moment of resistance in z direction
V
Factored shear resistance
SLENDERNESS
Allowable slenderness ratio

3D.10 Verification Problems


These verification examples are included for reference purposes.

3D.10.1 Verification Problem No. 1


Determine the Canadian Glulam section column in axial compression, with design per Canadian
wood design code (CSA:086-01). Column is effectively pinned at both ends and braced at midheight in all direction.
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as
/SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/canada_glulamcolumn.std

Reference
Example 4, page 116, Canadian Wood Design Manual, 2001

172 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3D.10 Verification Problems

Given
Length = 9000 mm

Comparison
Table 3D.2-CAN/CSA-086-01 Verification Problem 1
Criteria

Reference STAAD.Pro Difference

Design Strength
(kN)

295

293.793

none

Output for Member Design


STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING - (S086)
***********************
ALL UNITS ARE - KN
METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER
TABLE
RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================
1
175.00X228.00 CANADIAN GLULAM GRADE:GLT_SPRUCE-PINE-12C-E
PASS
CL.5.5.10/6.5
0.728
1
214.00 C
0.00
0.00
0.0000
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| LEZ =
4500.000 LEY =
4500.000 LUZ =
9000.000 LUY =
9000.000mm
|
|
|
| KD = 1.000
KH
= 1.000
KT
= 1.000
KSB = 1.000
KSV = 1.000 |
| KSC = 1.000
K_SCP = 1.000
KSE = 1.000
KST = 1.000
KZB = 1.000 |
| KZV = 1.000
KZT
= 1.000
KZCP = 1.000
K_ZC = 1.000
CHIX = 1.000 |
| CV = 1.000
KN
= 1.000
|
|
|
| ACTUAL LOADS : (KN-m)
|
|
Pu =
214.000
|
|
Tu =
0.000
|
|
Muy =
0.000
|
|
Muz =
0.000
|
|
V
=
0.000
|
|
SLENDERNESS_Y =
19.737
|
|
SLENDERNESS_Z =
25.714
|
| ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KN-m)
|
|
PY =
413.943
|
|
PZ =
293.793
|
|
T
=
0.000
|
|
MY =
0.000
|
|
MZ =
0.000
|
|
V
=
0.000
|
|
SLENDERNESS =
50.000
|
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|

3D.10.2 Verification Problem: 2


Determine the bending capacity of a Canadian Glulam section single span floor beam, with design
per Canadian wood design code (CSA:086-01). The compression edge assumed fully supported.

International Design Codes Manual 173

3D.10 Verification Problems

This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as


/SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/canada_glulambeam.std

Reference
Example 2, page 59, Canadian Wood Design Manual, 2001

Given
Length = 7,500 mm, Beam Spacing = 5,000 mm, Standard load condition, Dry service condition,
Untreated

Comparison
Table 3D.3-CAN/CSA-086-01 Verification Problem 2
Criteria

Reference STAAD.Pro Difference

Design Strength
in Bending
(kNm)

208

208.323

none

Design Strength
in Shear (kN)

101

100.776

none

Output for Member Design


STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING - (S086)
***********************
ALL UNITS ARE - KN
METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER
TABLE
RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================
1
130.00X646.00 CANADIAN GLULAM GRADE:GLT_D.FIR-L-20F-E
FAIL
CL.5.5.5/6.5.
1.008
1
0.00 T
0.00
0.00
0.0000
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| LEZ =
7500.000 LEY =
7500.000 LUZ =
7500.000 LUY =
7500.000mm
|
|
|
| KD = 1.000
KH
= 1.000
KT
= 1.000
KSB = 1.000
KSV = 1.000 |
| KSC = 1.000
K_SCP = 1.000
KSE = 1.000
KST = 1.000
KZB = 1.000 |
| KZV = 1.000
KZT
= 1.000
KZCP = 1.000
K_ZC = 1.000
CHIX = 1.000 |
| CV = 1.000
KN
= 1.000
|
|
|
| ACTUAL LOADS : (KN-m)
|
|
Pu =
0.000
|
|
Tu =
0.000
|
|
Muy =
0.000
|
|
Muz =
0.000
|
|
V
=
101.625
|
|
SLENDERNESS_Y =
16.932
|
|
SLENDERNESS_Z =
1.529
|
| ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KN-m)
|

174 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3D.10 Verification Problems

|
|
|
|
|
|

PY
PZ
T
MY
MZ
V

=
=
=
=
=
=

0.000
0.000
0.000
41.923
208.323
100.776

|
|
|
|
|
|

|
SLENDERNESS =
50.000
|
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|

3D.10.3 Verification Problem No. 3


Determine the capacity of a Canadian Glulam section in axial tension, with design per the
Canadian wood design code (CSA:086-01).
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as
/SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/canada_glulamtension.std

Reference
Example 3, page 158, Canadian Wood Design Manual, 2001

Given
Dry service condition, Untreated

Comparison
Table 3D.4-CAN/CSA-086-01 Verification Problem 3
Criteria
Design Strength
in Tension (kN)

Reference STAAD.Pro Difference


257

256.636

none

Output for Member Design


STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING - (S086)
***********************
ALL UNITS ARE - KN
METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER
TABLE
RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================
1
80.00X266.00 CANADIAN GLULAM GRADE:GLT_SPRUCE-PINE-14T-E
PASS
CL.5.5.10/6.5
0.974
1
250.00 T
0.00
0.00
0.0000
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| LEZ =
4500.000 LEY =
4500.000 LUZ =
9000.000 LUY =
9000.000mm
|
|
|
| KD = 1.000
KH
= 1.000
KT
= 1.000
KSB = 1.000
KSV = 1.000 |
| KSC = 1.000
K_SCP = 1.000
KSE = 1.000
KST = 1.000
KZB = 1.000 |
| KZV = 1.000
KZT
= 1.000
KZCP = 1.000
K_ZC = 1.000
CHIX = 1.000 |
| CV = 1.000
KN
= 1.000
|
|
|

International Design Codes Manual 175

3D.10 Verification Problems

| ACTUAL LOADS : (KN-m)


|
Pu =
0.000
|
Tu =
-250.000
|
Muy =
0.000
|
Muz =
0.000
|
V
=
0.000
| ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KN-m)
|
PY =
0.000
|
PZ =
0.000
|
T
=
256.636

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

|
MY =
0.000
|
|
MZ =
0.000
|
|
V
=
0.000
|
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|

3D.10.4 Verification Problem No. 4


Determine the Canadian Sawn section column in axial compression, with design per the Canadian
wood design code (CSA:086-01). Column is effectively pinned at both ends.
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as
/SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/canada_sawn_lumber_column.std

Reference
Example 2, page 113, Canadian Wood Design Manual, 2001

Given
Unbraced Length = 5,000 mm

Comparison
Table 3D.5-CAN/CSA-086-01 Verification Problem 4
Criteria
Design Strength
(kN)

Reference STAAD.Pro Difference


130

129.223

none

Output for Member Design


STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING - (S086)
***********************
ALL UNITS ARE - KN
METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER
TABLE
RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST DFL_NO2_8X8_POST
PASS
CL.5.5.10/6.5.12
0.882
1
114.00 C
0.00
0.00
0.0000
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| LEZ =
5000.000 LEY =
5000.000 LUZ =
5000.000 LUY =
5000.000mm
|

176 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3D.10 Verification Problems

|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

KD
KSC
KZV
CV

=
=
=
=

1.000
0.910
1.000
1.000

KH
K_SCP
KZT
KN

=
=
=
=

1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000

KT
= 1.000
KSE = 1.000
KZCP = 1.000

KSB = 1.000
KST = 1.000
K_ZC = 1.050

ACTUAL LOADS : (KN-m)


Pu =
114.000
Tu =
0.000
Muy =
0.000
Muz =
0.000
V
=
0.000
SLENDERNESS_Y =
26.178
SLENDERNESS_Z =
26.178
ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KN-m)
PY =
129.223
PZ =
129.223

|
KSV = 1.000 |
KZB = 1.000 |
CHIX = 1.000 |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

|
T
=
0.000
|
|
MY =
0.000
|
|
MZ =
0.000
|
|
V
=
0.000
|
|
SLENDERNESS =
50.000
|
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|

3D.10.5 Verification Problem No. 5


Determine the bending capacity of a Canadian sawn section single span floor beam, with design per
the Canadian wood design code (CSA:086-01).
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as
/SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/canada_sawn_lumber_beam1.std

Reference
Example 1, page 58, Canadian Wood Design Manual, 2001

Given
Length =6000mm, Beam Spacing = 3000mm, Standard load condition, Dry service condition,
Untreated

Comparison
Table 3D.6-CAN/CSA-086-01 Verification Problem 5
Criteria

Reference STAAD.Pro Difference

Design Strength
in Bending
(kNm)

79.8

79.732

none

Design Strength
in Shear (kN)

46.1

46.170

none

International Design Codes Manual 177

3D.10 Verification Problems

Output for Member Design


STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING - (S086)
***********************
ALL UNITS ARE - KN
METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER
TABLE
RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST DFL_NO1_10X16_BM
FAIL
CL.5.5.5/6.5.6
1.066
1
0.00 T
0.00
49.20
0.0000
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| LEZ =
3000.000 LEY =
3000.000 LUZ =
3000.000 LUY =
3000.000mm
|
|
|
| KD = 1.000
KH
= 1.000
KT
= 1.000
KSB = 1.000
KSV = 1.000 |
| KSC = 1.000
K_SCP = 1.000
KSE = 1.000
KST = 1.000
KZB = 0.900 |
| KZV = 0.900
KZT
= 1.000
KZCP = 1.000
K_ZC = 1.050
CHIX = 1.000 |
| CV = 1.000
KN
= 1.000
|
|
|
| ACTUAL LOADS : (KN-m)
|
|
Pu =
0.000
|
|
Tu =
0.000
|
|
Muy =
0.000
|
|
Muz =
49.200
|
|
V
=
49.200
|
|
SLENDERNESS_Y =
4.511
|
|
SLENDERNESS_Z =
2.158
|
| ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KN-m)
|
|
PY =
0.000
|
|
PZ =
0.000
|
|
T
=
0.000
|
|
MY =
79.800
|
|
MZ =
79.732
|
|
V
=
46.170
|
|
SLENDERNESS =
50.000
|
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|

3D.10.6 Verification Problem No. 6


Determine the capacity of a Canadian Sawn section in axial tension, with design per the Canadian
wood design code (CSA:086-01).
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as
/SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/canada_sawn_lumber_tension.std

Reference
Example 2, page 158, Canadian Wood Design Manual, 2001

Given
Dry service condition, Untreated

178 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3D.10 Verification Problems

Comparison
Table 3D.7-CAN/CSA-086-01 Verification Problem 6
Criteria
Design Strength
in Tension (kN)

Reference STAAD.Pro Difference


185

184.338

none

Output for Member Design


STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING - (S086)
***********************
ALL UNITS ARE - KN
METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER
TABLE
RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST DFL_NO1_6X8_BM
PASS
CL.5.5.10/6.5.12
0.781
1
144.00 T
0.00
0.00
0.0000
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| LEZ =
5000.000 LEY =
5000.000 LUZ =
5000.000 LUY =
5000.000mm
|
|
|
| KD = 1.000
KH
= 1.100
KT
= 1.000
KSB = 1.000
KSV = 1.000 |
| KSC = 0.910
K_SCP = 1.000
KSE = 1.000
KST = 1.000
KZB = 1.000 |
| KZV = 1.000
KZT
= 1.000
KZCP = 1.000
K_ZC = 1.050
CHIX = 1.000 |
| CV = 1.000
KN
= 1.000
|
|
|
| ACTUAL LOADS : (KN-m)
|
|
Pu =
0.000
|
|
Tu =
-144.000
|
|
Muy =
0.000
|
|
Muz =
0.000
|
|
V
=
0.000
|
| ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KN-m)
|
|
PY =
0.000
|
|
PZ =
0.000
|
|
T
=
184.338
|
|
MY =
0.000
|
|
MZ =
0.000
|
|
V
=
0.000
|
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|

3D. Canadian Codes - Steel Design per CSA Standard


CAN/CSA-S16-09
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Canadian code CAN/CSA-S16-09
Limit States Design of Steel Structures.
Design of members per CAN/CSA-S16-09 requires the STAAD CAN/AUS/SA Design Codes
SELECTCode Pack.

International Design Codes Manual 179

3D.11 General Comments

3D.11 General Comments


The design of structural steel members in accordance with the specification CAN/CSA S16-09 Limit
States Design of Steel Structures is can be used in STAAD.Pro This code supercedes the previous
edition of the code CAN/CSA S16-01.
The design philosophy embodied in this specification is based on the concept of limit state design.
Structures are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which they
would become unfit for their intended use. Two major categories of limit-states are recognized ultimate and serviceability. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength
and stability, while that in serviceability is deflection. Appropriate load and resistance factors are
used so that a uniform reliability is achieved for all steel structures under various loading
conditions and at the same time the probability of limits being surpassed is acceptably low.
In the STAAD.Pro implementation, members are proportioned to resist the design loads without
exceeding the limit states of strength, stability and serviceability. Accordingly, the most economic
section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria as augmented by the designer in
specification of allowable member depths, desired section type, or other such parameters. The code
checking portion of the program checks whether code requirements for each selected section are
met and identifies the governing criteria.
The following sections describe the salient features of the STAAD.Pro implementation of
CAN/CSA-S16-09. A detailed description of the design process along with its underlying concepts
and assumptions is available in the specification document.

3D.12 Analysis Methodology


The elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Analysis is done
for the specified primary and combination loading condition. You are allowed complete flexibility
in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to create necessary loading
situations. Depending upon the analysis requirements, regular stiffness analysis or P-Delta analysis
may be specified. Dynamic analysis may also be performed and the results combined with static
analysis results.

3D.13 Member Property Specifications


For specification of member properties, the steel section library available in STAAD.Pro may be
used. The next section describes the syntax of commands used to assign properties from the builtin steel table. Member properties may also be specified using the User Table facility. For more
information on these facilities, refer to the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference Manual.

3D.14 Built-in Steel Section Library


The following information is provided for use when the built-in steel tables are to be referenced for
member property specification. These properties are stored in a database file. If called for, the

180 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3D.15 Section Classification

properties are also used for member design. Since the shear areas are built into these tables, shear
deformation is always considered during the analysis of these members.
Almost all Canadian steel sections are available for input. A complete listing of the sections
available in the built-in steel section library may be obtained by using the tools of the graphical
user interface.

3D.15 Section Classification


Steel sections are classified as plastic (Class 1), compact (Class 2), noncompact (Class 3), or slender
element (Class 4) sections depending upon their local buckling characteristics (See Clause 11 and
Table 1 of CAN/CSA-S16-09). The design procedures are different depending on the section class.
STAAD.Pro determines the section classification for the standard shapes and user specified shapes.

3D.16 Member Resistances


The member resistances are calculated in STAAD.Pro according to the procedures outlined in
section 13 of the specification. These depend on several factors such as members unsupported
lengths, cross-sectional properties, slenderness factors, unsupported width to thickness ratios and so
on. Note that the program automatically takes into consideration appropriate resistance factors to
calculate member resistances. Explained here is the procedure adopted in STAAD.Pro for
calculating the member resistances.
= 0.9 and u = 0.75

3D.16.1 Members Subject to Axial Forces


Axial Tension
The criteria governing the capacity of tension members are based on two limit states: resistance due
to yielding and resistance due to rupture. The resistance due to rupture depends on effective net
section area. You may specify the net section area through the NSF design parameter. STAAD.Pro
calculates the tension capacity of a member based on these two limits states per Cl.13.2 of
CAN/CSA-S16-09. Design parameters FYLD, FU, and NSF (See "Design Parameters" on page 189) are
applicable for these calculations
i. Yielding, per Cl. 13.2(a)
Tr = A g Fy

ii. Rupture, per Cl. 13.2 (b)


Tr = u A ne Fu

International Design Codes Manual 181

3D.16 Member Resistances

Axial Compression
The compressive resistance of columns is determined based on Clause 13.3 of the code. The
equations presented in this section of the code assume that the compressive resistance is a function
of the compressive strength of the gross section (Gross section Area times the Yield Strength) as
well as the slenderness factor (KL/r ratios). The effective length for the calculation of compression
resistance may be provided through the use of the parameters KT, KY, KZ, LT, LY, and LZ (See
"Design Parameters" on page 189). Some of the aspects of the axial compression capacity calculations
are :
I. For doubly symmetric sections meeting the requirement of Table 1, resistance is:
Resistance due to Major axis buckling per Cl. 13.3.1.
Resistance due to Minor axis buckling per Cl. 13.3.1

Cr = AFy 1 2n

1 / n

where
n = 1.34
= Fy / Fe
Fe =

2E
kL 2
r

( )

II. For any other section not covered under Cl. 13.3.1, the factored compressive resistance, Cr, is
computed using the expression given in Cl. 13.3.1 with a value of n = 1.34 and the value of Fe
taken as follows:
i. For doubly symmetric sections and axisymmetric sections, the least of Fex , Fey , and
Fez.
ii. For singly symmetric sections with the Y axis taken as the axis of symmetry, the lesser
of Fex and Feyz
where
Feyz =

Fey + Fez

1 1

2E

Fex =

( )
k xL x
rx

182 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

4FeyFez

(Fey + Fez)

3D.16 Member Resistances

Fey =

2E
kyLy
ry

2EC w
1
Fez =
+ GJ 2
2
(K zL z)
Ar 0

x0 ,y0 = shear center


r 02 = x02 + y02 + rx2 + ry2
x 2+ y 2
= 1 0 2 0
r0

iii. For asymmetric sections the smallest root of:


x0 2

y0 2

( ) F (F F )( )

(Fe Fex )(Fe Fey )(Fe Fez ) F e2(Fe Fey )

2
e

r0

ex

r0

=0

III. For Class 4 member subjected to axial compression, the factored compressive resistance is:

Cr = A e Fy 1 2n

1 / n

Ae is calculated using reduced element widths meeting the maximum width to thickness
ratio specified in Table 1.
Effective width required for the calculation of effective area Ae, for different section shapes
are as follows.
l

For flanges of I-section, T-section and channel section and legs of angle section
b e = 200t / Fy

For stem of T-section


b e = 340t / Fy

For flanges of HSS rectangular or Tube sections


b e = 670t / Fy

For circular HSS or Pipe section


D= 23,000t/(Fy

3D.16.2 Members Subject to Bending


The laterally unsupported length of the compression flange for the purpose of computing the
factored moment resistance is specified in STAAD.Pro through the UNT and UNB parameters (See
"Design Parameters" on page 189). The LAT parameter is required to specif if the member is laterally
supported against lateral torsional buckling.

International Design Codes Manual 183

3D.16 Member Resistances

I. The factored moment resistance, Mr, developed by a member subjected to uniaxial bending
moments about a principal axis where effectively continuous lateral support is provided to
the compression flange or where the member has no tendency to buckle laterally, is
calculated as:
i. For Class 1 and Class 2 sections (Cl. 13.5(a) ):
Mr = Z Fy = Mp
ii. For Class 3 sections (Cl. 13.5(b) ):
Mr = S Fy = My
iii. For Class 4 sections (Cl. 13.5(c)):
Mr = Se Fy
where
Se = the effective section modulus determined using an effective flange
670t / Fy
width,be , of
for flanges along two edges parallel to the direction of
200t / Fy
stress and an effective flange width,be of
for flanges supported along
one edge parallel to the direction of stress. For flange supported along one
edge, beIe/t shall not exceed 60.
II. For laterally unsupported members, flexural resistance is calculated as follows:
i. For doubly symmetric Class 1 and Class 2 sections (Cl 13.6(a) ):
M u when M u 0.67M p

0.28M p
Mr =

1.15M p1 M u M p when M u > 0.67M p

where
Mu =

2
L

EI yGJ +

E 2

( )IC
L

2 = 1.75 + 1.05 + 0.3 2 2.5

= ratio of smaller factored moment to the larger factored moment at


opposite ends of the unbraced length (positive for double curvature and
negative for single curvature).
ii. For doubly symmetric Class 3 and Class 4 sections except closed square and circular
sections and for channels:
M u when M u 0.67M y

0.28M y
Mr =

1.15M y1 M u M p when M u > 0.67M y

184 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3D.16 Member Resistances

but not greater than My for Class 3 sections and the value specified in Cl.13.5(c)(iii)
for Class 4 sections.
iii. For singly symmetric (monosymmetric) Class 1, Class 2, or Class 3 sections and Tshape sections, lateral torsional buckling strength shall be checked separately for each
flange under compression under factored loads at any point along its unbraced
length:
l

when Mu > Myr:

L L u
M r = M p M p M yr
M p

L yr L u

where
Myr = 0.7Sx Fy , with Sx taken as the smaller of the two potential
values
Lyr = length L obtained by setting Mu = Myr
L u = 1.1rt E / Fy =

rt =

490rt
Fy

bc

12 1 +

h cw
3b ct c

hc = depth of the web in compression


bc

= width of the compression flange


tc = thickness of the compression flange
l

when M Myr:
M r = M u

where
Mu = the critical elastic moment of the unbraced section =
2
3 2EI y

C
+ 2 + 4 GJL +

2
x
x
2

I y
2L

EI y

x = asymmetry parameter for singly symmetric beam =


2I yc
I y 2
0.9(d t )
11
Iy
I x

Iyc = moment of inertia of the compression flange about the yaxis


Iyt = moment of inertia of the tension flange about the y-axis

International Design Codes Manual 185

3D.16 Member Resistances

when singly symmetric beams are in single curavture,


3 = 2 for beams with two flanges, = 1.0 for T-sections
in all other cases,
3 = 2 [0.5 +2(Iyc/Iy)2 ] f, but 2.0 for T-Sections

3D.16.3 Members Subject to Combined Forces


For each of the following interaction equations, the value of the RATIOparameter is used in lieu of
1.0 when it is specified (See "Design Parameters" on page 189).

Axial compression and bending


The member strength and stability for sections subjected to axial compression and uniaxial or
biaxial bending is obtained through the use of interaction equations. In these equations, the
additional bending caused by the action of the axial load is accounted for by using amplification
factors (Cl. 13.8).
I. For Class 1 and Class 2 sections of I-shaped members(Cl. 13.8.2):
Cf
Cr

0.85U 1xM fx
M rx

U 1yM fy
M ry

1.0

where
Cf, Mf = the maximum load effects, including stability, as specified in Cl. 8.4.
= 0.6 +0.4y 0.85
The capacity of the member is investigated for the following:
a. Cross sectional strength with = 0.6, where
i. Cr as specified in Cl. 13.3 with = 0
ii. Mr as specified in Cl. 13.5
iii. U1x and U1y as specified in Cl. 13.8.4 but not less than 1.0
b. Overall member strength, where
i. Cr as specified in Cl. 13.3 with K = 1, except for uniaxial bending, in which case
Cr is based on the axis of bending
ii. Mr as specified in Cl. 13.5
iii. U1x and U1y are taken as 1.0 for members in an unbraced frame, and as
specified in Cl. 13.8.4 for members in a braced frame
c. Lateral torsional buckling strength, when applicable, where

186 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3D.16 Member Resistances

i. Cr as specified in Cl. 13.3


ii. Mrx as specified in Cl. 13.6
iii. Mry as specified in Cl. 13.5
iv. U1x and U1y are taken as 1.0 for members in an unbraced frame, and as
specified in Cl. 13.8.4 for members in a braced frame (where U1x is not less
than 1.0)
II. For all other cases (Cl13.8.3):
Cf
Cr

U 1xM fx
M rx

U 1yM fy
M ry

1.0

The capacity of the member is investigated for the following per Cl.13.8.2:
a. Cross sectional strength
b. Overall member strength
c. Lateral torsional buckling strength,

Axial tension and bending


Members subjected to axial tension and bending must satisfy the following equation (Cl. 13.9.1):
Tf
Tr

Mf

Mr

1.0

where
Mr = the moment resistance as specified in Cl. 13.5.
Additionally, the following equations must be satisfied for laterally unsupported members (Cl.
13.9.2):
Mf
Mr
Mf
Mr

T fZ
M rA
T fS
M rA

1.0

for Class 1 and Class 2 sections


1.0

for Class 3 and Class 4 sections

where
Mr = the moment resistance as specified in Cl. 13.6.

Biaxial Bending
For bending about both axis, the following equation must be satisfied (Cl. 13.8):
M fx
M rx

M fy
M ry

1.0

International Design Codes Manual 187

3D.16 Member Resistances

Shear and Bending


To resist the combined effects of shear and bending, all of the following equations must be satisfied
(Cl. 14.6):
0.727
Mf
Mr
Vf
Vr

Mf
Mr

Vf

+ 0.455

Vr

1.0

1.0

1.0

where
Mr = the value determined in accordance with Cl. 13.5 of Cl 13.6 as applicable
Vr = the value determined in accordance with Cl. 13.4

3D.16.4 Shear
Factored shear resistance, Vr, developed by the web of flexural member is calculated as:
Vr = A wFs

where
Aw = shear area
Fs is evaluated as:
I. For unstiffened webs (Cl. 13.4.1.1.(a) ):
h
w

i. when

1, 014
Fy

ii. when
h
w

iii. when

>

1, 014
Fy

<

, Fs = 0.66Fy

1, 436

1, 435
Fy

Fs =

Fy

Fs =

670 F y
(h / w )

961, 200
(h / w) 2

II. For stiffened webs (i.e., when the STIFFparameter is specified) (Cl. 13.4.1.1(b) ):
h
w

i. when

439

439

ii. when
iii. when

188 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

kv
Fy

kv
Fy

<

h
w

, Fs = 0.66Fy
502

kv
Fy

, Fs = Fcri

3D.17 Design Parameters

502

kv

<

Fy

621

h
w

621

kv
Fy

iv. when

kv
Fy

<

h
w

, Fs = Fcri +ka(0.50Fy - 0.866Fcri)

, Fs = Fcre +ka(0.50Fy - 0.866Fcre)

where
kv = shear buckling coefficient:
kv = 4+

i. when a/h < 1,

5.34
(a / h ) 2

k v = 5.34 +

ii. when a/h 1,

4
(a / h ) 2

a/h = stiffener aspect ration (i.e., ratio of the distance between


stiffeners to web depth)
Fcri = 290

F yk v
(h / w )
1

ka = aspect coefficient =
Fcre =

1 + (a / h )

180, 000k v
(h / w) 2

For tubular members, the shear resistance, Vr, is calculated as:


Vr = 0.66(A e / 2)Fy

where
Ae = the cross-sectional area of the tubular member

3D.17 Design Parameters


The design parameters outlined in Table 3E.1 may be used to control the design procedure. These
parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus allow the
engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs.
The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for
conventional design. Depending on the particular design requirements, some or all of these
parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.

International Design Codes Manual 189

3D.17 Design Parameters

Table 3D.8-Canadian Steel Design CSA-S16-01 Parameters


Parameter Name

Default Value

CODE
BEAM

Description
S16-09

1.0

0.0 = design only for


end moments and
those at locations
specified by
SECTION command.
1.0 = Perform design
for moments at
twelfth points along
the beam.

CPSACING

0.0

Spacing between
connectors of builtup members required
for slenderness ratio
calculation per Cl.
19.1.4.

DFF

None(Mandatory for
deflection check)

Deflection
Length/Maxm.
Allowable local
deflection.

DJ1

Start Joint of member

Joint No. denoting


start point for
calculation of
deflection length

DJ2

End Joint of member

Joint No. denoting


end point for
calculation of
deflection length

DMAX

45.0 in.

Maximum allowable
depth (Applicable for
member selection)

DMIN

0.0 in.

Minimum required
depth (Applicable for
member selection)

190 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3D.17 Design Parameters

Parameter Name
FLX

Default Value
0

Description
Parameter for
specifying the
flexural-torsional
restraint condition.
0 = Flexural-torsional
restraint is not
provided
1= Flexural-torsional
restraint is provided
along the length.

FYLD

300.0 MPa

Yield strength of
steel.

FU

345.0 MPa

Ultimate strength of
steel.

KT

1.0

K value for flexural


torsional buckling.

KY

1.0

K value for general


column flexural
buckling about the
local Y-axis. Used to
calculate slenderness
ratio.

KZ

1.0

K value for general


column flexural
buckling about the
local Z-axis. Used to
calculate slenderness
ratio.

LAT

0 = Beam is laterally
unsupported.
1 = Beam is laterally
supported.

LT

Member Length

Length for flexural


torsional buckling.

International Design Codes Manual 191

3D.17 Design Parameters

Parameter Name

Default Value

Description

LY

Member Length

Length for general


column flexural
buckling about the
local Y-axis. Used to
calculate slenderness
ratio.

LZ

Member Length

Length for general


column flexural
buckling about the
local Z-axis. Used to
calculate slenderness
ratio.

MAIN

200

Allowable slenderness
limit for compression
members.

NSF

1.0

Net section factor for


tension members.

RATIO

1.0

Permissible ratio of
actual load effect to
the design strength.

SNUG

type of connection
for the built-up
members (Refer to Cl.
19.1.4):
0 = Welded or
pretensioned bolts.
1 = Bolted snug-tight.

STIFF

TRACK

Member length of depth of


beam, whichever is lesser.

Spacing of traverse
stiffeners.

0.0

0.0 = Report only


minimum design
results.
1.0 = Report design
strengths also.
2.0 = Provide full
details of design.

192 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

3D.17 Design Parameters

Parameter Name

Default Value

Description

UNB

Member Length

Unsupported length
in bending
compression of the
bottom flange for
calculating moment
resistance.

UNT

Member Length

Unsupported length
in bending
compression of the
top flange for
calculating moment
resistance.

International Design Codes Manual 193

194 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

4
Cypriot Codes

International Design Codes Manual 195

4 Cypriot Codes

196 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

4A. Cypriot Codes - Concrete Design in Cyprus


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the Cyrpiot code Seismic code for
reinforced concrete structures in Cyprus.
Design of members per this code requires the STAAD Eurozone Design Codes SELECTCode Pack.

International Design Codes Manual 197

198 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

4B.1 Design Parameters

4B.1 Design Parameters


The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform and control the design
to the concrete code of Cyprus. These parameters not only act as a method to input required data
for code calculations but give the Engineer control over the actual design process. Default values of
commonly used parameters for conventional design practice have been chosen as the basis. Table
4A.1 contains a complete list of available parameters with their default values.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 4B.1-Cypriot Concrete Design Parameters
Parameter
Name
CODE

Default
Value
-

Description

Must be specified as CYPRUS.


Design Code to follow. See section 5.52.2 of the
Technical Reference Manual.

BRACE

0.0

Bracing parameter for column design:


0. Column braced in both directions
1. Column braced in only the local Y
direction.
2. Column braced in only the local Z
direction.
3. Column unbraced in either direction.

CLEAR

20 mm

Clearance of reinforcement measured from


concrete surface to closest bar perimeter, in
current units.

DEPTH

YD

Depth of concrete member, in current units. This


value default is as provided as YD in MEMBER
PROPERTIES.

EFACE

0.0

Face of support location at end of beam, in


current units.
Note: Both SFACE & EFACE must be positive
numbers.

ELY

1.0

Member length factor about local Y direction for


column design.

International Design Codes Manual 199

4B.1 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default
Value

Description

ELZ

1.0

Member length factor about local Z direction for


column design.

FC

4.0 ksi

Concrete Yield Stress / cube strength, in current


units

FYMAIN

60 ksi

Yield Stress for main reinforcement, in current


units (For slabs, it is for reinforcement in both
directions)

FYSEC

60 ksi

Yield Stress for secondary reinforcement a, in


current units. Applicable to shear bars in beams.

MAX
MAIN

50 mm

Maximum required reinforcement bar size


Acceptable bars are per MINMAIN above.

MINMAIN

8 mm

Minimum main reinforcement bar size Acceptable


bar sizes: 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 32 40 50

MINSEC

8 mm

Minimum secondary bar size a. Applicable to


shear reinforcement in beams

MMAG

1.0

Factor by which column design moments are


magnified

NSE
CTION

12

Number of equally-spaced sections to be


considered in finding critical moment for beam
design. The upper limit is 23.

SERV

0.0

Serviceability checks:
0. No serviceability check performed.
1. Perform serviceability check for beams as if
they were continuous.
2. Perform serviceability check for beams as if
they were simply supported.
3. Perform serviceability check for beams as if
they were cantilever beams.

SFACE

200 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

0.0

Face of support location at start of beam, in


current units. (Only applicable for shear - use
MEMBER OFFSET for bending )

4B.1 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name
SRA

Default
Value
0.0

Description

Skew angle considered in Wood & Armer


equations where A is the angle in degrees.
Two special values are also considered:
0.0 = Orthogonal reinforcement
layout without considering
torsional moment Mxy -slabs only
-500 = Orthogonal reinforcement
layout with Mxy used to calculate
Wood & Armer moments for
design.

TRACK

0.0

Controls level of detail in output:


0. Critical Moment will not be printed with
beam design report. Column design gives
no detailed results.
1. For beam gives min/max steel % and
spacing. For columns gives a detailed table
of output with additional moments
calculated.
2. Beam design only. Details of reinforcement
at sections defined by the NSECTION
parameter.

WIDTH

ZD

Width of concrete member, in current units. This


value default is as provided as ZD in MEMBER
PROPERTIES.

International Design Codes Manual 201

202 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

5
Danish Codes

International Design Codes Manual 203

5 Danish Codes

204 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

5A. Danish Codes - Steel Design per DS412


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Danish code DS412 1998 Code of
Practice for the structural use of steel.
Design of members per DS412 1998 requires the STAAD N. Eurozone Design Codes SELECTCode
Pack.

International Design Codes Manual 205

206 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

5B.1 Design Parameters

5B.1 Design Parameters


The design parameters outlined in Table 5A.1 may be used to control the design procedure. These
parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus allow you to
control the design process to suit an application's specific needs.
The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for
conventional design. Depending on the particular design requirements, some or all of these
parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 5B.1-Danish Steel Design DS412 Parameters
Parameter
Name
CODE

Default
Value
-

Description

Must be specified as DS412


Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical Reference Manual.

BEAM

1.0

1.0 = Calculatevon Mises at twelfth points along the


beam.

BY

1.0

Buckling length coefficient, Beta, about the local Y


axis.

BZ

1.0

Buckling length coefficient, Beta, about the local Z


axis.

CB

1.0

Lateral buckling coefficient. Used to calculate the


ideal buckling moment.

CMY

1.0

Water depth, in meters, for hydrostatic pressure


calculation for pipe members.

CMZ

0.21

AlphaT in connection with lateral buckling.

CY

Buckling curve coefficient, Alpha, about local Y-axis.

CZ

Buckling curve coefficient, Alpha, about local Z-axis.

DMAX

1,000
mm

Maximum allowable depth (Applicable for member


selection)

DMIN

0.0 mm

Minimum required depth (Applicable for member


selection)

International Design Codes Manual 207

5B.1 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default
Value

FYLD

235
N/mm 2

Description

Yield strength of steel.

MF

1.15

Ratio of material factor to resistance factor.

RATIO

1.0

Permissible ratio of actual load effect to the design


strength.

SSY

Equivalent moment factor, BetaM, for local Y-axis.


Valid values between 0 and 2.5.

SSZ

Equivalent moment factor, BetaM, for local Z-axis.


Valid values between 0 and 2.5.

TRACK

0.0

Used to specify a level of detail in output:


0. Report only minimum design results.
1. Report design strengths also.
2. Provide full details of design.

UNL

Member
Length

208 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

Unsupported length in bending compression of the


bottom flange for calculating moment resistance.

6
Dutch Codes

International Design Codes Manual 209

6 Dutch Codes

210 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

6A.1 Design Parameters

6A. Dutch Codes - Steel Design per NEN 6770


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Dutch code NEN 6770 TGB 1990 Steel structures - Basic requirements and basic rules for calculation of predominantly staticaly
loaded structures .
Design of members per NEN 6770 requires the STAAD N. Eurozone Design Codes SELECTCode
Pack.

6A.1 Design Parameters


Available design parameters to be used in conjunction with NEN 6770 are listed in table 6A.1 along
with their default values.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number till it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 6A.1-Dutch Steel Design NEN 6770 Parameters
Parameter
Name

Default
Value

Description
Must be specified as DUTCH

CODE

Design Code to follow.


See section 5.48.1 of the Technical Reference
Manual.
Used to specify the number of sections to be
check along the length of the beam:
0. Check sections with end forces only.

BEAM

3.0

1. Check at location of maximum Mz along


beam.
2. Check sections with end forces and forces
at location of BEAM = 1.0 check.
3. Check at every 1/13th point of the beam and
report the maximum.

International Design Codes Manual 211

6A.1 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default
Value

Description
Loading type per Tables F.1.1 and F.1.2
1. Pin ended member with uniform loading
2. Fix ended member with uniform loading
3. Pin ended member with central point load.

CMM

1.0

4. Fix ended member with central point load.


5. Pin ended member with point loads at
third points.
6. Pin ended member with varying end
moments.
Used to describe the end restraints:
1.0 = No fixity

CMN

1.0
0.7 = One end fixed, the other free.
0.5 = Both ends fixed.

DFF

None
(Mandatory
for
deflection
check,
TRACK 4.0)

"Deflection Length" / Maximum allowable local


deflection
See Note 1d in Section 2B.6.

DJ1

Start Joint
of member

Joint No. denoting starting point for calculation


of "Deflection Length" . See Note 1 below.

DJ2

End Joint
of member

Joint No. denoting end point for calculation of


"Deflection Length". See Note 1 below.

DMAX

10,000 cm

Maximum allowable depth

DMIN

0.0 cm

Minimum allowable depth

KY

1.0

K factor value in local y - axis. Usually, this is the


minor axis.

KZ

1.0

K factor value in local z - axis. Usually, this is the


major axis.

LY

Member
Length

Length in local y - axis (current units) to calculate


(KY)(LY)/Ryy slenderness ratio.

LZ

Member
Length

Length in local z - axis (current units) to calculate


(KZ)(LZ)/Rzz slenderness ratio.

212 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

6A.1 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name
NSF

PY

RATIO

Default
Value
1.0
Set
according
to steel
grade (SGR)
1.0

Description
Net section factor for tension members.

Design strength of steel

Permissible ratio of the actual capacities.


Controls the sections to try during a SELECT
process.
0. Try every section of the same type as
original

SAME

0.0

1. Try only those sections with a similar name


as original (e.g., if the original is an HEA
100, then only HEA sections will be
selected, even if there are HEMs in the
same table).
Identify Section type for section classification

SBLT

0.0

0. Rolled Section
1. Built up Section
Steel Grade

SGR

0.0

0. Grade Fe 360
1. Grade Fe 430
2. Grade Fe 510
Used to control the level output detail:
0. Output summary of results.

TRACK

0.0

1. Output summary of results with member


capacities.
2. Output detailed results.
3. Deflection Check (separate check to main
select / check code)

UNL

Member
Length

Unrestrained member length in lateral torsional


buckling checks.

International Design Codes Manual 213

214 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7
European Codes

International Design Codes Manual 215

7 European Codes

216 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7A.1 Design Operations

7A. European Codes - Concrete Design Per Eurocode EC2


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the European code EC2 ENV 1992-11:1991 E Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings.
Design of members per EC2 ENV 1992-1-1:1991 E requires the STAAD Eurozone Design Codes
SELECTCode Pack.

7A.1 Design Operations


The main steps in performing a design operation are:
1. Selecting the applicable load cases to be considered in the design process.
2. Providing appropriate parameter values if different from the default values.
3. Perform the design for the member as appropriate.
These operations can be repeated by the user any number of times depending on the design
requirements. The parameters referred to above provide the user with the ability to allocate specific
design properties to individual members considered in the design operation.

7A.2 Eurocode 2 (EC2)


Eurocode 2, Design of concrete structures, Part 1, General rules and rules for buildings, provides
design rules applicable to plain, reinforced or prestressed concrete used in buildings and civil
engineering works. It is based on the limit state philosophy common to modern standards.
The objective of this method of design is to ensure that possibility of failure is reduced to a
negligible level. This is achieved through application of factors to both the applied loads and the
material properties. The code also provides guidelines on the global method of analysis to be used
for calculating internal member forces and moments. STAAD provides a number of methods for
analysis, allowing Geometric Nonlinearity as well as P-Delta effects to be considered.

7A.3 National Application Documents


Various authorities of the CEN member countries have prepared National Application Documents
to be used with EC2. These documents provide alternative factors for loads and may also provide
supplements to the rules in EC2.
The current version of EC2 implemented in STAAD adheres to the factors and rules provided in
EC2 and has not been modified by any National Application Documents.

International Design Codes Manual 217

7A.4 Material Properties and Load Factors

7A.4 Material Properties and Load Factors


Design resistances are obtained by dividing the characteristic yield strengths, as given in table 2.3 of
EC2, by the material partial safety factors c for concrete and s for reinforcements. The magnitude
in STAAD is 1.5 for concrete and 1.15 for reinforcements.
Material coefficients in STAAD take the following default values unless replaced by numerical
values provided in the input file.
Modulus of Elasticity, E = 21.71 KN/mm 2
Shear Modulus, G = E / 2 (1 + v)
Poisson's Ratio, v = 0.25
Unit weight, = 23.56 KN/m 3
The magnitude of design loads is dependent on F, the partial safety factor for the action under
consideration. In STAAD the user is allowed total control in providing applicable values for the
factors and their use in various load combinations.

7A.5 Columns
Columns are designed for axial compressive loads and possible moments at the ends of the
member. If a particular load case causes tension in the column being designed that load case is
ignored, the design proceeds with a warning message given to that affect.
All active load cases will be considered in the design and reinforcements are assumed
symmetrically arranged in the cross section.
The maximum reinforcement calculated after all design load cases have been considered is then
reported as the critical required area of reinforcement.
Slender columns are also covered in the design process, the program will make due allowance for
the additional moment that has to be considered in the design.
Note: Sway type structures are not directly covered in the current implementation of EC2. This
effect, however, can be accounted for by the P-DELTA analysis option.

7A.6 Beams
Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. For all these actions active load cases are scanned
to create appropriate envelopes for the design process. Maximum torsional moment is also
identified and incorporated in the design.

218 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7A.7 Slabs

7A.6.1 Design for flexure


Reinforcement for both positive and negative moments is calculated on the basis of the section
properties provided by the user. If the required reinforcement exceeds the maximum allowable then
the section size is inadequate and a massage to that effect is given in the output. Parabolicrectangular stress distribution for the concrete section is adopted and as moment redistribution is
not available in STAAD analysis, the limit for N.A to depth ratio is set according to clause 2.5.3.4.2
(5) of the code.
If required, compression reinforcement will be provided in order to satisfy the above limits. It is
important to know that beams are designed for the flexural moment MZ only. The moment MY is
not considered in the design at all.

7A.6.2 Design for Shear


Shear reinforcement design is based on the standard method mentioned in clause 4.3.2.4.3 where it
is assumed the notional strut inclination is constant. Depending on the shear distribution within
the member it may be possible that nominal shear reinforcement will be sufficient to cater for the
design shear forces. If this is not the case an attempt is made to identify regions where nominal
reinforcement is insufficient and appropriate reinforcement is then calculated to cover the excess
design shear force.
The maximum shear force that can be carried without crushing the concrete is also checked and if
exceeded, a message to revise the section size is given in the output file.

7A.6.3 Design for Torsion


Torsional moments arising as a result of equilibrium requirements need to be designed for at the
ultimate limit state. Reinforcement for torsional moments consists of stirrups combined with
longitudinal bars. The combined magnitude of shear stress arising from shear forces and torsional
moments are checked in order to establish whether the section size is adequate. If section size is
inadequate a massage is given in the output file, otherwise, full design is carried out and both shear
links and longitudinal bars required are calculated and, where necessary, links are combined with
the shear force links and printed in a tabulated manner in the output file.

7A.7 Slabs
Slabs can only be designed for if finite elements are used to represent them in the model of the
structure. In the main the design follows the same procedure as for flexure except that shear forces
are assumed to be resisted without the provision of shear reinforcements. In cases where this may
not be the case users must ensure that necessary checks are carried out. The output for the slab
design refers to longitudinal reinforcements, which coincides with the local x direction of the
element, and, transverse reinforcement, which coincides with the local y direction of the element.
Also, reference is made to 'TOP' and BOTT' reinforcement which relates to the element's 'TOP' and
'BOTTOM' as determined from the connectivity of the element. This may not coincide with the

International Design Codes Manual 219

7A.8 Design Parameters

slab's actual top and bottom and, if desired, you must ensure this through the numbering scheme
of the elements. The design of the slab considers a fixed bar size of 16mm in both directions with
the longitudinal bar being the layer closest to the slab exterior faces. Refer to Figure 1.21 in Section
1.61. of the Technical Reference Manual for additional information.

7A.8 Design Parameters


Design parameters communicate specific design decisions to the program. They are set to default
values to begin with and may be altered to suite the particular structure. Depending on the model
being designed, the user may have to change some or all of the parameter default values. Some
parameters are unit dependent and when altered, the new setting must be compatible with the
active "unit" specification. Table 8A.1 lists all the relevant EC2 parameters together with description
and default values.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 7A.1-Concrete Design EC2 Parameters
Parameter
Name
BRACE

Default Value

0.0

Description

0.0 = Column braced in both


directions.
1.0 = Column unbraced about local Z
direction only
2.0 = Column unbraced about local Y
direction only
3.0 = Column unbraced in both Y and
Z directions

CLEAR

* 20mm

Clearance of reinforcement measured


from concrete surface to closest bar
perimeter.

DEPTH

*YD

Depth of concrete member. This value


default is as provided as YD in
MEMBER PROPERTIES.

EFACE

*0.0

Face of support location at end of beam.


Note: Both SFACE & EFACE must be
positive numbers.

ELY

220 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1.0

Member length factor about local Y


direction for column design.

7A.8 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default Value

ELZ

1.0

FC

* 30N/mm 2

Description

Member length factor about local Z


direction for column design.
Concrete Yield Stress / cube strength

FYMAIN

*460 N/mm 2

Yield Stress for main reinforcement


(For slabs, it is for reinforcement in
both directions)

FYSEC

*460N/mm 2

Yield Stress for secondary


reinforcement. Applicable to shear bars
in beams

MINMAIN

8mm

Minimum main reinforcement bar size


Acceptable bar sizes: 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 32
40 50

MINSEC

8mm

Minimum secondary bar size a.


Applicable to shear reinforcement in
beams

MAXMAIN

50mm

Maximum required reinforcement bar


size Acceptable bars are per MINMAIN
above.

MMAG

1.0

Factor by which column design


moments are magnified

NSECTION

10

Number of equally-spaced sections to be


considered in finding critical moment
for beam design. The upper limit is 20.

SERV

0.0

0.0 = No serviceability check


performed.
1.0 = Perform serviceability check for
beams as if they were continuous.
2.0 = Perform serviceability check for
beams as if they were simply supported.
3.0 = Perform serviceability check for
beams as if they were cantilever beams.

SFACE

*0.0

Face of support location at start of


beam. (Only applicable for shear - use
MEMBER OFFSET for bending )

International Design Codes Manual 221

7A.8 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default Value

SRA

0.0

Description

0.0 = Orthogonal reinforcement


layout without considering torsional
moment Mxy -slabs only
-500 = Orthogonal reinforcement
layout with Mxy used to calculate
Wood & Armer moments for design.
A = Skew angle considered in
Wood & Armer equations where A is
the angle in degrees.

TRACK

0.0

0.0 = Critical Moment will not be


printed with beam design report.
Column design gives no detailed
results.
1.0 = For beam gives min/max steel %
and spacing. For columns gives a
detailed table of output with additional
moments calculated.
2.0 = Output of TRACK 1.0
List of design sag/hog moments and
corresponding required steel area at
each section of member

WIDTH

* Provided in current unit system

222 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

*ZD

Width of concrete member. This value


default is as provided as ZD in
MEMBER PROPERTIES.

7B.1 General Description

7B. European Codes - Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [DD ENV


1993-1-1:1992]
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the European code EC3 DD ENV 1993-11:1992 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1.1 General rules and rules for buildings.
Design of members per EC3 DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 requires the STAAD Euro Design Codes
SELECTCode Pack.
Note: The DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 code has now been officially superseded by EN 1993-1-1:2005.
Hence releases of STAAD.Pro subsequent to version SS3 (20.07.08.xx) will not support this design
code. The SS3 build will perform member design to this code for legacy files but has this code
removed from the design codes list in the GUI. Users are advised to use the EN 1993-1-1:2005
version for Eurocode 3 design.
Tip: Design per EC3 DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 is also available in the Steel Design mode in the
Graphical User Interface.

7B.1 General Description


The main steps in performing a design operation are:
1. Selecting the applicable load cases to be considered in the design process.
2. Providing appropriate Parameter values if different from the default values.
3. Specify whether to perform code-checking and/or member selection.
These operations can be repeated by the user any number of times depending on the design
requirements. The Parameters referred to above provide the user with the ability to allocate
specific design properties to individual members or member groups considered in the design
operation.

7B.1.1 Eurocode 3 DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 (EC3 DD)


The DD ENV version of Eurocode 3, Design of steel structures, Part 1.1 General rules and rules for
buildings (EC3 DD) provides design rules applicable to structural steel used in buildings and civil
engineering works. It is based on the ultimate limit states philosophy that is common to modern
standards. The objective of this method of design is to ensure that possibility of failure is reduced
to a negligible level. This is achieved through application of safety factors to both the applied loads
and the material properties.
The code also provides guidelines on the global methods of analysis to be used for calculating
internal member forces and moments. STAAD uses the elastic method of analysis which may be
used in all cases. Also there are three types of framing referred to in EC3. These are Simple,
Continuous, and Semi-continuous which reflect the ability of the joints to developing moments

International Design Codes Manual 223

7B.2 Analysis Methodology

under a specific loading condition. In STAAD only Simple and Continuous joint types can be
assumed when carrying out global analysis.

7B.1.2 National Application Documents


Various authorities of the CEN member countries have prepared National Application Documents
to be used with EC3. These documents provide alternative factors for loads and may also provide
supplements to the rules in EC3.
The current version of EC3 DD implemented in STAAD adheres to the factors and rules provided
in DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 and has not been modified by any National Application Document.
Note: National Annex documents are available for EC3 BS EN 1993-1-1:2005. See "European Codes
- Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 1993-1-1:2005]" on page 239

7B.1.3 Axes convention in STAAD and EC3


By default, STAAD defines the major axis of the cross-section as Z-Z and the minor axis as Y-Y. A
special case where Z-Z is the minor axis and Y-Y is the major axis is available if the SET Z UP
command is used and is discussed in Section 5.5 of the Technical Reference Manual. The
longitudinal axis of the member is defined as X and joins the start joint of the member to the end
with the same positive direction.
EC3, however, defines the principal cross-section axes in reverse to that of STAAD, but the
longitudinal axis is defined in the same way. Both of these axes definitions follow the orthogonal
right hand rule. See figure below.
Bear this difference in mind when examining the code-check output from STAAD.
Figure 7B.1 - Axis convention in STAAD and EC3

7B.2 Analysis Methodology


Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Analysis is done for
the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. The user is allowed
complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to create
necessary loading situations.

224 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7B.3 Material Properties and Load Factors

7B.3 Material Properties and Load Factors


The characteristic yield strength of steel used in EC3 DD design is based on table 3.1 of the code.
Design resistances are obtained by dividing the characteristic yield strength by the material partial
safety factor m. The magnitude of min STAAD is 1.1 which is applicable to all section types. A
separate safety factor parameter named GB1 is used to check the resistance of a member to buckling
and also has a default value of 1.1.
Material coefficients for steel in STAAD take the following default values unless replaced by users
numerical values provided in the input file.
Modulus of Elasticity, E = 205000 N/mm2
Shear Modulus, G = E/2(1+ )
Poissons Ratio, = 0.3
Unit weight, = 76.8 KN/m3
The magnitude of design loads is dependent on , the partial safety factor for the action under
f
consideration. In STAAD the user is allowed total control in providing applicable values for the
factors and their use in various load combinations.

7B.4 Section Classification


The occurrence of local buckling of the compression elements of a cross-section prevents the
development of full section capacity. It is therefore imperative to establish this possibility prior to
determining the section capacities. Cross sections are classified in accordance with their
geometrical properties and the stress pattern on the compression elements. For each load case
considered in the design process, STAAD determines the section class and calculates the capacities
accordingly.
The EC3 DD design module in STAAD can design members with all section profiles that are of
Class 1 2 or 3 as defined in section 5.3.2 of the code. However, the design of members that have a
Class 4 section profile are limited to WIDE FLANGE, TEE, SINGLE CHANNEL, SINGLE ANGLE,
and RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS. Also built-up user sections that are class 4 sections are
not dealt with in the current version of EC3 design in STAAD.Pro.
Laced and battened members are not considered in the current version of EC3 DD design module
in STAAD.Pro.

7B.5 Member Design


7B.5.1 Design of Beams as per DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992
EC3 DD design in STAAD.Pro considers members that are primarily in bending and/or shear as
beams and performs cross section and member capacity checks in accordance with the code. The

International Design Codes Manual 225

7B.5 Member Design

main requirement for a beam is to have sufficient cross-section resistance to the applied bending
moment and shear force. The possibility of lateral-torsional buckling is also taken into
consideration when the full length of the member has not been laterally restrained.
The bending capacity is primarily a function of the section type and the material yield strength and
is determined according to Cl. 5.4.5 of the code. The shear capacity and the corresponding shear
checks are done as per section 5.4.6 of the code.
There are four classes of cross-sections defined in EC3. Class 1 and 2 sections can both attain full
capacity with the exception that the class 2 sections cannot sustain sufficient rotation required for
plastic analysis of the model. Hence the full plastic section modulus is used in the design
calculations. Class 3 sections, due to local buckling, cannot develop plastic moment capacity and
the yield stress is limited to the extreme compression fibre of the section. The elastic section
modulus is used to determine the moment capacity for class 3 sections. Class 4 sections do suffer
from local buckling and explicit allowance must be made for the reduction in section properties
before the moment capacity can be determined. Further, because of interaction between shear force
and bending moment, the moment resistance of the cross-section may be reduced. This, however,
does not occur unless the value of applied shear forces exceeds 50% of the plastic shear capacity of
the section. In such cases the web is assumed to resist the applied shear force as well as
contributing towards the moment resistance of the cross-section.
As mentioned in the previous section, the design of class 4 sections is limited to WIDE FLANGE,
TEE, SINGLE CHANNEL, SINGLE ANGLE, and RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS. The
effective section properties are worked out as described in Cl. 5.3.5 of the code.
Beams are also checked for lateral-torsional buckling according to section 5.5.2 of the code. The
buckling capacity is dependent on the section type as well as the unrestrained length, restraint
conditions and type of applied loading. The lateral torsional buckling checks involves the
calculation of the Elastic critical moment, Mcr, which is calculated in STAAD as per the method
given in Annex F of the code.
In the presence of a shear force, beams are also checked for shear as per section 5.4.6 of the code. In
cases where the members are subject to combined bending and shear, the combined bending and
shear checks are done in STAAD as per clause 5.4.7 of the code.

7B.5.2 Design of Axially Loaded Members


The design of members subject to tension loads alone are performed as per Cl 5.4.3 of the code. The
tension capacity is calculated based on yield strength, material factor m and cross-sectional area of
the member with possible reduction due to bolt holes. When bolt holes need to be considered in
the capacity calculations the value used for m is 1.2 and the yield strength is replaced with the
ultimate tensile strength of the material. The tension capacity is then taken as the smaller of the
full section capacity and the reduced section capacity as stated above.
The design of members subject to axial compression loads alone are performed as per Cl 5.4.4 of the
code. For members with class 1 2 or 3 section profiles, the full section area is considered in
calculating the section capacity. However in case of class 4 sections, the effective cross-section is
considered to calculate the compressive strength. Also any additional moments induced in the
section due to the shift of the centroidal axis of the effective section will also be taken into account

226 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7B.5 Member Design

as per clause 5.4.8.3 of the code. The effective section properties for class 4 sections will be worked
out as given in Cl.5.3.5 of the code.
In addition to the cross section checks, buckling resistance will also be checked for such members.
This is often the critical case as the buckling strength of the member is influenced by a number of
factors including the section type and the unbraced length of the member. The buckling capacity is
calculated as per Cl. 5.5 of the code.
DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 does not specifically deal with single angle, double angles, double channels or
Tee sections and does give a method to work out the slenderness of such members. In these cases,
the EC3 DD design module of STAAD.Pro uses the methods specified in BS 5950-1:2000 to calculate
the slenderness of these members. Cl. 4.7.10 and table 25 of BS 5950-1:2000 are used in the current
version of the EC3 DD design module

Single Angle Sections


Angle sections are un-symmetrical and when using BS 5950:2000 table 25 you must consider four
axes: two principal, u-u and v-v and two geometric, a-a and b-b. The effective length for the v-v
axis, Lvv, is taken as the LVV parameter or LY KY, if not specified. The a-a and b-b axes are
determined by which leg of the angle is fixed by the connection and should be specified using the
LEG parameter, see section 5B.6 for more information on the LEG parameter. The effective length
in the a-a axis is taken as LY KY and the effective length in the b-b axis as LZ KZ.
The following diagram shows the axes for angles which have been defined with either an ST or RA
specification and is connected by its longer leg (i.e., a-a axis is parallel to the longer leg).
Figure 7B.2 - Axis orientation for single angles

ST angle and USER


table angles

RAangle

International Design Codes Manual 227

7B.6 Design Parameters

7B.5.3 Design of members with combined axial load and bending


The bending resistance of members could be reduced by the presence of a co-existent axial load.
This is then checked against the lateral-torsional buckling resistance of the section. The EC3 DD
design module in STAAD takes such a scenario into account and performs the necessary checks as
per Cl. 5.4.8 of the code. Class 1 and class 2 sections are checked as per cl. 5.4.8.1 and Class 3 and
Class 4 sections are checked as per clauses 5.4.8.2 and 5.4.8.3 respectively. The effective section
properties for class 4 sections are worked out as given in Cl. 5.3.5 of the code.
Generally, EC3 requires checking cross-section resistance for local capacity and also checking the
overall buckling capacity of the member. In the case of members subject to axial tension and
bending, there is provision to take the stabilizing effect of the tension load into consideration. This
is achieved by modifying the extreme compression fibre stress and calculating an effective applied
moment for the section. The checks are done as per Cl. 5.5.3 of the code. In case of a combined axial
compressive load and bending moment, the member will be checked as per the rules in section
5.5.4 of the code.
The presence of large shear force can also reduce the bending resistance of the section under
consideration. If the shear load is large enough to cause a reduction in bending resistance, then the
reduction due to shear has to be taken into account before calculating the effect of the axial load
on the bending resistance of the section. If the member is subject to a combined shear, axial load
and bending moment then the section capacity checks will be done as per Cl. 5.4.9 of the code.
As stated in the previous section, DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 does not specifically deal with single angle,
double angles, double channels or Tee sections and does give a method to work out the slenderness
of such members. In these cases, the EC3 DD design module of STAAD.Pro uses the methods
specified in BS 5950-1:2000 to calculate the slenderness of these members. Cl. 4.7.10 of BS 59501:2000 is used in the current version of the EC3 DD design module. Please refer to the note in
section 5B.5.2 for St and RA angle specifications.
Please note that laced or battened compression members are not dealt within the current version of
EC3 DD design module in STAAD.Pro.

7B.6 Design Parameters


Design parameters communicate specific design decisions to the program. They are set to default
values to begin with and may be altered to suite the particular structure.
Depending on the model being designed, the user may have to change some or all of the parameter
default values. Some parameters are unit dependent and when altered, the new setting must be
compatible with the active unit specification.
The following table lists all the relevant EC3 parameters together with description and default
values.

228 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7B.6 Design Parameters

Table 7B.1-Steel Design Parameters EC3 DD


Parameter

Default Value

Description

Name
CODE

Undefined

You must specify EC3 or EUROPE.


Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.

BEAM

Parameter to control the number of


sections to checked along the length of
a beam:
0. Check sections with end forces
only
1. Check at location of maximum
Mz along beam
2. Check sections with end forces
and forces at location of
BEAM 1.0 check.
3. Check at every 1/13th point along
the beam and report the
maximum
Refer to Note 2 below.

CAN

Member will be considered as a


cantilever type member for deflection
checks.
0 indicates that member will not be
treated as a cantilever member
1 indicates that the member will be
treated as a cantilever member

CMM

1.0

Indicates type of loading on member.


Valid values range from 1 to 6.
Refer to Table 7B.3 for more
information on its use.

International Design Codes Manual 229

7B.6 Design Parameters

Parameter

Default Value

Description

Name
CMN

1.0

Indicates the level of End-Restraint.


1.0 = No fixity
0.5 = Full fixity
0.7 = One end free and
other end fixed

DMAX

100.0 cm

Maximum allowable depth for the


member.

DMIN

Minimum required depth for the


member.

DFF

None (Mandatory

Deflection limit

for deflection
check)
DJ1

Start Joint of
member

DJ2

End Joint of
member

FU
GB1

Joint No. denoting starting point for


calculation of "Deflection Length".
Joint No. denoting end point for
calculation of "Deflection Length".
Ultimate tensile strength of steel

1.1

Partial safety factor used in buckling


checks for compression members

GM0

1.1

Corresponds to the

m0

factor in DD

ENV 1993-1-1:1992
GM1

1.1

Corresponds to the

m1

factor in DD

ENV 1993-1-1:1992
GM2

1.1

Corresponds to the

m2

ENV 1993-1-1:1992
KY

1.0

K factor in local y axis.

KZ

1.0

K factor in local z axis.

230 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

factor in DD

7B.6 Design Parameters

Parameter

Default Value

Description

Name
LEG

0.0

Connection type
Refer to Note 1 below.

LVV

Maximum of Lyy

Buckling length for angle about its

and Lzz (Lyy is a

principle axis

term used by
BS5950)
LY

Member Length

Compression length in local y axis,


Slenderness ratio = (KY)*(LY)/(Ryy)

LZ

Member Length

Compression length in local z axis,


Slenderness ratio = (KZ)*(LZ)/(Rzz)

PLG

(Polish NA only) Perform additional


checks per Cl. 6.3.3
0. Ignore additional PNEN checks
1. Include additional PN EN checks
See "Clause 6.3.3(5) Interaction factors
kyy, kyz, kzy, and kzz" on page 329

PY

Yield Strength

The yield strength default value is set


based on the default value of the "SGR"
parameter.

NSF

1.0

Net tension factor for tension capacity


calculation.

RATIO
SBLT

1
0.0

Permissible ratio of loading to capacity.


Indicates if the section is rolled or
built-up.
0.0 = Rolled
1.0 = Built-up

International Design Codes Manual 231

7B.6 Design Parameters

Parameter

Default Value

Description

Name
SGR

0.0

Steel grade as per table 3.1 in EC3.


0.0 = Fe 360
1.0 = Fe 430
2.0 = Fe 510

TRACK

Controls the level of detail of output.


0 = minimum
1 = intermediate
2 = maximum
4 = perform a deflection
check
See note 3 below.

UNF

1.0

Unsupported buckling length as a factor


of the beam length

UNL

Member Length

Unrestraint length of member used in


calculating the lateral-torsional
resistance moment of the member.

ZIV

0.8

Specifies a reduction factor for vectoral


effects to be used in axial tension checks
[Cl 5.5.3(2)]

7B.6.1 Notes
1. LEG (Ref: Table 25 BS5950)
The slenderness of single and double angle, channel and tee sections are specified in BS 5950
table 25 depending on the connection provided at the end of the member (Refer to section
5B.5(A).2). To define the appropriate connection, a LEG parameter should be assigned to the
member.
The following table indicates the value of the LEG parameter required to match the BS5950
connection definition:

232 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7B.6 Design Parameters

Table 7B.2-LEG Parameter values


Clause

4.7.10.2

Leg

LEG
Parameter

short
leg

1.0

long
leg

3.0

short
leg

0.0

long
leg

2.0

short
leg

3.0

long
leg

7.0

short
leg

2.0

long
leg

6.0

long
leg

1.0

short
leg

5.0

long
leg

0.0

short
leg

4.0

(a) - 2 or more rows of


bolts

1.0

(b) - 1 row of bolts

0.0

(a) - 2 or more rows of


bolts

1.0

(b) - 1 row of bolts

0.0

Bold
Configuration
(a) - 2 bolts

Single Angle

(b) - 1 bolts

4.7.10.3
Double
Angles

(a) - 2 bolts

(b) - 1 bolts

(c) - 2 bolts

(d) - 1 bolts

4.7.10.4
Channels

4.7.10.5 Tee
Sections

International Design Codes Manual 233

7B.6 Design Parameters

For single angles, the slenderness is calculated for the geometric axes, a-a and b-b as well as
the weak v-v axis. The effective lengths of the geometric axes are defined as:
La = KY * KY
Lb = KZ * LZ
The slenderness calculated for the v-v axis is then used to calculate the compression strength
pc for the weaker principal axis (z-z for ST angles or y-y for RA specified angles). The
maximum slenderness of the a-a and b-b axes is used to calculate the compression strength
pc for the stronger principal axis.
Alternatively for single angles where the connection is not known or Table 25 is not
appropriate, by setting the LEG parameter to 10, slenderness is calculated for the two
principal axes y-y and z-z only. The LVV parameter is not used.
For double angles, the LVV parameter is available to comply with note 5 in table 25. In
addition, if using double angles from user tables, (Refer to Section 1.7.3 of the Technical
Reference Manual) an eleventh value, rvv, should be supplied at the end of the ten existing
values corresponding to the radius of gyration of the single angle making up the pair.
2. BEAM
Ensure that this parameter is set to either 1 or 2 while performing code checking for
members susceptible to Lateral - Torsional Buckling.
Table 7B.3-Values for the CMM Parameter
CMM Value
1

234 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

Loading and Support Conditions

7B.7 CodeChecking

CMM Value

Loading and Support Conditions

3. Checking beam deflection


With the TRACK parameter set to 4, the members included in a CHECK CODE command will
be checked for the local axis deflection rather than for the stress capacity using the current
LOAD LIST.
If both stress capacity and deflection checks are required, then 2 parameter blocks with code
checks are required, one with a TRACK 4 command and one with a TRACK 0, 1, or 2, thus:
LOAD LIST 1 TO 10
PARAMETER 1
CODE EN 1993
TRACK 2 ALL
CHECK CODE MEMBER 1
***************************
LOAD LIST 100 TO 110
PARAMETER 2
TRACK 4 ALL
DFF 300 MEMB 1
DJ1 1 MEMB 1
DJ2 4 MEMB 1
CODE MEMB 1

Note: While both sets of code checks will be reported in the output file, only the last code
check results are reported in the GUI.

7B.7 CodeChecking
The purpose of code checking is to ascertain whether the provided section properties of the
members are adequate. The adequacy is checked as per DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992. Code checking is
done using the forces and moments at specific sections of the members.
When code checking is selected, the program calculates and prints whether the members have
passed or failed the checks; the critical condition ; the value of the ratio of the critical condition
(overstressed for value more than 1.0 or any other specified RATIO value); the governing load case,
and the location (distance from the start of the member of forces in the member where the critical
condition occurs).
Code checking can be done with any type of steel section listed in Section 2B.4 or any of the user
defined sections as described in Section 1.7.3 of the Technical Reference Manual, with two
exceptions; GENERAL and ISECTION. The EC3 DD design module does not consider these sections
or PRISMATIC sections in its design process.
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code Checking.
Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification of the Code
Checking command.

International Design Codes Manual 235

7B.8 MemberSelection

7B.8 MemberSelection
STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified members. Once an analysis has been
performed, the program can select the most economical section, i.e., the lightest section, which
fulfills the code requirements for the specified member. The section selected will be of the same
type section as originally designated for the member being designed. Member selection can also be
constrained by the parameters DMAX and DMIN, which limits the maximum and minimum depth
of the members.
Member selection can be performed with all the types of steel sections with the same limitations as
defined in section 5B.7(A) Code Checking.
Selection of members, whose properties are originally input from a user created table, will be
limited to sections in the user table.
Member selection cannot be performed on members whose section properties are input as prismatic
or as the limitations specified in section 5.B.7(A).

7B.9 TabulatedResultsofSteelDesign
For code checking or member selection, the program produces the results in a tabulated fashion.
The items in the output table are explained as follows:
MEMBER
refers to the member number for which the design is performed.
TABLE
refers to steel section name, which has been checked against the steel code or has been
selected.
RESULTS
prints whether the member has PASSED or FAILED. If the RESULT is FAIL, there will be
an asterisk (*) mark on front of the member.
CRITICAL COND
refers to the clause in DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 code which governs the design.
RATIO
prints the ratio of the actual stresses to allowable stresses for the critical condition.
Normally a value of 1.0 or less will mean the member has passed.
LOADING
provides the load case number, which governed the design.

236 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7B.9 TabulatedResultsofSteelDesign

FX, MY, and MZ


provide the axial force, moment in local Y-axis and the moment in local z-axis
respectively. Although STAAD does consider all the member forces and moments (except
torsion) to perform design, only FX, MY and MZ are printed since they are the ones
which are of interest, in most cases.
LOCATION
specifies the actual distance from the start of the member to the section where design
forces govern.
Note: For a TRACK 2 output, the module will also report all the relevant clause checks that have
been performed and will also indicate the critical ratio and the load case that caused the critical
ratio as well as the corresponding forces that were used for the respective checks. A TRACK 2
output will also include the various design data used for the calculations such as the section
modulii, section class, section capacity etc.

International Design Codes Manual 237

238 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7C.1 General Description

7C. European Codes - Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN


1993-1-1:2005]
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the European code EC3 BS EN 1993-11:2005 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1.1 General rules and rules for buildings.
Note: The implementation of EN1993-1-1:2005 includes the amendments as per CEN corrigenda of
February 2006 and April 2009.
Design of members per EC3 BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 requires the STAAD Euro Design Codes
SELECTCode Pack.

7C.1 General Description


The main steps in performing a design operation are:
1. Selecting the applicable load cases to be considered in the design process.
2. Providing appropriate Parameter values if different from the default values.
3. Specify whether to perform code-checking and/or member selection.
These operations can be repeated by the user any number of times depending on the design
requirements. The Parameters referred to above provide the user with the ability to allocate
specific design properties to individual members or member groups considered in the design
operation.

7C.1.1 Eurocode 3 - EN 1993-1-1:2005 (EN 1993)


The EN 1993 version of Eurocode 3, Design of steel structures, Part 1.1 General rules and rules for
buildings (EN 1993) provides design rules applicable to structural steel used in buildings and civil
engineering works. It is based on the ultimate limit states philosophy that is common to modern
standards. The objective of this method of design is to ensure that possibility of failure is reduced
to a negligible level. This is achieved through application of safety factors to both the applied loads
and the material properties.
The code also provides guidelines on the global methods of analysis to be used for calculating
internal member forces and moments. STAAD uses the elastic method of analysis which may be
used in all cases. Also there are three types of framing referred to in EC3. These are Simple,
Continuous, and Semi-continuous which reflect the ability of the joints to developing moments
under a specific loading condition. In STAAD only Simple and Continuous joint types can be
assumed when carrying out global analysis.

International Design Codes Manual 239

7C.1 General Description

7C.1.2 National Annex Documents


Various authorities of the CEN member countries have prepared National Annex Documents to be
used with EC3. These documents provide alternative factors for loads and may also provide
supplements to the rules in EC3.
The current version of EC3 (EN 1993)implemented in STAAD adheres to the factors and rules
provided in EN 1993-1-1:2005. The current version of STAAD.Pro includes the following National
Annexes viz.
a. British National Annex [NA to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005]
b. The Dutch National Annex [NEN-EN 1993-1-1/NB] and
c. Norwegian National Annex [NS-EN 1993-1-1:2005/NA2008]
d. French National Annex [Annexe Nationale a la NF EN 1993-1-1:2005]
e. Finnish National Annex [SFS EN 1993-1-1:2005]
f. Polish National Annex [PN EN 1993-1-1:2005]
g. Singaporean National Annex [SS EN 1993-1-1:2005]
h. Belgian National Annex [NBN EN 1993-1-1:2005]
The choice of a particular National Annex is based on the value of a new NA parameter that is set by
the user when specifying the EN 1993 version of Eurocode 3. See "European Codes - National
Annexes to Eurocode 3 [EN 1993-1-1:2005]" on page 283 for a description of the NA parameter.

7C.1.3 Axes convention in STAAD and EC3


By default, STAAD defines the major axis of the cross-section as Z-Z and the minor axis as Y-Y. A
special case where Z-Z is the minor axis and Y-Y is the major axis is available if the SET Z UP
command is used and is discussed in Section 5.5 of the Technical Reference Manual. The
longitudinal axis of the member is defined as X and joins the start joint of the member to the end
with the same positive direction.
EC3, however, defines the principal cross-section axes in reverse to that of STAAD, but the
longitudinal axis is defined in the same way. Both of these axes definitions follow the orthogonal
right hand rule. See figure below.
Bear this difference in mind when examining the code-check output from STAAD.

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7C.2 AnalysisMethodology

Figure 7C.1 - Axis convention in STAAD and EC3

See "Example of a TRACK 2 output" on page 280 for an example of how this appears when Y is up
(default).

7C.2 AnalysisMethodology
Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Analysis is done for
the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. The user is allowed
complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to create
necessary loading situations.

7C.3 Material Properties and Load Factors


The characteristic yield strength of steel used in EC3 (EN 1993) design is based on table 3.1 of the
code. Design resistances are obtained by dividing the characteristic value of a particular resistance
by the global partial safety factor for the resistance, . The magnitude of is based on Cl. 6.1 of
m
m
EN1993-1-1:2005 and can change depending on the selected National Annex.
Material coefficients for steel in STAAD take the following default values unless replaced by users
numerical values provided in the input file.
Modulus of Elasticity, E = 205000 N/mm 2
Shear Modulus, G = E/2(1+ )
Poissons Ratio, = 0.3
Unit weight, = 76.8 KN/m 3
The magnitude of design loads is dependent on , the partial safety factor for the action under
f
consideration. You are allowed total control in providing applicable values for the factors and their
use in various load combinations.

7C.4 Section Classification


The occurrence of local buckling of the compression elements of a cross-section prevents the
development of full section capacity. It is therefore imperative to establish this possibility prior to
determining the section capacities. Cross sections are classified in accordance with their

International Design Codes Manual 241

7C.5 Member Design

geometrical properties and the stress pattern on the compression elements. For each load case
considered in the design process, the program determines the section class and calculates the
capacities accordingly. It is worth noting that the section class reported in the design output
corresponds to the most critical loadcase among those being considered for design.
The EC3 (EN 1993) design module in STAAD can design members with all section profiles that are
of Class 1, 2, or 3 as defined in section 5.5 of the code. However, the design of members that have a
Class 4 section profile are limited to:
l

wide flange

tee

single channel

single angle

rectangular hollow sections

circular hollow sections

Also built-up user sections that are class 4 sections are not dealt with in the current version of EC3
design in STAAD.Pro, unless they are defined as any of the section types given above.
The design of laced and battened members is not considered in the current version of EC3 (EN
1993) design module in STAAD.Pro. The current version also does not support the design of tapered
section profiles or I-Sections with top and/or bottom plates.

7C.5 Member Design


EN 1993-1-1:2005, together with any specified National Annex, is used for code check or selection of
all cross sections and shapes listed in Section 7C.4. However, where EN 1993 or the National Annex
has not specified a method or values for a specific clause or parameter, STAAD.Pro uses NonContradictory Complimentary Information (NCCI) documents as explained in the following
corresponding sections.
The design philosophy and procedural logistics are based on the principles of elastic analysis and
ultimate limit state design. Two major failure modes are recognized:
l

failure by overstressing

failure by stability considerations

The following sections describe the salient features of the design approach. Members are
proportioned to resist the design loads without exceeding the characteristic stresses or capacities.
Member selection is done on the basis of selecting the most economic section on the basis of the
least weight criteria. It is generally assumed that you (the engineer) will take care of the detailing
requirements, such as the provision of stiffeners, and check the local effects like flange buckling,
web crippling, etc.
Note: The design of class 4 (slender) sections is limited to WIDE FLANGE, TEE, SINGLE
CHANNEL, SINGLE ANGLE, and RECTANGULAR & CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS. The
effective section properties are evaluated as described in Cl. 6.2.2.5 of the code.

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7C.5 Member Design

You are allowed complete control over the design process through the use of the parameters listed
in Table 7C.4. Default values of parameters will yield reasonable results in most circumstances.
However, you should control the design and verify results through the use of the design
parameters.

7C.5.1 Members Subject to Axial Loads


The cross section capacity of tension only members is checked for ultimate limit state as given in
Cl. 6.2.3 of the code.
Compression members will be checked for axial capacity of the cross section in addition to lateral
buckling/stability. The cross section capacity will be checked as given in section 6.2.4 of the code.
Lateral stability of a pure compression member will be checked as per the method given in Cl. 6.3 of
the code. The compression member stability will be verified as:
N Ed
N b ,Rd

Where N

1.0

b,Rd

is the design buckling resistance given by:

Nb, Rd =
Nb, Rd =

Af y
M1

for Class 1, 2, or 3 cross-sections

A eff f y
M1

for Class 4 cross-sections

Where:
is the reduction factor as given in section 6.3.12 of the code. The buckling curves used to evaluate
the reduction factor are selected from Table 6.2 of the code based on the cross section type and the
steel grade.
Note: Only the five grades of steel given in table 6.2 will be used when selecting the buckling
curve. The steel grade used for this selection is based on the SGR design input parameter (See
"Design Parameters" on page 265). Even if you have specified a custom yield strength (using the
PY parameter), the choice of a buckling curve will be based on the value of SGR parameter.
Compression members that are susceptible to torsional or torsional flexural buckling are checked
for these modes of failure as well. The non-dimensional slenderness for these members is
T
evaluated per Cl. 6.3.1.4 of the EN 1993 code. The maximum slenderness among the flexural
buckling slenderness, torsional slenderness, and torsional-flexural slenderness is used to evaluate
the reduction factor, , for such members. The elastic torsional buckling load, N , and the elastic
cr,T
torsional-flexural buckling load, N
, are evaluated based on the method given in the NCCI
cr,TF
SN001a-EN-EU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes (unless
otherwise specified by a particular National Annex). The effective length for the members can be
controlled using the KZ, KY, LZ and LY parameters. If these parameters are specified, the effective
length will be calculated as KZ*LZ for length about the Z-Z axis and KY*LY for length about the YY axis. By default, the effective length will be taken as the member length.

International Design Codes Manual 243

7C.5 Member Design

EN 1993-1-1:2005 does not specifically deal with single angle, double angles, double channels, or Tee
sections and does not provide a method to evaluate the slenderness of such members. In these
cases, the EC3 (EN 1993) design module of STAAD.Pro uses the methods specified in BS 5950-1:2000
to calculate the slenderness of these members. Cl. 4.7.10 and Table 25 of BS 5950-1:2000 are used in
the current version of the Eurocode 3 design module.

Single Angle Sections


Angle sections are un-symmetrical and when using BS 5950:2000 table 25 you must consider four
axes: two principal, u-u and v-v and two geometric, a-a and b-b. The effective length for the v-v
axis, Lvv, is taken as the LVV parameter or LY KY, if not specified. The a-a and b-b axes are
determined by which leg of the angle is fixed by the connection and should be specified using the
LEG parameter, see section 5B.6 for more information on the LEG parameter. The effective length
in the a-a axis is taken as LY KY and the effective length in the b-b axis as LZ KZ.
The following diagram shows the axes for angles which have been defined with either an ST or RA
specification and is connected by its longer leg (i.e., a-a axis is parallel to the longer leg).
Figure 7C.2 - Axis orientation for single angles

ST angle and USER


table angles

RAangle

7C.5.2 Members Subject to Bending Moments


The cross section capacity of a member subject to bending is checked as per Cl .6.2.5 of the code.
The condition to be satisfied is:
M Ed
M c ,Rd

Where M

1.0

c,Rd

is the is the design resistance given by:

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7C.5 Member Design

M c, Rd = M pl, Rd =
M c, Rd = M el, Rd =
M c, Rd =

W plf y
M0

for class 1 and 2 cross-sections

W el ,min f y
M0

for class 3 cross-sections

W eff ,min f y
M0

for class 4 cross-sections

Cross sectional bending capacity checks will be done for both major and minor axis bending
moments.
Members subject to major axis bending will also be checked for Lateral Torsional Buckling
resistance as per Section 6.3.2 of the code. The design buckling resistance moment M
will be
b,Rd
calculated as:
M b, Rd = LT Wy

fy
M1

Where:
is the reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling. This reduction factor is
LT
evaluated per Cl. 6.3.2.2 or Cl 6.3.2.3 of the EN 1993 code depending on the section
type. For I sections, the program will by default use Cl. 6.3.2.3 to evalute and for
LT
all other sections the program will resort to Cl 6.3.2.2. However, if a particular
National Annex has been specified, the program will check if the National Annex
expands on Cl.6.3.2.3 (Table 6.5) to include sections other than I sections. If so, the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 for the cross-section(s) included in Cl. 6.2.2.3 (or Table
6.5). For all other cases the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2.
Note: You have the option to choose the clause to be used to calculate through
LT
the MTH design parameter. Setting MTH to 0 (default value) will cause the program
to choose Cl.6.3.2.3 for I Sections and Cl 6.2.3.2 for all other section types. As
mentioned above, if the National Annex expands on Cl. 6.3.2.3 to include sections
other than I Sections, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 by default.
When using Cl. 6.3.2.3 to calculate , the program will consider the correction
LT
factor kc (Table 6.6 of EN 1993-1-1:2006) based on the value of the KC parameter in the
design input. By default the value of KC will be taken as 1.0. If you want the program
to calculate kc, you must explicitly set the value of the KC parameter to zero.
Note: If the National Annex specifies a different method to calculate kc (e.g. the
British, Singapore & Polish NAs), the program will use that method by default even
if the KC parameter has not been explicitly set to zero. If the NA method does not
deal with a specific condition while working out kc, the program will then fall back
to table 6.6 of the code, thus ensuring that kc is considered for the particular NA.
The non-dimensional slenderness (used to evaluate ) for both the above cases is evaluated
LT
LT
as:

International Design Codes Manual 245

7C.5 Member Design

LT =

W yf y
M cr

Where:
M is the elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling. EN 1993-1-1 does not
cr
however specify a method to evaluate M . Hence, the program will make use of the
cr
method specified in Annex F of DD ENV 1993-1-1 to evaluate M by default.
cr

Note: The method specified in Annex F will be used only when the raw EN 1993-11:2005 code is used without any National Annex. If a National Annex has been
specified, the calculation of M (and ) will be done based on the specific
cr
LT
National Annex. (See "European Codes - National Annexes to Eurocode 3 [EN 19931-1:2005]" on page 283 for specific details). If the National Annex does not specify a
particular method or specify a reference document, the program will use the NCCI
document SN-003a-EN-EU for doubly symmetric sections and SN030a-EN-EU for
mono-symmetric sections that are symmetric about their weak axis. For all other
sections types the program will use Annex F of DD ENV 1993-1-1 to calculate M . In
cr
cases where Annex F does not provide an adequate method to evaluate Mcr, such as
for Channel sections, the program will resort to the method as per Cl.4.3.6 of BS
5950-1:2000 to calculate the lateral torsional buckling resistance moment (Mb,Rd)
for the member.

7C.5.3 Members Subject to Shear


The cross section capacity of a member subject to shear is checked as per Cl. 6.2.6 of the code. The
condition to be satisfied is:
VEd
Vc ,Rd

1.0

Where:
V

c,Rd

is the is the shear design resistance given by:


Vc, Rd = V pl, Rd =

Av f y /

M0

A is the shear area and is worked out for the various section types as given in Cl.
v
6.2.6(3) of the code.

Shear Buckling
For sections that are susceptible to shear buckling, the program will perform the shear buckling
checks as given in Section 5 of EN 1993-1-5. The shear buckling checks will be done only for I
Sections and Channel sections. Shear stresses induced from torsional loads are taken into account
while performing torsion checks.

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7C.5 Member Design

Note: Web shear buckling is checked in STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 3) (release 20.07.08) and
later.
The susceptibility of a section to shear buckling will be based on the criteria given in Cl 5.1(2) of EN
1993-1-5 as is as given as follows:
a. For unstiffened webs, if hw/t > 72/, the section must be checked for shear buckling.
The design resistance is calculated as:
f yw wt

Vb, Rd = Vbw , Rd
Vbw , Rd =

3 M1

wf yw h wt
3 M1

Where:
h = distance between flanges of an I Section (i.e., depth - 2x flange thickness).
w

t = thickness of the web


= (235/fy ), where fy is the yield stress
= 1.2 for steel grades up to and including S 460 and = 1.0 for other steel
grades
k as defined in sections below

is the web contribution factor obtained from Table 5.1 of the EC3 code and
w
is evaluated per the following table:
Table 7C.1-Evaluate of

w =

Slenderness
Parameter

Rigid End
Post

Non-rigid End
Post

w < 0.83/

0.83/ w < 1.08

0.83/w

0.83/w

w > 1.08

1.37/(0.7 +w)

0.83/w

hw
86.4 t

b. For stiffened webs, if hw/t > 31Ek/, the section must be checked for shear buckling.
The design resistances considers tension field action of the web and flanges acting as struts
in a truss model. This is calculated as:
Vb, Rd = Vbw , Rd + Vbf , Rd

f yw wt
3 M1

Where:

International Design Codes Manual 247

7C.5 Member Design

V
is the flange resistance per Cl.5.4 for a flange not completely utilized by
bf,Rd
bending moment.
Vbf , Rd =

h f t f2f yf
c M1

M Ed 2
1

M f ,Rd

b is the width of the flange which provides the least axial resistance, not to be
f
taken greater than 15tf on each side of the web.
t is the thickness of the flange which provides the least axial resistance.
f

Mf,Rd = Mf,k /M0 , the moment of resistance of the cross section consisting of
the effective area of the flanges only. For a typical I Section or PFD, this is
evaluated as btfhw. When an axial load, N , is present, the value of M
is
Ed
f,Rd
reduced by multiplying by the following factor:
1

N Ed
A + A f
f 1 f 2 yf

M0

A and A are the areas of the top and bottom flanges, respectively.
f1

f2

c = a 0.25 +

1.6b f t f f yf
th w2f yw

a = transverse stiffener spacing. The equation of c is likewise used to solve for a


sufficient stiffener spacing in the case of demand from loads exceeding the
calculated capacity for a specified stiffener spacing.
The following equation must be satisfied for the web shear buckling check to pass:
3 =

VEd
Vb ,Rd

1.0

Where:
V

Ed

is the design shear force.

Note: The shear forces due to any applied torsion will not be accounted for if the TOR parameter
has been specifically set to a value of 0 (i.e., ignore torsion option).
If the stiffener spacing has not been provided (using the STIFFparameter), then the program
assumes that the member end forms a non-rigid post (case c) and proceeds to evaluate the
minimum stiffener spacing required.

7C.5.4 Members Subject to Torsion


Note: This feature requires STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 2) build 2007.07 or later.

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7C.5 Member Design

General
Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1:2005) gives very limited guidance for the analysis and design of torsion
members. While both elastic and plastic analyses are permitted generally, the design analysis
methods for torsion discussed within EC3 are primarily based on elastic methods. Also, only the
first yield design resistance is specifically discussed for torsion members. Furthermore, there is no
guidance on section classification nor on how to allow for the effects of local buckling on the
design resistance for combined torsional effects. EC3 also does not specifically deal with members
subject to combined bending and torsion and loosely states that the yield criteria (Eqn 6.1 in the
code) can be used for elastic verification.
The method used by STAAD.Pro is therefore based on the SCI publication P057: Design of
members subject to combined bending and torsion. Though this publication is based on the
British standard BS 5950-1, the principles from this document are applied in the context of
Eurocode 3.
Note: At the time this feature has been implemented in STAAD.Pro, SCI are in the process of
updating document P057 to be in accordance with Eurocode 3. Hence this method might be
subject to modifications subject to the publication of a newer version of P057. The NCCI
document SN007b-EN-EU: Torsion will also be referenced where appropriate.

Code Basis
Torsion design in EC3 is given in Cl. 6.2.7 of EN 1993-1-1:2005. Therefore, this clause is used
primarily for this implementation.
EN 1993-1-1:2005 does not deal with members subject to the combined effects of torsion and lateral
torsional buckling. However, EN 1993-1-6 considers such a condition in Appendix A. Therefore,
STAAD.pro uses Appendix A of EN 1993-1-6 to check for members subject to combined torsion and
LTB.
The following clauses from EC3 are then considered:
l

Cl. 6.2.7(1)

Cl. 6.2.7(9)

Cl. 6.2.7(5)

EC-3 -6 App A

Note: STAAD.Pro does, however, use this clause (6.2.7) to report the output for all torsion checks.
Also any distortional deformations and any amplification in the torsional or shear stresses due to
distortions will be neglected by the program.

International Design Codes Manual 249

7C.5 Member Design

Clause 6.2.7(1)
States that for members subject to torsion, the design torsional moment T at each cross
Ed
section should satisfy:
TEd / RRd 1.0
Where:
T

Rd

is the design torsional resistance of the cross section.

This is the primary condition that will need to be satisfied for members subject to torsion.
The method for working out the torsional resistance T , for the various cases is dealt in the
Rd
following sections.
l

Cl. 6.2.7(9)
States that:
For combined shear force and torsional moment, the plastic shear resistance
accounting for torsional effects should be reduced from V
to V
and
pl,Rd
pl,T,Rd
the design shear force should satisfy:
VEd / Vpl,T,Rd 1.0
The code also gives means to evaluate V
in equations 6.26 to 6.28. These equations,
pl,T,Rd
however, only deal with I/H sections, Channel sections, and structural hollow sections (RHS,
SHS, CHS). Therefore, the application of Cl. 6.2.7(9) is only performed for these section
profiles.

Cl 6.2.7(5)
States that the yield criteria given in Cl. 6.2.1(5) of EN 1993-1-1:2005 may be used for elastic
verification. STAAD.Pro evaluates the stresses due to the various actions on the cross section
and applies this yield criterion.

The program allows for two types of checks for members subject to torsion for EC3 design:
I. Basic Stress Check: This method is intended to be a simplified stress check for torsional
effects. This method will produce the output corresponding to Cl. 6.2.7(5) of EN 1993-1-1.
II. Detailed Checks: This method will perform a full torsional analysis of the member. All four
of the clause checks mentioned earlier will be performed.
The details of these checks are as described below.
You have the option to choose the method to be used for a specific member or group of members.
This will be facilitated by setting the value of the TORSION. The TORSION parameter set to zero by
default, which results in torsion checks only being performed if the member is subject to torsional
moments (i.e., for this default setting, the program will ignore torsion checks if there is no
torsional moment in the member). Setting the value of the TORSION parameter to three (3) will
cause the program to ignore all torsional moments. The detailed output (i.e., TRACK 2) will
indicate that torsion has been ignored for that particular member. The details of setting the values
to one (1) or two (2) and the corresponding checks performed are as described below. See "Design
Parameters" on page 265 for additional details.

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7C.5 Member Design

Note: If the TORSION parameter is set to 1 or 2, the program will perform the appropriate checks
even if the member is not subject to torsional moments. In such cases, the program will perform
the checks with a value of zero for the torsional moment.

Basic stress check


This method is used when the TORSIONparameter is specified as one (1).
This method is intended to be a simplified stress check for torsional effects per Cl. 6.2.7(5). Any
warping stresses that may develop due to the end conditions will be ignored for this option. The
program will consider the forces (including torsion) at various sections along the length of the
member and for each section, will calculate the resultant stress (Von Mieses) at various points on
the cross section. The location and number of points checked for a cross section will depend on the
cross section type and will be as described below.
The stress check will be performed using equation 6.1 of EN 1993-1-1:2005 as given below:
2
2
2
x ,Ed z,Ed x ,Ed z,Ed Ed
+

+
3
f / f / f / f / f / 1
y M0 y M 0 y M0 y M 0 y M 0

Where:

is the longitudinal stress

is the transverse stress and

is the resultant shear stress.

x,Ed
z,Ed

Ed

Note: Since transverse stresses are very small under normal loading conditions (excluding
hydrostatic forces), the term will be negligible and hence is taken as zero.
x,Ed = x + bz + by = Fx /Ax + Mz/Zz + My /Zy
Ed = T/J t + Vy Q/(Izt) + VzQ/(Iy *t)
Where:
T is the torsion at the particular section along the length of the member
J is the torsion constant
t is the thickness of the web/flange
V is the shear force
Q is the statical moment about the relevant axis
I is the second moment of area about the relevant axis
The stress check as per equation 6.1 is performed at various stress points of a cross section as shown
in figures below:

International Design Codes Manual 251

7C.5 Member Design

Shape
Doubly
symmetric
wide flange
profile

Pipe profiles
= tan1

(Mz/My )

Tube profiles

252 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

Section Sketch

7C.5 Member Design

Shape

Section Sketch

Channel
profiles

The resultant ratio will be reported under Cl. 6.2.7(5) in the detailed design output.

Detailed stress check


This method is used when the TORSIONparameter is specified as two (2).
This method performs a detailed torsional analysis of a member depending on the torsion loading
conditions and the support conditions at the member ends. This method is based on the SCI
publication P057 and includes any warping stresses (direct warping stresses and warping shear
stresses) depending on the end conditions of the member. This implementation considers seven
different cases of loading and end conditions as given in publication P057 Section 6. The
loading/end conditions for a member are specified by the use of the CMT design parameter (See
"Design Parameters" on page 265 for parameter values and descriptions).
All the equations used to evaluate the torsional moments and associated stresses are as given in
Appendix B of P057. The resultant stresses are evaluated at various sections along the length of the
member and the following checks will be performed:

Clause 6.2.7(1) Torsional resistance of the section.


In general, the torsion at any section T

Ed

is resolved into two components, viz.

The pure torsional (St. Venants) moment (T

) and

t,Ed

The warping torsional moment(T

w,Ed

International Design Codes Manual 253

7C.5 Member Design

Therefore,
TEd = Tt,Ed +Tw,Ed = GJ = EH
[Ref SCI pub. P057]
Where:
and are the first and third derivates of twist ( ), respectively, and depend on
the end conditions and loading. These are evaluated from the equations in Annex B
of P057 and are based the specified CMT parameter.
Note: Although the equation given the NCCI document SN007b-EN-EU can be used to evaluate
T , the NCCI does not give the eqn. to evaluate . Therefore, Annex B of P057 is used.
wrd

The torsional resistance of the section is also considered as the sum of the pure torsion resistance
and the warping torsion resistance. The pure torsion resistance (T ) and the warping torsional
t,Rd
resistance (T
) are evaluated as:
w,Rd

For closed sections:


Tt,Rd = 2 Ac t max
Where:
A is the area enclosed by the mean perimeter
c

t is the max thickness

max

is the max. allowable shear stress = (fy/3)/ m0

For open sections (I & channel):


Tt,Rd = max J / t
Where:
J is the torsion const
t is the max thickness.
Tw,Rd = (fy / m0 ) t b2 / 6
Where:
b is the width of the section
t is the thickness of the flange for I- sections; minimum of flange or web thickness
channel sections
The check according to Cl 6.2.7(1) will then be performed to ensure that the following conditions
are satisfied:
Tt,Ed / Tt,Rd 1
Tw,Ed / Tw,Rd 1
TEd / TRd 1

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7C.5 Member Design

Clause 6.2.7(9) Plastic shear resistance due to torsion


STAAD.Pro checks for shear resistance of a section based on Cl. 6.2.6 for EC3 and the plastic shear
resistance (in the absence of torsion) is evaluated as:

Av fy /

V pl, Rd =

M0

Where:
A is as pre Cl.6.2.6 (3) for the various sections
v

When torsion is present, along with the shear force, the design shear resistance will be reduced to
V
, where V
is evaluated as follows:
pl,T,Rd

pl,T,Rd

i. For I or H Sections:
V pl, T , Rd = 1

,Ed

1.25 f y /

3 / M0

V pl, Rd

ii. For Channel Sections:

,Ed
w ,Ed
V pl, Rd
V pl, T , Rd = 1

1.25(f y / 3 ) / M0
f y / 3 ) / M0

iii. For Structural Hollow Sections:

,Ed
V pl, T , Rd = 1
V

(f y / 3 ) / M0 pl, Rd

Where

t,Ed

is the shear stress due to direct (St. Venants) torsion and

w,Ed

is the shear stress due to warping torsion.

The various shear stresses due to torsion

t,Ed

and

w,Ed

are evaluated as follows:

i. For Closed sections:


The shear stresses due to warping can be ignored as they will be insignificant and hence:
t,Ed = TEd /(2Act)
[Ref NCCI Sn007b-EN-EU]
Where:
T

Ed

is the applied torsion,

A is the area delimited by the mean perimeter and


c

t is the thickness of the cross section

International Design Codes Manual 255

7C.5 Member Design

w,Ed

= 0, since warping is ignored

ii. For Open sections [I, H, Channel] sections:


For I and H sections, the web will not be subject to warping stresses and therefore warping
shear can be ignored (
=0).
w,Ed

The stress due to pure torsion is evaluated as:


t,Ed = Gt
[Ref SCI pub. P057]
Where:
G is the shear modulus
is a function depending on the end condition and loading(T). This will be
taken from section 6 and Annex B of P057.
Note: Although the maximum stress is at the thickest section of the profile, the program
uses the web thickness for this clause (since the shear capacity is based on the web area)
unless the load is parallel to the flanges, in which case the flange thickness is used.
For channel sections that are free to warp at the supports and, thus, are not subject to
warping stresses:
The warping shear stress is evaluated as:
w,Ed = ESw / t
[Ref SCI pub. P057]
Where:
E is the elastic modulus,
S is the warping statistical moment and
w

is a function depending on the end condition and loading(T). This will be


taken from section 6 and Annex B of P057.
t is the thickness of the element.

Clause 6.2.7(5) Check for elastic verification of yield


Eurocode 3 gives yield criterion as per eqn. 6.1 and STAAD.Pro uses the yield criterion given in EC3. When a member is subject to combined bending and torsion, some degree of interaction occurs
between the two effects. The angle of twist caused by torsion is amplified by the bending moments
and will induce additional warping moments and torsional shears. Account must also be taken of
the additional minor axis moments produced by the major axis moments acting through the
torsional deformations, including the amplifications mentioned earlier.
For members subject to bending and torsion, the stresses are evaluated as follows:

256 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7C.5 Member Design

Direct bending stress (major axis): bz = Mz / Zz


Direct bending stress (minor axis): by = My / Zy
Direct stress due to warping: w = EW ns
Direct stress due to twist (min. axis): byt = Myt / Zy
Direct stress due to axial load (if any): c = P/ A
Where:
M is the major axis moment & My is the minor axis moment.
z

is the differential function based on twist (ref P057 Annex B. & Table 6)
W

ns

is the normalized warping function.

Myt = Mz (see Appendix B of P057 to evaluate )


Shear stresses due to torsion and/or warping is evaluated as described above for Clause 6.2.7(9).
Check for yield (capacity checks) is then done according to Eqn 6.1 of EN 1993-1-1:2005, as described
for the Basic Stress Check (TORSION = 1):
2
2
2
x ,Ed z,Ed x ,Ed z,Ed Ed
f / + f / f / f / + 3 f / 1
y M0 y M 0 y M0 y M 0 y M 0

Clause EC-3:6 App A Check for combined Torsion and Lateral Torsional buckling
The interaction check due to the combined effects of bending (including lateral torsional buckling)
and torsion will be checked using Annex A of EN 1993-6: 2007. Note that this interaction equation
does not include the effects of any axial load.
Caution: At present, SCI advises that no significant work has been published for this case and
work is still ongoing. So at present is advisable not to allow for torsion in a member with large
axial load.
Members subject to combined bending and torsion will be checked to satisfy:
M y ,ED
LT M y ,RK / M1

C MZM z,Ed
M z,RK / M 1

k wk zwk T w ,Ed
T w ,Rk / M1

Where:
C is the equivalent uniform moment factor for bending about the z-z axis,
mz
according to EN 1993-1-1 Table B.3.
k w = 0.7
k zw = 1

0.2T w ,Ed
T w ,Rk / M 1
M z,Ed

M z,Rk / M 1

International Design Codes Manual 257

7C.5 Member Design

k =

1
1 M y ,Ed / M y ,cr

M
and M
are the design values of the maximum moment about the y-y and zy,Ed
z,Ed
z axis, respectively.
M
and M
are the characteristic values of the resistance moment of the crossy,Rk
z,Rk
section about it y-y and z-z axis, respectively, from EN 1993-1-1, Table 6.7.
M

is the elastic critical lateral-torsional buckling moment about the y-y axis.

is the design value of the warping torsional moment.

is the characteristic value of the warping torsional resistance moment.

y,cr

w,Ed
w,Rk

is the reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling according to 6.3.2 of EN 1993LT
1-1.
Note: For all of the above checks the effective length of the member to be used for torsion can be
set by using the EFT design parameter.

7C.5.5 Members Subject to Combined Forces


Members subject to Bending and Axial Force
When a member is subject to a combined axial load and a bending moment, the program evaluates
a reduced moment capacity based on Cl. 6.2.9 of the code. For Class 1, 2, and 3 sections, the
program evaluates the reduced moment from the equations given in Cl. 6.2.9.1 of the code. For class
4 sections, the interaction equation given by equation 6.44 are checked.
In the case of members subject to axial load and biaxial bending, the program will consider the
interaction equation 6.41 of the code.
Note: By default, the program will use the values of the constants and as given in the code
for the different sections types. However, you can override these values using the ALPHA and BETA
design parameters (See "Design Parameters" on page 265).
Note: The program uses the parameter ELB (See "Design Parameters" on page 265) to override the
Cl.6.2.9 checks for combined axial load and bending case. When specfied as 1, the program uses
the more general equation 6.2 of EN 1993-1-1, instead.

Members subject to Bending, Shear, and Axial Force


When a member is subject to a combined axial load, shear force, and a bending moment, the
program evaluates the reduced yield strength as given in Cl 6.2.10 (3) of the code. The reduction in
the yield strength is done only when the applied shear force exceeds 50% of the design shear
resistance V
. This reduced yield strength is then used to evaluate the reduced moment capacity
pl,Rd
of the section.

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7C.5 Member Design

Members subject to Bending and Axial Compression


The bending resistance of members could be reduced by the presence of a co-existent axial load.
This is then checked against the lateral-torsional buckling resistance of the section. The EN 1993
design module in STAAD takes such a scenario into account and performs the necessary checks as
per Cl. 6.3.3 of the code.
Generally, EC3 requires checking cross-section resistance for local capacity and also checking the
overall buckling capacity of the member. In the case of members subject to axial tension and
bending, there is provision to take the stabilizing effect of the tension load into consideration. This
is achieved by modifying the extreme compression fibre stress and calculating an effective applied
moment for the section. The checks are done as per Cl. 6.2.9 of the code. In case of a combined
axial compressive load and bending moment, the member is checked per the rules in section 6.3.3
of the code. The program checks to ensure that both the interaction equations 6.61 and 6.62 of the
code are satisfied. The interaction factors kzz, kyy, kzy & kyz will be evaluated using Annex B of EN
1993-1-1 by default. Hence for the EN 1993-1-1 code in STAAD.Pro (without National Annexes), uses
Annex B. The choice between using Annex A and Annex B will be based on the choice specified by
a particular National Annex, if used. If the National Annex itself gives a choice between Annex A
and Annex B, the program uses Annex B to evaluate the interaction factors.
Note: EN 1993-1-1:2005 does not specifically deal with single angle, double angles, double channels
or Tee sections and does give a method to evaluate the slenderness of such members. In these
cases, the Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-1-1) design module of STAAD.Pro uses the methods specified in
BS 5950-1:2000 to calculate the slenderness of these members. Cl. 4.7.10 of BS 5950-1:2000 is used
in the current version of the EC3 design module. See "Single Angel Sections"for ST and RA
angle specifications.
Note: Laced or battened compression members are not dealt within the current version of EC3
(EN 1993) design module in STAAD.Pro.

7C.5.6 Design of Slender pipe sections to EN 1993-1-6


The design of Slender CHS sections is performed per EN 1993-1-6:2007 (hereafter, EC3-6). EC3-6
does not specify additional or modified safety factors. Therefore, the program uses the default safety
factors from EN 1993-1-1.
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters.
EC3-6 deals with four types of ultimate limits states: plastic limit state, cyclic capacity limit state,
buckling limit state, and fatigue. The following are considered by STAAD.Pro:
l

LS1 Plastic limit state: Deals with the condition when the capacity of the structure is
exhausted by yielding of the material.

LS3 Buckling Limit state: Deals with the condition in which the structure (or shell)
develops large displacements normal to the shell surface, caused by loss of stability under
compressive and/or shear membrane stresses.

International Design Codes Manual 259

7C.5 Member Design

The limit state verification is made based on the Stress design method described in EC3-6. The
stress design approach takes into account three categories of stresses:
l

Primary stresses: Stresses that are generated for the member to be in equilibrium with the
direct imposed loads.

Secondary stresses: Those that are generated for internal compatibility or for compatibility at
supports due to imposed loads or displacements (e.g., temperature, settlement etc.)

Local stresses: Local stresses generated due to cyclic loading (or fatigue).

Only the primary stresses are considered the program. The primary stresses considered are those
generated due to axial loads, bending, shear and /or a combination of these conditions.
Note: In the context of slender pipe section design for the Eurocode 3 module, the secondary and
local stresses can be neglected since the loads and corresponding stresses dealt with in the design
engine are largely direct and shear stresses.
The local axis coordinate system for a CHS is defined as:
circumferential
around the circumference of the circular cross
section ()
meridional
along the length of the member (x)
normal
perpendicular to the tangential plane formed by the
circumferential and meridional directions (n)
and the corresponding membrane stresses will follow the convention given below:
Figure 7C.3 - Nomenclature for membrane and transverse stresses in Slender CHS sections

Membrane stresses

Transverse stresses

Stress Design
Stress checks are made based on the Stress design method as per Section 8.5 of the code. This
section deals with the buckling strength of the member (LS3). The principle is to evaluate the

260 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7C.5 Member Design

membrane stresses due to the applied loads and then compare that to the buckling strength, which
is evaluated giving due consideration for local buckling effects.
The membrane stresses are evaluated as given in Annex A of the code. The pipe section is
considered as an unstiffened cylindrical shell.
i. Meridional Stresses:
1. Axial load
Fx = 2rPx
x = -Fx /(2rt)
2. Axial stress from bending
M = r2 Px,max
x = M/(2 rt)
ii. Shear Stress:
1. Transverse force, V
V = rP,max
max = V/(rt)
2. Shear from torsional moment, M
Mt = 2r2 P
= Mt/(22 r2 t)
Where:
r is the radius of the middle surface of the shell wall.
t is the wall thickness of the cylinder

Calculation of Axial Buckling Stress


The buckling strength of A slender pipe section is evaluated using the method given in section
8.5.2 ofEC3-6. The design buckling stresses (buckling resistance) are calculated separately for axial,
circumferential, and shear. The circumferential stresses are ignored in STAAD.Pro.
The naming convention and the coordinate axis used will be as given in the following diagram:

International Design Codes Manual 261

7C.5 Member Design

Figure 7C.4 - Naming convention and coordinate system used for the buckling stress of a slender CSH section

The axial buckling resistance is given by:


x,Rd = x,Rk /M1
Note:

will have the same default value of 1.0 as in EN 1993-1-1.

M1

x,Rk

is the characteristic buckling strength given by:


x,Rk = x fyk

Where:
is the meridional buckling reduction factor. is evaluated per Section 8.5.2(4) of
x
x
EC3-6 and is determined as a function of the relative shell slenderness given by:
x =

f yk
x ,cr

Where:

x,cr

is the elastic buckling critical stress.

Once the relative slenderness is evaluated, the reduction factor is calculated as follows:
= 1 when

0
= 1

P 0 when < <


0

/2

when
P

Where:
is the plastic limit for slenderness given by:
p

P =

The meridional buckling parameters the factors and are evaluated per section D.1.2.2 of EC3-6.

262 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7C.5 Member Design

Note: A Normal fabrication quality will be assumed when evaluating the fabrication quality
parameter as given in table D.2 of the code, unless the fabrication quality is set using the FAB
design parameter. See "Design Parameters" on page 265
The elastic critical buckling stress,
and the factors and are evaluated per Annex D of EC3-6.
x,cr
The details are as given below:
The CHS section is classified based on the following criteria:
CHS Length Classification

Criteria

Short

1.7

Medium

1.7 < 0.5 r/t

Long

> 0.5 r/t

Where:
=

l
rt

The elastic critical buckling critical stress is evaluated as:


x,Rcr = 0.605ECx (t/r)
Where:
C is a factor dependant upon the CHS length classification as described in section
x
D.1.2.1 of EC-3-6.
Note: For a long cylinder, there are two separate methods that can be used to
evaluate the C factor: Eqns D.9/10 and Eqn D.12. Initially the program evaluates C
x
x
based on the maximum from equations D.9 and D.10. However, for long cylinders
that satisfy the conditions in equation D.11, the program will also work out Cx
based on equation D.12 and then choose the minimum obtained from D.12 and
D.9/10.

Calculation of Shear Buckling Stress


The shear buckling resistance is given by:
x,Rd = x,Rk /M1
Note:

M1

x,Rk

will have the same default value of 1.0 as in EN 1993-1-1.

is the characteristic buckling shear strength given by:


x,Rk = fyk

Where:

International Design Codes Manual 263

7C.5 Member Design

is the shear buckling reduction factor. will be worked out as given in section

8.5.2(4) of En 1993-1-6 and is determined as a function of the relative shell slenderness


given by:
f yk

x ,cr

Where:

is the elastic buckling critical stress.

x,Rk

The reduction factor, , is then evaluated as described for the axial buckling stress, based on the

same , , and parameters given in Annex D of EC3-6.


p

The CHS section is classified based on the following criteria:


CHS Length Classification

Criteria

Short

10

Medium

10 < 8.7 r/t

Long

> 8.7 r/t

Where:
=

l
rt

The elastic critical buckling critical stress is evaluated as:


x, Rcr = 0.75EC

Where:
C is a factor dependant upon whether the CHS length classification as described in

section D.1.4.1 of EC-3-6.


Note: A Normal fabrication quality will be assumed when working out the
fabrication quality parameter as given in table D.6 of the code, unless the
fabrication quality is set using the FAB design parameter.

Buckling Strength Verification


The buckling strength verification will be performed so as to satisfy the following conditions:
For axial stresses:
x,Ed x,Rd
For shear stresses:

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7C.6 Design Parameters

x,Ed x,Rd
For a combined case of axial and shear stresses acting together, an interaction check will be done
according to equation 8.19 of the code as below:
x ,Ed
x ,Rd

kx

x ,Ed
+

x ,Rd

Where:
k and k are the interaction factors as given in section D.1.6 of EN 1993-1-6:
x

kx = 1.25 + 0.75 x
k = 1.75 +0.25

7C.6 Design Parameters


Design parameters communicate specific design decisions to the program. They are set to default
values to begin with and may be altered to suite the particular structure.
Depending on the model being designed, you may have to change some or all of the parameter
default values. Some parameters are unit dependent and when altered, the n setting must be
compatible with the active unit specification.
Table 7C.4 lists all the relevant EC3 parameters together with description and default values.
Table 7C.2-Steel Design Parameters EC3 EN
Parameter

Default

Name

Value

CODE

Description

Must be specified as EN 1993-1-1:2005 to


invoke design per Eurocode 3:2005 (EN
1993).
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.

ALH

0.5

The ratio of the distance of the point


torque (from the start of the member) to
the length of the member. The default
value of 0.5 represents torque acting at the
mid-span of a symmetrically loaded
member. Values can range from 0 to 1.

International Design Codes Manual 265

7C.6 Design Parameters

Parameter

Default

Name

Value

ALPHA

1.0

Description

Used to input a user defined value for the


factor in equation 6.41 for combined
bending and axial force checks.

BEAM

Parameter to control the number of


sections to checked along the length of a
beam:
1. Check at location of maximum Mz
along beam
2. Check sections with end forces and
forces at location of BEAM 1.0
check.
3. Check at every 1/13th point along
the beam and report the maximum

BETA

1.0

Used to input a user defined value for the


factor in equation 6.41 for combined
bending and axial force checks.

C1

1.132

Corresponds to the C1 factor to be used to


calculate Elastic critical moment M as
cr

per Clause 6.3.2.2


C2

0.459

Corresponds to the C2 factor to be used to


calculate Elastic critical moment M as
cr

per Clause 6.3.2.2


C3

Corresponds to the C3 factor to be used to


calculate Elastic critical moment M as
cr

per Clause 6.3.2.2

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7C.6 Design Parameters

Parameter

Default

Name

Value

CAN

Description

Member will be considered as a cantilever


type member for deflection checks.
0 indicates that member will
not be treated as a cantilever
member
1 indicates that the member
will be treated as a cantilever
member

CMM

1.0

Indicates type of loading and support


conditions on member. Used to calculate
the C1, C2, and C3 factors to be used in
the M calculations.
cr

Can take a value from 1 to 8.


Refer to Table 7C.5 for more information
on its use.
CMN

1.0

Indicates the level of End-Restraint.


1.0 = No fixity
0.5 = Full fixity
0.7 = One end free and other
end fixed

CMT

Used to indicate the loading and support


condition for torsion (ref. SCI publication
P-057).
Can take a value of 1-7. The values
correspond to the various cases defined in
section 6 and App. B of SCI-P-057.
Refer to Table 7C.6 for more information

International Design Codes Manual 267

7C.6 Design Parameters

Parameter

Default

Name

Value

DFF

0
(Mandatory
for
deflection

Description

"Deflection Length" / Max.. allowable local


deflection
See Note 1d below.

check,
TRACK 4.0)
DJ1

Start Joint

Joint No. denoting starting point for

of member

calculation of "Deflection Length" . See


Note 1 below.

DJ2

End Joint of
member

Joint No. denoting end point for


calculation of "Deflection Length". See
Note 1 below.

DMAX

100.0 cm

Maximum allowable depth for the


member.

DMIN
EFT

0
Member
Length

ELB

Minimum required depth for the member.


Effective length for torsion. A value of 0
defaults to the member length.
Used to specify the method for combined
axial load + bending checks
0. Uses Cl. 6.2.9 of EN 1993-1-1:2005
1. Uses Cl. 6.2.1(7) - Eqn. 6.2 of EN
1993-1-1:2005

268 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7C.6 Design Parameters

Parameter

Default

Name

Value

ESTIFF

Description

(For use with the Dutch NA only) Method


for checking columns forming part of
(non)/buttressed framework:
0. Checks per Cl 12.3.1.2.3 of NEN 6770:
Section 1
1. Checks per Cl 12.3.1.2.3 of NEN 6770:
Section 2
See "Clause 12.3.1.2.3 (NEN 6770):
Rotation/bending capacity" on page 296
for additional description on this
parameter.

FAB

Used to specify the fabrication class to be


used to check for slender (Class 4)
CHS/pipe sections (EN 1993-1-6:2007)
1. Class A Excellent
2. Class B High
3. Class C Normal

FU
GM0

0
1.0

Ultimate tensile strength of steel.


Corresponds to the

m0

factor in EN 1993-

1-1:2005
GM1

1.0

Corresponds to the

m1

factor in EN 1993-

1-1:2005
GM2

1.25

Corresponds to the

m2

factor in EN 1993-

1-1:2005

International Design Codes Manual 269

7C.6 Design Parameters

Parameter

Default

Name

Value

GST

Description

Used to specify the section type to be used


for designing a General Section from the
user table. The member will be considered
as the specified type with the user defined
properties. The available options and
corresponding values are as below:
0. I-Section
1. Single Channel
2. Rectangular Hollow Section
3. Circular Hollow Section
4. Angle Section
5. Tee Section
Note: This parameter will be ignored if
it has been assigned to any section other
than a General Section.

KC

1.0

Corresponds to the correction factor as per


Table 6.6 of EN 1993-1-1:2005. Program will
calculate kc automatically if this
parameter is set to 0.
Note: For the British, Singapore, &
Polish NAs, kc will be calculated as
given in the NA by default.

KY

1.0

K factor in local y axis. Used to calculate


the effective length for slenderness and
buckling calculations.

KZ

1.0

K factor in local z axis. Used to calculate


the effective length for slenderness and
buckling calculations.

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7C.6 Design Parameters

Parameter

Default

Name

Value

LEG

Description

Slenderness values for angles as


determined from BS 5950-2000 Table 25.
See "Design Parameters" on page 70

LVV

Max. value of

Leg length for Lvv (length about v-v- axis

Lyy

of single angle section), as per Lyy. Used


for slenderness calculations.

LY

LZ

MTH

Member

Compression length in local y axis,

Length

Slenderness ratio = (KY)*(LY)/(Ryy)

Member

Compression length in local z axis,

Length

Slenderness ratio = (KZ)*(LZ)/(Rzz)

Used to select the clause to be used to


calculate the LTB reduction factor,

LT

The available options and corresponding


values are as below:
0. Use default method based on
section type (default)
1. Use Cl.6.3.2.2
2. Use Cl.6.3.2.3
By default, the program will use Cl 6.3.2.3
for rolled & built-up I-sections and Cl.
6.3.2.2 for all other sections. If, however,
the specified National Annex expands on
Cl. 6.3.2.3 to include other section types
(e.g., the UK NA), the program will use Cl.
6.3.2.3 by default for that particular section
type.
See "European Codes - National Annexes
to Eurocode 3 [EN 1993-1-1:2005]" on page
283 for additional details on
NAdocuments.

International Design Codes Manual 271

7C.6 Design Parameters

Parameter

Default

Name

Value

MU

Description

To be used with CMM values of 7 and 8. See


Table 7C.4.
Note: Currently valid only with the
French & Belgian NAs.

NA

Choice of National Annex to be used for


EC3 design. See "European Codes National Annexes to Eurocode 3 [EN 19931-1:2005]" on page 283 for values allowed
for this parameter.
(See "National Annex Documents" on page
240 for more information)

NSF

1.0

Net tension factor for tension capacity


calculation.

PLG

To be used to determine whether to


include the additional interaction checks
as per CL. NA.20(2) and NA.20(3) of the
Polish National Annex.
Note: This parameter will be applicable
only to the Polish NA

PY

Yield

The yield strength default value is set

Strength

based on the default value of the SGR


parameter.

RATIO
SBLT

Permissible ratio of loading to capacity.

0.0

Indicates if the section is rolled or builtup.


0.0 = Rolled
1.0 = Built-up

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7C.6 Design Parameters

Parameter

Default

Name

Value

SGR

Description

Steel grade as in table 3.1 of EN 1993-11:2005


0.0 - indicates S 235 grade
steel
1.0 - indicates S 275 grade
steel
2.0 - indicates S 355 grade
steel
3.0 - indicates S 420 grade
steel
4.0 - indicates S 460 grade
steel
Note: As EN 1993-1-1:2005 does not
provide a buckling curve in table 6.2 for
grade S 450 steel (in Table 3.1 of EN
1993-1-1:2005), the program will use the
same buckling curves as for grade S 460
when calculating the buckling
resistance as per clause 6.3.

STIFF

Member

Distance between transverse stiffener

Length or

plates, used to prevent web shear buckling.

depth of
beam,
whichever is

If not specified or if a value of 0 is


provided, the program will assume the
web is unstiffened.

lesser
TOM

Total torsion for design used for torsion


checks. Can be used to override the total
torsional moment to be used for member
design.

International Design Codes Manual 273

7C.6 Design Parameters

Parameter

Default

Name

Value

TORSION

Description

Method to be used for a specific member


or group of members:
0. Perform basic torsion checks if
member is subject to torsion.
1. Perform basic stress check (Ignore
warping effects).
2. Perform detailed checks (including
warping effects).
3. Ignore all torsion checks
Note: For options 1 or 2, the program
will perform the torsion related checked
even if torsional moment is absent and
will use a value of zero for the torsional
moment.

TRACK

Specify level of detail in output.


0. Summary of results only.
1. Summary with member capacities.
2. Detailed results.
4. Deflection check results only.

UNF

Unsupported length as a fraction of the


actual member length.

UNL

Member
Length

Unrestrained length of member used in


calculating the lateral-torsional resistance
moment of the member.

ZG

+Section
Depth/2

Distance of transverse load from shear


center. Used to calculate M .
cr

Note: For Tee sections, ZG will have a


default value of (+Flange thickness/2)
Notes:

274 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7C.6 Design Parameters

1. CAN, DJ1, and DJ2 Deflection


a. When performing the deflection check, you can choose between two methods. The
first method, defined by a value 0 for the CAN parameter, is based on the local
displacement. Local displacement is described in Section 5.44 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
If the CAN parameter is set to 1, the check will be based on cantilever style deflection.
Let (DX1, DY1, DZ1) represent the nodal displacements (in global axes) at the node
defined by DJ1 (or in the absence of DJ1, the start node of the member). Similarly,
(DX2, DY2, DZ2) represent the deflection values at DJ2 or the end node of the
member.
Compute Delta = SQRT((DX2 - DX1)2 + (DY2 - DY1)2 + (DZ2 - DZ1)2)
Compute Length = distance between DJ1 & DJ2 or, between start node and end node,
as the case may be.
Then, if CAN is specified a value 1, dff = L/Delta
Ratio due to deflection = DFF/dff
b. If CAN = 0, deflection length is defined as the length that is used for calculation of
local deflections within a member. It may be noted that for most cases the
Deflection Length will be equal to the length of the member. However, in some
situations, the Deflection Length may be different. A straight line joining DJ1 and
DJ2 is used as the reference line from which local deflections are measured.
For example, refer to the figure below where a beam has been modeled using four
joints and three members. The Deflection Length for all three members will be
equal to the total length of the beam in this case. The parameters DJ1 and DJ2 should
be used to model this situation. Thus, for all three members here, DJ1 should be 1
and DJ2 should be 4.

D = Maximum local deflection for members 1, 2, and 3.


PARAMETERS
DFF 300. ALL
DJ1 1 ALL
DJ2 4 ALL

c. If DJ1 and DJ2 are not used, "Deflection Length" will default to the member length
and local deflections will be measured from original member line.
d. It is important to note that unless a DFF value is specified, STAAD will not perform a
deflection check. This is in accordance with the fact that there is no default value for
DFF (see Table 2B.1).

International Design Codes Manual 275

7C.6 Design Parameters

e. The above parameters may be used in conjunction with other available parameters for
steel design.
2. CMM Parameter
The values of CMM for various loading and support conditions are as given below:
Table 7C.3-Values for the CMM Parameter
CMM
Value

Loading and Support Conditions

varying end moments and uniform loading


8

varying end moments and central point load


3. Checking beam deflection

276 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7C.6 Design Parameters

With the TRACK parameter set to 4, the members included in a BEAM CHECK command will
be checked for the local axis deflection rather than for the stress capacity using the current
LOAD LIST.
If both stress capacity and deflection checks are required, then 2 parameter blocks with code
checks are required, one with a TRACK 4 command and one with a TRACK 0, 1 or 2, thus:
LOAD LIST 1 TO 10
PARAMETER 1
CODE EN 1993
TRACK 2 ALL
CODE CHECK MEMBER 1
***************************
LOAD LIST 100 TO 110
PARAMETER 2
TRACK 4 ALL
DFF 300 MEMB 1
DJ1 1 MEMB 1
DJ2 4 MEMB 1
CHECK CODE MEMB 1

Note: While both sets of code checks will be reported in the output file, only the last code
check results are reported in the STAAD.Pro graphical interface.
4. CMT Parameter
The values of CMM for various loading and support conditions are as given below:
Table 7C.4-Loading and Support Conditions represented by CMT Parameter
Values
CMT
Value

Description

Diagram

(Default) : Concentrated Torque at


Ends. Ends Torsion fixed and
Warping fixed

Concentrated Torque along length of


member. Ends Torsion fixed and
Warping free

Concentrated Torque along length of


member. Ends Torsion fixed and
Warping fixed

Uniform Torque in member. Ends


Torsion fixed and Warping free

International Design Codes Manual 277

7C.7 CodeChecking

CMT
Value

Description

Uniform Torque in member. Ends


Torsion fixed and Warping fixed

Concentrated Torque in cantilever.


End Torsion fixed and Warping fixed

Uniform Torque in cantilever. End


Torsion fixed and Warping fixed

Diagram

Note: For CMT = 2 and CMT = 3, you have the option of specifying the distance at which
the concentrated torque acts, measured from the start of the member. This can be done by
using the ALH design parameter. The ALH parameter indicates the ratio of the distance of
the point torque (from the start of the member) to the length of the member. This
parameter will have a default value of 0.5 (i.e., the torque acts at the center of the span)
and will accept values ranging from 0 to 1.
Note: The GB1 parameter that is being used for compression checks in builds preceding this
release (STAAD.Pro 2007 build 06) has been removed as this parameter is no longer required in
EN 1993-1-1:2005. Hence any legacy files that use GB1 parameter will indicate an error message and
you will be required to substitute GB1 with GM1, in accordance with EN 1993-1-1:2005.

7C.7 CodeChecking
The purpose of code checking is to ascertain whether the provided section properties of the
members are adequate. The adequacy is checked as per EN 1993-1-1:2005 and a corresponding
National Annex (if specified). Code checking is done using the forces and moments at specific
sections of the members.
When code checking is selected, the program calculates and prints whether the members have
passed or failed the checks; the critical condition; the value of the ratio of the critical condition
(overstressed for value more than 1.0 or any other specified RATIO value); the governing load case,
and the location (distance from the start of the member of forces in the member where the critical
condition occurs).
Code checking can be done with any type of steel section listed in Section 2B.4 or any of the user
defined sections as described in Section 1.7.3 of the Technical Reference Manual, with the exception

278 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7C.8 Member Selection

of ISECTION. ISECTION has been currently excluded since the option of Tapered section design is
currently not supported in the EC3 module. The EC3 (EN 1993) design module does not consider
these sections or PRISMATIC sections in its design process.
Note: Checks for slender sections to EN 1993-1-1 are limited to I-SECTIONS, TEE, SINGLE
CHANNEL, SINGLE ANGLE and CIRCULAR & RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS.
Code checking for GENERAL sections can be also done using the EN1993 module. The program will
design GENERAL sections as I sections by default. However, you are given the option to choose a
section type to be considered while designing the member. Refer to the description of the GST
design parameter in Section 7C.6 for details.

7C.8 Member Selection


STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified members. Once an analysis has been
performed, the program can select the most economical section, i.e., the lightest section, which
fulfills the code requirements for the specified member. The section selected will be of the same
type section as originally designated for the member being designed. Member selection can also be
constrained by the parameters DMAX and DMIN, which limits the maximum and minimum depth of
the members.
Member selection can be performed with all the types of steel sections with the same limitations as
defined in Section 7C.7.
Selection of members, whose properties are originally input from a user created table, will be
limited to sections in the user table.
Member selection cannot be performed on members whose section properties are input as prismatic
or as the limitations specified in Section 7C.7.

7C.9 TabulatedResultsofSteelDesign
For code checking or member selection, the program produces the results in a tabulated fashion.
The items in the output table are explained as follows:
MEMBER
refers to the member number for which the design is performed.
TABLE
refers to steel section name, which has been checked against the steel code or has been
selected.
RESULTS
prints whether the member has PASSED or FAILED. If the RESULT is FAIL, there will be
an asterisk (*) mark on front of the member.

International Design Codes Manual 279

7C.9 TabulatedResultsofSteelDesign

CRITICAL COND
refers to the clause in EN 1993-1-1:2005 code which governs the design.
RATIO
prints the ratio of the actual stresses to allowable stresses for the critical condition.
Normally a value of 1.0 or less will mean the member has passed.
LOADING
provides the load case number, which governed the design.
FX, MY, and MZ
provide the axial force, moment in local Y-axis and the moment in local z-axis
respectively. Although STAAD does consider all the member forces and moments (except
torsion) to perform design, only FX, MY and MZ are printed since they are the ones
which are of interest, in most cases.
LOCATION
specifies the actual distance from the start of the member to the section where design
forces govern.
Note: For a TRACK 2 output, the module will also report all the relevant clause checks that have
been performed and will also indicate the critical ratio and the load case that caused the critical
ratio as well as the corresponding forces that were used for the respective checks. A TRACK 2
output will also include the various design data used for the calculations such as the section
modulii, section class, section capacity etc.
If an NA parameter (other than 0) has been specified and if the particular National Annex requires
additional checks outside those specified in EN 1993-1-1:2005 (e.g., The Dutch National Annex), the
respective NA clauses and any associated code clauses will be listed along with the critical ratios
and the forces that were used for these clause checks.

7C.9.1 Example of a TRACK 2 output


Documentation notes appear in red.
Note: The results and output follow the axis convention as described in Section 7C.1.3
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING - BS EN 1993-1-1:2005
********************************************
NATIONAL ANNEX - NA to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005

Code title & version


National Annex used, if any

Design engine version


METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST
HD320X127
(EUROPEAN SECTIONS)
Member number, section profile & table
PROGRAM CODE REVISION V1.9 BS_EC3_2005/1

ALL UNITS ARE - KN


MEMBER
TABLE

PASS
045

280 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

EC-6.3.3-662

0. Design status, critical code clause, & critical ratio

7C.9 TabulatedResultsofSteelDesign

25.00 C

5.00

-10.00

Section forces & critical section location

0.00
=======================================================================
MATERIAL DATA
Grade of steel
= USER
Modulus of elasticity
= 205 kN/mm2
Design Strength (py)
= 275 N/mm2
SECTION PROPERTIES (units - cm)
Member Length =
500.00
Gross Area = 161.30
Net Area = 161.30
"z-axis" here refers to bending about Z-Z (when Y is Up), where as EC3 uses the Y-Y axis convention.
z-axis
y-axis
Moment of inertia
Plastic modulus
Elastic modulus
Shear Area
Radius of gyration
Effective Length
DESIGN DATA (units - kN,m)
Section Class
Squash Load

:
30820.004
:
2149.000
:
1926.250
:
81.998
:
13.823
:
500.000
EUROCODE NO.3 /2005
:
CLASS 1
:

4435.75

Axial force/Squash load :


GM0 : 1.00
GM1 :

0.006
1.00

9239.001
939.100
615.933
51.728
7.568
500.000
Section class as per Table 5.2
Max. cross section capacity (A f /GM0
y

GM2 : 1.10
Partial safety factors used
z-axis
y-axis
Slenderness ratio (KL/r) :
36.2
66.1
Compression Capacity
:
4078.2
3045.5
Tension Capacity
:
4435.8
4435.8
Moment Capacity
:
591.0
258.3
Reduced Moment Capacity :
591.0
258.3
Shear Capacity
:
1301.9
821.3
BUCKLING CALCULATIONS (units - kN,m)
Lateral Torsional Buckling Moment
MB = 591.0
co-efficient Factor C1 used in M calculations and End restraint factor (corresponds to the CMN design parameters
cr
s C1 & K : C1 =2.578 K =1.0, Effective Length= 5.000
Elastic Critical Moment for LTB,
Mcr
= 1541.5
Critical Load For Torsional Buckling,
NcrT = 13898.0
Critical Load For Torsional-Flexural Buckling, NcrTF = 13898.0
ALL UNITS ARE - KN
METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER
TABLE
RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================
CRITICAL LOADS FOR EACH CLAUSE CHECK (units- kN,m):
CLAUSE
RATIO LOAD
FX
VY
Max. ratio, loadcase, & section forces for each clause check
VZ
MZ
MY
EC-6.3.1.1
0.008
1
25.0
0.0
0.0
-10.0
5.0
EC-6.2.9.1
0.020
1
25.0
0.0
0.0
-10.0
5.0
EC-6.3.3-661
0.035
1
25.0
0.0
0.0
-10.0
5.0
EC-6.3.3-662
0.045
1
25.0
0.0
0.0
-10.0
5.0
EC-6.3.2 LTB
0.017
1
25.0
0.0
0.0
-10.0
5.0
Torsion and deflections have not been considered in the design.
_________________________
************** END OF TABULATED RESULT OF DESIGN **************

International Design Codes Manual 281

282 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.1 General Format

7D. European Codes - National Annexes to Eurocode 3 [EN


1993-1-1:2005]
A number of countries that have signed up to the replace their current steel design standards with
the Eurocode, EN 1993-1-1:2005, known commonly as Eurocode 3, have published their National
Annex documents. These documents make small changes to thebase document and STAAD.Pro
has been updated to incorporate some of these NationalAnnex documents.
The parameter NA sets the default material gamma factors and any additionalchanges outlined in
the country specific National Annex such as specific equations ormethods. These are described for
each National Annex document in the following sections.
The output file printout has been updated to indicate which National Annex (if any) hasbeen used
in a code check / select process (For all TRACK settings).
Design of members per EC3 National Annexes requires the STAAD Euro Design Codes
SELECTCode Pack.

7D.1 General Format


The format of the EN 1993-1-1:2005 National Annex is as follows:
CODE EN 1993
NA f1
{Code parameters: See "Design Parameters" on page 265 }
Where: f1 represents the number designation for a specific country's National Annex:
Table 7D.1-Table 5B1.2(B) - Numerical Code for Eurocode National Annex
NAValue

Country

None Uses the base EN 1993-1-1:2005 code, with no


national annex changes or additions. The default values
specified in En 1993-1-1:2005 will be used for the partial
safety factors and various parameter values where applicable
(default).

United Kingdom (British NA) Uses the BS EN 1993-11:2005 version of Eurocode 3 along with the UK National
Annex.

International Design Codes Manual 283

7D.2 Specifying the design engine to use a national annex

NAValue

Country

Netherlands (Dutch NA) Uses the NEN EN 1993-1-1:2005


version of the code.
The Dutch National Annex [NEN-EN 1993-1-1/NB] has been
added in this module. Please note that the Dutch National
requires additional checks as per NEN 6770 and NEN 6771
which will also be performed during design checks with
this parameter value

Norway (Norwegian NA) Uses the NS-EN 1993-1-1:2005


version of the code. The Norwegian National Annexe [NSEN 1993-1-1:2005/Na 2008] has been added to this
implementation.

France (French NA) Uses the Annexe Nationale a la NF


EN 1993-1-1:2005 version of the code along with the French
National Annex..

Finland (Finnish NA) - Uses the SFS EN 1993-1-1:2005


version of Eurocode 3 along with the Finnish National
Annex.

Poland (Polish NA) - Uses the PN EN 1993-1-1:2005 version


of Eurocode 3 along with the Polish National Annex.

Singapore (Singaporean NA) - Uses the SS EN1993-11:2005 version of Eurocode 3 along with the Singaporean
National Annex.

Belgium (Belgian NA) - Uses the NBN EN 1993-1-1:2005


version of Eurocode 3 along with the Belgian National
Annex.

Malaysian (Malaysian NA) - Uses the MS EN 1993-1-1:2005


version of Eurocode 3 along with the Malaysian National
Annex.

10

German (German NA) - Uses the DINEN 1993-1-1:2005


version of Eurocode 3 along with the German National
Annex.

11

Swedish (Swedish NA) - Uses the BFSEN 1993-1-1:2005


version of Eurocode 3 along with the Swedish National
Annex.

7D.2 Specifying the design engine to use a national annex


Use the following procedure to include additional check specified by a National Annex:

284 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.2 Specifying the design engine to use a national annex

1. In the Modeling mode, select the Design |Steel tab.


The Steel Design - Whole Structure dialog box opens.
2. In the Current Code drop-down menu, select EN 1993-1-1:2005.
3. Click Define Parameters.
The Design Parameters dialog box opens.
4. Select the NAparameter in the list box.
5. Select the option corresponding to the National Annex document you want to use .
6. Click Add.
This will insert the following commands into the STAAD input file:
CODE EN 1993-1-1:2005
NA n
Refer to EC3 steel design for additional information on steel design per EC3.
A design performed to the new Eurocode 3 National Annex is displayed in the outputfile (*.ANL)
with the following header, in addition to the base EC3 output.

International Design Codes Manual 285

7D.1 Dutch National Annex to EC3


Adds values from the Dutch National Annextitled NEN-EN 1993-1-1/NBfor use with Eurocode
3, or EN 1993-1-1:2005. The NA document makes small changes to the base document.
The clauses/sections in EN 1993-1-1:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC-3) that require additional
clauses from the Dutch National Annex (hereafter referred to as D-NA) are described in the
following sections.
Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below refer to the
corresponding clauses in the D-NA.
Note: Clause 6.3.2.4 deals with a simplified assessment method for beams. STAAD.Pro only uses
the more accurate method (6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 in EC-3) and therefore this section is ignored.

7D.1.1 Axis Convention


The local axis convention in the Dutch codes is: Y major axis & Z minor axis (as opposed to the
convention followed in STAAD.Pro).
Figure 7D.1 - Local axis convention used in the Dutch NA to EC-3

7D.1.2 Clause 6.1 General


The partial safety factors will use the following values:
l

Resistance of cross-sections,

Resistance of members to instability,

M0

= 1.0
M1

= 1.0

International Design Codes Manual 286

7D.1 Dutch National Annex to EC3

Resistance of cross sections to tension,

M2

= 1.25

The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the D-NA (NA 3 is
specified)..
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See "Design
Parameters" on page 265

7D.1.3 Clause 6.2.8 Bending and shear


The D-NA requires the implementation of causes 11.3.1.1 and 11.3.1.3 of NEN 6770.

Clause 11.3.1.1 (NEN 6770): Class 1 and Class 2 I-section profiles


Class 1 and class 2 I section profiles must satisfy the interaction formulae given in tables 10 & 11 of
NEN 6770.
Table 10 Provides interaction checks for bending about the major axis (All necessary terms and
formulae are described below):
1. If Vz;s;d 0.5Vz;pl;d and Ns;d 0.5 a1 Npl;d , check equation 11.3.1
2. If Vz;s;d 0.5Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 a1 Npl;d , check equation 11.3.2
3. If Vz;s;d > 0.5Vz;pl;d and Ns;d 0.5 a2 Nv;u;d , check equation 11.3-3
4. If Vz;s;d > 0.5Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 a2 Nv;u;d , check equation 11.3-4
Where:
V
V

z;s;d

= Actual Shear force in the section along Z- axis

z;pl;d

= Shear capacity of section along Z - axis

=A f
w

y;d

y;d

/ 3

= yield stress

287 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.1 Dutch National Annex to EC3

Figure 7D.2 - Definition of A

Aw = A - 2 (bf - tw - 2r) tf
N
N

s;d

= Axial force in the section

pl;d

= Axial capacity of section = A f

y;d

= Bending moment about major axis

y;s;d

= Plastic moment capacity of section = f

y;pl;d

y;pl

y;d

y;pl

= Plastic section modulus

a = min(A-2bfx tf)/A , 0.5)- used in tables 10 & 11


1

a = see eqn 11.3-10- used in tables 10 & 11


2

= see eqn 11.3.12

= see eqn 11.3-13

v;y;ud

;v;u;d

Table 11: Provides interaction formulae for bending about the minor axis
1. If Vy;s;d 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d 1.0 a1 Npl;d check equation 11.3-5
2. If Vy;s;d 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d > 1.0 a1 Npl;d check equation 11.3-6
3. IfVy;s;d > 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d 1.0 a1 Nv;u;d check equation 11.3-7
4. If Vy;s;d > 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d > 1.0 a1 Nv;u;d check equation 11.3-8
Where:
V
V

y;s;d

= Actual Shear force in the section along Y-axis

y;pl;d

= Shear capacity of sectionalong Y-axis

V y ; pl ; d = 2bt f

f y ;d
3

International Design Codes Manual 288

7D.1 Dutch National Annex to EC3

Mv;z;u;d = q Mz;pld = q fy;d W pl;z;d


W

pl;z;d

= plastic section modulus about minor axis) & q as per eqn 11.3-14

Nv;u;d = Npl;d 2(1 - q)bf tf fy;d

Clause 11.3.1.3 ( NEN 6770) : Class 1 and Class 2 Square and rectangular
hollow sections
This clause requires class 1 and class 2 square and rectangular tube profiles to satisfy the interaction
equations in Table 13.
1. If Vz;s;d 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d 0.5 a3 Npl;d check equation 11.3.22
2. If Vz;s;d 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 a3 Npl;d check equation 11.3.23
3. If Vz;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d 0.5 a4 Nv;u;d check equation 11.3-24
4. If Vz;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 a4 Nv;u;d check equation 11.3-25
Where
V
V

z;s;d

= Actual Shear force in the section along Z-axis

z;pl;d

= Shear capacity of section along Z-axis

b = breadth of section
h = height of section
A = area of section
V z ; pl ; d = V z ; cl ; d =

f y ;d
h
A
b+h
3

a = min{(A - 2 b t)/A or 0.5}


3

a = from equation 11.3.27


4

7D.1.4 Clause 6.2.10 Bending shear and axial force


Requires the implementation of clauses 11.3.1.1 to 11.3.1.3 and 11.3.2.1 to 11.3.2.3 of NEN 6770 and clause
11.3 of NEN 6771

Clause 11.3.1.1 (NEN 6770) and Clause 11.3.1.3 ( NEN 6770)


See "Clause 6.2.8 Bending and shear" on page 287

289 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.1 Dutch National Annex to EC3

Clause 11.3.1.2 (NEN 6770): Class 1 and class 2 circular hollow (CHS) profiles
Class 1 and class 2 sections with circular hollow profiles should satisfy the interaction equations
given in table 12.
l

Check #1 If Vz;s;d 0.25 Vz;pl;d check equation 11.3.17

Check #2 If Vz;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d check equation 11.3.18.

See "Clause 6.2.8 Bending and shear" on page 287 of this document for equations to derive Vz;s;d
Vz;pl;d = Shear capacity of CHS sections
V pl ; d = 2

A f y ;d
3

See equations 11.3-19 and 11.3-20 to evaluate Mv;y;u;d and N;v;u;d.


To check for these conditions about the y axis, substitute the index z in the above equations with
y (should be the same of CHS sections).

Clause 11.3.2 ( NEN 6770)


Section 11.3.2 in general deals with Biaxial bending with axial force and shear. The general condition
to be satisfied in this case is given by equation 11.3-31 of NEN 6770
a1

M y ;s ;d
0

M N ;V ;y ;u ;d

M z;s ;d
+ 1

M N ;V ;z;u ;d

a2

Clause 11.3.2.1 : Class 1 and class2 I-sections with biaxial bending + shear +
axial force
The formula to evaluate M;N;v;y;u;d and M;N;v;z;u;d are to be taken from tables 14 and 15 of NEN
6770 respectively.
Checks for table 14:
1. Check #1 If Vz;s;d 0.5 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d 0.5 x a1 x Npl;d use equation 11.3.32
2. Check #2 If Vz;s;d 0.5 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 x a1 x Npl;d use equation 11.3.33
3. Check #3 If Vz;s;d > 0.5 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d 0.5 x a2 x Nv;u;d use equation 11.3-34
4. Check #4 If Vz;s;d > 0.5 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 x a2 x Nv;u;d use equation 11.3-35
See "Clause 6.2.8 Bending and shear" on page 287 for equations to evaluate Vz;s;d, My;pl;d, Npl;d,
Mv;y;ud, N;v;u;d, a1 ,a2 and Vz;pl;d.
Checks for table 15:

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7D.1 Dutch National Annex to EC3

1. Check #1 If Vy;s;d 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d 1.0 x a1 x Npl;d use equation 11.3.36
2. Check #2 If Vy;s;d 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d > 1.0 x a1 x Npl;d use equation 11.3.37
3. Check #3 If Vy;s;d > 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d 1.0 x a1 x Nv;u;d check equation 11.3-38
4. Check #4 If Vy;s;d > 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d > 1.0 x a1 x Nv;u;d check equation 11.3-39
See "Clause 6.2.8 Bending and shear" on page 287 for equations to evaluate Vy;s;d, Mz;pl;d, Npl;d,
Mv;z;ud, N;v;u;d, a1 ,a2 and Vy;pl;d.
See table 16 for 1, 1, 0 and 1 use in tables 14 and 15.

Clause 11.3.2.2 : Class 1 and Class 2 Circular hollow tubes


The formula to evaluate M;N;v;y;u;d and M;N;v;z;u;d (to be used in equation 11-3-31, see description
of clause 11.3.2 above) are to be taken from table 17 of NEN 6770.
1. Check #1 If Vz;s;d 0.25 Vz;pl;d use equation 11.3.44
2. Check #2 If Vz;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d use equation 11.3.45.
See "Clause 6.2.8 Bending and shear" on page 287 for equations to evaluate Vz;pl;d, My;pl;d, and
Npl;d use in equations 11.3.44 & 11.3.45.
For values to be used for 1, 2, 1 and 2 in this case refer to table 18 of NEN 6770.

Clause 11.3.2.3 : Class 1 and class2 Rectangular and square hollow tubes
The formula to evaluate M;N;v;y;u;d and M;N;v;z;u;d (to be used in equation 11-3-31, see description
of clause 11.3.2 above) are to be taken from table 19 of NEN 6770.
1. Check #1 If Vz;s;d 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d 0.5 x a3 x Npl;d use equation 11.3-48
2. Check #2 If Vz;s;d 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 x a3 x Npl;d use equation 11.3.49
3. Check #3 If Vz;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d 0.5 x a4 x Nv;u;d use equation 11.3-50
4. Check #4 If Vz;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 x a4 x Nv;u;d check equation 11.3-51
See "Clause 6.2.8 Bending and shear" on page 287 for equations to evaluate Vz;pl;d, My;pl;d, Npl;d,
Mv;y;ud, N;v;u;d, a3, a4 and Vz;pl;d to be used in the above equations. For values to be used for 1,
2, 1 and 2 in this case refer to table 20 of NEN 6770.
To check for these conditions about the y axis, substitute the index z in the above equations with
y.

Clause 11.3 ( NEN 6771)


In general, this section deals with Biaxial bending with axial force and shear for class 3 and class 4
sections.

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Check for class 3 sections: For class 3 sections use the method in section 11.3 NEN 6770. For class 3
sections the methods and equations discussed above can be used with the plastic section modulus
being substituted with the elastic modulus.
Check for class 4 sections: Class 4 sections can be treated as class 3 sections if the effective section
properties are used as given in clause 10.2.4.2.3 of NEN 6771. Working out the effective section
properties for slender sections has already been done in STAAD.Pro.
For I- section profiles and tubular sections, the following cases are checked:
1. If M;y;s;d / MN;y;f;u;d 1 check equation 11.2-7 (given below)
Vz;s;d /Vz;u;d 1
Where
V
V

z;s;d
z;u;d

is the shear for in the Z direction


is the shear capacity in the Z direction for ultimate limit state.

For an I section,
2
3

V z ; u ; d = A w; et

f y ;d
3

Where
Aw,ef = effective web area as given in section 10.2.4.2.3.
MN;y;f;u;d is the moment capacity about the Y axis for the effective section. =
(fyW,eff)
2. If M;y;s;d / MN;y;f;u;d > 1 and M;y;s;d / M;y;f;u;d 1 check equation 11.2-13 (given below):
M y ;s ;d
2

2Vz;s ;d

M N ;y ;f ;u ;d + M N ;y ;u ;d M N ;y ;f ;u ;d 1
1

Vz;u ;d

7D.1.5 Clause 6.3 Buckling resistance of members


The D-NA introduces a new clause 6.3.0, which in turns requires the checks as per clauses 12.1.2.2,
12.13.2 and 12.1.4.2 of NEN 6771 to be applied.

Clause 12.1.2.2 (NEN 6771)


This clause in NEN 6771 determines the relative torsional slenderness and is given as:
, re =

N c ;u ;d
FE ;

Where:
Nc;u;d = Afy;d

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7D.1 Dutch National Annex to EC3

A = area of section
f

y;d

= the yield stress

is the Euler-torsion formula

E;

This value of slenderness is to be used to calculate the modification factors used in section 6.3 of
EC-3.

Clause 12.1.3.2 (NEN 6771)


This clause works out the relative torsional-flexural buckling slenderness for compression members.
The relative torsional-flexural buckling slenderness is given as:
tk , re =

N c ;u ;d
FE ;tk

Where
Nc;u;d = Afy;d
A = area of section
f

y;d

= yield stress

E;tk

is the Euler torsional buckling strength

Clause 12.1.4.2 (NEN 6771)


Buckling lengths of rotationally restrained bars with intermediate spring supports.
Note: STAAD.Pro does not allow for these end conditions, specifically. The effective length factors
may be used to accommodate this requirement.

7D.1.6 Clause 6.3.1.3 Slenderness for flexural buckling


The Dutch NA requires the implementation of clause 12.1.1.3 and 12.1.5.3.2 of NEN 6770 and clause
12.1.1.3 of NEN 6771.

Clause 12.1.1.3 (NEN 6770)


This clause gives the equations to evaluate the effective lengths for various support conditions.
STAAD.Pro uses the effective length factor K which allows the user to set/modify the effective
lengths for a member.

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7D.1 Dutch National Annex to EC3

Clause 12.1.5.3.2 (NEN 6770)


This clause gives methods to evaluate the buckling length of lattice sections. We do not deal with
latticed section in the current version of STAAD.Pro. In any case the buckling length can be
adjusted using the K factor.

Clause 12.1.1.3 (NEN 6771)


This clause again deals with working out the effective lengths of prismatic and non-prismatic rods.
Again, the K factor in the current implementation of STAAD.Pro is adequate to cater for adjusting
the effective lengths as necessary.

7D.1.7 Clause 6.3.1.4 Slenderness for torsional and torsional-flexural


buckling
The D-NA requires the implementation of clauses 12.1.2 and 12.1.3 of NEN 6770

Clause 12.1.2 (NEN 6770): Torsional stability


IPE, HEA, HEB & HEM sections and pipe sections do not need to be checked for torsional
instability.
If torsional checks need to be performed, they should be done according to 12.1.2 of NEN 6771.

Clause 12.1.2 (NEN 6771)


This clause gives the condition to check for torsion instability. The condition being:
N c ;s ;d
N c ;u ;d

Where:
N
N

c;s;d

= the applied axial load

C;u;d

= the axial capacity = A f .


y

;d
fu ;d

Clause 12.1.3 (NEN 6770): Torsional flexural stability


Doubly symmetric sections need not be checked for torsional flexural instability. However, for I
sections that have rigid supports that is not along the axis of the section and any other sections will
need to be checked as per clause 12.1.3 of NEN 6771.

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7D.1 Dutch National Annex to EC3

Clause 12.1.3 (NEN 6771)


This clause gives the condition to check for torsional flexural instability. The condition being:
N c ;s ;d
t ;k N c ;u ;d

Where:
N

c;s;d

and N

c;u;d

as in clause 12.1.2 above.

7D.1.8 Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 Lateral torsional buckling curves


Clause 6.3.2.2 Lateral torsional buckling curves - general
The D-NA states that the values for the imperfection factor, LT, to be used in equation 6.56 of EC3 are to be obtained from sTable 6.3 of EC-3. These are the values used by STAAD.Pro.

Clause 6.3.2.3 Lateral torsional buckling curves for rolled sections or


equivalent welded sections
The D-NA states that:
1. The values for the:
l

Imperfection factor LT0 = 0.4 (used in equation 6.57 of EC-3)

= 0.75 (used in equation 6.57 of EC-3)

These are the default values used by the program.


2. The buckling curves shall be selected as per Table 6.5.
3. The reduction factor, f, is given by
F = 1 0.5(1 - kc)[1 - 2x (LT -0.8)2 ].
kc is a correction factor for moment distribution determined from Table 6.6. This value can
be specified or calculated by the program using the KC parameter. See "Design Parameters"
on page 265
The current implementation of STAAD.Pro conservatively uses a value of f = 1.0.

7D.1.9 Clause 6.33 Uniform members in bending and axial


compression
The D-NA recommends the use of the method in Annex B of EC-3 to determine the values of kyy,
kyz, kzy and kzz to be used in 6.3.3 (EC-3) checks. STAAD.Pro uses the method in Annex B.

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7D.1 Dutch National Annex to EC3

Clause 12.3.1.2.3 (NEN 6770): Rotation/bending capacity


The Dutch NA also requires additional checks as per clause 12.3.1.2.3 of NEN 6770.
The checks given in this clause deals with additional checks for columns that form part of a
buttressed or non-butressed framework. The program uses the ESTIFF parameter with two
different values to identify the framework type:
Table 7D.1-Framework parameter ESTIFF values for the
Dutch NA
ESTIFF
value

Description

(default) Column part of a buttressed


framework. Selecting this value will internally
perform the checks as per section 1 of clause
12.3.1.2.3

Column is not part of a buttressed framework.


Selecting this value will internally perform the
checks as per section 2 of clause 12.3.1.2.3

These checks are described below:


1. For columns in buttressed frameworks the buckling length is to be taken based on either
l

the system length or

the distance between adjacent lateral supports

The following conditions should also be satisfied:


If Nc;s;d/ Npl;d < 0.15, no additional checks are required
If Nc;s;d/ Npl;d 0.15 and the steel grade is S235 or S 275 then
N c ;s ;d
N p ;d

y
120

Where:
N
N

c;s;d
pl;d

is the axial load in the section


= Axial capacity of section = Af

y;d

= Slenderness of the section about the major axis (Y-axis)


y

If Nc;s;d/ Npl;d 0.15 and the steel grade is S355 then


N c ;s ;d
N p ;d

y
100

Where:

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7D.1 Dutch National Annex to EC3

N
N

c;s;d
pl;d

= the axial load in the section


= Axial capacity of section = Af

y;d

= Slenderness of the section about the major axis (Y-axis)


y

2. For columns that are not part of buttressed frameworks the following additional checks
need to be done:
If Nc;s;d/ Npl;d < 0.15, no additional checks are required
If Nc;s;d/ Npl;d 0.15 and the steel grade is S235 or S 275 then
N c ;s ;d
N p ;d

y
100

Where:
N
N

c;s;d
pl;d

= the axial load in the section and


= Axial capacity of section = Af

y;d

= Slenderness of the section about the major axis (Y-axis)


y

If Nc;s;d/ Npl;d 0.15 and the steel grade is S355 then


N c ;s ;d
N p ;d

y
80

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7D.1 Norwegian National Annex to EC3


Adds values from the Norwegian National Annextitled NA to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005for use with
Eurocode 3, or EN 1993-1-1:2005. The NA document makes small changes to the base document.
The clauses/sections in EN 1993-1-1:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC-3) that require additional
clauses from the Norwegian National Annex are:

7D.1.1 Clause 6.1(1) General: Partial Safety Factors for buildings


EN 1993-1-1:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given in Cl.
6.1 of the code. These factors are , , and . EN 1993 provides default values for these factors.
M0 M1
M2
However, any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.
The partial safety factors will use the following values:
l

Resistance of cross-sections -

Resistance of members to instability -

Resistance of cross sections to tension -

M0

= 1.05
M1

= 1.05

M2

= 1.25

The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the Norwegian-NA (NA
3 is specified).
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See "Design
Parameters" on page 265
Note: If any of these parameters are specified as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the user specified value
(i.e., 0) and use the default values as given above.
Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below refer to the
corresponding clauses in the Norwegian -NA.

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7D.1 UK National Annex to EC3


Adds values from the UK National Annex - titled NA to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 - for use with
Eurocode 3, or EN 1993-1-1:2005. The NA document makes small changes to the base document.
Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below refer to
the corresponding clauses in the UK-NA.
The following clauses are not implemented in STAAD.Pro:
Clause 6.3.2.4(1) B Slenderness for flexural buckling
The UK NA specifies the value of c0 for I, H channel or box section to be used in
equation 6.59 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 as 0.4. However, STAAD.Pro does not use this clause
for design per EC-3. Therefore, this clause is ignored for the UK National Annex.
Clause 6.3.2.4(2)B Modification factor kfl
The value of the modification factor kfl to be used in equation 6.60 of BS EN 1993-1-1.
However, STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC-3. Therefore, this clause
is ignored for the UK National Annex.
The clauses/sections in EN 1993-1-1:2005 that have been dealt with in the UK National Annex
(hereafter referred to as the UK-NA) are:

7D.1.1 Clause 6.1(1) General: Partial Safety Factors for buildings


EN 1993-1-1:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given in Cl.
6.1 of the code. These factors are , , and . EN 1993 provides default values for these factors.
M0 M1
M2
However, any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.
The partial safety factors will use the following values for the UK National Annex:
l

Resistance of cross-sections,

Resistance of members to instability,

Resistance of cross sections to tension,

M0

= 1.0
M1

= 1.0

M2

= 1.1

The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the UK-NA (NA 1 is
specified).
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See "Design
Parameters" on page 265
Note: If any of these parameters are specified as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the user specified value
(i.e., 0) and use the default values as given above.
Caution: The GB1 parameter that is being used for compression checks in builds preceding this
release (STAAD.Pro 2007 build 06) has been removed as this parameter is no longer required in

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7D.1 UK National Annex to EC3

EN 1993-1-1:2005. Hence, any legacy files that use GB1 parameter will indicate an error message
and the user will need to substitute GB1 with GM1 in line with EN 1993-1-1:2005.

7D.1.2 Clause 6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors


for LTB checks
The UK-NA recommends the use of Table 6.3 and 6.4 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 to calculate the
imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks.
The calculation of the LTB reduction factor , requires the calculation of the Elastic Critical
LT
Buckling Moment, Mcr. The UK National Annex does not specify a particular method to calculate
M . Hence the calculation of M has been based on the following NCCI documents:
cr

cr

SN003a-EN-EU Elastic critical moment for Lateral torsional Buckling:


This document provides a method to calculate Mcr specifically for doubly symmetric sections only.
Hence only doubly symmetric sections will be considered for this method in the proposed
implementation.
The equation to evaluate M is given in the NCCI as:
cr

M cr = C1

2EI s
(kL )

2I

( )
k
kw

Is

(kL ) 2GI t
2

EI s

+ (C 2z s )2 C 2z s

C and C are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions of the
1
2
member. The NCCI provides values for C and C for the different cases as given in the tables below:
1

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7D.1 UK National Annex to EC3

This NCCI considers three separate loading conditions:


l

Members with end moments

Members with transverse loading

Members with end moments and transverse loading.

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7D.1 UK National Annex to EC3

The implementation of EC3 in STAAD.Pro accounts for the loading condition and the bending
moment diagram through the CMM parameter. The first two loading conditions mentioned above
and its variants can be dealt with by using the existing values of the CMM parameter (i.e., 1 to 6).
Hence the appropriate values from this NCCI will be used for C1 and C2 coefficients depending
on the value of CMM specified. The default value of CMM is 1, which considers the member as a pin
ended member with UDL along its span. The user will also have the option to specify specific values
for C and C using the C1 and C2 parameters in the design input mode. See "Design Parameters"
1
2
on page 265
However, for cases with end moments and transverse loading, the NCCI provides graphs to evaluate
the C1 and C2 coefficients. It does not however, provide a set of equations for these graphs. However
the end moments and transverse loading condition cannot be currently specified in the design
input. Hence this implementation will introduce two new values for the CMM parameter viz.
CMM 7:Member with varying end moments and uniform loading.
CMM 8: Member with varying end moments and central point load.
For these two conditions, the UK National Annex (nor the NCCI) does not provide equations to
evaluate C1 and C2. Hence in STAAD.Pro the user will have to use the new C1 & C2 parameters to
input the required values for C1 & C2 to be used in calculating Mcr. For values of 7 or 8 for the
CMM parameter, the program will issue a warning if C1 and C2 have not been specified.
Note: If the NA parameter has not been specified, the program obtains the values of C1 and C2
from Annex F of DD ENV version of 1993-1-1:1992.

SN030a-EN-EU Mono-symmetrical uniform members under bending and


axial compression:
This document provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment (Mcr) for uniform mono
symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. Hence for this implementation the
elastic critical moment for Tee-Sections will be worked out using the method in this NCCI.
Note: Though this method could also be applicable to mono-symmetric built-up sections,
STAAD.Pro currently does not have a means to specify/identify a mono-symmetric built-up section.
Hence this implementation will use this method only for Tee-Sections. In any case, the actual LTB
capacity will still be worked out as per BS 5950-1 as in the current EC3 implementation.
The equation to evaluate M for mono symmetric sections is given as :
cr

M cr = C1

2EI s
(k xL )

( )
kx

kw

2I

Is

(k xL ) 2GI T
2

EI x

2
+ (C 2z e C3z 1) C 2z e C3z 1

The factors C , C , and C are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria. This
1 2
3
implementation will consider C , C , and C as given in the tables below:
1

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7D.1 UK National Annex to EC3

The CMM parameter (see section (i) above) specified during design input will determine the values
of C1, C2 and C3. The default value of CMM is 1, which considers the member as a pin ended
member with UDL along its span. This NCCI does not however consider the end moments and
transverse loading condition. The user however can use the new C1, C2 and C3 parameters to input
the required values for C1, C2 and C3 to be used in calculating Mcr. As described in section (i)
above, the user must use C1, C2 and C3 parameters along with CMM values of 7 and 8.
Both the NCCI documents mentioned above assume that the member under consideration is free
to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member (k = kw = 1.0). The
current implementation of EC3 in STAAD takes into account of the end conditions using the CMN
parameter. A value of K = kw =1 is indicated by a value of CMN = 1.0 in the design input. Hence
the above methods will be used only for members which are free to rotate on plan and which have
no warping restraints, i.e., CMN = 1.0. For members with partial or end fixities (ie, CMN = 0.5 or
CMN = 0.7), the proposed implementation will fall back on to the method and coefficients in DD
ENV 1993-1-1:1992 Annex F.
For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) the proposed
implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 code.
The term zg in the equation to calculate Mcr refers to the distance between the point of
application of load on the cross section in relation to the shear center of the cross section. The
value of zg is considered positive if the load acts towards the shear center and is negative if it acts
away from the shear center. By default, the program will assume that the load acts towards the

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7D.1 UK National Annex to EC3

shear center at a distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear center. The user will be
allowed to modify this value by using the new ZG parameter. Specifying a value of ZG = 0 in the
design input would indicate that the load acts exactly at the shear center of the section so that the
term zg in the equation will have a value of zero.

7D.1.3 Clause 6.3.2.3(1) LTB for rolled sections or equivalent welded


section
The UK-NA specifies different values for the
and factors to be used in equation 6.57 of BS
LT,0
EN 1993-1-1 for rolled and equivalent welded sections. The current implementation in STAAD.pro
does not differentiate between rolled and welded sections and uses the default values in BS EN
1993-1-1 for LT,0 and . The values specified in the UK-NA are:
l

For rolled sections and hot-rolled & cold formed hollow sections:
LT,0 = 0.4
= 0.75

For welded sections:


LT,0 = 0.2
= 1.00

The current implementation of STAAD.Pro uses the buckling curves based on Table 6.5 of BS EN
1993-1-1:2005. The UK-NA specifies different limits and buckling curves to be used in this clause as
given below:
Table 7D.1-Buckling curves to use with BS EN 1993-1-1:2005
Cross Section

Rolled doubly symmetric I and H sections and


hot-finished hollow sections

Limits

Buckling
Curve

h/b 2

2.0 < h/b 3.1

h/b > 3.1

Angles (for moments in the major principle plane)

All other hot-rolled sections

Welded, doubly symmetric sections and coldformed hollow sections

h/b 2

2.0 < h/b 3.1

This table again does not specify which buckling curve is to be used in case of welded doubly
symmetric sections with h/b 3.1 and welded non-doubly symmetric sections. Hence for these
cases the new implementation will still use the method specified in the base code as per clause
6.3.2.2(2).

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7D.1 UK National Annex to EC3

7D.1.4 Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 Calculation of LTB Reduction


factor, as per UK NA
LT

Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 (EN 1993-1-1:2005), both give equations to evaluate the LTB reduction
factor to be used in eqn. 6.55 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
LT

Cl. 6.3.2.2 uses tables 6.3 and 6.4 to choose the buckling curve and the imperfection factors to be
used for calculating . Table 6.4 specifies the choice of buckling curves for Rolled I Sections,
LT
Welded I Sections and Any other sections. Cl 6.3.2.3 on the other hand uses tables 6.5 and 6.3 to
choose the buckling curves and imperfection factors. Table 6.5 however only deals with Rolled I
Sections and Welded I Sections.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 states Unless otherwise specified, see 6.3.2.3, for bending members of constant cross
section the value of should be determined from.... Hence in the implementation of EC3 (and
LT
the UK Annex) in STAAD.Pro, by default the program will consider clause Cl. 6.3.2.3 to evaluate
. For any case that is not dealt with by Cl. 6.3.2.3, the program will consider Cl. 6.3.2.2 to
LT
evaluate .
LT

Cl. 6.3.2.3 in the UK National Annex states that Table 6.5 in BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 should be replaced
with the table given in the NA (See section 4.3 of this document). Hence for all cases dealt with by
the table in the UK NA, this implementation will choose the buckling curves from the UK National
Annex. For any case that is not dealt with by the table in the UK NA, the program will use the
method given in Cl. 6.3.2.2 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
Hence for the following cross sections the program will use the Table in the UK NA for choosing a
buckling curve for LTB checks (when the UK NA has been specified):
l

Rolled doubly symmetric I & H Sections

Rolled doubly symmetric hollow sections (SHS, RHS, CHS)

Angle Sections

Any other rolled section

Welded doubly symmetric sections with h/b < 3.1

For the following cross sections, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 to evaluate
LT
l

Welded I & H Sections with h/b 3.1.

For any other type of cross section that is not dealt with by the National Annex or Cl.6.3.2.3, the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 to evaluate LT .
In any case the Elastic critical moment Mcr (used to evaluate the non dimensional slenderness)
will be worked out as given in section 4.2 of this document. Since the UK National Annex uses the
NCCIs mentioned in the sections above, this implementation will only consider end restraint
conditions corresponding to the CMN parameter=1.0 (See section 4.2 above). For all other cases of
the CMN parameter values, this implementation will use the method specified in Annex F of DD
ENV 1993-1-1:1992.

International Design Codes Manual 305

7D.1 UK National Annex to EC3

Note: If a National Annex has not been specified (i.e., NA parameter in the design input = 0), the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 only in the case of Rolled or welded I & H Sections. For all other
cases, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005. Also, I sections with plates will be
treated as built-up sections only if the section has been explicitly specified as a built-up section
(i.e., SBLT parameter = 1.0 in design input).

7D.1.5 Clause 6.3.2.3(2) Modification factor, f, for LTB checks


The UK NA specifies the use of eqn. 6.58 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 to evaluate the modification factor
f for the LTB reduction factor . To evaluate the modification factor BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 uses a
LT
correction factor kc given by Table 6.6 in the code.
The UK-NA however, specifies that the correction factor kc is to be obtained as below:
Kc = 1 / C1, where C1 is to be obtained from the NCCI documents given in section 4.2 of this
document. The NCCI document SN003a-EN-EU specifies the values of C1 to be used in table 3.1 as
shown below. This proposed implementation will allow for the reduction factor based on the UKNA.

306 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.1 UK National Annex to EC3

These values are for an end restraint factor of k=1 (ie CMN=1.0). Hence for all other values of CMN
(ie 0.7 or 0.5) this implementation will use the values of C1 from DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 Annex F.
The program will use a default value of 1.0 for kc. However the user can also input a custom value
of kc by setting the design parameter KC to the desired value. The user can also get the program
to calculate the value of kc automatically by setting the value of the KC parameter in the design
input to 0. This will cause the program to evaluate a value of C1 corresponding to the end
conditions and the Bending moment of the member and in turn calculate kc as given in the NA.
To evaluate C1, the program will use the NCCI documents mentioned in section 4.2 of this
document.

7D.1.6 Clause 6.3.3(5) Interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy, and kzz
The UK-NA recommends that the method in Annex A or Annex B of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 can be
used to calculate the interaction factors for Cl. 6.3.3 checks in the case of doubly symmetric
sections. The proposed implementation will hence use equations in Annex B of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005
to calculate these interaction factors for doubly symmetric sections. The current implementation of
EC3 BS in STAAD.pro uses the method in Annex B.
However for non-doubly symmetric sections, the UK NA gives the option of using Annex B with
some modifications as given in the NA. (Cl. NA-3.2 of the UK NA). The UK NA requires additional
checks to be done to check for the maximum allowable values of and X to be used in equations
6.61 and 6.62 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
As per the UK NA, for non-doubly symmetric sections, the slenderness about the weak axis (y in
STAAD) and the corresponding reduction factor y should be taken as the values from the highest
values of slenderness () among the flexural buckling slenderness (y), torsional slenderness ( )
T
and torsional-flexural slenderness ( ) as given in Clauses 6.3.1.3 and 6.3.1.4 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
TF

International Design Codes Manual 307

7D.1 UK National Annex to EC3

Hence for non-doubly symmetric sections the program will calculate the critical non-dimensional
slenderness as:
= the maximum of either from Cl. 6.3.1.3 or from Cl. 6.3.1.4
y

Af y

T =

N cr

Where:
N = min (N
cr

CrT

,N

crTF

).

The UK NA or EC3 does not however specify a method to evaluate NCrT or NcrTF. Hence this
implementation will use the method specified in the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU: Critical
axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes to calculate these. See section 4.9
below for details.
Note: The UK National Annex or EC3 does not deal with angle sections in specific and hence this
implementation will use the method used in the current EC3 implementation to deal with
slenderness of angle sections. In the current implementation this is done as per cl 4.7.10 of BS
5950. This proposed implementation will still use the same method for single and double angle
sections to evaluate the slenderness.
Clause NA 3.2 of the UK NA also requires that Where the section is not an I Section or a hollow
section and is a class1 or class 2 section, it will be treated as a class 3 section for the purposes of this
clause. Hence for all Class 1 or Class 2 cross sections that are NOT I, H, SHS, RHS or CHS sections,
the elastic properties will be used for the purposes of 6.3.3 checks.

7D.1.7 Clause 6.3.1.4 - Slenderness for torsional and torsional-flexural


buckling
Equations 6.52 and 6.53 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 are to be used to calculate the non-dimensional
slenderness , to be used for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling checks. BS EN 1993-1-1:2005
T
does not provide equations to calculate the elastic critical loads N
and N
(refer 6.3.14 of BS
cr,T,F
cr,T
EN 1993-1-1:2005).
The NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional
buckling modes provides methods to calculate the N
and N
factors and therefore these
cr,TF
cr,T
methods are used to evaluate the elastic critical loads for the UK NA.
The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is evaluated as:
Ncr, T =

GI t +
2
io
1

EI w
2

I T2

Where:
io2 = iy2 + iz2 + yo2 + z o2

308 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.2 French National Annex to EC3

i and i are the radius of gyration about the Y-Y (weak axis) and Z-Z (strong axis)
y
z
respectively.
The critical axial load for Torsional-Flexural buckling is evaluated as:
Ncr, TF =

i o2

2 i y2 + i z2

N cr, y + N cr, T

(Ncr, y + Ncr, T )

4Ncr, yN cr, T

i y2 + i z2
2
io

For details on these equations, refer to the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU.

7D.2 French National Annex to EC3


Adds values from the French National Annex - titled Annexe Nationale a la NF EN 1993-1-1:2005 for use with Eurocode 3, or EN 1993-1-1:2005. The NA document makes small changes to the base
document.
The following clauses are not implemented in STAAD.Pro:
Clause 6.3.2.4(1) B Slenderness for flexural buckling
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC-3. Therefore, this clause is ignored
for the French National Annex.
Clause 6.3.2.4(2)B Modification factor kfl
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC-3. Therefore, this clause is ignored
for the French National Annex.
Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below refer to
the corresponding clauses in the French-NA.
The clauses/sections in EN 1993-1-1:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC-3) that have been dealt with in
the French National Annex (hereafter referred to as FR-NA) and that are relevant to the proposed
implementation are:

7D.2.1 Clause 3.2.1(1)- Material Properties


The material strengths (i.e., - steel grade strengths) to be used with NF EN 1993-1-1 are given in
Table 3.1 of the code. The French National Annex however, specifies a separate table (Table 3.1 NF)
for the yield and tensile strengths of steel grades. This new table replaces Table 3.1 in NF EN 1993-11:2005. Table 3.1 NF excludes steel grades from standards EN 10210-1 and EN 10219-1 that are given in
EC-3.
STAAD.Pro uses the steel grades and values from the table given in the National Annex (i.e., - Table
3.1 NF). Table 3.1 NF is similar to table 3.1 in EC3, apart from the f values for S 355 and S355 W
u
grade steel.

International Design Codes Manual 309

7D.2 French National Annex to EC3

Table 7D.2-Material strengths specified for use with the NF-NA


Nominal thickness, t, of the element (mm)
Standard and grade of
steel

t 40 mm

40 mm < t <= 80
mm

f
y
(N/mm2)

f
u
(N/mm2)

f
y
(N/mm2)

f
u
(N/mm2)

S 235

235

360

215

360

S 275

275

430

255

410

S 355

355

490

335

470

S 450

440

550

410

550

S 275 N/NL

275

390

255

370

S 355 N/NL

355

490

335

470

S 420 N/NL

420

520

390

520

S 460 N/NL

460

540

430

540

S 275 M/ML

275

370

255

360

S 355 M/ML

355

470

335

450

S 420 M/ML

420

520

390

500

S 460 M/ML

460

540

430

530

S 235 W

235

360

215

340

S 355 W

355

490

335

490

S 460
Q/QL/QL 1

460

570

440

550

EN 10025-2

EN 10025-3

EN 10025-4

EN 10025-5

EN 10025-6

If you specify a steel grade that is not given in the Annex Table 3.1 (NF) but is present in Table 3.1 of
EN 1993-1-1:2005, the program uses the values from Table 3.1 of EN 1993-1-1:2005. The appropriate
yield strength (f ) used is shown in the design output file.
y

7D.2.2 Clause 6.1(1) General


EN 1993-1-1:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given in Cl.
6.1 of the code. These factors are , , and . EN 1993 provides default values for these factors.
M0 M1
M2
However, any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.
The partial safety factors will use the following values for the French National Annex:

310 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.2 French National Annex to EC3

Resistance of cross-sections,

Resistance of members to instability,

Resistance of cross sections to tension,

M0

= 1.0
M1

= 1.0

M2

= 1.25

The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the NF-NA (NA 4 is
specified).
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See "Design
Parameters" on page 265
Note: If any of these parameters are specified as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the user specified value
(i.e., 0) and use the default values as given above.
Caution: The GB1 parameter that is being used for compression checks in builds preceding this
release (STAAD.Pro 2007 build 06) has been removed as this parameter is no longer required in
EN 1993-1-1:2005. Hence, any legacy files that use GB1 parameter will indicate an error message
and the user will need to substitute GB1 with GM1 in line with EN 1993-1-1:2005.

7D.2.3 Clause 6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors


for LTB checks
The French NA recommends the use of Table 6.3 and 6.4 of NF EN 1993-1-1:2005 to calculate the
imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks.
The calculation of the LTB reduction factor , requires the calculation of the Elastic Critical
LT
Buckling Moment, M . The French NA gives a method to evaluate M in its Annex MCR. This
cr
cr
implementation will make use of this method to evaluate Mcr. Annex MCR however deals with the
calculation of Mcr for doubly symmetric sections. Hence this implementation will use this method
only for doubly symmetric sections. For mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the
minor axis (i.e Tee sections) this implementation will use the method from the NCCI document
SN030a-EN-EU as given in the section below. For any other type of section that is not dealt with by
the Annex, this implementation will use the method and tables given in Annex F of DD ENV 19931-1:1992.

Annex MCR
This document provides a method to calculate M specifically for doubly symmetric sections only.
cr
Hence only doubly symmetric sections will be considered for this method in this implementation.
The equation to evaluate M is given as:
cr

EI s
2

M cr = C1

2
(kL )

2I

( )
k
kw

Is

(kL ) 2GI t
2

EI s

+ (C 2z s )2 C 2z s

International Design Codes Manual 311

7D.2 French National Annex to EC3

C and C are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions. The NCCI
1
2
provides values for C and C for the different cases as given in Table1 and Table 2 of the Annex.
1
2
Table 1 deals with the condition of a simply supported member with end moments and the value of
C is determined by the end moment ratio (Refer to the NA for details). Clause 3.2 of the National
1
Annex however gives a formula to evaluate C as:
1

C1 =

1
0.325 + 0.423 + 0.252 2

This formula however does not match the values given in Table 1 of the NA. Hence this
implementation will use the values of C1 from Table 1 if the end moment ration () is exactly equal
to the values of in the table. For all other cases this implementation will calculate the value of C1
from equation (6) in the Annex.
The value of C2 will be determined from Table 2 of the Annex based on the loading and end
conditions (i.e the CMM parameter in STAAD).
The user will also have the option to specify specific values for C and C using the C1 and C2
1
2
parameters in the design input mode. See "Design Parameters" on page 265
The French NA considers three separate loading conditions:
l

Members with end moments

Members with transverse loading

Members with end moments and transverse loading.

The first two cases and its variants can be defined using with the existing CMM parameter values in
STAAD.Pro. However the third condition cannot be currently specified in the design input. Hence
this implementation will introduce two new values for CMM viz.
CMM 7:Member with varying end moments and uniform loading.
CMM 8: Member with varying end moments and central point load.
The load to moment ratio () will then be used in the calculations will then be used to calculate
C1 and C2 as given in section 3.5 of Annex MCR (See Annex MCR in the NA for details).
This implementation will also introduce a new parameter MU to be specified when using CMM =
7 or 8. The load to moment ratio () to be used in the calculations is to be input using the new
MU parameter. This implementation will require that for the French National Annex if CMM = 7
or 8 has been specified, the user should also either specify a value for MU or input the values for C1
and C2 using the C1 and/or C2 parameters directly.
Note: The new parameter MU will currently be applicable only in the context of the French NA.

312 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.2 French National Annex to EC3

SN030a-EN-EU Mono-symmetrical uniform members under bending and


axial compression:
This document provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment (Mcr) for uniform mono
symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. Hence for this implementation the
elastic critical moment for Tee-Sections will be worked out using the method in this NCCI.
Note: Though this method could also be applicable to mono-symmetric built-up sections,
STAAD.Pro currently does not have a means to specify/identify a mono-symmetric built-up
section. Hence this implementation will use this method only for Tee-Sections.
The equation to evaluate M for mono symmetric sections is given as:
cr

M cr = C1

2EI s
(k xL )

( )
kx

kw

2I

Is

(k xL ) 2GI T
2

EI x

2
+ (C 2z e C3z 1) C 2z e C3z 1

The factors C , C , and C are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria. This
1 2
3
implementation will consider C , C , and C as given in the tables below:
1

The CMM parameter specified during design input will determine the values of C1, C2 and C3. The
default value of CMM is 0, which considers the member as a pin ended member with UDL along

International Design Codes Manual 313

7D.2 French National Annex to EC3

its span. This NCCI does not however consider the end moments and transverse loading
condition. The user however can use the new C1, C2 and C3 parameters to input the required
values for C1, C2 and C3 to be used in calculating Mcr.
Note: If MU as well as C1, C2 and C3 have been specified, the program will ignore MU and use
the user input values of C1, C2 and C3. The current implementation of EC3 in STAAD.Pro obtains
these values from Annex F of DD ENV version of 1993-1-1:1992.
Also, the NCCI document and Annex MCR of the FR-NA assume that the member under
consideration is free to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member(k =
kw=1 .i.e., CMN parameter =1.0). Hence the above methods will be used only for members which are
free to rotate on plan and which have no warping restraints. For members with partial or end
fixities (ie, CMN = 0.5 or CMN = 0.7), this implementation will fall back on to the method and
coefficients in DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992.
For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) this
implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 code.
The term zg in the equation to calculate Mcr refers to the distance between the point of
application of load on the cross section in relation to the shear center of the cross section. The
value of zg is considered positive, if the load acts towards the shear center and is negative if it acts
away from the shear center. By default, the program will assume that the load acts towards the
shear center at a distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear center. The use will be
allowed to modify this value by using the ZG parameter. Specifying a value of ZG = 0 in the design
input would indicate that the load acts exactly at the shear center of the section so that the term
zg in the equation will have a value of zero.
Note: There is a separate method specified in the NCCI document SN006a-EN-EU to calculate
Mcr for cantilever beams. Again this document does not give any specific formulae to evaluate
the coefficients. Hence, this has not been implemented in STAAD.Pro.

7D.2.4 Clause 6.3.2.3(1) LTB for rolled sections or equivalent welded


section
The FR-NA provides equations to evaluate the

LT,0

and

LT

factors given in clause 6.3.2.3

For rolled doubly symmetric sections use:


LT , 0 = 0.2 + 0.1
b

b
h
2

LT = 0.4 0.2 LT 0
h

Note: Since EN 1993-1-1:2005 limits the value of


to 0.4, STAAD.Pro limits
to a
LT,0
LT,0
maximum value of 0.4.
For welded doubly symmetric sections use:

314 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.2 French National Annex to EC3

LT , 0 = 0.3

b
h
b

LT = 0.5 0.25 LT 0
h

For other sections:


LT,0 = 0.2
LT = 0.76
And for all sections, = 1.0
These equations and factors are then applied to equation 6.57 of NF EN 1993-1-1 to evaluate the
Lateral Torsional Buckling reduction factor .
LT

7D.2.5 Clause 6.3.2.3(2) Modification factor, f, for LTB checks


The French NA specifies that the modification factor is to be obtained as per the default method
given in EC-3. Hence this implementation will use the existing functionality to evaluate the
correction factor kc to be used in the modification factor f.
The program uses a default value of 1.0 for kc. However the user can also input a custom value of kc
by setting the design parameter KC to the desired value. You may instruct the program to calculate
the value of kc automatically by setting the value of the KC parameter in the design input to 0. This
will cause the program to evaluate kc from Table 6.6 of NF EN 1993-1-1:2005. This will correspond to
the end conditions and the bending moment of the member (i.e., the value of CMM parameter
specified).
For CMM = 7, the program will choose the value of kc to be either 0.90 or 0.91 based on the end
moment ratio.
For CMM = 8, the program will choose the value of kc to be either 0.77 or 0.82 based on the end
moment ratio.
An additional check will also be performed as given below:
LT , mod

1
2

LT

The French Annex specifies that the modification factor is applicable only to members that are free
to rotate on plan (i.e., CMN 1.0). Hence for all other values of CMN, this implementation will ignore
f and hence will use
= .
LT,mod

LT

7D.2.6 Clause 6.3.3(5) Interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy, and kzz
The French NA recommends the use of equations in Annex A of NF EN 1993-1-1:2005 to calculate
these interaction factors. STAAD.pro uses the method in Annex B for design per EC3 (without
National Annex). Therefore, the method in Annex A has been added into the program.

International Design Codes Manual 315

7D.2 French National Annex to EC3

Note: The NA mentions that this method can be extended to singly symmetric I-Sections
(symmetric about the minor axis) if the elastic properties are used instead of the plastic
properties. However, since STAAD does not have a provision to specify such sections, this case will
not be considered for this implementation.
The NA also mentions that torsional flexural buckling needs to be taken into account in case of
mono symmetric sections. This is taken into account based on the method given in the NCCI
document SN001a-EN-EU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes.
See "Clause 6.3.1.4 - Slenderness for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling" on page 316
The NA also recommends a lower limit as given below for the term C
Cmi, 0 1

mi,0

in Table A.2 of Annex A:

N Ed
N cr ,i

7D.2.7 Clause 6.3.1.4 - Slenderness for torsional and torsional-flexural


buckling
Equations 6.52 and 6.53 of NF EN 1993-1-1:2005 are to be used to calculate the non-dimensional
slenderness , to be used for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling checks. NF EN 1993-1-1:2005
T
does not provide equations to calculate the elastic critical loads N
and N
(refer 6.3.14 of NF
cr,T,F
cr,T
EN 1993-1-1:2005).
The NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional
buckling modes provides methods to calculate the N
and N
factors and therefore these
cr,TF
cr,T
methods are used to evaluate the elastic critical loads for the French NA.
The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is evaluated as:
Ncr, T =

GI t +
2
io
1

EI w
2

I T2

Where:
io2 = iy2 + iz2 + yo2 + z o2

i and i are the radius of gyration about the Y-Y (weak axis) and Z-Z (strong axis)
y
z
respectively.
The critical axial load for Torsional-Flexural buckling is evaluated as:
Ncr, TF =

i o2

2 i y2 + i z2

N cr, y + N cr, T

(Ncr, y + Ncr, T )

4Ncr, yN cr, T

i y2 + i z2
2

io

For details on these equations, refer to the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU.

316 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.3 Finnish National Annex to EC3

7D.3 Finnish National Annex to EC3


Adds values from the Finnish National Annex - titled National Annex to Standard SFS-EN 1993-1-1 for use with Eurocode 3, or EN 1993-1-1:2005. The NA document makes small changes to the base
document.
The following clauses are not implemented in STAAD.Pro:
Clause 6.3.2.4(1) B Slenderness for flexural buckling
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC-3. Therefore, this clause is ignored
for the Finnish National Annex.
Clause 6.3.2.4(2)B Modification factor kfl
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC-3. Therefore, this clause is ignored
for the Finnish National Annex.
Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below refer to
the corresponding clauses in the Finnish-NA.
The clauses/sections in EN 1993-1-1:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC-3) that have been dealt with in
the Finnish National Annex (hereafter referred to as SFS-NA) and that are relevant to the proposed
implementation are:

7D.3.1 Clause 3.2.1(1)- Material Properties


The material strengths (i.e., steel grade strengths) to be used with SFS-EN 1993-1-1 are given in
Table 3.1 of the code. These steel grade values are specified using the SGRparameter (See "Design
Parameters" on page 265).
The Finnish National Annex states in Cl. 3.1(2) that, apart from the steel grades specified in Table 3.1
of SFS EN 1993-1-1, the following steel grades can also be used:
l

Steel grades S315MC, S355MC, S420MC and S460MC according to SFS-EN 10149-2

Steel grades S260NC, S315NC, S355NC and S420NC according to SFS-EN 10149-3

These grades of steel can be specified by using the PY (Yield Strength) and FU (Ultimate Strength)
parameters in STAAD.Pro. Set these parameters to the respective values as given in SFS-EN 101492/3 for the steel grades specified above. The choice of the buckling curve to be used is based on the
value of the SGR parameter specified. The output will include the appropriate yield strength used
for design.

7D.3.2 Clause 6.1(1) General


EN 1993-1-1:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given in Cl.
6.1 of the code. These factors are , , and . EN 1993 provides default values for these factors.
M0 M1
M2
However, any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.
The partial safety factors will use the following values for the Finnish National Annex:

International Design Codes Manual 317

7D.3 Finnish National Annex to EC3

Resistance of cross-sections,

Resistance of members to instability,

Resistance of cross sections to tension,

M0

= 1.0
M1

= 1.0

M2

= 1.25

The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the SFS-NA (NA 5 is
specified).
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See "Design
Parameters" on page 265
Note: If any of these parameters are specified as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the user specified value
(i.e., 0) and use the default values as given above.
Caution: The GB1 parameter that is being used for compression checks in builds preceding this
release (STAAD.Pro 2007 build 06) has been removed as this parameter is no longer required in
EN 1993-1-1:2005. Hence, any legacy files that use GB1 parameter will indicate an error message
and the user will need to substitute GB1 with GM1 in line with EN 1993-1-1:2005.

7D.3.3 Clause 6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors


for LTB checks
The Finnish NA recommends the use of Table 6.3 and 6.4 of SFS EN 1993-1-1:2005 to calculate the
imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks.
The calculation of the LTB reduction factor , requires the calculation of the Elastic Critical
LT
Buckling Moment, M . The Finnish National Annex does not specify a particular method to
cr
calculate M . Hence the calculation of M has been based on the following NCCI documents:
cr

1.

cr

SN003a-EN-EU Elastic critical moment for Lateral torsional Buckling:


This document provides a method to calculate M specifically for doubly symmetric sections
cr
only. Hence only doubly symmetric sections will be considered for this method. The
equation to evaluate M is given in the NCCI as:
cr

M cr = C1

2EI s

2
(kL )

2I

( )
k
kw

Is

(kL ) 2GI t
2

EI s

+ (C 2z s )2 C 2z s

C and C are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions of the
1
2
member. The NCCI provides values for C and C for the different cases as given in the tables
1
2
below:

318 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.3 Finnish National Annex to EC3

Table 7D.3-Values of C for end


1
moment loading (for k=1)

+1,00

1,00

+0,75

1,14

+0,50

1,31

+0,25

1,52

0,00

1,77

-0,25

2,05

-0,50

2,33

-0,75

2,57

This NCCI considers three separate loading conditions:


l

Members with end moments

Members with transverse loading

Members with end moments and transverse loading.

STAAD.Pro accounts for the loading condition and the bending moment diagram through
the CMM parameter.
2.

SN030a-EN-EU Mono-symmetrical uniform members under bending


and axial compression:
This document provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment (M ) for uniform
cr
mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. Hence, the elastic critical
moment for Tee-Sections will be worked out using the method in this NCCI.
Note: Though this method could also be applicable to mono-symmetric built-up sections,
STAAD.Pro currently does not have a means to specify/identify a mono-symmetric builtup section. Hence this implementation will use this method only for Tee-Sections.
The equation to evaluate M for mono symmetric sections is given as :
cr

2
(k xL )

M cr = C1

EI s

( )
kx

kw

2I

Is

(k xL ) 2GI T
2

EI x

2
+ (C 2z e C3z 1) C 2z e C3z 1

The factors C , C , and C are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria. This
1 2
3
implementation will consider C , C , and C as given in the tables below:
1

International Design Codes Manual 319

7D.3 Finnish National Annex to EC3

The CMM parameter specified during design input will determine the values of C , C , and C .
1 2
3
The default value of CMM is 0, which considers the member as a pin ended member with
UDL along its span. This NCCI does not however consider the end moments and transverse
loading condition. You can use the C1, C2, and C3 parameters to input the required values
for C , C , and C to be used in calculating M .
1

cr

Note: If MU as well as C1, C2, and C3 have been specified, the program will ignore MU and
use the user input values of C1, C2, and C3. STAAD.Pro obtains these values from Annex F
of DD ENV version of 1993-1-1:1992.
Both the NCCI documents mentioned above assume that the member under consideration is free
to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member (k = kw = 1.0).
STAAD.Pro takes into account of the end conditions using the CMN parameter for EC3. A value of K
= kw =1 is indicated by a value of CMN = 1.0 in the design input. Hence the above methods will be
used only for members which are free to rotate on plan and which have no warping restraints (i.e.,
CMN = 1.0). For members with partial or end fixities (i.e., CMN = 0.5 or CMN = 0.7), this
implementation will fall back on to the method and coefficients in DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 Annex
F.
For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) this
implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 code.

320 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.3 Finnish National Annex to EC3

The term zg in the equation to calculate Mcr refers to the distance between the point of
application of load on the cross section in relation to the shear center of the cross section. The
value of zg is considered positive, if the load acts towards the shear center and is negative if it acts
away from the shear center. By default, the program will assume that the load acts towards the
shear center at a distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear center. The use will be
allowed to modify this value by using the ZG parameter. Specifying a value of ZG = 0 in the design
input would indicate that the load acts exactly at the shear center of the section so that the term
zg in the equation will have a value of zero.
Note: There is a separate method specified in the NCCI document SN006a-EN-EU to calculate
Mcr for cantilever beams. Again this document does not give any specific formulae to evaluate
the coefficients. Hence, this has not been implemented in STAAD.Pro.

7D.3.4 Clause 6.3.2.3(1) LTB for rolled sections or equivalent welded


section
The Finnish-NA provides the values for the terms
and factors given in clause 6.3.2.3(1) as
LT,0
follows:
For rolled doubly symmetric sections and hollow sections, use:

LT,0

=0.4 and = 0.75

For welded doubly symmetric sections and hollow sections use:

LT,0

= 0.2 and = 1.0

The Finnish NA specifies the following limits for choosing the buckling curves:
Table 7D.4-Selection of lateral torsional buckling curve for cross sections using
equation (6.57)
Cross-section
(constant cross-section)
Rolled double symmetric I- and H- sections and hot
finished hollow sections.

Limit
s

Bucklin
g Curve

h/b
2

b
c

2<
h/b
<3.1
Welded double symmetric I- section and H- sections and
cold-formed hollow sections

h/b
2

c
d

2<
h/b <
3.1

International Design Codes Manual 321

7D.3 Finnish National Annex to EC3

The NA says that for all other cases the rules given in Cl 6.3.2.2 should be used. Hence even for
rolled or welded doubly symmetric sections with h/b ratio 3.1, this implementation will resort to
checks as per clause 6.3.2.2.
These equations and factors are then applied to equation 6.57 of SFS-EN 1993-1-1 to evaluate the
Lateral Torsional Buckling reduction factor .
LT

7D.3.5 Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 Calculation of LTB Reduction


factor, as per Finnish NA
LT

Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 (EN 1993-1-1:2005), both give equations to evaluate the LTB reduction
factor to be used in eqn. 6.55 of SFS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
LT

Cl. 6.3.2.2 uses tables 6.3 and 6.4 to choose the buckling curve and the imperfection factors to be
used for calculating . Table 6.4 specifies the choice of buckling curves for Rolled I Sections,
LT
Welded I Sections and Any other sections. Cl 6.3.2.3 on the other hand uses tables 6.5 and 6.3 to
choose the buckling curves and imperfection factors. Table 6.5 however only deals with Rolled I
Sections and Welded I Sections.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 states Unless otherwise specified, see 6.3.2.3, for bending members of constant cross
section the value of should be determined from.... Hence in the implementation of EC3 (and
LT
the Finnish Annex) in STAAD.Pro: by default the program will consider clause Cl. 6.3.2.3 to
evaluate . For any case that is not dealt with by Cl. 6.3.2.3, the program will consider Cl. 6.3.2.2
LT
to evaluate .
LT

Cl. 6.3.2.3 in the Finnish National Annex gives equations to evaluate the imperfection factors to be
used for various section types (See "Clause 6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors
for LTB checks" on page 318 ). Hence for all cases dealt with by the equations in the Finnish NA,
this implementation will use Cl 6.3.2.3 to evaluate .
LT

For any other type of cross section that is not dealt with by the National Annex or Cl.6.3.2.3, the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 to evaluate .
LT

In any case, the elastic critical moment, Mcr, (used to evaluate the non dimensional slenderness)
will be evaluated as previously given. Since this implementation uses the NCCIs mentioned in the
sections above, only end restraint conditions corresponding to the CMN parameter=1.0 (See "Clause
6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors for LTB checks" on page 318 ) will be
considered. For all other cases of the CMN parameter values, this implementation will use the
method specified in Annex F of DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992.
Note: If a National Annex has not been specified (i.e., NA parameter in the design input = 0), the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 only in the case of Rolled or welded I & H Sections. For all other
cases, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005. Also, I sections with plates will be
treated as built-up sections only if the section has been explicitly specified as a built-up section
(i.e., SBLT parameter = 1.0 in design input).

322 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.4 Polish National Annex to EC3

7D.3.6 Clause 6.3.2.3(2) Modification factor, f, for LTB checks


STAAD.Pro uses the value of the modification factor f = 1.0 as given in the Finnish NA.

7D.3.7 Clause 6.3.3(5) Interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy, and kzz
The Finnish NA recommends the use of equations in Annex A or Annex B of SFS-EN 1993-1-1 to
calculate these interaction factors. STAAD.Pro uses the method in Annex B by default. This
implementation of the Finnish NA will also use Annex B for Cl.6.3.3 checks.

7D.3.8 Clause 6.3.1.4 - Slenderness for torsional and torsional-flexural


buckling
Equations 6.52 and 6.53 of SFS EN 1993-1-1:2005 are to be used to calculate the non-dimensional
slenderness , to be used for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling checks. SFS EN 1993-1-1:2005
T
does not provide equations to calculate the elastic critical loads N
and N
(refer 6.3.14 of SFS
cr,T,F
cr,T
EN 1993-1-1:2005).
The NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional
buckling modes provides methods to calculate the N
and N
factors and therefore these
cr,TF
cr,T
methods are used to evaluate the elastic critical loads for the Finnish NA.
The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is evaluated as:
Ncr, T =

GI t +
i o2
1

EI w
2

I T2

Where:
io2 = iy2 + iz2 + yo2 + z o2

i and i are the radius of gyration about the Y-Y (weak axis) and Z-Z (strong axis)
y
z
respectively.
The critical axial load for Torsional-Flexural buckling is evaluated as:
Ncr, TF =

i o2

2 i y2 + i z2

N cr, y + N cr, T

(Ncr, y + Ncr, T )

4Ncr, yN cr, T

i y2 + i z2
2

io

For details on these equations, refer to the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU.

7D.4 Polish National Annex to EC3


Adds values from the Polish National Annex - titled National Annex to Standard PN-EN 1993-1-1 for use with Eurocode 3, or EN 1993-1-1:2005. The NA document makes small changes to the base
document.

International Design Codes Manual 323

7D.4 Polish National Annex to EC3

The following clauses are not implemented in STAAD.Pro:


Clause 6.3.2.4(1) B Slenderness for flexural buckling
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC-3. Therefore, this clause is ignored
for the Polish National Annex.
Clause 6.3.2.4(2)B Modification factor kfl
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC-3. Therefore, this clause is ignored
for the Polish National Annex.
Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below refer to
the corresponding clauses in the Polish-NA.
The clauses/sections in EN 1993-1-1:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC-3) that have been dealt with in
the Polish National Annex (hereafter referred to as PN-NA) and that are relevant to the proposed
implementation are:

7D.4.1 Clause 3.2.1(1)- Material Properties


The material strengths (i.e., steel grade strengths) to be used with PN-EN 1993-1-1 are given in Table
3.1 of the code. The Polish National Annex states in Cl. 3.1(2) that the steel grades to be used will be
based on Table 3.1 of PN EN 1993-1-1. These steel grade values are specified using the SGRparameter
(See "Design Parameters" on page 265).

7D.4.2 Clause 6.1(1) General


EN 1993-1-1:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given in Cl.
6.1 of the code. These factors are , , and . EN 1993 provides default values for these factors.
M0 M1
M2
However, any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.
The partial safety factors will use the following values for the Polish National Annex:
l

Resistance of cross-sections,

Resistance of members to instability,

Resistance of cross sections to tension,

M0

= 1.0
M1

= 1.0

M2

= minimum of 1.1 or 0.9 x f /f

u y

Where:
f is the ultimate steel strength
u

f is the yield strength of steel


y

The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the PN-NA (NA 6 is
specified).
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See "Design
Parameters" on page 265

324 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.4 Polish National Annex to EC3

Note: If any of these parameters are specified as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the user specified value
(i.e., 0) and use the default values as given above.
Caution: The GB1 parameter that is being used for compression checks in builds preceding this
release (STAAD.Pro 2007 build 06) has been removed as this parameter is no longer required in
EN 1993-1-1:2005. Hence, any legacy files that use GB1 parameter will indicate an error message
and the user will need to substitute GB1 with GM1 in line with EN 1993-1-1:2005.

7D.4.3 Clause 6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors


for LTB checks
The Polish NA recommends the use of Table 6.3 and 6.4 of PN EN 1993-1-1:2005 to calculate the
imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks.
The calculation of the LTB reduction factor , requires the calculation of the Elastic Critical
LT
Buckling Moment, M . The Polish National Annex does not specify a particular method to
cr
calculate M . Hence the calculation of M has been based on the following NCCI documents:
cr

1.

cr

SN003a-EN-EU Elastic critical moment for Lateral torsional Buckling:


This document provides a method to calculate M specifically for doubly symmetric sections
cr
only. Hence only doubly symmetric sections will be considered for this method. The
equation to evaluate M is given in the NCCI as:
cr

M cr = C1

2EI s
(kL )

2I

( )
k
kw

Is

(kL ) 2GI t
2

EI s

+ (C 2z s )2 C 2z s

C and C are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions of the
1
2
member. The NCCI provides values for C and C for the different cases as given in the tables
1
2
below:

Table 7D.5-Values of C for end


1
moment loading (for k=1)

+1,00

1,00

+0,75

1,14

+0,50

1,31

International Design Codes Manual 325

7D.4 Polish National Annex to EC3

+0,25

1,52

0,00

1,77

-0,25

2,05

-0,50

2,33

-0,75

2,57

This NCCI considers three separate loading conditions:


l

Members with end moments

Members with transverse loading

Members with end moments and transverse loading.

STAAD.Pro accounts for the loading condition and the bending moment diagram through
the CMM parameter.
2.

SN030a-EN-EU Mono-symmetrical uniform members under bending


and axial compression:
This document provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment (M ) for uniform
cr
mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. Hence, the elastic critical
moment for Tee-Sections will be worked out using the method in this NCCI.
Note: Though this method could also be applicable to mono-symmetric built-up sections,
STAAD.Pro currently does not have a means to specify/identify a mono-symmetric builtup section. Hence this implementation will use this method only for Tee-Sections.
The equation to evaluate M for mono symmetric sections is given as :
cr

M cr = C1

2EI s
(k xL )

( )
kx

kw

2I

Is

(k xL ) 2GI T
2

EI x

2
+ (C 2z e C3z 1) C 2z e C3z 1

The factors C , C , and C are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria. This
1 2
3
implementation will consider C , C , and C as given in the tables below:
1

326 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.4 Polish National Annex to EC3

The CMM parameter specified during design input will determine the values of C , C , and C .
1 2
3
The default value of CMM is 0, which considers the member as a pin ended member with
UDL along its span. This NCCI does not however consider the end moments and transverse
loading condition. You can use the C1, C2, and C3 parameters to input the required values
for C , C , and C to be used in calculating M .
1

cr

Note: If MU as well as C1, C2, and C3 have been specified, the program will ignore MU and
use the user input values of C1, C2, and C3. STAAD.Pro obtains these values from Annex F
of DD ENV version of 1993-1-1:1992.
Both the NCCI documents mentioned above assume that the member under consideration is free
to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member (k = kw = 1.0).
STAAD.Pro takes into account of the end conditions using the CMN parameter for EC3. A value of K
= kw =1 is indicated by a value of CMN = 1.0 in the design input. Hence the above methods will be
used only for members which are free to rotate on plan and which have no warping restraints (i.e.,
CMN = 1.0). For members with partial or end fixities (i.e., CMN = 0.5 or CMN = 0.7), this
implementation will fall back on to the method and coefficients in DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 Annex
F.
For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) this
implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 code.

International Design Codes Manual 327

7D.4 Polish National Annex to EC3

The term zg in the equation to calculate Mcr refers to the distance between the point of
application of load on the cross section in relation to the shear center of the cross section. The
value of zg is considered positive, if the load acts towards the shear center and is negative if it acts
away from the shear center. By default, the program will assume that the load acts towards the
shear center at a distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear center. The use will be
allowed to modify this value by using the ZG parameter. Specifying a value of ZG = 0 in the design
input would indicate that the load acts exactly at the shear center of the section so that the term
zg in the equation will have a value of zero.
Note: There is a separate method specified in the NCCI document SN006a-EN-EU to calculate
Mcr for cantilever beams. Again this document does not give any specific formulae to evaluate
the coefficients. Hence, this has not been implemented in STAAD.Pro.

7D.4.4 Clause 6.3.2.3(1) LTB for rolled sections or equivalent welded


section
The Polish-NA provides the values for the terms
and factors given in clause 6.3.2.3(1) as
LT,0
follows:
For all sections, use:

LT,0

=0.4 and = 0.75

The Polish NA specifies the use of uses table 6.5 to work out the buckling curves for use in Cl.
6.3.2.3. Hence table 6.5 in PN-EN 1993-1-1 will be used for this.
These equations and factors are then applied to equation 6.57 of PN-EN 1993-1-1 to evaluate the
Lateral Torsional Buckling reduction factor .
LT

7D.4.5 Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 Calculation of LTB Reduction


factor, as per Finnish NA
LT

Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 (EN 1993-1-1:2005), both give equations to evaluate the LTB reduction
factor to be used in eqn. 6.55 of PN EN 1993-1-1:2005.
LT

Cl. 6.3.2.2 uses tables 6.3 and 6.4 to choose the buckling curve and the imperfection factors to be
used for calculating . Table 6.4 specifies the choice of buckling curves for Rolled I Sections,
LT
Welded I Sections and Any other sections. Cl 6.3.2.3 on the other hand uses tables 6.5 and 6.3 to
choose the buckling curves and imperfection factors. Table 6.5 however only deals with Rolled I
Sections and Welded I Sections.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 states Unless otherwise specified, see 6.3.2.3, for bending members of constant cross
section the value of should be determined from.... Hence in the implementation of EC3 (and
LT
the Finnish Annex) in STAAD.Pro: by default the program will consider clause Cl. 6.3.2.3 to
evaluate . For any case that is not dealt with by Cl. 6.3.2.3, the program will consider Cl. 6.3.2.2
LT
to evaluate .
LT

328 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.4 Polish National Annex to EC3

Cl. 6.3.2.3 in the Finnish National Annex gives equations to evaluate the imperfection factors to be
used for various section types (See "Clause 6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors
for LTB checks" on page 318 ). Hence for all cases dealt with by the equations in the Finnish NA,
this implementation will use Cl 6.3.2.3 to evaluate .
LT

For any other type of cross section that is not dealt with by the National Annex or Cl.6.3.2.3, the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 to evaluate .
LT

In any case, the elastic critical moment, M , (used to evaluate the non dimensional slenderness)
cr
will be evaluated as previously given. Since this implementation uses the NCCIs mentioned in the
sections above, only end restraint conditions corresponding to the CMN parameter=1.0 (See "Clause
6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors for LTB checks" on page 318 ) will be
considered. For all other cases of the CMN parameter values, this implementation will use the
method specified in Annex F of DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992.
Note: If a National Annex has not been specified (i.e., NA parameter in the design input = 0), the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 only in the case of Rolled or welded I & H Sections. For all other
cases, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005. Also, I sections with plates will be
treated as built-up sections only if the section has been explicitly specified as a built-up section
(i.e., SBLT parameter = 1.0 in design input).

7D.4.6 Clause 6.3.2.3(2) Modification factor, f, for LTB checks


STAAD.Pro uses the value of the modification factor f as per eqn 6.58 of PN-EN 1993-1-1. The
correction factor kc will be evaluated as:
kc = (CmLT)
Where:
C
is the equivalent uniform moment factor from table B.3 of PN-EN 1993-1-1.
mLT
C
is evaluated based on the end conditions of the member and the shape of the
mLT
bending moment diagram. However, if the KC parameter has been used, then the
program will use the specified value.

7D.4.7 Clause 6.3.3(5) Interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy, and kzz
The Polish NA recommends the equations in Annex B of PN-EN 1993-1-1 to calculate these
interaction factors. The current implementation of EC3 BS in STAAD.pro uses the method in
Annex B by default. The proposed implementation of the Polish NA will also use Annex B for
Cl.6.3.3 checks.
The Polish NA also gives two additional simplified checks. This implementation will provide for
these additional checks as well. However as they are intended as optional checks, by default, the
program will not perform these checks. However, the user can invoke these checks by using the PLG
parameter. See "Design Parameters" on page 265

International Design Codes Manual 329

7D.4 Polish National Annex to EC3

If the value of the PLG parameter is set to 1, the following two checks will be performed as per Cl.
NA.20.(2) and NA.20(3) respectively:
l

Cl. NA.20.(2): The following condition will be checked


n/ and + C

my

m /
y

LT

+ C mz m with 1- (I = y or z)
0

Where:
n = N /N
Ed

Rd

m = max M
y

y,Ed

(+ M

)/M

y, Ed

; m = max M

y, Rd

,Z Ed

(+ M

)/M

, Ed

Z Rd,

and buckling factor,

- LTB factor

LT

C - moment factor from table B 3 of PN EN 1993-1-1,


m

-correction factor (estimation of maximum reduction) and will be worked


0
out as:
= 0,1 + 0,2 (w 1), przy czym w = W
0

/W

pl,i

el,i

, or

= 0,1 in case of class 3 and 4 sections.


0

Cl. NA.20.(3): This condition will only be checked for circular hollow sections.
n/ + [(k m )2 + (C
i

ii

mj

m )2] 1/2 1 (i,j =y,z)


j

Where:
k - the interaction factor from table B.1 of PN-EN 1993-1-1
and n, m, Cmj are as above.
If the PLG parameter has been set to 1, the maximum among the following ratios will be taken as
being critical for Cl 6.3.3:
6.3.3: Eqn6.61
6.3.3: Eqn6.62
NA.20(2) and
NA.20(3)
If however PLG has been set to 0 (or not specified at all), the program will ignore the last two
checks in the list above.

7D.4.8 Clause 6.3.1.4 - Slenderness for torsional and torsional-flexural


buckling
Equations 6.52 and 6.53 of PN EN 1993-1-1:2005 are to be used to calculate the non-dimensional
slenderness , to be used for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling checks. PN EN 1993-1-1:2005
T

330 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.5 Singaporean National Annex to EC3

does not provide equations to calculate the elastic critical loads N


and N
(refer 6.3.14 of PN
cr,T,F
cr,T
EN 1993-1-1:2005).
The NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional
buckling modes provides methods to calculate the N
and N
factors and therefore these
cr,TF
cr,T
methods are used to evaluate the elastic critical loads for the Polish NA.
The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is evaluated as:
Ncr, T =

GI t +
i o2
1

EI w
2

I T2

Where:
io2 = iy2 + iz2 + yo2 + z o2

i and i are the radius of gyration about the Y-Y (weak axis) and Z-Z (strong axis)
y
z
respectively.
The critical axial load for Torsional-Flexural buckling is evaluated as:
Ncr, TF =

i o2

2 i y2 + i z2

N cr, y + N cr, T

(Ncr, y + Ncr, T )

4Ncr, yN cr, T

i y2 + i z2
2

io

For details on these equations, refer to the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU.

7D.5 Singaporean National Annex to EC3


Adds values from the Singaporean National Annex - titled National Annex to Standard SS-EN 19931-1 - for use with Eurocode 3, or EN 1993-1-1:2005. The NA document makes small changes to the
base document.
Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below refer to
the corresponding clauses in the Singaporean-NA.
The following clauses are not implemented in STAAD.Pro:
Clause 6.3.2.4(1) B Slenderness for flexural buckling
The SINGAPORE NA specifies the value of c0 for I, H channel or box section to be used
in equation 6.59 of SS EN 1993-1-1:2005 as 0.4. However, STAAD.Pro does not use this
clause for design per EC-3. Therefore, this clause is ignored for the Singaporean National
Annex.
Clause 6.3.2.4(2)B Modification factor kfl
The value of the modification factor kfl to be used in equation 6.60 of SS EN 1993-1-1.
However, STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC-3. Therefore, this clause
is ignored for the Singaporean National Annex.

International Design Codes Manual 331

7D.5 Singaporean National Annex to EC3

The clauses/sections in EN 1993-1-1:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC-3) that have been dealt with in
the Singaporean National Annex (hereafter referred to as SS-NA) and that are relevant to the
proposed implementation are:

7D.5.1 Clause 6.1 General


The partial safety factors will use the following values:
l

Resistance of cross-sections,

Resistance of members to instability,

Resistance of cross sections to tension,

M0

= 1.0
M1

= 1.0

M2

= 1.1

The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the SS-NA (NA 7 is
specified)..
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See "Design
Parameters" on page 265
Note: If any of these parameters have been specified by the user as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the
specified value and use the default values as given above.

7D.5.2 Clause 6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors


for LTB checks
The Singaporean NA recommends the use of Table 6.3 and 6.4 of NF EN 1993-1-1:2005 to calculate
the imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks.
The calculation of the LTB reduction factor X , requires the calculation of the Elastic Critical
LT
Buckling Moment, Mcr. The Singaporean National Annex does not specify a particular method to
calculate Mcr. Hence the calculation of Mcr has been based on the following NCCI documents:

SN003a-EN-EU Elastic critical moment for Lateral torsional Buckling


This document provides a method to calculate Mcr specifically for doubly symmetric sections only.
Hence only doubly symmetric sections will be considered for this method. The equation to evaluate
Mcr is given in the NCCI as:

2
(kL )

M cr = C1

EI

( )
k
kw

2I

(kL ) 2GI t
2

EI

2
+ (C2Zg ) C 2Zg

C1 and C2 are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions of the
member. The NCCI provides values for C1 and C2 for the different cases as given in the tables
below:

332 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.5 Singaporean National Annex to EC3

Table 7D.6-Values of C for end


1
moment loading (for k=1)

+1,00

1,00

+0,75

1,14

+0,50

1,31

+0,25

1,52

0,00

1,77

-0,25

2,05

-0,50

2,33

-0,75

2,57

This NCCI considers three separate loading conditions:


l

Members with end moments

Members with transverse loading

Members with end moments and transverse loading.

STAAD.Pro accounts for the loading condition and the bending moment diagram through the CMM
parameter.

SN030a-EN-EU Mono-symmetrical uniform members under bending and


axial compression:
This document provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment (Mcr) for uniform mono
symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. Hence, the elastic critical moment for
Tee-Sections will be evaluated using the method in this NCCI.
Note: Though this method could also be applicable to mono-symmetric built-up sections,
STAAD.Pro currently does not have a means to specify/identify a mono-symmetric built-up
section. Hence this implementation will use this method only for Tee-Sections.
The equation to evaluate M for mono symmetric sections is given as :
cr

M cr = C1

2EI z
(k xL )

2I

( )
kx

kw

(k xL ) 2GI T
2

EI z

2
+ (C2zg C3z 1) C2zg C3z 1

International Design Codes Manual 333

7D.5 Singaporean National Annex to EC3

The factors C1, C2 and C3 are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria. This
implementation will consider C1, C2 and C3 as given in the tables below:

The CMM parameter specified during design input will determine the values of C1, C2 and C3. The
default value of CMM is 0, which considers the member as a pin ended member with UDL along
its span. This NCCI does not however consider the end moments and transverse loading
condition. The user however can use the new C1, C2 and C3 parameters to input the required
values for C1, C2 and C3 to be used in calculating Mcr.
Note: If MU as well as C1, C2 and C3 have been specified, the program will ignore MU and use
the user input values of C1, C2 and C3. STAAD.Pro obtains these values from Annex F of DD ENV
version of 1993-1-1:1992.
Both the NCCI documents mentioned above assume that the member under consideration is free
to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member (k = kw = 1.0).
STAAD.Pro takes into account of the end conditions using the CMN parameter for EC3. A value of K
= kw =1 is indicated by a value of CMN = 1.0 in the design input. Hence the above methods will be
used only for members which are free to rotate on plan and which have no warping restraints (i.e.,
CMN = 1.0). For members with partial or end fixities (i.e., CMN = 0.5 or CMN = 0.7), this
implementation will fall back on to the method and coefficients in DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 Annex
F.

334 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.5 Singaporean National Annex to EC3

For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) this
implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 code.
The term zg in the equation to calculate Mcr refers to the distance between the point of
application of load on the cross section in relation to the shear center of the cross section. The
value of zg is considered positive, if the load acts towards the shear center and is negative if it acts
away from the shear center. By default, the program will assume that the load acts towards the
shear center at a distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear center. The use will be
allowed to modify this value by using the ZG parameter. Specifying a value of ZG = 0 in the design
input would indicate that the load acts exactly at the shear center of the section so that the term
zg in the equation will have a value of zero.
Note: There is a separate method specified in the NCCI document SN006a-EN-EU to calculate
Mcr for cantilever beams. Again this document does not give any specific formulae to evaluate
the coefficients. Hence, this has not been implemented in STAAD.Pro.

7D.5.3 Clause 6.3.2.3(1) LTB for rolled sections or equivalent welded


section
The Singaporean NA specifies different values for the
and factors to be used in equation 6.57
LT,0
of SS EN 1993-1-1 for rolled and equivalent welded sections. STAAD.Pro does not differentiate
between rolled and welded sections and uses the default values in SS EN 1993-1-1 for
and .
LT,0
The values specified in the Singapore NA are:
l

For rolled sections and hot-rolled & cold formed hollow sections:
LT,0 = 0.4
= 0.75

For welded sections:


LT,0 = 0.2
= 1.00

STAAD.Pro uses the buckling curves based on Table 6.5 of SS EN 1993-1-1:2005. The Singaporean-NA
provides the values for the terms
and factors given in clause 6.3.2.3(1) as follows:
LT0

Table 7D.7-Buckling curves to use with SS-EN 1993-1-1:2005


Cross Section

Rolled doubly symmetric I and H sections and


hot-finished hollow sections

Angles (for moments in the major principle plane)

Limits

Buckling
Curve

h/b 2

2.0 < h/b 3.1

h/b > 3.1

d
d

International Design Codes Manual 335

7D.5 Singaporean National Annex to EC3

Cross Section

Limits

All other hot-rolled sections


Welded, doubly symmetric sections and coldformed hollow sections

Buckling
Curve
d

h/b 2

2.0 < h/b 3.1

Note: This table does not specify which buckling curve is to be used in case of welded doubly
symmetric sections with h/b 3.1 and welded non-doubly symmetric sections. Hence for these
cases the new implementation will still use the method specified in the base code as per clause
6.3.2.2(2).

7D.5.4 Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 Calculation of LTB Reduction


factor, as per Singaporean NA
LT

Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 (EN 1993-1-1:2005) both give equations to evaluate the LTB reduction
factor to be used in eqn. 6.55 of SS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
LT

Cl. 6.3.2.2 uses tables 6.3 and 6.4 to choose the buckling curve and the imperfection factors to be
used for calculating . Table 6.4 specifies the choice of buckling curves for Rolled I Sections,
LT
Welded I Sections and Any other sections. Cl 6.3.2.3 on the other hand uses tables 6.5 and 6.3 to
choose the buckling curves and imperfection factors. Table 6.5 however only deals with Rolled I
Sections and Welded I Sections.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 states Unless otherwise specified, see 6.3.2.3, for bending members of constant cross
section the value of should be determined from.... Hence in the implementation of EC3 (and
LT
the Singaporean Annex) in STAAD.Pro: by default the program will consider clause Cl. 6.3.2.3 to
evaluate . For any case that is not dealt with by Cl. 6.3.2.3, the program will consider Cl. 6.3.2.2
LT
to evaluate .
LT

Cl. 6.3.2.3 in the Singaporean National Annex states that Table 6.5 in SS EN 1993-1-1:2005 should be
replaced with the table given in the NA (See section 4.3 of this document). Hence for all cases dealt
with by the table in the Singaporean NA, this implementation will choose the buckling curves from
the Singaporean National Annex. For any case that is not dealt with by the table in the Singaporean
NA, the program will use the method given in Cl. 6.3.2.2 of SS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
For the following cross sections, the program will use the Table in the Singaporean NA for choosing
a buckling curve for LTB checks (when the SS EN has been specified):
l

Rolled doubly symmetric I & H Sections

Rolled doubly symmetric hollow sections (SHS, RHS, CHS)

Angle Sections

Any other rolled section

Welded doubly symmetric sections with h/b < 3.1

336 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.5 Singaporean National Annex to EC3

For the following cross sections, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 of SS EN 1993-1-1:2005 to evaluate

LT

Welded I & H Sections with h/b 3.1.

For any other type of cross section that is not dealt with by the National Annex or Cl.6.3.2.3, the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 to evaluate .
LT

In any case, the elastic critical moment, M , (used to evaluate the non dimensional slenderness)
cr
will be evaluated as given above. Since this implementation uses the NCCIs mentioned in the
sections above, only end restraint conditions corresponding to the CMN parameter=1.0 (See section
above) will be considered. For all other cases of the CMN parameter values, this implementation
will use the method specified in Annex F of DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992.
Note: If a National Annex has not been specified (i.e., NA parameter in the design input = 0), the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 only in the case of Rolled or welded I & H Sections. For all other
cases, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 of BS EN 1993-1-1:2005. Also, I sections with plates will be
treated as built-up sections only if the section has been explicitly specified as a built-up section
(i.e., SBLT parameter = 1.0 in design input).

7D.5.5 Clause 6.3.2.3(2) Modification factor, f, for LTB checks


The Singaporean NA specifies the use of Equation 6.58 of SS EN 1993-1-1:2005 to evaluate the
modification factor f for the LTB reduction factor . To evaluate the modification factor SS EN
LT
1993-1-1:2005 uses a correction factor kc given by Table 6.6 in the code.
The Singaporean-NA however, specifies that the correction factor kc is to be obtained as below:
Kc = 1 / C1
Where:
C is to be obtained from the NCCI documents as previously described (See "Clause
1
6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors for LTB checks" on page 332).
The NCCI document SN003a-EN-EU specifies the values of C1 to be used in table 3.1
as shown below. The current implementation does not account for the K factor and
c
conservatively uses a reduction factor equal to 1. The program allows for the reduction
factor based on the Singaporean-NA.
These values are for an end restraint factor of k = 1 (i.e., design parameter CMN = 1.0). Hence for all
other values of CMN (i.e., 0.7 or 0.5) this implementation will use the values of C from DD ENV
1
1993-1-1:1992 Annex F.
The program will use a default value of 1.0 for K . However, you can also input a custom value of K
c
c
by setting the design parameter KC to the desired value. If the KC parameter in the design input is
set to 0, then the program will automatically calculate its value. This will cause the program to
evaluate a value of C corresponding to the end conditions and the Bending moment of the
1
member and in turn calculate K as given in the NA. To evaluate C , the program will use the NCCI
c
1
documents as previously described.

International Design Codes Manual 337

7D.5 Singaporean National Annex to EC3

7D.5.6 Clause 6.3.3(5) Interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy, and kzz
The Singaporean NA recommends the methods in either Annex A or Annex B of SS-EN 1993-1-1 to
calculate these interaction factors. The current implementation of EC3 BS in STAAD.pro uses the
method in Annex B by default. The proposed implementation of the Singaporean NA will also use
Annex B for Cl.6.3.3 checks.
However for non-doubly symmetric sections, the Singaporean NA gives the option of using Annex
B with some modifications as given in the NA. (Cl. NA-3.2 of the Singaporean NA). The
Singaporean NA requires additional checks to be done to check for the maximum allowable values
of and X to be used in equations 6.61 and 6.62 of SS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
As per the Singaporean NA, for non-doubly symmetric sections, the slenderness about the weak axis
(y in STAAD) and the corresponding reduction factor y should be taken as the values from the
highest values of slenderness () among the flexural buckling slenderness (y), torsional slenderness
(T) and torsional-flexural slenderness (TF) as given in Clauses 6.3.1.3 and 6.3.1.4 of SS EN 1993-11:2005. Hence for non-doubly symmetric sections the program will calculate the critical nondimensional slenderness as:
= the maximum of either from Cl 6.3.1.3 or from Cl 6.3.1.4
y

Where:
T =

A f y
N cr

Ncr = min (NCrT, NcrTF).


The Singaporean NA or EC3 does not, however, specify a method to evaluate N
or N
.
CrT
crTF
Therefore, the program uses the method specified in the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU: Critical
axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes to calculate these. See "Clause 6.3.1.4
- Slenderness for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling" on page 339.
Note: The Singaporean National Annex or EC3 does not deal with angle sections in specific and
hence this implementation will use the method used in the current EC3 implementation to deal
with slenderness of angle sections. In the current implementation this is done as per cl 4.7.10 of
BS 5950. This proposed implementation will still use the same method for single and double
angle sections to evaluate the slenderness.
Clause NA 3.2 of the Singaporean NA also requires that Where the section is not an I Section or a
hollow section and is a class1 or class 2 section, it will be treated as a class 3 section for the purposes
of this clause. Hence, for all Class 1 or Class 2 cross sections that are not I, H, SHS, RHS or CHS
sections, the elastic properties will be used for the purposes of 6.3.3 checks.

338 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.6 Belgian National Annex to EC3

7D.5.7 Clause 6.3.1.4 - Slenderness for torsional and torsional-flexural


buckling
Equations 6.52 and 6.53 of SS EN 1993-1-1:2005 are to be used to calculate the non-dimensional
slenderness parameter, , to be used for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling checks. The SS
T
EN 1993-1-1:2005 does not provide equations to calculate the elastic critical loads N
and N
cr,T,F
cr,T
(refer 6.3.14 of SS EN 1993-1-1:2005). Therefore, the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU: Critical axial
load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes provides methods to calculate the N
cr,T,F
and N
factors and hence will to be included in this implementation of the Singaporean NA.
cr,T

The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is evaluated as:


Ncr, T =

1
i o2

GI t +

EI w
2

I T2

Where:
io2 = iy2 + iz2 + yo2 + z o2

i and i are the radius of gyration about the Y-Y (weak axis) and Z-Z (strong axis)
y
z
respectively.
The critical axial load for Torsional-Flexural buckling is evaluated as:
Ncr, TF =

i o2

2 i y2 + i z2

N cr, y + N cr, T

(Ncr, y + Ncr, T )

4Ncr, yN cr, T

i y2 + i z2
2
io

For details on these equations, refer to the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU.


The program will only consider Channel Sections and Tee- sections while working out the critical
torsional and Flexural Torsional buckling loads as per Cl 6.3.1.4.

7D.6 Belgian National Annex to EC3


Adds values from the Belgian National Annextitled National Annex to Standard NBN-EN 1993-11for use with Eurocode 3, or EN 1993-1-1:2005. The NA document makes small changes to the base
document.
The following clauses are not implemented in STAAD.Pro:
Clause 6.3.2.4(1) B Slenderness for flexural buckling
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC-3. Therefore, this clause is ignored
for the Belgian National Annex.
Clause 6.3.2.4(2)B Modification factor kfl
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC-3. Therefore, this clause is ignored
for the Belgian National Annex.

International Design Codes Manual 339

7D.6 Belgian National Annex to EC3

Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below refer to
the corresponding clauses in the NBN-NA.
The clauses/sections in EN 1993-1-1:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC-3) that have been dealt with in
the Belgian National Annex (hereafter referred to as NBN-NA) and that are relevant to the proposed
implementation are:

7D.6.1 Clause 6.1(1) General


EN 1993-1-1:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given in Cl.
6.1 of the code. These factors are , , and . EN 1993 provides default values for these factors.
M0 M1
M2
However, any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.
The partial safety factors will use the following values for the Belgian National Annex:
l

Resistance of cross-sections,

Resistance of members to instability,

Resistance of cross sections to tension,

M0

= 1.0
M1

= 1.0

M2

= 1.25

The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the PN-NA (NA 8 is
specified).
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See "Design
Parameters" on page 265
Note: If any of these parameters are specified as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the user specified value
(i.e., 0) and use the default values as given above.

7D.6.2 Clause 6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors


for LTB checks
The NBN-NA recommends the use of Table 6.3 and 6.4 of EN 1993-1-1:2005 to calculate the
imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks.
The calculation of the LTB reduction factor , requires the calculation of the Elastic Critical
LT
Buckling Moment, M . The NBN-NA gives a method to calculate M in Annex D, which is used by
cr
cr
STAAD.Pro. Annex D, however, only deals with the calculation of M for doubly symmetric
cr
sections and mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the minor axis (i.e, Tee sections).
For any other type of section that is not dealt with by Annex D, STAAD.Pro uses the method and
tables given in Annex F of DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992:

Doubly symmetric sections


Annex D of NBN-NA provides equation used to calculate M specifically for doubly symmetric
cr
sections:

340 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.6 Belgian National Annex to EC3

M cr = C1

EI
(kL )

( )
k
kw

2I

(kL ) 2GI t
2

EI

2
+ (C2Zg ) C 2Zg

C & C are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions. The Annex
1
2
provides values for C & C for the different cases as given in Table1 and Table 2 of the Annex. Table
1
2
1 deals with the condition of a simply supported member with end moments and the value of C is
1
determined by the end moment ratio (Refer to the NA for details). Clause 3.2 of the National
Annex however gives a formula to calculate C as:
1

C1 = 1.77 - 1.04 +0.272 2.60


The value of C2 is determined based on the Table 2 of the Annex, based on the loading and end
conditions as specified using the CMM parameter.
This NBN-NA considers three separate loading conditions:
l

Members with end moments

Members with transverse loading

Members with end moments and transverse loading.

STAAD.Pro accounts for the loading condition and the bending moment diagram through the CMM
parameter.

Mono-symmetric sections with symmetry about their weak axis


Annex D of NBN-NA also provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment, M , for
cr
uniform mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. Hence for this
implementation the elastic critical moment for Tee-Sections is evaluated using the method in this
Annex.
Note: Though this method could also be applicable to mono-symmetric built-up sections,
STAAD.Pro currently does not have a means to specify/identify a mono-symmetric built-up
section. Hence this implementation will use this method only for Tee-Sections.
The equation to evaluate M for mono symmetric sections is given as:
cr

2
(k xL )

M cr = C1

EI z

kx

2I

kw

( )

(k xL ) 2GI T
2

EI z

2
+ (C2zg C3z 1) C2zg C3z 1

The factors C , C , and C are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria. This
1 2
3
implementation will consider C1, C2 and C3 as given in the tables below:

International Design Codes Manual 341

7D.6 Belgian National Annex to EC3

Table 7D.8-Critical moment coefficients for singly symmetric sections with end moments
End Moments and Support
Conditions

Bending moment
diagram

Value of coefficients
C

0
f

= +1

= +3/4

= +1/2

= +1/4

=0

= -1/4

= -1/2

= -3/4

= -1

342 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

1.0

1.00

1.000

0.5

1.05

1.019

1.0

1.14

1.000

0.5

1.19

1.017

1.0

1.31

1.000

0.5

1.37

1.000

1.0

1.52

1.000

0.5

1.60

1.000

1.0

1.77

1.000

0.5

1.86

1.000

1.0

2.06

1.000

0.850

0.5

2.15

1.000

0.650

1.0

2.35

1.000

1.3 - 1.2

0.5

2.42

0.950

0.77 -

1.0

2.60

1.000

0.55 -

0.5

2.45

0.850

0.35 -

1.0

2.60

0.5

2.45

0.125 0.7

Note: According to Section 3(1): C2 zg = 0

>0

-0.125 0.7
f

f
f
f

7D.6 Belgian National Annex to EC3

Table 7D.9-Value of coefficients


Load and support conditions

Bending moment diagram

Value of coefficients
C

1.0

1.12

0.45

0.525

0.5

0.97

0.36

0.478

1.0

1.35

0.59

0.411

0.5

1.05

0.48

0.338

1.0

1.04

0.42

0.562

0.5

0.95

0.31

0.539

The CMM parameter specified during design input will determine the values of C1, C2, and C3. The
default value of CMM is 0, which considers the member as a pin ended member with uniformly
distributed load (UDL)along its span. This NCCI does not however consider the end moments
and transverse loading condition. The user however can use the new C1, C2 and C3 parameters
to input the required values for C1, C2 and C3 to be used in calculating Mcr.
Note: If MU as well as C1, C2 and C3 have been specified, the program will ignore MU and use
the user input values of C1, C2 and C3. STAAD.Pro obtains these values from Annex F of DD ENV
version of 1993-1-1:1992.
Both the NCCI documents mentioned above assume that the member under consideration is free
to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member (k = kw = 1.0).
STAAD.Pro takes into account of the end conditions using the CMN parameter for EC3. A value of K
= kw =1 is indicated by a value of CMN = 1.0 in the design input. Hence the above methods will be
used only for members which are free to rotate on plan and which have no warping restraints (i.e.,
CMN = 1.0). For members with partial or end fixities (i.e., CMN = 0.5 or CMN = 0.7), this
implementation will fall back on to the method and coefficients in DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 Annex
F.
For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) this
implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 code.
The term zg in the equation to calculate Mcr refers to the distance between the point of
application of load on the cross section in relation to the shear center of the cross section. The
value of zg is considered positive, if the load acts towards the shear center and is negative if it acts
away from the shear center. By default, the program will assume that the load acts towards the
shear center at a distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear center. The use will be
allowed to modify this value by using the ZG parameter. Specifying a value of ZG = 0 in the design
input would indicate that the load acts exactly at the shear center of the section so that the term
zg in the equation will have a value of zero.
Note: The program does not consider the case of cantilevers.

International Design Codes Manual 343

7D.6 Belgian National Annex to EC3

7D.6.3 Clause 6.3.2.3(1) LTB for rolled sections or equivalent welded


section
The NBN-NA recommends the use of the values specified in EN 1993-1-1 for the LTB factors
LT0
and . However it gives two different sets of values for
& based on two different conditions
LT0
as give below:
1. If M is determined by considering the properties of the gross cross section and the lateral
cr
restraints, the following values are used:

LT0

=0.2 and = 1.0

2. If M is determined by ignoring the lateral restraints, the following values are used:
cr

LT0

=0.4 and = 0.75

The program evaluates which factors to use based on the CMN parameter. If CMN= 1.0 (default),
then the program assumes the restraints are ignored and the second set of values is used for
LT0
and . If CMN = 0.5, then the first set of
and values is used.
LT0

These factors are then applied to equation 6.57 of NBN-EN to evaluate the Lateral Torsional
Buckling reduction factor .
LT

7D.6.4 Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 Calculation of LTB Reduction


factor, as per Belgium NA
LT

Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 (EN 1993-1-1:2005) both give equations to evaluate the LTB reduction
factor to be used in eqn. 6.55 of NBN-EN 1993-1-1:2005.
LT

Cl. 6.3.2.2 uses tables 6.3 and 6.4 to choose the buckling curve and the imperfection factors to be
used for calculating . Table 6.4 specifies the choice of buckling curves for Rolled I Sections,
LT
Welded I Sections and Any other sections. Cl 6.3.2.3 on the other hand uses tables 6.5 and 6.3 to
choose the buckling curves and imperfection factors. Table 6.5 however only deals with Rolled I
Sections and Welded I Sections.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 states Unless otherwise specified, see 6.3.2.3, for bending members of constant cross
section the value of should be determined from.... Hence in the implementation of EC3 (and
LT
the Belgian Annex) in STAAD.Pro: by default the program will consider clause Cl. 6.3.2.3 to evaluate
. For any case that is not dealt with by Cl. 6.3.2.3, the program will consider Cl. 6.3.2.2 to
LT
evaluate .
LT

Cl. 6.3.2.3 in the Belgian National Annex gives equations to evaluate the imperfection factors to be
used for various section types. (See "Clause 6.3.2.3(1) LTB for rolled sections or equivalent welded
section" on page 344 ). Hence for all cases dealt with by the equations in the NBN-NA, this
implementation will use Cl 6.3.2.3 to evaluate .
LT

For any other type of cross section that is not dealt with by the National Annex or Cl.6.3.2.3, the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 to evaluate .
LT

344 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.6 Belgian National Annex to EC3

In any case, the elastic critical moment,Mcr, (used to evaluate the non dimensional slenderness)
will be evaluated as given above. Since this implementation uses the NCCIs mentioned in the
sections above, only end restraint conditions corresponding to the CMN parameter=1.0 (See "Clause
6.3.2.3(1) LTB for rolled sections or equivalent welded section" on page 344 ) will be considered.
For all other cases of the CMN parameter values, this implementation will use the method specified
in Annex F of DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992.
You can override the default behavior and specify the clause that is to be used for LTB checks. This
can be specified using the MTH design parameter (See "Design Parameters" on page 265).
Note: If a National Annex has not been specified (i.e., NA parameter in the design input = 0), the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 only in the case of Rolled or welded I & H Sections. For all other
cases, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 of NBN-EN 1993-1-1:2005. Also, I sections with plates will be
treated as built-up sections only if the section has been explicitly specified as a built-up section
(i.e., SBLT parameter = 1.0 in design input).

7D.6.5 Clause 6.3.2.3(2) Modification factor, f, for LTB checks


The Belgian NA specifies that the modification factor is to be obtained as per the default method
given in EC-3. Hence the proposed implementation will use the existing functionality to work out
the correction factor kc to be used in the modification factor f.
The program uses a default value of 1.0 for kc. However the user can also input a custom value of
kc by setting the design parameter KC to the desired value. The user can also get the program to
calculate the value of kc automatically by setting the value of the KC parameter in the design
input to 0. This will cause the program to work out kc from table 6.6 of NBN EN 1993-1-1:2005.
This will correspond to the end conditions and the bending moment of the member (i.e the value
of CMM parameter specified).
l

For CMM = 7 the program will choose the value of kc to be either 0.90 or 0.91 based on the
end moment ratio.

For CMM = 8 the program will choose the value of kc to be either 0.77 or 0.82 based on the
end moment ratio.

An additional check will also be performed as given below:


LT , mod

1
2

LT

7D.6.6 Clause 6.3.3(5) Interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy, and kzz
The NBN-NA recommends the equations in Annex A of NBN-EN 1993-1-1 to calculate these
interaction factors.
The NA also mentions that torsional flexural buckling needs to be taken into account in case of
mono symmetric sections. Torsional flexural buckling will need to be taken into account based on
the method given in the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU: Critical axial load for torsional and
flexural torsional buckling modes. See section below for details.

International Design Codes Manual 345

7D.7 Malaysian National Annex to EC3

The NA also recommends a lower limit as given below for the term C
Cmi, 0 1

mi,0

in table A.2 of Annex A:

N Ed
N cr ,i

7D.6.7 Clause 6.3.1.4 - Slenderness for torsional and torsional-flexural


buckling
Equations 6.52 and 6.53 of NBN-EN 1993-1-1:2005 are to be used to calculate the non-dimensional
slenderness parameter, , to be used for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling checks. The
T
NBN-EN 1993-1-1:2005 does not provide equations to calculate the elastic critical loads N
and
cr,T,F
N
(refer 6.3.14 of SS EN 1993-1-1:2005). Therefore, the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU: Critical
cr,T
axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes provides methods to calculate the
N
and N
factors and hence will to be included in this implementation of the Belgian NA.
cr,T,F

cr,T

The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is evaluated as:


Ncr, T =

GI t +
i o2
1

EI w
2

I T2

Where:
io2 = iy2 + iz2 + yo2 + z o2

i and i are the radius of gyration about the Y-Y (weak axis) and Z-Z (strong axis)
y
z
respectively.
The critical axial load for Torsional-Flexural buckling is evaluated as:
Ncr, TF =

i o2

2 i y2 + i z2

N cr, y + N cr, T

(Ncr, y + Ncr, T )

4Ncr, yN cr, T

i y2 + i z2
2

io

For details on these equations, refer to the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU.


The program will only consider Channel Sections and Tee- sections while working out the critical
torsional and Flexural Torsional buckling loads as per Cl 6.3.1.4.

7D.7 Malaysian National Annex to EC3


Adds values from the Malaysian National Annextitled National Annex to Standard MS-EN 1993-11for use with Eurocode 3, or EN 1993-1-1:2005. The NA document makes small changes to the base
document.
The following clauses are not implemented in STAAD.Pro:
Clause 6.3.2.4(1) B Slenderness for flexural buckling
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC-3. Therefore, this clause is ignored
for the Malaysian National Annex.

346 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.7 Malaysian National Annex to EC3

Clause 6.3.2.4(2)B Modification factor kfl


STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC-3. Therefore, this clause is ignored
for the Malaysian National Annex.
Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below refer to
the corresponding clauses in the MS-NA.
The clauses/sections in EN 1993-1-1:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC-3) that have been dealt with in
the Malaysian National Annex (hereafter referred to as MS-NA) and that are relevant to the
proposed implementation are:

7D.7.1 Clause 6.1(1) General:Partial Safety Factors for buildings


EN 1993-1-1:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given in Cl.
6.1 of the code. These factors are , , and . EN 1993 provides default values for these factors.
M0 M1
M2
However, any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.
The partial safety factors will use the following values for the Malaysian National Annex:
l

Resistance of cross-sections,

Resistance of members to instability,

Resistance of cross sections to tension,

M0

= 1.0
M1

= 1.0

M2

= 1.1

The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the MS-NA (NA 9 is
specified).
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See "Design
Parameters" on page 265
Note: If any of these parameters are specified as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the user specified value
(i.e., 0) and use the default values as given above.

7D.7.2 Clause 6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors


for LTB checks
The MS-NA recommends the use of Table 6.3 and 6.4 of MS EN 1993-1-1:2005 to calculate the
imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks.
The calculation of the LTB reduction factor , requires the calculation of the Elastic Critical
LT
Buckling Moment, M . The MS-NA does not specify a particular method to calculate Mcr. Hence
cr
the calculation of Mcr has been based on the following NCCI documents:

International Design Codes Manual 347

7D.7 Malaysian National Annex to EC3

Doubly symmetric sections


SN003a-EN-EU NCCI: Elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling provides equation used
to calculate M specifically for doubly symmetric sections:
cr

2
(kL )

M cr = C1

EI

( )
k
kw

2I

IS

(kL ) 2GI t
2

EI S

2
+ (C2Zg ) C 2Zg

C and C are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions of the
1
2
member. The NCCI provides values for C and C for the different cases as given in Table 3.1 and
1
2
Table 3.2.
The NCCI considers three separate loading conditions:
l

Members with end moments

Members with transverse loading

Members with end moments and transverse loading.

STAAD.Pro accounts for the loading condition and the bending moment diagram through the CMM
parameter. The values of C and C may also be directly specified using the C1 and C2 parameters,
1
2
respectively (required for CMM = 7 or CMM = 8).

Mono-symmetric sections with symmetry about their weak axis


Annex D of MS-NA also provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment, M , for uniform
cr
mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. Hence for this implementation
the elastic critical moment for Tee-Sections is evaluated using the method in this Annex.
Note: Though this method could also be applicable to mono-symmetric built-up sections,
STAAD.Pro currently does not have a means to specify/identify a mono-symmetric built-up
section. Hence this implementation will use this method only for Tee-Sections.
The equation to evaluate M for mono symmetric sections is given as:
cr

2
(k xL )

M cr = C1

EI z

kx

2I

kw

( )

(k xL ) 2GI T
2

EI z

2
+ (C2zg C3z 1) C2zg C3z 1

The factors C , C , and C are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria. The program
1 2
3
considers C , C , and C as given in the tables 4.1 and 4.2 of the NCCI, based on the CMMparameter.
1

The default value of CMM = 0, which considers the member as a pin ended member with uniformly
distributed load (UDL)along its span. This NCCI does not however consider the end moments
and transverse loading condition. You use the C1, C2 and C3 parameters to input the required
values for C , C , and C , respectively, to be used in calculating M .
1

348 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

cr

7D.7 Malaysian National Annex to EC3

Note: If MU as well as C1, C2 and C3 have been specified, the program will ignore MU and use
the user input values of C1, C2 and C3. STAAD.Pro obtains these values from Annex F of DD ENV
version of 1993-1-1:1992.
Note: When CMM = 7 or CMM = 8, the values for C1, C2 and C3 parameters must be manually
specified.
Both the NCCI documents mentioned above assume that the member under consideration is free
to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member (k = kw = 1.0).
STAAD.Pro takes into account of the end conditions using the CMN parameter for EC3. A value of K
= kw =1 is indicated by a value of CMN = 1.0 in the design input. Hence the above methods will be
used only for members which are free to rotate on plan and which have no warping restraints (i.e.,
CMN = 1.0). For members with partial or end fixities (i.e., CMN = 0.5 or CMN = 0.7), this
implementation will fall back on to the method and coefficients in DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 Annex
F.
For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) this
implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 code.
The term zg in the equation to calculate M refers to the distance between the point of application
cr
of load on the cross section in relation to the shear center of the cross section. The value of z is
g
considered positive, if the load acts towards the shear center and is negative if it acts away from the
shear center. By default, the program will assume that the load acts towards the shear center at a
distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear center. The use will be allowed to modify this
value by using the ZG parameter. Specifying a value of ZG = 0 in the design input would indicate
that the load acts exactly at the shear center of the section so that the term z in the equation will
g
have a value of zero.
Note: The program does not consider the case of cantilevers.

7D.7.3 Clause 6.3.2.3(1) LTB for rolled sections or equivalent welded


section
The MS-NA specifies different values for the
and factors to be used in equation 6.57 of MS
LT,0
EN 1993-1-1 for rolled and equivalent welded sections. STAAD.Pro does not differentiate between
rolled and welded sections and uses the default values in MS EN 1993-1-1 for
and . The values
LT,0
specified in the MS-NA are:
1. For rolled sections and hot-rolled & cold formed hollow sections:

LT,0

= 0.4 and = 0.75

2. For welded sections:

LT,0

= 0.2 and = 1.00

STAAD.Pro uses the buckling curves based on Table 6.5 of MS EN 1993-1-1:2005, based on different
limits. This table again does not specify which buckling curve is to be used in case of welded

International Design Codes Manual 349

7D.7 Malaysian National Annex to EC3

doubly symmetric sections with h/b 3.1 and welded non-doubly symmetric sections. Hence for
these cases the new implementation will still use the method specified in the base code as per
clause 6.3.2.2(2).

7D.7.4 Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 Calculation of LTB Reduction


factor, as per Malaysian NA
LT

Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 (EN 1993-1-1:2005), both give equations to evaluate the LTB reduction
factor to be used in eqn. 6.55 of MS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
LT

Cl. 6.3.2.2 uses tables 6.3 and 6.4 to choose the buckling curve and the imperfection factors to be
used for calculating . Table 6.4 specifies the choice of buckling curves for Rolled I Sections,
LT
Welded I Sections and Any other sections. Cl 6.3.2.3 on the other hand uses tables 6.5 and 6.3 to
choose the buckling curves and imperfection factors. Table 6.5 however only deals with Rolled I
Sections and Welded I Sections.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 states Unless otherwise specified, see 6.3.2.3, for bending members of constant cross
section the value of should be determined from.... Hence in the implementation of EC3 (and
LT
the MS NA) in STAAD.Pro, by default the program will consider clause Cl. 6.3.2.3 to evaluate .
LT
For any case that is not dealt with by Cl. 6.3.2.3, the program will consider Cl. 6.3.2.2 to evaluate
.
LT

Cl. 6.3.2.3 in the MS NA states that Table 6.5 in MS EN 1993-1-1:2005 should be replaced with the
table given in the NA (See "Clause 6.3.2.3(1) LTB for rolled sections or equivalent welded section"
on page 349). Hence for all cases dealt with by the table in the MS NA, this implementation will
choose the buckling curves from the MS NA. For any case that is not dealt with by the table in the
MS NA, the program will use the method given in Cl. 6.3.2.2 of MS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
Hence for the following cross sections the program will use the Table in the MS NA for choosing a
buckling curve for LTB checks (when the MS NA has been specified):
l

Rolled doubly symmetric I & H Sections

Rolled doubly symmetric hollow sections (SHS, RHS, CHS)

Angle Sections

Any other rolled section

Welded doubly symmetric sections with h/b < 3.1

For the following cross sections, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 of MS EN 1993-1-1:2005 to evaluate

LT

Welded I & H Sections with h/b 3.1.

For any other type of cross section that is not dealt with by the National Annex or Cl.6.3.2.3, the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 to evaluate .
LT

In any case the Elastic critical moment Mcr (used to evaluate the non dimensional slenderness)
will be evaluated as described in "Clause 6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection
factors for LTB checks". Since the MS NA uses the NCCI documents mentioned in the sections

350 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.7 Malaysian National Annex to EC3

above, this implementation will only consider end restraint conditions corresponding to the CMN
parameter=1.0. For all other cases of the CMN parameter values, this implementation will use the
method specified in Annex F of DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992.
Note: If a National Annex has not been specified (i.e., NA parameter in the design input = 0), the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 only in the case of Rolled or welded I & H Sections. For all other
cases, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 of MS EN 1993-1-1:2005. Also, I sections with plates will be
treated as built-up sections only if the section has been explicitly specified as a built-up section
(i.e., SBLT parameter = 1.0 in design input).

7D.7.5 Clause 6.3.2.3(2) Modification factor, f, for LTB checks


The MS NA specifies the use of eqn. 6.58 of MS EN 1993-1-1:2005 to evaluate the modification factor,
f, for the LTB reduction factor . To evaluate the modification factor MS EN 1993-1-1:2005 uses a
LT
correction factor, kc, given by Table 6.6 in the code.
The program does not calculate the kc factor and conservatively uses a reduction factor equal to 1.
The proposed implementation will allow for the reduction factor based on the MS NA.
These values are for an end restraint factor of k = 1 (i.e., CMN = 1.0). Hence for all other values of CMN
(i.e., 0.7 or 0.5), the program uses the values of C1 from DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 Annex F.
You can also manually specify a value for kc by setting the design parameter, KC, to the desired
value. The user can also get the program to calculate the value of kc automatically by setting the
value of the KC parameter in the design input to 0. This will cause the program to evaluate a value
of C corresponding to the end conditions and the Bending moment of the member and in turn
1
calculate k as given in the NA. To evaluate C , the program will use the NCCI documents(See
c
1
"Clause 6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors for LTB checks" on page 347).
Note that for the MS NA, the program will attempt to evaluate k by default using the equation in
c
NA,
kc = 1 / C1

where C1 will be the value used for the M calculations.


cr

If k evaluates to be greater than 1.0, the program will then evaluate kc as per Table 6.6 of EN 1993c
1-1:2005.

7D.7.6 Clause 6.3.3(5) Interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy, and kzz
The MS NA recommends that the method in Annex A or Annex B of MS EN 1993-1-1:2005 can be
used to calculate the interaction factors for Cl. 6.3.3 checks in the case of doubly symmetric
sections. STAAD.Pro uses the equations in Annex B of MS EN 1993-1-1:2005 to calculate these
interaction factors for doubly symmetric sections..
However, for non-doubly symmetric sections, the MS NA gives the option of using Annex B with
some modifications as given in the NA. (Cl. NA-3.2 of the MS NA). The MS NA requires additional

International Design Codes Manual 351

7D.7 Malaysian National Annex to EC3

checks to be done to check for the maximum allowable values of and X to be used in equations
6.61 and 6.62 of MS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
As per the MS NA, for non-doubly symmetric sections, the slenderness about the weak axis ( in
y
STAAD.Pro) and the corresponding reduction factor should be taken as the values from the
y
highest values of slenderness () among the flexural buckling slenderness ( ), torsional slenderness
y
( ) and torsional-flexural slenderness ( ) as given in Clauses 6.3.1.3 and 6.3.1.4 of MS EN 1993-1T
TF
1:2005. Hence for non-doubly symmetric sections the program will calculate the critical nondimensional slenderness as:
per Cl. 6.3.1.3
y = max
T per Cl. 6.3.1.4

where
T =

A fy
N cr

Ncr = min(N crT , N crTF )

The MS NA or EC3 does not, however, specify a method to evaluate N


or N
. Hence, the
crT
crTF
program uses the method specified in the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU: Critical axial load for
torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes to calculate these. See "Clause 6.3.1.4 - Slenderness
for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling" on page 352 for details.
Note: The MSNAor EC3 does not deal with angle sections specifically and therefore STAAD.Pro
uses the method described in the EC3 implementation to deal with slenderness of angle sections.
This is done as per cl 4.7.10 of BS 5950.
Clause NA 3.2 of the MS NA also requires that Where the section is not an I Section or a hollow
section and is a class1 or class 2 section, it will be treated as a class 3 section for the purposes of this
clause. Hence for all Class 1 or Class 2 cross sections that are not I, H, SHS, RHS or CHS sections,
the elastic properties will be used for the purposes of 6.3.3 checks.

7D.7.7 Clause 6.3.1.4 - Slenderness for torsional and torsional-flexural


buckling
Equations 6.52 and 6.53 of MS-EN 1993-1-1:2005 are to be used to calculate the non-dimensional
slenderness parameter, , to be used for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling checks. The MST
EN 1993-1-1:2005 does not provide equations to calculate the elastic critical loads N
and N
cr,T,F
cr,T
(refer 6.3.14 of SS EN 1993-1-1:2005). Therefore, the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU: Critical axial
load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes provides methods to calculate the N
cr,T,F
and N
factors and hence will to be included in this implementation of the MS NA.
cr,T

The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is evaluated as:


Ncr, T =

GI t +
2
io
1

EI w
2

I T2

352 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.8 German National Annex to EC3

Where:
io2 = iy2 + iz2 + yo2 + z o2

i and i are the radius of gyration about the Y-Y (weak axis) and Z-Z (strong axis)
y
z
respectively.
The critical axial load for Torsional-Flexural buckling is evaluated as:
Ncr, TF =

i o2
2

i y2 + i z2

N cr, y + N cr, T

(Ncr, y + Ncr, T )

4Ncr, yN cr, T

i y2 + i z2
2
io

For details on these equations, refer to the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU.


The program will only consider Channel Sections and Tee- sections when evaluating the critical
torsional and Flexural Torsional buckling loads as per Cl 6.3.1.4.

7D.8 German National Annex to EC3


Adds values from the German National Annextitled DIN EN 1993-1-1:2005for use with Eurocode
3, or EN 1993-1-1:2005. The NA document makes small changes to the base document.
The clauses/sections in EN 1993-1-1:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC-3) that require additional
clauses from the German National Annex (hereafter referred to as DE-NA) are described in the
following sections.
Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below refer to the
corresponding clauses in the DE-NA.
The following clauses are not implemented in STAAD.Pro:
Clause 6.3.2.4(1) B Slenderness for flexural buckling
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC-3. Therefore, this clause is ignored
for the German National Annex.
Clause 6.3.2.4(2)B Modification factor kfl
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC-3. Therefore, this clause is ignored
for the German National Annex.

7D.8.1 Clause 6.1(1) General:Partial Safety Factors for buildings


EN 1993-1-1:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given in Cl.
6.1 of the code. These factors are , , and . EN 1993 provides default values for these
M0 M1
M2
factors. However, any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.
The partial safety factors will use the following values for the German National Annex:
l

Resistance of cross-sections,

Resistance of members to instability,

M0

= 1.0
M1

= 1.0

International Design Codes Manual 353

7D.8 German National Annex to EC3

Resistance of cross sections to tension,

M2

= 1.25

The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the DE-NA (NA 10 is
specified).
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See "Design
Parameters" on page 265
Note: If any of these parameters are specified as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the user specified value
(i.e., 0) and use the default values as given above.

7D.8.2 Clause 6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors


for LTB checks
The DE-NA recommends the use of Table 6.3 and 6.4 of DIN EN 1993-1-1:2005 to calculate the
imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks.
The calculation of the LTB reduction factor , requires the calculation of the Elastic Critical
LT
Buckling Moment, M . The DE-NA does not specify a particular method to calculate Mcr. Hence
cr
the calculation of Mcr has been based on the following NCCI documents:

Doubly symmetric sections


SN003a-EN-EU NCCI: Elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling provides equation used
to calculate M specifically for doubly symmetric sections:
cr

M cr = C1

EI
(kL )

( )
k
kw

2I

IS

(kL ) 2GI t
2

EI S

2
+ (C2Zg ) C 2Zg

C and C are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions of the
1
2
member. The NCCI provides values for C and C for the different cases as given in Table 3.1 and
1
2
Table 3.2.
The NCCI considers three separate loading conditions:
l

Members with end moments

Members with transverse loading

Members with end moments and transverse loading.

STAAD.Pro accounts for the loading condition and the bending moment diagram through the CMM
parameter. The values of C and C may also be directly specified using the C1 and C2 parameters,
1
2
respectively (required for CMM = 7 or CMM = 8).

354 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.8 German National Annex to EC3

Mono-symmetric sections with symmetry about their weak axis


Annex D of DE-NA also provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment, M , for uniform
cr
mono-symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. STAAD.Pro uses this method for
the evaluating the elastic critical moment for Tee sections.
The equation to evaluate M for mono symmetric sections is given as:
cr

M cr = C1

2EI z
(k xL )

2I

( )
kx

kw

(k xL ) 2GI T
2

EI z

2
+ (C2zg C3z 1) C2zg C3z 1

The factors C , C , and C are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria. The program
1 2
3
considers C , C , and C as given in the tables 4.1 and 4.2 of the NCCI, based on the CMMparameter.
1

The default value of CMM = 0, which considers the member as a pin ended member with uniformly
distributed load (UDL)along its span. This NCCI does not however consider the end moments
and transverse loading condition. You use the C1, C2 and C3 parameters to input the required
values for C , C , and C , respectively, to be used in calculating M .
1

cr

Note: If MU as well as C1, C2 and C3 have been specified, the program will ignore MU and use
the user input values of C1, C2 and C3. STAAD.Pro obtains these values from Annex F of DD ENV
version of 1993-1-1:1992.
Note: When CMM = 7 or CMM = 8, the values for C1, C2 and C3 parameters must be manually
specified.
Both the NCCI documents mentioned above assume that the member under consideration is free
to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member (k = kw = 1.0).
STAAD.Pro takes into account of the end conditions using the CMN parameter for EC3. A value of K
= kw =1 is indicated by a value of CMN = 1.0 in the design input. Hence the above methods will be
used only for members which are free to rotate on plan and which have no warping restraints (i.e.,
CMN = 1.0). For members with partial or end fixities (i.e., CMN = 0.5 or CMN = 0.7), this
implementation will fall back on to the method and coefficients in DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 Annex
F.
For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) this
implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 code.
The term zg in the equation to calculate M refers to the distance between the point of application
cr
of load on the cross section in relation to the shear center of the cross section. The value of z is
g
considered positive, if the load acts towards the shear center and is negative if it acts away from the
shear center. By default, the program will assume that the load acts towards the shear center at a
distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear center. The use will be allowed to modify this
value by using the ZG parameter. Specifying a value of ZG = 0 in the design input would indicate
that the load acts exactly at the shear center of the section so that the term z in the equation will
g
have a value of zero.

International Design Codes Manual 355

7D.8 German National Annex to EC3

Note: The program does not consider the case of cantilevers.

7D.8.3 Clause 6.3.2.3(1) LTB for rolled sections or equivalent welded


section
The DE-NA specifies that the default values in Table 6.5 for the
and factors given in clause
LT,0
6.3.2.3(1) as follows:
For all sections, use:

LT,0

=0.4 and = 0.75

7D.8.4 Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 Calculation of LTB Reduction


factor, as per German NA
LT

Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 (EN 1993-1-1:2005), both give equations to evaluate the LTB reduction
factor to be used in eqn. 6.55 of DIN EN 1993-1-1:2005.
LT

Cl. 6.3.2.2 uses tables 6.3 and 6.4 to choose the buckling curve and the imperfection factors to be
used for calculating . Table 6.4 specifies the choice of buckling curves for Rolled I Sections,
LT
Welded I Sections and Any other sections. Cl 6.3.2.3 on the other hand uses tables 6.5 and 6.3 to
choose the buckling curves and imperfection factors. Table 6.5 however only deals with Rolled I
Sections and Welded I Sections.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 states Unless otherwise specified, see 6.3.2.3, for bending members of constant cross
section the value of should be determined from.... Hence in the implementation of EC3 (and
LT
the German Annex) in STAAD.Pro: by default the program will consider clause Cl. 6.3.2.3 to
evaluate . For any case that is not dealt with by Cl. 6.3.2.3, the program will consider Cl. 6.3.2.2
LT
to evaluate .
LT

Note: The MTH design parameter can be used to control the choice of the clause used to calculate
.
LT

In any case, the elastic critical moment, Mcr, (used to evaluate the non dimensional slenderness)
will be evaluated as previously given. Since this implementation uses the NCCIs mentioned in the
sections above, only end restraint conditions corresponding to the CMN parameter=1.0 (See "Clause
6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors for LTB checks" on page 354 ) will be
considered. For all other cases of the CMN parameter values, this implementation will use the
method specified in Annex F of DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992.
Note: If a National Annex has not been specified (i.e., NA parameter in the design input = 0), the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 only in the case of Rolled or welded I & H Sections. For all other
cases, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 of DIN EN 1993-1-1:2005. Also, I sections with plates will be
treated as built-up sections only if the section has been explicitly specified as a built-up section
(i.e., SBLT parameter = 1.0 in design input).

356 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.8 German National Annex to EC3

7D.8.5 Clause 6.3.2.3(2) Modification factor, f, for LTB checks


The DE-NA specifies the use of Equation 6.58 of DIN EN 1993-1-1:2005 to evaluate the modification
factor f for the LTB reduction factor . To evaluate the modification factor SS EN 1993-1-1:2005
LT
uses a correction factor kc given by Table 6.6 in the code.
The DE-NA however, specifies that the correction factor kc is to be obtained as below:
K c = 1 / C1

Where:
C is to be obtained from the NCCI documents as previously described (See "Clause
1
6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors for LTB checks" on page 354).
The NCCI document SN003a-EN-EU specifies the values of C1 to be used in table 3.1
as shown below. The current implementation does not account for the K factor and
c
conservatively uses a reduction factor equal to 1. The program allows for the reduction
factor based on the DE-NA.
These values are for an end restraint factor of k = 1 (i.e., design parameter CMN = 1.0). Hence for all
other values of CMN (i.e., 0.7 or 0.5) this implementation will use the values of C from DD ENV
1
1993-1-1:1992 Annex F.
The program will use a default value of 1.0 for K . However, you can also input a custom value of K
c
c
by setting the design parameter KC to the desired value. If the KC parameter in the design input is
set to 0, then the program will automatically calculate its value. This will cause the program to
evaluate a value of C corresponding to the end conditions and the Bending moment of the
1
member and in turn calculate K as given in the NA. To evaluate C , the program will use the NCCI
c
1
documents as previously described.

7D.8.6 Clause 6.3.3(5) Interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy, and kzz
The DE-NA recommends the use of equations in Annex A or Annex B of DIN-EN 1993-1-1 to
calculate these interaction factors. STAAD.Pro uses the method in Annex B by default. Thus the
program uses Annex B for Cl.6.3.3 checks.
The DE-NA or EC3 do not deal with angle sections in specific and thus the program uses the
method per cl 4.7.10 of BS 5950 for single and double angle sections to evaluate the slenderness.

7D.8.7 Clause 6.3.1.4 - Slenderness for torsional and torsional-flexural


buckling
Equations 6.52 and 6.53 of DIN EN 1993-1-1:2005 are to be used to calculate the non-dimensional
slenderness , to be used for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling checks. DIN EN 1993-1T
1:2005 does not provide equations to calculate the elastic critical loads N
and N
(refer 6.3.14
cr,T,F
cr,T
of DIN EN 1993-1-1:2005).

International Design Codes Manual 357

7D.9 Swedish National Annex to EC3

The NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional
buckling modes provides methods to calculate the N
and N
factors and therefore these
cr,TF
cr,T
methods are used to evaluate the elastic critical loads for the DE-NA.
The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is evaluated as:
Ncr, T =

GI t +
2
io
1

EI w
2

I T2

Where:
io2 = iy2 + iz2 + yo2 + z o2

i and i are the radius of gyration about the Y-Y (weak axis) and Z-Z (strong axis)
y
z
respectively.
The critical axial load for Torsional-Flexural buckling is evaluated as:
Ncr, TF =

i o2
2

i y2 + i z2

N cr, y + N cr, T

(Ncr, y + Ncr, T )

4Ncr, yN cr, T

i y2 + i z2
2
io

For details on these equations, refer to the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU.

7D.9 Swedish National Annex to EC3


Adds values from the Swedish National Annextitled BFS EN 1993-1-1:2005for use with Eurocode
3, or EN 1993-1-1:2005. The NA document makes small changes to the base document.
The clauses/sections in EN 1993-1-1:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC-3) that require additional
clauses from the Swedish National Annex (hereafter referred to as SW-NA) are described in the
following sections.
Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below refer to the
corresponding clauses in the SW-NA.

7D.9.1 Clause 3.2.(2)- Steel Grades


The Swedish NA allows the use of custom steel grades as given in Table E-1 of the National Annex.
These grades of steel can be specified by using the PY (Yield Strength) and FU (Ultimate Strength)
parameters in STAAD.Pro.

7D.9.2 Clause 6.1(1) General: Partial Safety Factors for Buildings


EN 1993-1-1:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given in Cl.
6.1 of the code. These factors are , , and . EN 1993 provides default values for these
M0 M1
M2
factors. However, any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.
The partial safety factors will use the following values for the Swedish National Annex:

358 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.9 Swedish National Annex to EC3

Resistance of cross-sections,

Resistance of members to instability,

Resistance of cross sections to tension,

M0

= 1.0
M1

= 1.0

M2

= 0.9 x fu /fy , but not less than 1.1

Where:
f is the ultimate steel strength
u

f is the yield strength of steel


y

The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the SW-NA (NA 10 is
specified).
Note: You can change these values through the GM0 and GM1 design parameters. See "Design
Parameters" on page 265 The value of GM2 ( ) is calculated based on the steel grade values
M2
specified. See "Clause 3.2.(2)- Steel Grades" on page 358
Note: If any of these parameters are specified as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the user specified value
(i.e., 0) and use the default values as given above.

7D.9.3 Clause 6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors


for LTB checks
The SW-NA recommends the use of Table 6.3 and 6.4 of DIN EN 1993-1-1:2005 to calculate the
imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks.
The calculation of the LTB reduction factor , requires the calculation of the Elastic Critical
LT
Buckling Moment, M . The SW-NA does not specify a particular method to calculate Mcr. Hence
cr
the calculation of Mcr has been based on the following NCCI documents:

Doubly symmetric sections


SN003a-EN-EU NCCI: Elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling provides equation used
to calculate M specifically for doubly symmetric sections:
cr

2
(kL )

M cr = C1

EI

( )
k
kw

2I

IS

(kL ) 2GI t
2

EI S

2
+ (C2Zg ) C 2Zg

C and C are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions of the
1
2
member. The NCCI provides values for C and C for the different cases as given in Table 3.1 and
1
2
Table 3.2.
The NCCI considers three separate loading conditions:
l

Members with end moments

Members with transverse loading

International Design Codes Manual 359

7D.9 Swedish National Annex to EC3

Members with end moments and transverse loading.

STAAD.Pro accounts for the loading condition and the bending moment diagram through the CMM
parameter. The values of C and C may also be directly specified using the C1 and C2 parameters,
1
2
respectively (required for CMM = 7 or CMM = 8).

Mono-symmetric sections with symmetry about their weak axis


Annex D of SW-NA also provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment, M , for
cr
uniform mono-symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. STAAD.Pro uses this
method for the evaluating the elastic critical moment for Tee sections.
The equation to evaluate M for mono symmetric sections is given as:
cr

M cr = C1

2
(k xL )

2EI z

kx

2I

kw

( )

(k xL ) 2GI T
2

EI z

2
+ (C2zg C3z 1) C2zg C3z 1

The factors C , C , and C are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria. The program
1 2
3
considers C , C , and C as given in the tables 4.1 and 4.2 of the NCCI, based on the CMMparameter.
1

The default value of CMM = 0, which considers the member as a pin ended member with uniformly
distributed load (UDL)along its span. This NCCI does not however consider the end moments
and transverse loading condition. You use the C1, C2 and C3 parameters to input the required
values for C , C , and C , respectively, to be used in calculating M .
1

cr

Note: If MU as well as C1, C2 and C3 have been specified, the program will ignore MU and use
the user input values of C1, C2 and C3. STAAD.Pro obtains these values from Annex F of DD ENV
version of 1993-1-1:1992.
Note: When CMM = 7 or CMM = 8, the values for C1, C2 and C3 parameters must be manually
specified.
Both the NCCI documents mentioned above assume that the member under consideration is free
to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member (k = kw = 1.0).
STAAD.Pro takes into account of the end conditions using the CMN parameter for EC3. A value of K
= kw =1 is indicated by a value of CMN = 1.0 in the design input. Hence the above methods will be
used only for members which are free to rotate on plan and which have no warping restraints (i.e.,
CMN = 1.0). For members with partial or end fixities (i.e., CMN = 0.5 or CMN = 0.7), this
implementation will fall back on to the method and coefficients in DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 Annex
F.
For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) this
implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 code.
The term zg in the equation to calculate M refers to the distance between the point of application
cr
of load on the cross section in relation to the shear center of the cross section. The value of z is
g
considered positive, if the load acts towards the shear center and is negative if it acts away from the
shear center. By default, the program will assume that the load acts towards the shear center at a

360 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7D.9 Swedish National Annex to EC3

distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear center. The use will be allowed to modify this
value by using the ZG parameter. Specifying a value of ZG = 0 in the design input would indicate
that the load acts exactly at the shear center of the section so that the term z in the equation will
g
have a value of zero.
Note: The program does not consider the case of cantilevers.

7D.9.4 Clause 6.3.2.3(1) LTB for rolled sections or equivalent welded


section
The SW-NA specifies that the following values for the

LT,0

and factors:

For all sections, use:

LT,0

=0.4 and = 0.75

7D.9.5 Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 Calculation of LTB Reduction


factor, as per Swedish NA
LT

Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 (EN 1993-1-1:2005), both give equations to evaluate the LTB reduction
factor to be used in eqn. 6.55 of BFS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
LT

Cl. 6.3.2.2 uses tables 6.3 and 6.4 to choose the buckling curve and the imperfection factors to be
used for calculating . Table 6.4 specifies the choice of buckling curves for Rolled I Sections,
LT
Welded I Sections and Any other sections. Cl 6.3.2.3 on the other hand uses tables 6.5 and 6.3 to
choose the buckling curves and imperfection factors. Table 6.5 however only deals with Rolled I
Sections and Welded I Sections.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 states Unless otherwise specified, see 6.3.2.3, for bending members of constant cross
section the value of should be determined from.... Hence in the implementation of EC3 (and
LT
the Swedish Annex) in STAAD.Pro: by default the program will consider clause Cl. 6.3.2.3 to
evaluate . For any case that is not dealt with by Cl. 6.3.2.3, the program will consider Cl. 6.3.2.2
LT
to evaluate .
LT

Note: The MTH design parameter can be used to control the choice of the clause used to calculate
.
LT

In any case, the elastic critical moment, Mcr, (used to evaluate the non dimensional slenderness)
will be evaluated as previously given. Since this implementation uses the NCCIs mentioned in the
sections above, only end restraint conditions corresponding to the CMN parameter=1.0 (See "Clause
6.3.2.2 Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors for LTB checks" on page 359 ) will be
considered. For all other cases of the CMN parameter values, this implementation will use the
method specified in Annex F of DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992.
Note: If a National Annex has not been specified (i.e., NA parameter in the design input = 0), the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 only in the case of Rolled or welded I & H Sections. For all other
cases, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 of BFS EN 1993-1-1:2005. Also, I sections with plates will be

International Design Codes Manual 361

7D.9 Swedish National Annex to EC3

treated as built-up sections only if the section has been explicitly specified as a built-up section
(i.e., SBLT parameter = 1.0 in design input).

7D.9.6 Clause 6.3.3(5) Interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy, and kzz
The SW-NA recommends the use of equations in Annex A of EN 1993-1-1:2005 to calculate these
interaction factors, which are used by STAAD.Pro when the Swedish NA is selected.
The SW-NA or EC3 do not deal with angle sections in specific and thus the program uses the
method per cl 4.7.10 of BS 5950 for single and double angle sections to evaluate the slenderness.

7D.9.7 Clause 6.3.1.4 - Slenderness for torsional and torsional-flexural


buckling
Equations 6.52 and 6.53 of BFS EN 1993-1-1:2005 are to be used to calculate the non-dimensional
slenderness , to be used for torsional and torsional-flexural buckling checks. BFS EN 1993-1-1:2005
T
does not provide equations to calculate the elastic critical loads N
and N
(refer 6.3.14 of BFS
cr,T,F
cr,T
EN 1993-1-1:2005).
The NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional
buckling modes provides methods to calculate the N
and N
factors and therefore these
cr,TF
cr,T
methods are used to evaluate the elastic critical loads for the SW-NA.
The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is evaluated as:
Ncr, T =

GI t +
2
io
1

EI w
2

I T2

Where:
io2 = iy2 + iz2 + yo2 + z o2

i and i are the radius of gyration about the Y-Y (weak axis) and Z-Z (strong axis)
y
z
respectively.
The critical axial load for Torsional-Flexural buckling is evaluated as:
Ncr, TF =

i o2
2

i y2 + i z2

N cr, y + N cr, T

(Ncr, y + Ncr, T )

4Ncr, yN cr, T

i y2 + i z2
2
io

For details on these equations, refer to the NCCI document SN001a-EN-EU.

362 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7E.1 General Comments

7E. Timber Design Per EC 5: Part 1-1


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing timber design based on the European code EC5 Part 1-1
Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures - Part 1.1: General-Common rules and rules for buildings.
Design of members per EC5 Part 1-1 requires the STAAD Euro Design Codes SELECTCode Pack.

7E.1 General Comments


Principles of Limit States Design of Timber Structures are used as specified in the code.
Design per EC5 is limited to the prismatic, rectangular shapes only. There is no Eurocode-specific
timber section database / library consisting of pre-defined shapes for analysis or for design. The
feature of member selection is thus not applicable to this code.
The design philosophy of this specification is based on the concept of limit state design. Structures
are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which they would
become unfit for their intended use. Two major categories of limit-state are recognized - ultimate
and serviceability. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength and
stability, while that in serviceability is deflection. Appropriate load and resistance factors are used so
that a uniform reliability is achieved for all timber structures under various loading conditions and
at the same time the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote.
In the STAAD implementation, members are proportioned to resist the design loads without
exceeding the limit states of strength, stability and serviceability. Accordingly, the most economic
section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria as augmented by the designer in
specification of allowable member depths, desired section type, or other such parameters. The code
checking portion of the program checks whether code requirements for each selected section are
met and identifies the governing criteria.
The following sections describe the salient features of the STAAD implementation of EC 5. A
detailed description of the design process along with its underlying concepts and assumptions is
available in the specification document.

7E.1.1 Axes convention in STAAD and EC5


STAAD defines the major axis of the cross-section as zz and the minor axis as yy. The longitudinal
axis of the member is defined as x and joins the start joint of the member to the end with the same
positive direction.
EC5, however, defines the principal cross-section axes in reverse to that of STAAD, but the
longitudinal axis is defined in the same way. Both of these axes definitions follow the orthogonal
right hand rule.

International Design Codes Manual 363

7E.1 General Comments

Figure 7E.1 - Axis conventions per STAAD and Eurocode 5

STAAD

EC5

7E.1.2 Determination of Factors


A. Kmod Modification factor taking into account of Load-duration (LDC) and Moisturecontent (Service Class - SCL). Reference Table 3.1 of EC-5-2004.
For Solid Timber, the values are incorporated in the program.
B.

Partial factor for Material Property values. Reference Table 2.3 of EC-5-2004.

For Solid Timber, the value of

= 1.3 is incorporated in the program.

C. Kh Size Factor.
For members, subjected to tension, whose maximum c/s dimension is less than the reference
width in tension the characteristic strength in tension (ft0k) is to be increased by the factor
Kh.
For members, subjected to bending, whose depth is less than reference depth in bending,
the characteristic strength in bending (fmk) is to be increased by the factor Kh.
As per clause 3.2(3) of EC 5- 2004, for rectangular solid timber with a characteristic timber
density 700 kg/m 3 the reference depth in bending or the reference width (maximum
k
cross-sectional dimension) is 150 mm.
The value of Kh = Minimum of {(150/h) 0.2 and 1.3) for such solid timber is incorporated in
the software. Please refer clause numbers 3.3 and 3.4 for the value of Kh for Glued laminated
timber and Laminated veneer lumber respectively.
D. KC90 Factor taking into account the load configuration, possibility of splitting and degree
of compressive deformation.
For members, subjected to compression, perpendicular to the direction of grain alignment,
this factor should be taken into account. Default value of 1 is used in STAAD.Pro. User may
override the value. Please refer clause 6.1.5 of EC-5-2004 in this regard.
E. Km Factor considering re-distribution of bending stress in cross section.

364 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7E.2 Analysis Methodology

For members, subjected to bending, this factor is taken into account for stress checking. For
rectangular section the value of Km is 0.7, and this value is incorporated in STAAD.Pro. User
may override the value. Please refer clause 6.1.6 of EC-5-2004 in this regard.
F. Kshape Factor depending on shape of cross section.
For members, subjected to torsional force, design torsional stress should be less than equal
design shear strength multiplied by the factor Kshape. This factor is determined by
STAAD.Pro internally using the guidelines of clause 6.1.8 of EC-5-2004.

7E.2 Analysis Methodology


Table 7E.1-EC5 Nomenclature
Symbol
S
S

t0d

t90d

Description
Design tensile stress parallel (at zero degree) to grain alignment.
Design tensile stress perpendicular (at 90 degrees) to grain
alignment.

S
S

c0d

c90d

S
S

mzd
myd

S
S

vd

tor_d

Design compressive stress parallel to grain alignment.


Design compressive stress perpendicular to grain alignment.
Design bending stress about zz axis.
Design bending stress about yy axis.
Design shear stress.
Design torsional stress.

Design tensile strength - parallel to the grain alignment.

Design tensile strength - perpendicular to the grain alignment.

t0d

t90d

Design compressive strength - parallel to the grain alignment.

Design compressive strength - perpendicular to the grain

c0d

c90d

alignment.
F

Design bending strength - about zz-axis.

Design bending strength - about yy-axis.

mzd
myd

vd

RATIO

Design shear strength about yy axis.


Permissible ratio of stresses as input using the RATIOparameter.
The default value is 1.

l ,l

Slenderness ratios corresponding to bending about zz axis.

l ,l

Slenderness ratios corresponding to bending about yy axis.

z rel,z
y rel,y

0,05

0,05

Fifth percentile value of modulus of elasticity parallel to grain.


Fifth percentile value of shear modulus parallel to grain.
Second moment of area about the strong z-axis.

International Design Codes Manual 365

7E.2 Analysis Methodology

Symbol
I
I

Description
Second moment of area about the weak y-axis.

Torsional moment of inertia.

tor

Characteristic bending strength.

b, h

Width and depth of beam.

mk

Equations for Characteristic Values of Timber Species as per Annex-A of EN 338:2003


The following equations were used to determine the characteristic values:
For a particular Timber Strength Class (TSC), the following characteristic strength values are
required to compute the other related characteristic values.
i. Bending Strength f

m,k

ii. Mean Modulus of Elasticity in bending E

0, mean

iii. Density -

SI
No.

Property

Symbol

Wood Type
Softwood
(C)

1.

Tensile Strength parallel to


grain

2.

Tensile Strength perpendicular


to grain

3.

Compressive Strength parallel to


grain

4.

Compressive Strength
perpendicular to grain

5.

Shear Strength

6.

Modulus of Elasticity parallel to


grain

Hardwood
(D)

0.6 * f

t,0,k

m,k

Minimum of {0.6 and


(0.0015*r )}

t,90,k

5 * (f

c,0,k

m,k

0.007*r

c,90,k

0.0015*r

) 0.45

v,k

Minimum of {3.8 and


0.8)}
(0.2*f

0,05

0.67*
E

m,k

0.84* E

0,mean

0,mean

7.

Mean Modulus of Elasticity


perpendicular to grain

8.

Mean Shear Modulus

9.

Shear Modulus

90,mean
mean
0,05

0,mean

/30

0,mean

0,05

0,mean

/15

/16

/16

The values of the characteristic strengths computed using the above equations, may differ with the
tabulated values in Table-1 of EN 338:2003. However, in all such cases, the values obtained from the
provided equations are treated as actual and is used by the program, as the values of Table-1 are
based on these equations.

366 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7E.2 Analysis Methodology

7E.2.1 Design values of Characteristic Strength


As per clause 2.4.1, Design values of a strength property shall be calculated as:
Xd = K mod(Xk /m)
Where:
X is design value of strength property
d

X characteristic value of strength property


k

m is partial factor for material properties.


The member resistance in timber structure is calculated in STAAD according to the procedures
outlined in EC5. This depends on several factors such as cross sectional properties, different load
and material factors, timber strength class, load duration class, service class and so on. The
methodology adopted in STAAD for calculating the member resistance is explained here.

7E.2.2 Check for Tension stresses


If the direction of applied axial tension is parallel to the direction of timber grain alignment, the
following formula should be checked per Equation 6.1 of EC-5 2004:
St0d /Ft0d RATIO
If the direction of applied axial tension is perpendicular to the direction of timber grain alignment,
the following formula should be checked:
St90d /Ft90d RATIO

7E.2.3 Check for Compression stresses


If the direction of applied axial compression is parallel to the direction of timber grain alignment,
the following formula should be checked per Equation 6.2 of EC-5 2004:
Sc0d /Fc0d RATIO
If the direction of applied axial compression is perpendicular to the direction of timber grain
alignment, the following formula should be checked per Equation 6.3 of EC-5 2004:
St0d /(Ft0d Kc90) RATIO

7E.2.4 Check for Bending stresses


If members are under bending stresses, the following conditions should be satisfied per Equations
6.11 and 6.12 of EC-5 2004.
Note: In STAAD z-z axis is the strong axis.
(Smzd /Fmzd ) +Km(Smyd /Fmyd ) RATIO

International Design Codes Manual 367

7E.2 Analysis Methodology

Km(Smzd /Fmzd ) +(Smyd /Fmyd ) RATIO

7E.2.5 Check for Shear stresses


Horizontal stresses are calculated and checked against allowable values per Equation 6.13 of EC-5
2004:
Svd /Fvd RATIO

7E.2.6 Check for Torsional stresses


Members subjected to torsional stress should satisfy Equation 6.14 of EC-5 2004:
Stor_d /(KshapeFtor_d ) RATIO

7E.2.7 Check for combined Bending and Axial tension


Members subjected to combined action of bending and axial tension stress should satisfy Equations
6.17 and 6.18 of EC-5 2004:
Note: In STAAD z-z axis is the strong axis.
(St0d /Ft0d ) +(Smzd /Fmzd ) +Km(Smyd /Fmyd ) RATIO
(St0d /Ft0d ) +Km(Smzd /Fmzd ) +(Smyd /Fmyd ) RATIO

7E.2.8 Check for combined Bending and axial Compression


If members are subjected to bending and axial compression stress, Equations 6.19 and 6.20 of EC-5
2004 should be satisfied:
Note: In STAAD z-z axis is the strong axis.
(Sc0d /Fc0d )2 +(Smzd /Fmzd ) +Km(Smyd /Fmyd ) RATIO
(Sc0d /Fc0d )2 +Km(Smzd /Fmzd ) +(Smyd /Fmyd ) RATIO

7E.2.9 Stability check


A. Column Stability check
The relative slenderness ratios should be calculated per Equations 6.21 and 6.22 of EC-5 2004.
Note: In STAAD z-z axis is the strong axis.
rel,z = z/(Sc0k /E0,05 )1/2

368 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7E.2 Analysis Methodology

rel,y = y /(Sc0k /E0,05 )1/2


If both
and
are less than or equal to 0.3 the following conditions should be
rel,z
rel,y
satisfied:
(Sc0d /Fc0d )2 +(Smzd /Fmzd ) +Km(Smyd /Fmyd ) RATIO
(Sc0d /Fc0d )2 +Km(Smzd /Fmzd ) +(Smyd /Fmyd ) RATIO
In other cases, the conditions in Equations 6.23 and 6.24 of EC-5 2004 should be satisfied.
Note: In STAAD z-z axis is the strong axis.
Sc0d /(KczFc0d ) +(Smzd /Fmzd ) +Km(Smyd /Fmyd ) RATIO
Sc0d /(KcyFc0d ) +Km(Smzd /Fmzd ) +(Smyd /Fmyd ) RATIO
Where (Equations 6.25 through 6.28 of EC-5 2004):
Kcz = 1/{Kz +[(Kz)2 - (rel,z)2 ]1/2 }
Kcy = 1/{Ky +[(Kzy )2 - (rel,y )2 ]1/2 }
Kz = 0.5[1 +c(rel,z - 0.3) +(rel,z)2 ]
Ky = 0.5[1 +c(rel,y - 0.3) +(rel,y )2 ]
The value of incorporated in the software is the one for solid timber (i.e., 0.2).
c

B. Beam Stability check


If members are subjected to only a moment about the strong axis z, the stresses should
satisfy Equation 6.33 of EC-5 2004:
Smzd /(KcritFmzd ) RATIO
Where a combination of moment about the strong z-axis and compressive force exists, the
stresses should satisfy Equation 6.35 of EC-5 2004 (ref. to Equations 6.32 and 6.34 of the
same):
[Smzd /(KcritFmzd )]2 +Sc0d /(KczFc0d ) RATIO
Where:
Kcrit = 1.0 when rel,m 0.75
Kcrit = 1.56 - 0.75rel,m when 0.75 < rel,m 1.4
Kcrit = 1/(rel,m)2 when 1.4 <rel,m
rel,m = (fmk /Sm,crit)1/2
For hardwood, use Equation 6.30 of EC-5 2004:
Sm,crit = (E0,05 Iy G0,05 Itor)1/2 /(lefW z)
For softwood, use Equation 6.31 of EC-5 2004:

International Design Codes Manual 369

7E.3 Design Parameters

Sm,crit = 0.78b2 E0,05 /(hlef)

7E.3 Design Parameters


Design parameters communicate specific design decisions to the program. They are set to default
values to begin with and may be altered to suite the particular structure.
Depending on the model being designed, the user may have to change some or all of the parameter
default values. Some parameters are unit dependent and when altered, the new setting must be
compatible with the active unit specification.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 7E.2-Timber Design EC 5: Part 1-1 Parameters
Parameter Name
CODE

Default Value

Description

Must be specified as TIMBER EC5


Design Code to follow.
See section 5.51.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.

ALPHA

0.0

Angle of inclination of load to the


grain alignment. (Ref. Cl.6.1.1,
Cl.6.1.2, Cl.6.1.3, Cl.6.1.4)
0.0 = Load parallel to grain
90.0 = Load Perpendicular to
grain

DFF

None

Deflection Length / Max.


Allowable Net Final Local
Deflection.
In this case, deflection check will
be performed, if both the
parameters SERV and DFF are
present with specific values. For
appropriate range of values, please
refer Cl.7.2 (Table 7.2)

DJ1

Start node number for a physical


member under consideration for
Deflection Check.

370 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7E.3 Design Parameters

Parameter Name

Default Value

DJ2

Description
End node number for a physical
member under consideration for
Deflection Check.

KC90

1.0

Factor taking into account the


load configuration, possibility of
splitting and degree of
compressive deformation. (Ref.
Cl.6.1.5-(2))
l

Range: 1.0 KC90 4.0

Other than the default


value, user may specify any
value within the range,
depending on loadposition, load-dispersion,
contact length at support
locations etc.

KLEF

1.0
(Member Length)

Effective Length Factor to check


Lateral Torsional Buckling (Ref.
Table 6.1). Factor multiplied by the
span of the beam and depends on
the support conditions and load
configurations. The user will put
the appropriate value from the
Table 6.1.
Required only for MTYP value of 1
(Beam).

KY

1.0
(Member Length)

Effective Length Factor for Local-yaxis. (Ref. Cl.6.3.2), for the


computation of the relative
slenderness ratios.

KZ

1.0
(Member Length)

Effective Length Factor for Local-zaxis. (Ref. Cl.6.3.2), for the


computation of the relative
slenderness ratios.

International Design Codes Manual 371

7E.3 Design Parameters

Parameter Name
LDC

Default Value
1

Description
Load Duration Class (Ref.
Cl.2.3.1.2), required to get the KMOD value from Table 3.1.
1.0 = Permanent action
2.0 = Long term action
3.0 = Medium term action
4.0 = Short term action
5.0 = Instantaneous action

MTYP

Member Type: Beam/Column. (Ref.


Cl.6.3.2, Cl.6.3.3)
0.0 = Not defined; both clauses
are checked (Default)
1.0 = Beam Member
2.0 = Column Member
This information is required to
find which stability check will be
performed as per the Cl 6.3
according to the Member Type.

RATIO

1.0

Permissible ratio of actual to


allowable value.

SCL

Service Class (Ref. Cl.2.3.1.3)


1.0 = Class 1, Moisture content
12%
2.0 = Class 2, Moisture content
20%
3.0 = Class 3, Moisture content
> 20%

TRACK

Degree/Level of Details of design


output results.
1.0 = Print the design output at
the minimal detail level
2.0 = Print the design output
at the intermediate detail level
3.0 = Print the design output
that the maximum detail level

372 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7E.4 Verification Problems

Parameter Name
TSC

Default Value
6 (C24)

Description
Timber Strength Class (Ref.
Reference EN338 2003)
l

Softwood: 1 = C14, 2 = C16, 3


= C18, 4 = C20, 5 = C22, 6 =
C24, 7 = C27, 8 = C30, 9 =
C35, 10 = C40, 11 = C45, 12 =
C50.

Hardwood: 13 = D30, 14 =
D35, 15 = D40, 16 = D50, 17 =
D60, 18 = D70.

This TSC definition will calculate


the corresponding characteristic
strength values using the
equations as given in BS-EN-338,
Annex - A.

7E.4 Verification Problems


7E.4.1 Verification Problem No.1 - Timber Column
A Timber Column of length 1.0 meter, having c/s dimension of 73 mm X 198 mm, is subjected to
an axial compressive force of 50.0 kN. Design the member for the ultimate limit state.
Material properties:
Timber class: C24
Service classes: Class 2, moisture content 20%
Load duration classes: Medium-term
Cross section properties:
Length of the member is 1 m.
Rectangular cross section, b = 73 mm, h = 198 mm,
Effective cross sectional area A = 14,454 mm,
Radius of gyration of cross section about y-axis r = 21 mm,
y

Radius of gyration of cross section about z-axis r = 57 mm,


z

Section modulus of cross section about z-axis: W = 4.770x105 mm


z

International Design Codes Manual 373

7E.4 Verification Problems

Section modulus of cross section about y-axis: W = 1.759x105 mm


y

Solution
Characteristic material properties for timber:
Modification factor Kmod = 0.80 from table 3.1
Material factors m = 1.30 from table 2.3
fc0k = 21.00 N/mm
Fc0d = (Kmodfc0k )/m = (0.8021.00)/1.30 = 12.92 N/mm [Cl 2.4.1(1)P]
Cross section loads:
Fx = 50.000 kN
Compression parallel to the grain:
Sc0d = (1000xFx )/A = (1000x50.000)/14454 = 3.46N/mm < 12.92N/mm (Fc0d )
The ratio of actual compressive stress to allowable compressive strength:
Sc0d /Fc0d = 3.46 / 12.92 = 0.268 < 1.0 [Cl. 6.1.4.(1)P]
Check for Slenderness:
Slenderness ratios:
z = (1000/57) = 17.54
y = (1000/21) = 47.62
E0,mean = 1.1031 kN/m2
As timber grade is C24 (i.e., Soft Wood)
E0,05 = 0.67E0,mean = 0.739 kN/m2
[Annex A,EN 338:2003]
rel,z = z/(fc0k /E0,05 )1/2 = 17.54/(21.00/0.739)1/2 = 0.298
rel,y = y /(fc0k /E0,05 )1/2 = 47.62/(21.00/0.739)1/2 = 0.809
Since,

rel,y

is greater than 0.3, following conditions should be satisfied:

Sc0d /(KczFc0d ) +(Smzd /Fmzd ) +Km(Smyd /Fmyd ) RATIO


Sc0d /(KcyFc0d ) +Km(Smzd /Fmzd ) +(Smyd /Fmyd ) RATIO
Where:
Kz = 0.5[1 +c(rel,z - 0.3) +(rel,z)2 ] = 0.50[1 +0.2(0.298 - 0.3) +(0.298)2 ] = 0.541
Ky = 0.5[1 +c(rel,y - 0.3) +(rel,y )2 ] = 0.50[1 +0.2(0.809 - 0.3) +(0.809)2 ] = 0.878

374 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7E.4 Verification Problems

Kcz = 1/{Kz +[(Kz)2 - (rel,z)2 ]1/2 } = 1/{0.541 +[(0.541)2 - (0.298)2 ]1/2 }= 1.008
Kcy = 1/{Ky +[(Kzy )2 - (rel,y )2 ]1/2 } = 1/{0.878 +[(0.878)2 - (0.809)2 ]1/2 } = 0.820
For Rectangular cross section Km = 0.70. The member is subjected to Compression only, so actual
bending stress is zero.
Sc0d /(KczFc0d ) +(Smzd /Fmzd ) +Km(Smyd /Fmyd ) = 3.46/(1.00812.92) +0.0 +0.0 = 0.268 +0.0
+ 0.0 = 0.266
Sc0d /(KcyFc0d ) +Km(Smzd /Fmzd ) +(Smyd /Fmyd ) = 3.46 /(0.82012.92) +0.0 +0.0 = 0.326
++0.0 + 0.0 = 0.326
Hence the critical ratio is 0.326 < 1.0 and the section is safe.

Comparison
Table 7E.3-EC 5: Part 1-1 Verification Problem 1
Criteria

Reference STAAD.Pro Difference

Critical Ratio (Cl.


6.3.2)

0.326

0.327

none

Input File
The following file is included AS C:\SProV8i\STAAD\Examp\Eur\EC5 ver 1.std.
STAAD SPACE
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 1.0 0 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC WOOD
E 1.10316e+007
POISSON 0.15
DENSITY 0.00231749
ALPHA 5.5e-006
END DEFINE MATERIAL
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL WOOD MEMB 1
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 PRIS YD 0.198 ZD 0.073
SUPPORTS
1 FIXED
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE NONE TITLE LOAD CASE 1
JOINT LOAD
2 FX -50
PERFORM ANALYSIS
PARAMETER
CODE TIMBER EC5
ALPHA 0 ALL
LDC 3 ALL
SCL 2 ALL
TSC 6 ALL

International Design Codes Manual 375

7E.4 Verification Problems

TRACK 2 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL
FINISH

Output
The member checking part of the output file:
STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING - (EC5 )
***********************
ALL UNITS ARE - KN
METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER
TABLE
RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================
1
PRIS ZD =
0.073 YD =
0.198
PASS
CL.6.3.2
0.327
1
50.00 C
0.00
0.00
0.0000
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| AX =
0.01 IY =
0.00 IZ =
0.00
|
| LEZ =
1.00 LEY =
1.00
|
|
|
| ALLOWABLE STRESSES: (NEW MMS)
|
|
FBY =
14.769 FBZ
=
14.769
|
|
FC
=
12.859
|
| ACTUAL STRESSES : (NEW MMS)
|
|
fby =
0.000 fbz
=
0.000
|
|
fc
=
3.459
|
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|

7E.4.2 Verification Problem No. 2


A Timber Column of length 1.0 meter, having c/s dimension of 73 mm X 198 mm, is subjected to
an axial compressive force of 5.0 kN and moments of 2.0 kN.m and 1.0 kN.m about its major and
minor axes respectively. Design the member for the ultimate limit state.
Material properties:
Timber Strength Class: C24
Service classes: Class 2, moisture content <=20%
Load duration: Medium-term
Cross section properties:
Length of the member is 1 m.
Rectangular cross section, b = 73 mm, h = 198 mm,
Effective cross sectional area A = 14454 mm,
Radius of gyration of cross section about y-axis r = 21 mm,
y

Radius of gyration of cross section about z-axis r = 57 mm,


z

Section modulus of cross section about z-axis: W = 4.770x105 mm


z

Section modulus of cross section about y-axis: W = 1.759x105 mm


y

376 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7E.4 Verification Problems

Solution
Characteristic material properties for timber:
Modification factor Kmod = 0.80 from table 3.1
Material factors m = 1.30 from table 2.3
fc0k = 21.00 N/mm
E0,05 = 7370 N/mm2
Fc0d = (Kmodfc0k )/m = (0.8021.00)/1.30 = 12.92 N/mm [Cl 2.4.1(1)P]
fmyk = 24.00 N/mm
Fmyd = Kmodfmyk /m = (0.80x24.00)/1.30 = 14.77N/mm
fmzk = 24.00 N/mm
Fmzd = Kmodfmzk /m = (0.80x24.00)/1.30 = 14.77N/mm
Cross section loads:
Fx = 5.000 kN
Mz = 2.000 kNm
My = 1.000 kNm
Check for Slenderness:
Slenderness ratios:
z = (1000/57) = 17.54
y = (1000/21) = 47.62
rel,z = z/(fc0k /E0,05 )1/2 = 17.54/(21.00/7370)1/2 = 0.298
rel,y = y /(fc0k /E0,05 )1/2 = 47.62/(21.00/7370)1/2 = 0.809
Since,

rel,y

is greater than 0.3, following conditions should be satisfied [Cl 6.3.2.3]:

Sc0d /(KczFc0d ) +(Smzd /Fmzd ) +Km(Smyd /Fmyd ) RATIO


Sc0d /(KcyFc0d ) +Km(Smzd /Fmzd ) +(Smyd /Fmyd ) RATIO
Where:
Kz = 0.5[1 +c(rel,z - 0.3) +(rel,z)2 ] = 0.50[1 +0.2(0.298 - 0.3) +(0.298)2 ] = 0.541
Ky = 0.5[1 +c(rel,y - 0.3) +(rel,y )2 ] = 0.50[1 +0.2(0.809 - 0.3) +(0.809)2 ] = 0.878
Kcz = 1/{Kz +[(Kz)2 - (rel,z)2 ]1/2 } = 1/{0.541 +[(0.541)2 - (0.298)2 ]1/2 }= 1.008
Kcy = 1/{Ky +[(Kzy )2 - (rel,y )2 ]1/2 } = 1/{0.878 +[(0.878)2 - (0.809)2 ]1/2 } = 0.820
For Rectangular cross section Km = 0.70.

International Design Codes Manual 377

7E.4 Verification Problems

Sc0d = (1000Fx /A) = (10005.000)/14454 = 0.35 N/mm


Smzd = (106 Mz)/W z = (106 2.000)/(4.770x105 ) = 4.19 N/mm
Smyd = (106 My )/W y = (106 1.000)/(1.759x105 ) = 5.69 N/mm
Combined stress ratio:
Sc0d /(KczFc0d ) +(Smzd /Fmzd ) +Km(Smyd /Fmyd ) = 0.35/(1.00812.92) +4.19/14.77 +0.70
(5.69/14.77) = 0.027 +0.283 +0.269 = 0.266
Sc0d /(KcyFc0d ) +Km(Smzd /Fmzd ) +(Smyd /Fmyd ) = 0.35 /(0.82012.92) +0.70(4.19/14.77)
+5.69/14.77 = 0.033 +0.385 +0.198 = 0.616
Hence the critical ratio is 0.616 < 1.0 and the section is safe.

Comparison
Table 7E.4-EC 5: Part 1-1 Verification Problem 2
Criteria

Reference STAAD.Pro Difference

Critical Ratio (Cl.


6.3.2)

0.616

0.616

none

Input File
The following file is included AS C:\SProV8i\STAAD\Examp\Eur\EC5 ver 2.std.
STAAD SPACE
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 0 1 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC WOOD
E 1.10316e+007
POISSON 0.15
DENSITY 0.00231749
ALPHA 5.5e-006
END DEFINE MATERIAL
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL WOOD MEMB 1
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 PRIS YD 0.198 ZD 0.073
SUPPORTS
1 FIXED
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE NONE TITLE LOAD CASE 1
JOINT LOAD
2 FY -5.0 MX 1.0 MZ 2.0
PERFORM ANALYSIS
PARAMETER
CODE TIMBER EC5
ALPHA 0 ALL
LDC 3 ALL
SCL 2 ALL

378 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

7E.4 Verification Problems

TSC 6 ALL
TRACK 2 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL
FINISH

Output
The member checking part of the output file:
STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING - (EC5 )
***********************
ALL UNITS ARE - KN
METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER
TABLE
RESULT/
CRITICAL COND/
RATIO/
LOADING/
FX
MY
MZ
LOCATION
=======================================================================
1
PRIS ZD =
0.073 YD =
0.198
PASS
CL.6.3.2
0.616
1
5.00 C
1.00
-2.00
0.0000
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|
| AX =
0.01 IY =
0.00 IZ =
0.00
|
| LEZ =
1.00 LEY =
1.00
|
|
|
| ALLOWABLE STRESSES: (NEW MMS)
|
|
FBY =
14.769 FBZ
=
14.769
|
|
FC
=
12.859
|
| ACTUAL STRESSES : (NEW MMS)
|
|
fby =
5.686 fbz
=
4.193
|
|
fc
=
0.346
|
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------|

International Design Codes Manual 379

380 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

8
Finnish Codes

International Design Codes Manual 381

8 Finnish Codes

382 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

8A. Finnish Codes - Concrete Design per B4


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the Finnish code B4 Suomen
rakentamismryskokoelma, B4 Betonirakenteet (National Building Code of Finland, B4 Concrete
structures).
Design of members per B4 requires the STAAD N. Eurozone Design Codes SELECTCode Pack.

International Design Codes Manual 383

384 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

8A.1 Design Parameters

8A.1 Design Parameters


The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform and control the design
to the B4 code. These parameters not only act as a method to input required data for code
calculations but give the Engineer control over the actual design process. Default values of
commonly used parameters for conventional design practice have been chosen as the basis. The
following table contains a complete list of available parameters with their default values.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 8A.1-Finnish Concrete Design per B4 Parameters
Parameter
Name
CODE

Default
Value
-

Description

Must be specified as FINNISH.


Design Code to follow. See section 5.52.2 of the
Technical Reference Manual.

ACTAGE

70

Actual age of concrete, in years.

BRACE

0.0

Bracing parameter for design:


0. Beam or column braced in both directions
1. One-way plate or column braced in only
the local Zdirection.
2. Column braced in only the local Y
direction.
3. Column unbraced in either direction.

CLEAR

25 mm

Clearance of reinforcement measured from


concrete surface to closest bar perimeter, in
current units.

DRYCIR

100

Drying exposure, in percent.

EFACE

0.0

Face of support location at end of beam, in


current units.
Note: Both SFACE & EFACE must be positive
numbers.

ELY

1.0

Member length factor about local Y direction for


column design.

International Design Codes Manual 385

8A.1 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default
Value

Description

1.0

Member length factor about local Z direction for


column design.

ELZ

ENVIR

Environment class
1. LA Least aggressive
2. NA Aggressive
3. MA Very aggressive

FC
FYMAIN

35 N/mm 2
500 N/mm 2

Compressive strength of concrete.


Yield strength of main reinforcing steel.

LAGE

7 days

Age when loaded, in days.

MAX
MAIN

32

Maximum size permitted for main reinforcement


bar.

MINMAIN

10

Minimum size permitted for main reinforcement


bar.

MOY

moy factor

MOZ

moz factor

NMAG

nmag factor

REIANG

Reinforcement angle, in degrees.

RELHUM

40

Relative humidity, in percent.

RFACE

Column bar arrangement


1. Four longitudinal bars.
2. Two faced distribution about minor axis.
3. Two faced distribution about major axis.
4. Faced symmetric distribution

SFACE

Distance from the start node of the beam to face


of support for shear design.
Note: Both SFACE & EFACE must be positive
numbers.

STIRANG

90

STIRDIA

10 mm

386 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

Stirrup angle, in degrees.


Stirrup diameter

8A.2 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default
Value

Description

TORANG

45

Torsion angle, in degrees.

TRACK

10

Track parameter to control output detail


10. Beam Ultimate limit state and Service
limit state design & Slab Two-way plate
design
11. Beam Ultimate limit state and Service
limit statedesign with tension stiffening.
12. Beam Ultimate limit statedesign only
20. Slab Plane stress design.
30. Slab Simplified membrane design.

8A. Finnish Codes - Steel Design per B7


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Finnish code B7 Suomen
rakentamismryskokoelma, B4 Betonirakenteet, Liite 3: Kansallinen liite standardiin SFS-EN 2061 (The National Building Code of Finland - B Strength of Structures, B7 Steel Structures Guidelines).
Design of members per B7 requires the STAAD N. Eurozone Design Codes SELECTCode Pack.

8A.2 Design Parameters


Design parameters communicate specific design decisions to the program. They are set to default
values to begin with and may be altered to suite the particular structure.
Table 8A.2-Design Parameters for Finnish B7 Steel design code
Parameter
Name
CODE

Default
Value
none

Description

Must be specified as B7.


Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical Reference Manual.

BEAM

0.0

Parameter BEAM 1.0 ALL tells the program to


calculate von Mises at 13 sections along each member,
and up to 8 points at each section. (Depending on
what kind of shape is used.)
Note: Must be set to 1.0

International Design Codes Manual 387

8A.2 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default
Value

Description

BY

1.0

Buckling length coefficient, for weak axis buckling


(y-y) (NOTE: BY > 0.0)

BZ

1.0

Buckling length coefficient, , for strong axis


buckling (z-z) (NOTE: BZ > 0.0)

CB

1.0

Lateral buckling coefficient, Y. Used to calculate the


ideal buckling moments, M
vi

CMZ

CY
CZ

1.5

Default
see NS
3472

n for built up section in connection with lateral


buckling
Buckling curve coefficient, a about local z-axis (strong
axis). Represent the a, a0, b, c, d curve.

DMAX

100.0
[cm]

Maximum allowable depth of steel section.

DMIN

0.0
[cm]

Minimum allowable depth of steel section.

FYLD

235

Yield strength of steel, fy [N/mm2 ]

MF

1.0

Ratio of material factor / resistance factor

RATIO

1.0

Permissible ratio of the actual to allowable stresses.

SSY

0.0

0.0 = No sidesway. calculated. > 0.0 = Sidesway in


local y-axis weak axis =SSY
M

SSZ

0.0

0.0 = No sidesway. calculated. > 0.0 = Sidesway in


local y-axis weak axis
M

TRACK

0.0

Specifies the level of detail in the output.


0.0 = Suppress critical member stresses
1.0 = Print all critical member stresses,
i.e., design values
2.0 = Print von Mises stresses
3.0 = Member results, printed by
member number
9.0 = Print detailed report each
member.

388 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

8A.2 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default
Value

UNL

Member
length

Description

Effective length for lateral buckling calculations


(specify buckling length). Distance between fork
supports or between effective side supports for the
beam

The parameter CMY will, when given with negative value, define an inside pressure in pipe members.
The pressure corresponds to given water depth in meters.
The parameter CB defines the value with respect to calculation of the ideal lateral buckling
moment for single symmetric wide flange profiles, ref. NS app. 5.2.2.

International Design Codes Manual 389

390 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

9
French Codes

International Design Codes Manual 391

9 French Codes

392 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

9A.1 Design Parameters

9A. French Codes - ConcreteDesign per B.A.E.L


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the French code BAEL1991 E Bton
Arm aux tats Limites: Regles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et constructions
en beton arme, suivant la methode des etats limites (Reinforced Concrete Limit States:Technical
rules for design and costing and reinforced concrete, according to the method of limit states).
Given the width and depth (or diameter for circular columns) of a section, STAAD will calculate
the required reinforcing to resist the various input loads.
Design of members per BAEL1991 E requires the STAAD Eurozone Design Codes SELECTCode
Pack.

9A.1 Design Parameters


The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform design per B.A.E.L.
These parameters not only act as a method to input required data for code calculations but give the
engineer control over the actual design process. Default values, of commonly used numbers in
conventional design practice, have been used for simplicity. Table 7A.1 contains a complete list of
available parameters and their default values.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 9A.1-French Concrete Design B.A.E.L. Parameters
Parameter Default
Name
Value
CODE

BAEL

Description

Must be specified as BAEL.


Design Code to follow.
See section 5.52.2 of the Technical Reference Manual.

CLEAR

* 20
mm

Clearance of reinforcing bar. Value is automatically set


to 20 mm for C35 and higher.

DEPTH

YD

Depth of concrete member. This value defaults to YD


as provided under MEMBER PROPERTIES.

EFACE

*0.0

Face of Support Location at end of beam.


Note: Both SFACE and EFACE are input as positive
numbers.

FC

* 30 N/
mm 2

Concrete Yield Stress.

International Design Codes Manual 393

9A.2 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration

Parameter Default
Name
Value

Description

FYMAIN

* 300
N/mm 2

Yield Stress for main reinforcing steel.

FYSEC

* 300
N/mm 2

Yield Stress for secondary reinforcing steel.

MAX
MAIN

50 mm

Maximum main reinforcement bar size. (8mm 60mm).

MINMAIN 8 mm

Minimum main reinforcement bar size. (8mm 60mm).

MINSEC

8 mm

Minimum secondary reinforcement bar size. (8mm 60mm).

MMAG

1.0

A factor by which the design moments will be


magnified.

SFACE

*0.0

Face of support location at start of beam. Only


considers shear - use MEMBER OFFSET for bending.

NSE
CTION

10

Number of equally-spaced sections to be considered in


finding critical moments for beam design.

TRACK

0.0

Critical Moment will not be printed out with beam


design report. A value of 1.0 will mean a print out.

WIDTH

ZD

Width of the concrete member. This value defaults to


ZD as provided under MEMBER PROPERTIES.

* These values must be provided in the units currently being used for input.

9A.2 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration


STAAD provides the user two methods of accounting for the slenderness effect in the analysis and
design of concrete members. The first method is a procedure which takes into account second
order effects. Here, STAAD accounts for the secondary moments, due to axial loads and deflections,
when the PDELTA ANALYSIS command is used. STAAD, after solving for the joint displacements
of the structure, calculates the additional moments induced in the structure. Therefore, by using
PDELTA ANALYSIS, member forces are calculated which will require no user modification before
beginning member design.
The second method by which STAAD allows the user to account for the slenderness effect is
through user supplied moment magnification factors. Here the user approximates the additional
moment by supplying a factor by which moments will be multiplied before beginning member
design.

394 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

9A.3 Member Dimensions

9A.3 Member Dimensions


Concrete members that are to be designed by STAAD must have certain section properties input
under the MEMBER PROPERTIES command. The following example demonstrates the required
input:
UNIT MM
MEMBER PROPERTIES
1 3 to 7 9 PRISM YD 450 ZD 300.
11 13 PR YD 300.

In the above input, the first set of members are rectangular (450 mm depth and 300 mm width)
and the second set of members, with only depth and no width provided, will be assumed to be
circular with a 300 mm diameter. Note that area (AX) is not provided for these members. If shear
areas (AY & AZ) are to be considered in analysis, the user may provide them along with YD and ZD.
Also note that moments of inertia may be provided, but if not provided, the program will calculate
values from YD and ZD.

9A.4 Beam Design


Beam design includes both flexure and shear. For both types of beam action, all active beam
loadings are scanned to create moment and shear envelopes, and locate critical sections. The total
number of sections considered is twelve, unless that number is redefined with the NSECTION
parameter. From the critical moment values, the required positive and negative bar pattern is
developed, with cut-off lengths calculated to include required development length.
Shear design includes critical shear values plus torsional moments. From these values, stirrup sizes
are calculated with proper spacing. The stirrups are assumed to be U-shaped for beams with no
torsion, and closed hoops for beams subject to torsion.
Example of Input Data for Beam Design:
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE BAEL
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FYSEC 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLEAR 25 MEM 2 TO 6
MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6
SFACE 100 MEMB 7 TO 9
EFACE 100 MEMB 7 TO 9
TRACK 1.0 MEMB 2 TO 6
TRACK 2.0 MEMB 7 TO 9
DESIGN BEAM 2 TO 9
END CONCRETE DESIGN

9A.5 Column Design


Columns are designed for axial force and biaxial moments at the ends. All active loadings are tested
to calculate reinforcement. The loading which produces maximum reinforcement is called the
critical load. Column design is done for square, rectangular, and circular sections. For rectangular

International Design Codes Manual 395

9A.6 Slab/Wall Design

and square sections, the reinforcement is always assumed to be equally distributed on each side.
That means the total number of bars will always be a multiple of four (4). This may cause slightly
conservative results in some cases.
Example of Input Data for Column Design:
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE BAEL
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLEAR 25 MEMB 2 TO 6
MMAG 1.5 MEMB 4 5
MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6
DESIGN COLUMN 2 TO 6
END CONCRETE DESIGN

9A.6 Slab/Wall Design


Slab and walls are designed per BAEL 1983 specifications. To design a slab or wall, it must be
modeled using finite elements. The command specifications are in accordance with Chapter II,
section 6.40.
Elements are designed for the moments Mx and My. These moments are obtained from the
element force output (see Section 3.8 of the Technical Reference Manual). The reinforcement
required to resist Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the reinforcement
required to resist My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement. The parameters FYMAIN, FC,
and CLEAR listed in Table 7A.1 are relevant to slab design. Other parameters mentioned in Table
7A.1 are not applicable to slab design.
Figure 9A.1 - Element moments: Longitudinal (L) and Transverse (T)

Example of Input Data for Slab/Wall Design:


UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE BAEL
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FC 25 ALL
CLEAR 40 ALL

396 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

9A.6 Slab/Wall Design

DESIGN ELEMENT 15 TO 20
END CONCRETE DESIGN

International Design Codes Manual 397

398 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

9B.1 General Comments

9B. French Codes - Steel Design per the French Code


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the French code CM66, 1977 edition
Centre Technique Industriel de la Construction Metallique (Industrial Technical Center of Metal
Construction) publication entitled Design Rules for Structural Steelwork .
Design of members per CM66 requires the STAAD NEurozone Design Codes SELECT Code Pack.

9B.1 General Comments


The design philosophy embodied in this specification is based on the concept of limit state design.
Structures are designed and proportioned according to the limit states of which they would
become unfit for their intended use. Two major categories of limit-states are recognized: ultimate
and serviceability. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength and
stability; that in serviceability is deflection. Appropriate load and resistance factors are used so that
uniform reliability is achieved for all steel structures under various loading conditions and at the
same time the chances of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote.
In the STAAD implementation, members are proportioned to resist the design loads without
exceeding the limit states of strength, stability and serviceability. Accordingly, the most economic
section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria, as augmented by the designer in
specification of allowable member depths, desired section type, or other related parameters. The
code checking portion of the program verifies that code requirements for each selected section are
met and also identifies the governing criteria.
The next few sections describe the salient features of STAAD implementation of "Design Rules for
Structural Steelwork." A detailed description of the design process, along with its underlying
concepts and assumptions, is available in the specification document.

9B.2 Basis of Methodology


The "Design Rules for Structural Steelwork (Revision 80)" permits the usage of elastic analysis.
Thus, in STAAD, linear elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments in the
members. However, strength and stability considerations are based on the principles of plastic
behavior. Axial compression buckling and lateral torsional buckling are taken into consideration for
calculation of axial compression resistance and flexural resistance of members. Slenderness
calculations are made and overall geometric stability is checked for all members.

9B.3 Member Capacities


The member strengths are calculated in STAAD according to the procedures outlined in section 4
of this specification. Note that the program automatically considers co-existence of axial force, shear
and bending in calculating section capacities.

International Design Codes Manual 399

9B.4 Combined Axial Force and Bending

For axial tension capacity, procedures of section 4.2 are followed. For axial compression capacity,
formulas of section 5.3 are used.
Moment capacities about both axes are calculated using the procedures of sections 4.5 and 4.6.
Lateral torsional buckling is considered in calculating ultimate twisting moment per section 5.22 of
the specification. The parameter UNL (see Table 7B.1) must be used to specify the unsupported
length of the compression flange for a laterally unsupported member. Note that this length is also
referred to as twisting length.

9B.4 Combined Axial Force and Bending


The procedures of sections 4.55 and 5.32 are implemented for interaction of axial forces and
bending. Appropriate interaction equations are used and the governing criterion is determined.

9B.5 Design Parameters


The design parameters outlined in Table 7B.1 may be used to control the design procedure. These
parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program, thus allowing the
engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs.
The default parameter values have been selected as frequently used numbers for conventional
design. Depending on the particular design requirements, some or all of these parameter values
may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 9B.1-French Steel Design Parameters
Parameter
Name
CODE

Default Value

FRENCH

Description

Design Code to follow.


See section 5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.

BEAM

0.0

0.0 = design only for end moments and


those at locations specified by SECTION
command.
1.0 = calculate moments at tenth points
long the beam, and use maximum Mz for
design.

400 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

9B.5 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default Value

Description

C1

1.0

Parameter used in clause 5.21 in the


calculation of M(D), the critical twisting
moment and as shown in CM 66
Addendum 80, table 5, usual range from
0.71 to 4.10

C2

1.0

Parameter used in clause 5.21 in the


calculation of M(D), the critical twisting
moment and as shown in CM 66
Addendum 80, table 5, usual range from
0.0 to 1.56

DFF

None
(Mandatory
for
deflection
check)

"Deflection Length" divided by the


Maximum allowable local deflection

DJ1

Start Joint
of member

Joint No. denoting starting point for


calculation of "Deflection Length" (See
Note 1)

DJ2

End Joint of
member

Joint No. denoting end point for


calculation of "Deflection Length" (See
Note 1)

DMAX

100.0 cm.

Maximum allowable depth (used in


member selection).

DMIN

0.0 cm.

Minimum allowable depth (used in


member selection).

FYLD

250.0 MPa

Yield strength of steel.

KY

1.0

K value for axial compression buckling


about local Y-axis. Usually, this is the
minor axis.

KZ

1.0

K value for axial compression buckling


about local Z-axis. Usually, this is the
major axis.

LY

Member
Length

Length to calculate slenderness ratio about


Y-axis for axial compression.

LZ

Member
Length

Length to calculate slenderness ratio about


Z-axis for axial compression.

International Design Codes Manual 401

9B.6 Code Checking and Member Selection

Parameter
Name

Default Value

Description

NSF

1.0

Net section factor for tension members.

RATIO

1.0

Permissible ratio of actual load effect and


design strength.

SAME*

0.0

Controls the sections to try during a


SELECT process.
0.0 = Try every section of
the same type as original
1.0 = Try only those sections
with a similar name as
original, e.g., if the original is
an HEA 100, then only HEA
sections will be selected,
even if there are HEMs in
the same table.

TRACK

0.0

0.0 = Suppress printing of all design


strengths.
1.0 = Print all design strengths.

UNF

1.0

Same as above provided as a fraction of


member length.

UNL

Member
Length

Unsupported length of compression flange


for calculating moment resistance.

*For angles, if the original section is an equal angle, then the selected section will be an equal angle
and vice versa for unequal angles.

9B.6 Code Checking and Member Selection


Both code checking and member selection options are available in the STAAD.Pro implementation
of CM 66 (Revn. 80).
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code Checking.
Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification of the Code
Checking command.
Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification of
the Member Selection command.

402 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

9B.7 Tabulated Results of Steel Design

9B.7 Tabulated Results of Steel Design


Results of code checking and member selection are presented in the output file in a tabular format.
Note: COND CRITIQUE refers to the section of the CM 66 (Revn. 80) specification which governed
the design.
If the TRACK parameter is set to 1.0, calculated member capacities will be printed. The following is
a detailed description of printed items:
PC
Member Compression Capacity
TR
Member Tension Capacity
MUZ
Member Moment Capacity (about z-axis)
MUY
Member Moment Capacity (about y-axis)
VPZ
Member Shear Capacity (z-axis)
VPY
Member Shear Capacity (y-axis)
STAAD contains a broad set of facilities for designing structural members as individual
components of an analyzed structure. The member design facilities provide the user with the ability
to carry out a number of different design operations. These facilities may be used selectively in
accordance with the requirements of the design problem. The operations to perform a design are:
l

Specify the members and the load cases to be considered in the design.

Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection.

Specify design parameter values, if different from the default values.

These operations may be repeated by the user any number of times depending upon the design
requirements.
Currently STAAD supports steel design of wide flange, S, M, HP shapes, angle, double angle,
channel, double channel, beams with cover plate, composite beams and code checking of prismatic
properties.
Sample Input data for Steel Design:
UNIT METER
PARAMETER
CODE FRENCH
NSF 0.85 ALL

International Design Codes Manual 403

9B.8 Built-in French Steel Section Library

UNL 10.0 MEMBER 7


KY 1.2 MEMBER 3 4
RATIO 0.9 ALL
TRACK 1.0 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL

9B.8 Built-in French Steel Section Library


The following information is provided for use when the built-in steel tables are to be referenced for
member property specification. These properties are stored in a database file. If called for, the
properties are also used for member design. Since the shear areas are built into these tables, shear
deformation is always considered for these members.
An example of the member property specification in an input file is provided at the end of this
section.
A complete listing of the sections available in the built-in steel section library may be obtained by
using the tools of the graphical user interface.
Following are the descriptions of different types of sections.

9B.8.1 IPE Shapes


These shapes are designated in the following way.
10 15 TA ST IPE140
20 TO 30 TA ST IPEA120
33 36 TO 46 BY 2 TA ST IPER180

9B.8.2 HE shapes
HE shapes are specified as follows.
3 5 TA ST HEA120A
7 10 TA ST HEM140
13 14 TA ST HEB100

9B.8.3 IPN Shapes


The designation for the IPN shapes is similar to that for the IPE shapes.
25 TO 35 TA ST IPN200
23 56 TA ST IPN380

9B.8.4 T Shapes
Tee sections are not input by their actual designations, but instead by referring to the I beam
shapes from which they are cut. For example,
1 5 TA T IPE140
2 8 TA T HEM120

404 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

9B.8 Built-in French Steel Section Library

9B.8.5 U Channels
Shown below is the syntax for assigning 4 different names of channel sections.
1 TO 5 TA ST UAP100
6 TO 10 TA ST UPN220
11 TO 15 TA ST UPN240A
16 TO 20 TA ST UAP250A

9B.8.6 Double U Channels


Back to back double channels, with or without a spacing between them, are available. The letter D
in front of the section name will specify a double channel.
11 TA D UAP150
17 TA D UAP250A SP 0.5

In the above set of commands, member 11 is a back-to-back double channel UAP150 with no spacing
in between. Member 17 is a double channel UAP250A with a spacing of 0.5 length units between
the channels.

9B.8.7 Angles
Two types of specification may be used to describe an angle. The standard angle section is specified
as follows:
16 20 TA ST L30X30X2.7

The above section signifies an angle with legs of length 30mm and a leg thickness of 2.7mm. This
specification may be used when the local Z axis corresponds to the z-z axis specified in Chapter 2. If
the local Y axis corresponds to the z-z axis, type specification "RA" (reverse angle) should be used
instead of ST.
17 21 TA RA L25X25X4
22 24 TA RA L100X100X6.5

Note that if the leg thickness is a round number such as 4.0, only the number 4 appears in the
section name, the decimal part is not part of the section name.

9B.8.8 Double Angles


Short leg back-to-back or long leg back-to-back double angles can be specified by means of input of
the words SD or LD, respectively, in front of the angle size. In case of an equal angle, either SD or
LD will serve the purpose.
33 35 TA SD L30X20X4 SP 0.6
37 39 TA LD L80X40X6
43 TO 47 TA LD L80X80X6.5 SP 0.75

International Design Codes Manual 405

9B.8 Built-in French Steel Section Library

9B.8.9 Tubes (Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections)


Section names of tubes, just like angles, consist of the depth, width and wall thickness as shown
below.
64 78 TA ST TUB50252.7
66 73 TA ST TUB2001008.0

Members 64 and 78 are tubes with a depth of 50mm, width of 25mm and a wall thickness of
2.7mm. Members 66 and 73 are tubes with a depth of 200mm, width of 100mm and a wall thickness
of 8.0mm. Unlike angles, the ".0" in the thickness is part of the section name.
Tubes can also be input by their dimensions instead of by their table designations. For example,
6 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5

is a tube that has a depth of 8 length units, width of 6 length units, and a wall thickness of 0.5
length units. Only code checking, no member selection, will be performed for TUBE sections
specified in this way.

9B.8.10 Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections)


To designate circular hollow sections, use PIP followed by numerical value of the diameter and
thickness of the section in mm omitting the decimal portion of the value provided for the
diameter. The following example illustrates the designation.
8 TO 28 TA ST PIP422.6
3 64 78 TA ST PIP21912.5

Members 8 to 28 are pipes 42.4mm in dia, having a wall thickness of 2.6mm. Members 3, 64 and 78
are pipes 219.1mm in dia, having a wall thickness of 12.5mm.
Circular hollow sections may also be provided by specifying the outside and inside diameters of the
section. For example,
1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0

specifies a pipe with outside dia. of 25 length units and inside dia. of 20 length units. Only code
checking, no member selection will be performed if this type of specification is used.

9B.8.11 Example
SAMPLE FILE CONTAINING FRENCH SHAPES
STAAD SPACE
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORD
1 0 0 0 15 140 0 0
MEMB INCI
1 1 2 14
UNIT CM
MEMBER PROPERTIES FRENCH
* IPE SHAPES
1 TA ST IPEA120
* IPN SHAPES
2 TA ST IPN380
*HE SHAPES

406 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

9B.8 Built-in French Steel Section Library

3 TA ST HEA200
* T SHAPES
4 TA T HEM120
* U CHANNELS
5 TA ST UAP100
* DOUBLE U CHANNELS
6 TA D UAP150 SP 0.5
* ANGLES
7 TA ST L30X30X2.7
* REVERSE ANGLES
8 TA RA L25X25X4
* DOUBLE ANGLES - SHORT LEGS BACK
* TO BACK
9 TA SD L30X20X4 SP 0.25
* DOUBLE ANGLES - LONG LEGS BACK
* TO BACK
10 TA LD L80X40X6 SP 0.75
* TUBES (RECTANGULAR OR SQUARE
* HOLLOW SECTIONS)
11 TA ST TUB50252.7
* TUBES (RECTANGULAR OR SQUARE
* HOLLOW SECTIONS)
12 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5
* PIPES (CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS)
13 TA ST PIP422.6
* PIPES (CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS)
14 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0
PRINT MEMB PROP
FINI

International Design Codes Manual 407

408 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

10
German Codes

International Design Codes Manual 409

10 German Codes

410 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

10A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design

10A. German Codes - ConcreteDesign Per DIN 1045


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the German code DIN 1045-1:2001-07
Plain, reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. Part 1: Design and construction. Design for a
member involves calculation of the amount of reinforcement required for the member. Calculations
are based on the user specified properties and the member forces obtained from the analysis. In
addition, the details regarding placement of the reinforcement on the cross section are also
reported in the output. Slab design is also available and this follows the requirements of Baumann,
Munich, which is the basis for Eurocode 2.
Design of members per DIN1045 requires the STAAD Eurozone Design Codes SELECTCode Pack.

10A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design


The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed.
l

For Beams Prismatic (Rectangular & Square)

For Columns Prismatic (Rectangular, Square, and Circular)

10A.2 Member Dimensions


Concrete members which will be designed by the program must have certain section properties
input under the MEMBER PROPERTY command. The following example shows the required input:
UNIT MM
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. ZD 250.
11 13 PR YD 350.

In the above input, the first set of members are rectangular (450 mm depth and 250 mm width)
and the second set of members, with only depth and no width provided, will be assumed to be
circular with 350 mm diameter. It is absolutely imperative that the user not provide the cross
section area (AX) as an input.

10A.3 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations


Slenderness effects are extremely important in designing compression members. There are two
options by which the slenderness effect can be accommodated.
The first method is equivalent to the procedure presented in DIN 1045 17.4.3/17.4.4 which is used as
the basis for commonly used design charts considering e/d and sk/d for conditions where the
slenderness moment exceeds 70. This method has been adopted in the column design in STAAD
per the DIN code.
The second option is to compute the secondary moments through an analysis. Secondary moments
are caused by the interaction of the axial loads and the relative end displacements of a member.
The axial loads and joint displacements are first determined from an elastic stiffness analysis and

International Design Codes Manual 411

10A.4 Beam Design

the secondary moments are then evaluated. To perform this type of analysis, use the command
PDELTA ANALYSIS instead of PERFORM ANALYSIS in the input file. The user must note that to take
advantage of this analysis, all the combinations of loading must be provided as primary load cases
and not as load combinations. This is due to the fact that load combinations are just algebraic
combinations of forces and moments, whereas a primary load case is revised during the P-delta
analysis based on the deflections. Also, note that the proper factored loads (like 1.5 for dead load
etc.) should be provided by the user. STAAD does not factor the loads automatically. The column is
designed for the total moment which is the sum of the primary and secondary forces. The
secondary moments can be compared to those calculated using the charts of DIN 1045.

10A.4 Beam Design


Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. For all these forces, all active beam loadings are
prescanned to identify the critical load cases at different sections of the beams. The total number of
sections considered is 13 (e.g., 0., .1, .2, .25, .3, .4, .5, .6, .7, .75, .8, .9 and 1). All of these sections are
scanned to determine the design force envelopes.

10A.4.1 Design for Flexure


Maximum sagging (creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the beam) and hogging (creating
tensile stress at the top face) moments are calculated for all active load cases at each of the above
mentioned sections. Each of these sections is designed to resist these critical sagging and hogging
moments. Currently, design of singly reinforced sections only is permitted. If the section
dimensions are inadequate as a singly reinforced section, such a message will be printed in the
output. Flexural design of beams is performed in two passes. In the first pass, effective depths of the
sections are determined with the assumption of single layer of assumed reinforcement and
reinforcement requirements are calculated. After the preliminary design, reinforcing bars are chosen
from the internal database in single or multiple layers. The entire flexural design is performed again
in a second pass taking into account the changed effective depths of sections calculated on the
basis of reinforcement provided after the preliminary design. Final provisions of flexural
reinforcements are made then. Efforts have been made to meet the guideline for the curtailment of
reinforcements as per the DIN code. Although exact curtailment lengths are not mentioned
explicitly in the design output (finally which will be more or less guided by the detailer taking into
account of other practical considerations), the user has the choice of printing reinforcements
provided by STAAD at 13 equally spaced sections from which the final detailed drawing can be
prepared.

10A.4.2 Design for Shear and Torsion


Shear design in STAAD conforms to the specifications of section 17.5 of DIN 1045. Shear
reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments. Shear and torsional
design is performed at the start and end sections of the member at a distance "d" away from the
node of the member where "d" is the effective depth calculated from flexural design. The maximum
shear forces from amongst the active load cases and the associated torsional moments are used in
the design. The capacity of the concrete in shear and torsion is determined at the location of

412 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

10A.5 Column Design

design and the balance, if any, is carried by reinforcement. It is assumed that no bent-up bars are
available from the flexural reinforcement to carry and "balance" shear. Two-legged stirrups are
provided to take care of the balance shear forces acting on these sections. Stirrups are assumed to be
U-shaped for beams with no torsion, and closed hoops for beams subject to torsion.

10A.4.3 Example of Input Data for Beam Design


UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE GERMAN
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FYSEC 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLEAR 25 MEM 2 TO 6
MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6
TRACK 1.0 MEMB 2 TO 9
DESIGN BEAM 2 TO 9
END CONCRETE DESIGN

10A.5 Column Design


Columns are designed for axial forces and biaxial moments at the ends. All active load cases are
tested to calculate reinforcement. The loading which yields maximum reinforcement is called the
critical load. The requirements of DIN 1045-figure 13, for calculating the equilibrium equations for
rectangular and circular sections from first principles, is implemented in the design. The user has
control of the effective length (sk) in each direction by using the ELZ and ELY parameters as
described on Table 8A.1. This means that the slenderness will be evaluated along with e/d to meet
the requirements of DIN 1045 section 17.4.3 and 17.4.4.
Column design is done for square, rectangular and circular sections. Square and rectangular
columns are designed with reinforcement distributed on all four sides equally. That means the
total number of bars will always be a multiple of four (4). This may cause slightly conservative
results in some cases. The TRACK parameter may be used to obtain the design details in various
levels of detail.
Example of Input Data for Column Design
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE GERMAN
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLEAR 25 MEMB 2 TO 6
MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6
DESIGN COLUMN 2 TO 6
END CONCRETE DESIGN

10A.6 Slab Design


To design a slab, it must first be modeled using finite elements and analyzed. The command
specifications are in accordance with Section 5.52 of the Technical Reference Manual. Slabs are

International Design Codes Manual 413

10A.7 Design Parameters

designed to specifications as described by BAUMANN of MUNICH which is the basis for Eurocode
2.
Elements are designed for the moments Mx and My. These moments are obtained from the
element force output (see Chapter 2 of the Technical Reference Manual). The reinforcement
required to resist the Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the reinforcement
required to resist the My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement. The following parameters
are those applicable to slab design:
FYMAIN
Yield stress for all reinforcing steel
FC
Concrete grade
CLEAR
Distance from the outer surface of the element to the edge of the bar. This is considered
the same on both top and bottom surfaces of the element.
SRA
Parameter which denotes the angle of direction of the required transverse reinforcement
relative to the direction of the longitudinal reinforcement for the calculation of
BAUMANN design forces.
The other parameters shown in Table 10A.1 are not applicable to slab design.

10A.6.1 BAUMANN equations


If the default value of zero is used, the design will be based on Mx and My forces which are
obtained from the STAAD analysis. The SRA parameter (Set Reinforcement Angle) can be
manipulated to introduce resolved BAUMANN forces into the design replacing the pure Mx and
My moments. These new design moments allow the Mxy moment to be considered when
designing the section, resolved as an axial force. Orthogonal or skew reinforcement may be
considered. If SRA is set to -500, an orthogonal layout will be assumed. If however a skew is to be
considered, an angle is given in degrees measured from the local element X axis anticlockwise
(positive). The resulting Mx* and My* moments are calculated and shown in the design format.
The design of the slab considers a fixed bar size of 10 mm in the longitudinal direction and 8 mm
in the transverse. The longitudinal bar is the layer closest to the slab exterior face.

10A.7 Design Parameters


The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform the design. Default
parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for conventional
design requirements. These values may be changed to suit the particular design being performed.
Table 8A.1 of this manual contains a complete list of the available parameters and their default
values. It is necessary to declare length and force units as Millimeter and Newton before performing
the concrete design.

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10A.7 Design Parameters

Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 10A.1-German Concrete Design Parameters
Parameter
Name
CODE

Default Value

Description

Must be specified as DIN1045.


Design Code to follow.
See section 5.52.2 of the Technical
Reference Manual.

CLEAR

25 mm

Clear cover for reinforcement measured


from concrete surface to closest bar
perimeter.

DEPTH

YD

Depth of concrete member. The default


value is provided as YD in MEMBER
PROPERTIES.

EFACE

0.0

Face of support location at end of beam,


measured from the end joint.
Note: Both SFACE & EFACE must be
positive numbers.

ELY

1.0

Member length factor about local Y


direction for column design.

ELZ

1.0

Member length factor about local Z


direction for column design.

FC

25 N/mm 2

Concrete Yield Stress / cube strength

FYMAIN

420 N/mm 2

Yield Stress for main reinforcement (For


slabs, it is 500 N/mm 2 for both directions)

FYSEC

420 N/mm 2

Yield Stress for secondary reinforcement a.


Applicable to shear and torsion
reinforcement in beams

MAXMAIN

50 mm

Maximum required reinforcement bar size.


Acceptable bars are per MINMAIN above.

MINMAIN

16 mm

Minimum main reinforcement bar size


Acceptable bar sizes: 6 8 10 12 14 16 20 25 32
40 50

International Design Codes Manual 415

10A.7 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name
MINSEC

Default Value

8 mm

Description

Minimum secondary reinforcement bar


size. Applicable to shear and torsion
reinforcement in beams.

MMAG

1.0

Factor by which column design moments


are magnified for column design

NSECTION

10

Number of equally-spaced sections to be


considered in finding critical moment for
beam design. The upper limit is 20.

SFACE

0.0

Face of support location at start of beam,


measured from the start joint. (Only
applicable for shear - use MEMBER
OFFSET for bending)

SRA

0.0

0.0 = Orthogonal reinforcement layout


without considering torsional moment
Mxy -slabs only
-500 = Orthogonal reinforcement layout
considering Mxy
A = Skew angle considered in BAUMANN
equations. A is the angle in degrees.

TRACK

0.0

Level of detail in output


0. Critical Moment will not be printed
with beam design report.
1. For beam gives min/max steel %
and spacing. For columns gives a
detailed table of output with
additional moments calculated.
2. For beams gives area of steel
required at intermediate sections.
(see NSECTION)

WIDTH

416 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

ZD

Width of concrete member. This value


default is as provided as ZD in MEMBER
PROPERTIES.

10B.1 General

10B. German Codes - Steel Design Per the DIN Code


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the German code DIN 18800, Parts 1
& 2: Stahlbauten - Teil 1: Bemessung und Konstruktion (Steel structures - Part 1: Design and
construction) and Stahlbauten - Teil 2: Stabilittsflle - Knicken von Stben und Stabwerken (Steel
structures - Part 2: Analysis of safety against buckling of linear members and frames)
Design of members per DIN 18800 requires the STAAD Eurozone Design Codes SELECTCode Pack.

10B.1 General
This section presents some general statements regarding the implementation of the DIN code. The
design philosophy and procedural logistics are based on the principles of elastic analysis and
allowable stress design. Facilities are available for member selection as well as code checking. Two
major failure modes are recognized: failure by overstressing and failure by stability considerations.
The following sections describe the salient features of the design approach.
Members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceedance of the allowable stresses or
capacities and the most economical section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria. The
code checking part of the program also checks the slenderness requirements and the stability
criteria. It is recommended that you use the following steps in performing the steel design:
1. Specify the geometry and loads and perform the analysis.
2. Specify the design parameter values if different from the default values.
3. Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection.

10B.2 AnalysisMethodology
Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Analysis is done for
the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. The user is allowed
complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and in using appropriate load factors to
create necessary loading situations. Depending upon the analysis requirements, regular stiffness
analysis or P-Delta analysis may be specified. Dynamic analysis may also be performed and the
results combined with static analysis results.

10B.3 Member Property Specifications


For specification of member properties of standard German steel sections, the steel section library
available in STAAD may be used. The next section describes the syntax of commands used to assign
properties from the built-in steel table. Member properties may also be specified using the User
Table facility. For more information on these facilities, refer to Section 1.7 the STAAD Technical
Reference Manual.

International Design Codes Manual 417

10B.4 Built-in German Steel Section Library

10B.4 Built-in German Steel Section Library


The following information is provided for use when the built-in steel tables are to be referenced for
member property specification. These properties are stored in a database file. If called for, these
properties are also used for member design. Since the shear areas are built into these tables, shear
deformation is always considered for these members during the analysis. An example of member
property specification in an input file is provided at the end of this section.
A complete listing of the sections available in the built-in steel section library may be obtained
using the tools of the graphical user interface.
Refer to Section 1.7.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional information.
Following are the descriptions of different types of sections.

10B.4.1 IPE Shapes


These shapes are designated in the following way:
20 TO 30 TA ST IPEA120
33 36 TO 46 BY 2 TA ST IPER140

10B.4.2 HE Shapes
The designation for HE shapes is similar to that for IPE shapes.
25 TO 35 TA ST HEB300
23 56 TA ST HEA160

10B.4.3 I Shapes
I shapes are identified by the depth of the section. The following example illustrates the
designation.
14 15 TA ST I200 (indicates an I-section with 200mm depth)

10B.4.4 T Shapes
Tee sections are not input by their actual designations, but instead by referring to the I beam
shapes from which they are cut. For example,
1 5 TA T HEA220
2 8 TA T IPE120

10B.4.5 U Channels
The example below provides the command for identifying two channel sections. The former
(U70X40) has a depth of 70mm and a flange width of 40mm. The latter (U260) has a depth of
260mm.
11 TA D U70X40

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10B.4 Built-in German Steel Section Library

27 TA D U260

10B.4.6 Double Channels


Back-to-back double channels, with or without spacing between them, are available. The letter D
in front of the section name will specify a double channel, e.g., D U180. The spacing between the
double channels is provided following the expression SP.
11 TA D U180
27 TA D U280 SP 0.5 (Indicates 2 channels back-to-back spaced at 0.5 length units)

10B.4.7 Angles
Two types of specifications may be used to describe an angle. The standard angle section is specified
as follows:
16 20 TA ST L20X20X2.5

The above section signifies an angle with legs of length 20mm and a leg thickness of 2.5mm. The
above specification may be used when the local z-axis corresponds to the Z-Z axis specified in
Chapter 2. If the local y-axis corresponds to the Z-Z axis, type specification "RA" (reverse angle) may
be used.
17 21 TA RA L40X20X5

10B.4.8 Double Angles


Short leg back-to-back or long leg back-to-back double angles can be specified by using the word
SD or LD, respectively, in front of the angle size. In case of an equal angle, either SD or LD will
serve the purpose. Spacing between the angles is provided by using the word SP and the spacing
value following the section name.
14 TO 20 TA SD L40X20X4 SP 0.5
21 TO 27 TA LD L40X20X4 SP 0.5

10B.4.9 Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections)


To designate circular hollow sections, use PIP followed by numerical value of the diameter and
thickness of the section in mm omitting the decimal section of the value provided for diameter.
The following example will illustrate the designation.
8 TO 28 TA ST PIP602.9 (60.3mm dia, 2.9mm wall thickness)
3 64 67 TA ST PIP40612.5 (406.4mm dia, 12.5mm wall thickness)

Circular hollow sections may also be provided by specifying the outside and inside diameters of the
section. For example,
1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0

specifies a pipe with outside dia. of 25 and inside dia. of 20 in current length units. Only code
checking and no member selection will be performed if this type of specification is used.

International Design Codes Manual 419

10B.4 Built-in German Steel Section Library

10B.4.10 Tubes (Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections)


Tube names are input by their dimensions. For example,
15 TO 25 TA ST TUB100603.6

is the specification for a tube having sides of 100mm x 60mm and the wall thickness of 3.6mm.
Tubes, like pipes can also be input by their dimensions (Height, Width and Thickness) instead of
by their table designations.
6 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5

is a tube that has a height of 8, a width of 6, and a wall thickness of 0.5 in current length units.
Only code checking and no member selection will be performed for TUBE sections specified this
way.

10B.4.11 Example
SAMPLE INPUT FILE CONTAINING GERMAN SHAPES
STAAD SPACE
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0 15 140 0 0
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2 14
UNIT CM
MEMBER PROPERTIES GERMAN
* IPE SHAPES
1 TA ST IPEA120
* HE SHAPES
2 TA ST HEB300
* I SHAPES
3 TA ST I200
* T SHAPES
4 TA T HEA220
* U CHANNELS
5 TA ST U70X40
* DOUBLE U CHANNELS
6 TA D U260
* ANGLES
7 TA ST L20X20X2.5
* REVERSE ANGLES
8 TA RA L40X20X5
* DOUBLE ANGLES - LONG LEGS BACK TO BACK
9 TA LD L40X20X4 SP 0.5
* DOUBLE ANGLES - SHORT LEGS BACK TO BACK
10 TA SD L40X20X4 SP 0.5
* PIPES
11 TA ST PIP602.9
* PIPES
12 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0
* TUBES
13 TA ST TUB100603.6
* TUBES
14 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 WT 0.5
*
PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES
FINISH

420 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

10B.5 Member Capacities

10B.5 Member Capacities


The allowable stresses used in the implementation are based on DIN 18800 (Part 1) - Section 7. The
procedures of DIN 18800 Part 2 are used for stability analysis. The basic measure of member
capacities are the allowable stresses on the member under various conditions of applied loading
such as allowable tensile stress, allowable compressive stress etc. These depend on several factors
such as cross sectional properties, slenderness factors, unsupported width to thickness ratios and so
on. Explained here is the procedure adopted in STAAD for calculating such capacities.

10B.5.1 Checks for Axial Tension


In members with axial tension, the tensile load must not exceed the tension capacity of the
member. The tension capacity of the member is calculated on the basis of the member area. STAAD
calculates the tension capacity of a given member based on a user supplied net section factor (NSF a default value of 1.0 is present but may be altered by changing the input value, see Table 8B.1) and
proceeds with member selection or code checking.

10B.5.2 Checks for Axial Compression


The compression capacity for members in compression is determined according to the procedure of
DIN 18800- Part 2. Compressive resistance is a function of the slenderness of the cross-section (Kl/r
ratio) and the user may control the slenderness value by modifying parameters such as KY, LY, KZ
and LZ.

10B.5.3 Checks for Bending and Shear


The bending compressive and tensile capacities are dependent on such factors as length of
outstanding legs, thickness of flanges, unsupported length of the compression flange (UNL, defaults
to member length) etc. Shear capacities are a function of web depth, web thickness etc. Users may
use a value of 1.0 or 2.0 for the TRACK parameter to obtain a listing of the bending and shear
capacities.

10B.6 Combined Loading


For members experiencing combined loading (axial force, bending, and shear), applicable
interaction formulas are checked at different locations of the member for all modeled loading
situations. Members subjected to axial force and bending are checked using the criteria of DIN
18800 (Part 1) - Section 6.1.6. In addition, for members with axial loads and bending, the criteria of
DIN 18800(Part 2) - Sections 3.4 and 3.5 are used.

International Design Codes Manual 421

10B.7 Design Parameters

10B.7 Design Parameters


You are allowed complete control over the design process through the use of parameters described
in the following table. These parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the
program. The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used
numbers for conventional design. Depending on the particular design requirements of the
situation, some or all of these parameter values may have to be changed to exactly model the
physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 10B.1-German Steel Design Parameters
Parameter
Name
CODE

Default Value

Description

Must be specified as DIN18800.


Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.

BEAM

0.0

Number of sections to be checked per


member:
0. Design only for end sections.
1. Check at location of maximum MZ
along member.
2. Check ends plus location of beam
1.0 check.
3. Check at every 1/13th of the member
length and report the maximum.

CB

422 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

Beam coefficient n, defined in Table 9: If


Cb = 0, program will use n = 2.5 for rolled
sections and 2.0 for welded sections.

10B.7 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name
CMM

Default Value

1.0

Description

Moment factor, Zeta, defined in Table 10:


1. fixed ended member with constant
moment, Zeta = 1.0
2. pin ended member with UDL, Zeta
= 1.12
3. pin ended member with central
point load, Zeta = 1.35
4. fixed ended member, Zeta
calculated from end moments.

DMAX

1.0 m

Maximum allowable depth during member


selection

DMIN

0.0 m

Minimum required depth during member


selection

KY

1.0

K value in local y-axis. Usually, this is the


minor axis.

KZ

1.0

K value in local z-axis. Usually, this is the


major axis.

LY

Member
Length

Length in local y-axis to calculate


slenderness ratio.

LZ

Member
Length

Length in local z-axis to calculate


slenderness ratio.

PY

240 N/sq.mm

Strength of steel.

NSF

1.0

Net section factor for tension members.

RATIO

1.0

Permissible ratio of actual to allowable


stresses

SAME

0.0

Control of sections to try during a SELECT


process:
0. Try every section of the same type as
the original.
1. Try only those with a similar name.

International Design Codes Manual 423

10B.8 Code Checking

Parameter
Name
SBLT

Default Value

Description

Specify section as either rolled or built-up:


0. Rolled
1. Built-up

SGR

0.0

Grade of steel:
0. St 37-2
1. St 52-3
2. St E 355

TRACK

0.0

Level of detail in output file:


0. Output summary of results
1. Output summary of results plus
member capacities
2. Output detailed results

UNF

1.0

Same as above provided as a factor of


actual member length.

UNL

Member
Length

Unrestrained member length in lateral


torsional buckling checks.

10B.8 Code Checking


The purpose of code checking is to check whether the provided section properties of the members
are adequate to carry the forces transmitted to it by the loads on the structure. The adequacy is
checked per the DIN requirements.
Code checking is done using forces and moments at specified sections of the members. If the BEAM
parameter for a member is set to 1, moments are calculated at every twelfth point along the beam,
and the maximum moment about the major axis is used. When no sections are specified and the
BEAM parameter is set to zero (default), design will be based on member start and end forces. The
code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. In addition, the critical condition,
governing load case, location (distance from start joint) and magnitudes of the governing forces
and moments are also printed.
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code Checking.
Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification of the Code
Checking command.

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10B.9 Member Selection

10B.9 Member Selection


The member selection process basically involves determination of the least weight member that
PASSes the code checking procedure based on the forces and moments of the most recent analysis.
The section selected will be of the same type as that specified initially. For example, a member
specified initially as a channel will have a channel selected for it. Selection of members whose
properties are originally provided from a user table will be limited to sections in the user table.
Member selection cannot be performed on TUBES, PIPES, or members listed as PRISMATIC.
Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification of
the Member Selection command.
Sample Input data for Steel Design
UNIT METER
PARAMETER
CODE GERMAN
NSF 0.85 ALL
UNL 10.0 MEMBER 7
KY 1.2 MEMBER 3 4
RATIO 0.9 ALL
TRACK 1.0 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL

International Design Codes Manual 425

426 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

11
Indian Codes

International Design Codes Manual 427

11 Indian Codes

428 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

11A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design

11A. Indian Codes - Concrete Design per IS 456


STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the Indian code IS 456 2000 Code of
Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete.
Design of members per IS 456 requires the STAAD India Design Codes SELECTCode Pack.

11A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design


The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed.
l

For Beams Prismatic (Rectangular & Square), T-Beams, and L-shapes

For Columns Prismatic (Rectangular, Square, and Circular)

11A.2 Member Dimensions


Concrete members which will be designed by the program must have certain section properties
input under the MEMBER PROPERTY command. The following example shows the required input:
UNIT MM
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. ZD 250.
11 13 PR YD 350.
14 TO 16 PRIS YD 400. ZD 750. YB 300. ZB 200.

will be done accordingly. In the above input, the first set of members are rectangular (450 mm
depth and 250mm width) and the second set of members, with only depth and no width provided,
will be assumed to be circular with 350 mm diameter. The third set numbers in the above example
represents a T-shape with 750 mm flange width, 200 width, 400 mm overall depth and 100 mm
flange depth (See section 6.20.2). The program will determine whether the section is rectangular,
flanged or circular and the beam or column design.

11A.3 Design Parameters


The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform design as per IS:456
(2000). Default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for
conventional design requirements. These values may be changed to suit the particular design being
performed. Table 9A.1 of this manual contains a complete list of the available parameters and their
default values. It is necessary to declare length and force units as Millimeter and Newton before
performing the concrete design.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.

International Design Codes Manual 429

11A.3 Design Parameters

Table 11A.1-Indian Concrete Design IS456 Parameters


Parameter
Name
CODE

Default Value

Description

Must be specified as INDIAN.


Design Code to follow.
See section 5.52.2 of the Technical
Reference Manual.

BRACING

0.0

Beam Design:
A value of 1.0 means the
effect of axial force will be
taken into account for beam
design.
Column Design:
correspond to the terms
"Braced" and "Unbraced"
described in Notes 1, 2, and 3
of Clause 39.7.1 of IS456:2000.
0. The column is braced about both
axes.
1. The column is unbraced about
major axis.
2. The column is unbraced about
minor axis.
3. The column is unbraced about both
axis.

CLEAR

25 mm

For beam members.

40 mm

For column members

DEPTH

YD

Total depth to be used for design. This


value defaults to YD as provided under
MEMBER PROPERTIES.

EFACE

0.0

Face of support location at end of beam.


The parameter can also be used to check
against shear at any point from the end of
the member.
Note: Both SFACE and EFACE are input as
positive numbers.

430 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

11A.3 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default Value

Description

ELZ

1.0

Ratio of effective length to actual length of


column about major axis. See Note b
below.

ELY

1.0

Ratio of effective length to actual length of


column about minor axis. See Note b
below.

ENSH

0.0

Perform shear check against enhanced


shear strength as per Cl. 40.5 of IS456:2000.

ENSH = 1.0 means ordinary shear


check to be performed (no
enhancement of shear strength at
sections close to support)

For ENSH = a positive value(say x ),


shear strength will be enhanced up
to a distance x from the start of the
member. This is used only when a
span of a beam is subdivided into
two or more parts. (Refer note )

For ENSH = a negative value(say y),


shear strength will be enhanced up
to a distance y from the end of the
member. This is used only when a
span of a beam is subdivided into
two or more parts.(Refer note)

If default value (0.0) is used the program


will calculate Length to Overall Depth
ratio. If this ratio is greater than 2.5, shear
strength will be enhanced at sections (<2d)
close to support otherwise ordinary shear
check will be performed.
FC

30 N/mm 2

Concrete Yield Stress.

FYMAIN

415 N/mm 2

Yield Stress for main reinforcing steel.

FYSEC

415 N/mm 2

Yield Stress for secondary reinforcing steel.

MINMAIN

10 mm

Minimum main reinforcement bar size.

MAXMAIN

60 mm

Maximum main reinforcement bar size.

International Design Codes Manual 431

11A.3 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default Value

Description

MINSEC

8 mm

Minimum secondary reinforcement bar


size.

MAXSEC

12 mm

Maximum secondary reinforcement bar


size.

MFACE

Design beam for flexure at any point along


the length of the beam as specified by
SFACEand EFACEparameters.
0. (Off) Do not design at sections
1. (On) Design at specified sections
from start and end of the members
assigned.
Note: If SFACE and EFACE sections are not
previously defined, then the output will
present a warning and no flexure design
will be performed (i.e., the
MFACEparameter is ignored).

RATIO

4.0

Maximum percentage of longitudinal


reinforcement in columns.

REINF

0.0

Tied column. A value of 1.0 will mean


spiral reinforcement.

RENSH

0.0

Distance of the start or end point of the


member from its nearest support. This
parameter is used only when a span of a
beam is subdivided into two or more parts.
(Refer note)

RFACE

4.0

2. Two faced distribution about major


axis.
3. Two faced distribution about minor
axis.
4. Longitudinal reinforcement in
column is arranged equally along 4
faces.

432 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

11A.3 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default Value

Description

0.0

Face of support location at start of beam. It


is used to check against shear at the face of
the support in beam design. The parameter
can also be used to check against shear at
any point from the start of the member.

SPSMAIN

25 mm

Minimum clear distance between main


reinforcing bars in beam and column. For
column center to center distance between
main bars cannot exceed 300 mm.

TORSION

0.0

0. torsion to be considered in beam


design.

SFACE

1. torsion to be neglected in beam


design.
TRACK

0.0

Beam Design:
0. output consists of reinforcement
details at START, MIDDLE, and
END.
1. critical moments are printed in
addition to TRACK 0.0 output.
2. required steel for intermediate
sections defined by NSECTION are
printed in addition to TRACK 1.0
output.
Column Design:
0. reinforcement details are printed.
1. column interaction analysis results
are printed in addition to TRACK
0.0 output.
2. a schematic interaction diagram and
intermediate interaction values are
printed in addition to TRACK 1.0
output.

ULY

1.0

Ratio of unsupported length to actual


length of column about minor axis. See
Note c below.

International Design Codes Manual 433

11A.3 Design Parameters

Parameter
Name

Default Value

Description

ULZ

1.0

Ratio of unsupported length to actual


length of column about major axis. See
Note c below.

WIDTH

ZD

Width to be used for design. This value


defaults to ZD as provided under MEMBER
PROPERTIES.

11A.3.1 Notes
a. You may specify reinforcing bar combinations through the BAR COMBINATIONcommand.
Refer to Section 9A.8 for details.
b. ELY and ELZ parameters are used to calculate effective length of column to find whether it is
a short or long column. Please refer CL 25.1.2 of IS456:2000.
In CL 25.1.2 of IS456:2000, you will find two term, l

ex

and l , which STAAD calculates as:


ey

l = ELZ multiplied by the member length (distance between the two nodes of the
ex
member)

l = ELY multiplied by the member length (distance between the two nodes of the
ey
member)

For the term "D" in CL 25.1.2 of IS456:2000, STAAD uses the YD dimension of the column.
For the term "b" in CL 25.1.2 of IS456:2000, STAAD uses the ZD dimension of the column.
c. ULY and ULZ parameters are used to calculate unsupported length of column to find
minimum eccentricity. Please refer CL 25.4 of IS456:2000.
In CL 25.4 of IS456:2000, you will find an expression "unsupported length of column". This
term is calculated as
l

ULZ multiplied by the member length for the Z axis

ULY multiplied by the member length for the Y axis

d. The value of the ENSH parameter (other than 0.0 and 1.0) is used only when the span of a
beam is subdivided into two or more parts. When this condition occurs, the RENSH
parameter is also to be used.

434 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

11A.4 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration

The span of the beam is subdivided four parts, each of length L meter. The shear strength
will be enhanced up to X meter from both supports. The input should be the following:
Steps:
1. ENSH L MEMB 1 =>
Shear strength will be enhanced throughout the length of the
member 1, positive sign indicates length measured from start of the member
2. ENSH (X-L) MEMB 2 => Shear strength will be enhanced up to a length (X-L) of the
member 2, length measured from the start of the member
3. ENSH L MEMB 4 => Shear strength will be enhanced throughout the length of the
member 4, negative sign indicates length measured from end of the member
4. ENSH (X-L) MEMB 3 => Shear strength will be enhanced up to a length (X-L) of the
member 3, length measured from the end of the member
5. RENSH L MEMB 2 3 => Nearest support lies at a distance L from both the members 2
and 3.
6. DESIGN BEAM 1 TO 4=> This will enhance the shear strength up to length X from
both ends of the beam consisting of members 1 to 4 and gives spacing accordingly.
At section = y1 from start of member 1 av = y1
At section = y2 from the start of member 2 av = y2+L
At section = y3 from the end of member 3 av = y3+L
At section = y4 from end of member 4 av = y4
where c, enhanced = 2dc/av
At section 0.0, av becomes zero. Thus enhanced shear strength will become infinity. However
for any section shear stress cannot exceed c, max. Hence enhanced shear strength is limited
to a maximum value of c, max.

11A.4 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration


Slenderness effects are extremely important in designing compression members. The IS:456 code
specifies two options by which the slenderness effect can be accommodated (Clause 39.7). One
option is to perform an exact analysis which will take into account the influence of axial loads and
variable moment of inertia on member stiffness and fixed end moments, the effect of deflections on

International Design Codes Manual 435

11A.5 Beam Design

moment and forces and the effect of the duration of loads. Another option is to approximately
magnify design moments.
STAAD has been written to allow the use of the first option. To perform this type of analysis, use
the command PDELTA ANALYSIS instead of PERFORM ANALYSIS. The P-Delta analysis will
accommodate all requirements of the second- order analysis described by IS:456, except for the
effects of the duration of the loads. It is felt that this effect may be safely ignored because experts
believe that the effects of the duration of loads are negligible in a normal structural configuration.
Although ignoring load duration effects is somewhat of an approximation, it must be realized that
the approximate evaluation of slenderness effects is also an approximate method. In this method,
additional moments are calculated based on empirical formula and assumptions on sidesway
(Clause 39.7.1 and 39.7.1.1,IS: 456 - 2000). The rules of Clause 39.7.1 have been implemented in
STAAD.Pro. They will be checked if the ELY and ELZ parameters are specified.
Considering all these information, a P-Delta analysis, as performed by STAAD may be used for the
design of concrete members.
Note: To take advantage of this analysis, all the combinations of loading must be provided as
primary load cases and not as load combinations. This is due to the fact that load combinations
are just algebraic combinations of forces and moments (i.e., analysis results), whereas a primary
load case is revised during the P-delta analysis based on the deflections. Loads can be combined
prior to analysis using the REPEAT LOADcommand.
Note: You must specify the appropriate load factors (e.g., 1.5 for dead load, etc.) as STAAD does
not factor the loads automatically.

11A.5 Beam Design


Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. If required the effect the axial force may be taken
into consideration. For all these forces, all active beam loadings are prescanned to identify the
critical load cases at different sections of the beams. The total number of sections considered is 13
(e.g., 0., .1, .2, .25, .3, .4, .5, .6, .7, .75, .8, .9, and 1). All of these sections are scanned to determine the
design force envelopes.

11A.5.1 Design for Flexure


Maximum sagging (creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the beam) and hogging (creating
tensile stress at the top face) moments are calculated for all active load cases at each of the above
mentioned sections. Each of these sections is designed to resist both of these critical sagging and
hogging moments. Where ever the rectangular section is inadequate as singly reinforced section,
doubly reinforced section is tried. However, presently the flanged section is designed only as singly
reinforced section under sagging moment. It may also be noted all flanged sections are
automatically designed as rectangular section under hogging moment as the flange of the beam is
ineffective under hogging moment. Flexural design of beams is performed in two passes. In the first
pass, effective depths of the sections are determined with the assumption of single layer of assumed

436 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

11A.5 Beam Design

reinforcement and reinforcement requirements are calculated. After the preliminary design,
reinforcing bars are chosen from the internal database in single or multiple layers. The entire
flexure design is performed again in a second pass taking into account of the changed effective
depths of sections calculated on the basis of reinforcement provide after the preliminary design.
Final provisions of flexural reinforcements are made then. Efforts have been made to meet the
guideline for the curtailment of reinforcements as per IS:456-2000 (Clause 26.2.3). Although exact
curtailment lengths are not mentioned explicitly in the design output (finally which will be more
or less guided by the detailer taking into account of other practical consideration), user has the
choice of printing reinforcements provided by STAAD at 11 equally spaced sections from which the
final detail drawing can be prepared.
Once you have specified SFACE and EFACE parameters to indicate sections, the MFACE parameter can
be used to design for flexure at any point along the length of the beam, in addition to the equally
spaced sections normally used.

11A.5.2 Design for Shear


Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments. Shear design
are performed at 11 equally spaced sections (0.0 to 1.0) for the maximum shear forces amongst the
active load cases and the associated torsional moments. Shear capacity calculation at different
sections without the shear reinforcement is based on the actual tensile reinforcement provided by
STAAD program. Two-legged stirrups are provided to take care of the balance shear forces acting on
these sections.
As per Clause 40.5 of IS:456-2000 shear strength of sections (< 2d where d is the effective depth)
close to support has been enhanced, subjected to a maximum value of
.
cmax

11A.5.3 Beam Design Output


The default design output of the beam contains flexural and shear reinforcement provided at 5
equally spaced (0, .25, .5, .75 and 1.) sections along the length of the beam. User has option to get a
more detail output. All beam design outputs are given in IS units. An example of rectangular beam
design output with TRACK 2.0 output is presented below:
B E A M

N O.

1
D E S I G N R E S U L T S
Fe415 (Main)
Fe250 (Sec.)
6400.0 mm
SIZE:
300.0 mm X 400.0 mm
COVER: 25.0 mm
DESIGN LOAD SUMMARY (KN MET)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION |FLEXURE (Maxm. Sagging/Hogging moments)|
SHEAR
(in mm) |
P
MZ
MX
Load Case |
VY
MX Load Case
---------------------------------------------------------------------------0.0 |
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
|
60.61
0.00
1
|
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
|
533.3 |
0.00
29.63
0.00
1
|
50.51
0.00
1
|
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
|
1066.7 |
0.00
53.88
0.00
1
|
40.41
0.00
1
|
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
|
1600.0 |
0.00
72.73
0.00
1
|
30.31
0.00
1
|
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
|
2133.3 |
0.00
86.20
0.00
1
|
20.20
0.00
1
|
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
|
2666.7 |
0.00
94.28
0.00
1
|
10.10
0.00
1
M20
LENGTH:

International Design Codes Manual 437

11A.6 Column Design

|
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
|
3200.0 |
0.00
96.98
0.00
1
|
0.00
0.00
1
|
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
|
3733.3 |
0.00
94.28
0.00
1
| -10.10
0.00
1
|
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
|
4266.7 |
0.00
86.20
0.00
1
| -20.20
0.00
1
|
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
|
4800.0 |
0.00
72.73
0.00
1
| -30.31
0.00
1
|
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
|
5333.3 |
0.00
53.88
0.00
1
| -40.41
0.00
1
|
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
|
5866.7 |
0.00
29.63
0.00
1
| -50.51
0.00
1
|
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
|
6400.0 |
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
| -60.61
0.00
1
|
0.00
0.00
0.00
1
|
---------------------------------------------------------------------------SUMMARY OF REINF. AREA (Sq.mm)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION |
TOP
|
BOTTOM
|
STIRRUPS
(in mm) | Reqd./Provided reinf.
| Reqd./Provided reinf.
|
(2 legged)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------0.0 |
0.00/ 402.12( 2-16 )|
0.00/ 981.75( 2-25 )| 8 @ 180 mm
533.3 |
0.00/ 402.12( 2-16 )| 237.32/1472.62( 3-25 )| 8 @ 180 mm
1066.7 |
0.00/ 402.12( 2-16 )| 450.84/1472.62( 3-25 )| 8 @ 180 mm
1600.0 |
0.00/ 402.12( 2-16 )| 632.82/1472.62( 3-25 )| 8 @ 180 mm
2133.3 |
0.00/ 402.12( 2-16 )| 773.83/1472.62( 3-25 )| 8 @ 180 mm
2666.7 |
0.00/ 402.12( 2-16 )| 863.91/1472.62( 3-25 )| 8 @ 180 mm
3200.0 |
0.00/ 402.12( 2-16 )| 894.99/1472.62( 3-25 )| 8 @ 180 mm
3733.3 |
0.00/ 402.12( 2-16 )| 863.91/1472.62( 3-25 )| 8 @ 180 mm
4266.7 |
0.00/ 402.12( 2-16 )| 773.83/1472.62( 3-25 )| 8 @ 180 mm
4800.0 |
0.00/ 402.12( 2-16 )| 632.82/1472.62( 3-25 )| 8 @ 180 mm
5333.3 |
0.00/ 402.12( 2-16 )| 450.84/1472.62( 3-25 )| 8 @ 180 mm
5866.7 |
0.00/ 402.12( 2-16 )| 237.32/1472.62( 3-25 )| 8 @ 180 mm
6400.0 |
0.00/ 402.12( 2-16 )|
0.00/ 981.75( 2-25 )| 8 @ 180 mm
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

11A.6 Column Design


Columns are designed for axial forces and biaxial moments at the ends. All active load cases are
tested to calculate reinforcement. The loading which yield maximum reinforcement is called the
critical load. Column design is done for square, rectangular and circular sections. By default, square
and rectangular columns and designed with reinforcement distributed on each side equally for the
sections under biaxial moments and with reinforcement distributed equally in two faces for
sections under uniaxial moment. User may change the default arrangement of the reinforcement
with the help of the parameter RFACE (see Table 8A.1). Depending upon the member lengths,
section dimensions and effective length coefficients specified by the user STAAD automatically
determine the criterion (short or long) of the column design. All major criteria for selecting
longitudinal and transverse reinforcement as stipulated by IS:456 have been taken care of in the
column design of STAAD. Default clear spacing between main reinforcing bars is taken to be 25
mm while arrangement of longitudinal bars.

11A.6.1 Column Design Output


Default column design output (TRACK 0.0) contains the reinforcement provided by STAAD and
the capacity of the section. With the option TRACK 1.0, the output contains intermediate results

438 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

11A.7 Bar Combination

such as the design forces, effective length coefficients, additional moments etc. All design output is
given in SI units. An example of a TRACK 2.0 output follows:
C O L U M N

N O.

M20
LENGTH:

3000.0 mm

D E S I G N

R E S U L T S

Fe415 (Main)
CROSS SECTION:

** GUIDING LOAD CASE:

Fe250 (Sec.)

400.0 mm X

1 END JOINT:

600.0 mm

COVER: 40.0 mm

SHORT COLUMN

DESIGN FORCES (KNS-MET)


----------------------DESIGN AXIAL FORCE (Pu)

2000.00

INITIAL MOMENTS
MOMENTS DUE TO MINIMUM ECC.

:
:

About Z
160.00
52.00

SLENDERNESS RATIOS
MOMENTS DUE TO SLENDERNESS EFFECT
MOMENT REDUCTION FACTORS
ADDITION MOMENTS (Maz and May)

:
:
:
:

TOTAL DESIGN MOMENTS

160.00

120.00

About Y
120.00
40.00

REQD. STEEL AREA


:
3587.44 Sq.mm.
REQD. CONCRETE AREA:
236412.56 Sq.mm.
MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 32 - 12 dia. (1.51%,
3619.11 Sq.mm.)
(Equally distributed)
TIE REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 mm dia. rectangular ties @ 190 mm c/c
SECTION CAPACITY BASED ON REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED (KNS-MET)
---------------------------------------------------------Puz :
3244.31
Muz1 :
269.59
Muy1 :
168.42
INTERACTION RATIO: 0.98 (as per Cl. 39.6, IS456:2000)
SECTION CAPACITY BASED ON REINFORCEMENT PROVIDED (KNS-MET)
---------------------------------------------------------WORST LOAD CASE:
1
END JOINT:
1 Puz :
3253.88
Muz :
271.48
Muy :
170.09
IR: 0.96
============================================================================

11A.7 Bar Combination


Initially the program selects only one bar to calculate the number of bars required and area of steel
provided at each section along the length of the beam. You may use the
BAR COMBINATIONcommand to specify two bar diameters to calculate a combination of each bar to
be provided at each section. The syntax for bar combination is given below.
START BAR COMBINATION
MD1 <bar diameter> MEMB

<member list>

MD2 <bar diameter> MEMB

<member list>

END BAR COMBINATION

International Design Codes Manual 439

11A.8 Wall Design in accordance with IS 456-2000

Note: The bar sizes should be specified in the order of increasing size (i.e., MD2 bar diameter
should be greater than MD1 bar diameter).
The beam length is divided into three parts, two at its ends and one at span. Ld gives the
development length to be provided at the two ends of each section.
The typical output for bar combination is shown below:
OUTPUT FOR BAR COMBINATION
---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
M A I N
R E I N F O R C E M E N T
|
---------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION |
0.0- 1600.0
|
1600.0- 4800.0
|
4800.0- 6400.0
|
|
mm
|
mm
|
mm
|
---------------------------------------------------------------------------TOP
|
2-16
|
2-16
|
2-16
|
|
in 1 layer(s)
|
in 1 layer(s)
|
in 1 layer(s)
|
Ast Reqd|
0.00
|
0.00
|
0.00
|
Prov|
402.29
|
402.29
|
402.29
|
Ld (mm) |
752.2
|
1175.3
|
752.2
|
---------------------------------------------------------------------------BOTTOM |
4-16
|
2-16
+ 2-25 |
4-16
|
|
in 1 layer(s)
|
in 1 layer(s)
|
in 1 layer(s)
|
Ast Reqd|
632.82
|
894.99
|
632.82
|
Prov|
804.57
|
1384.43
|
804.57
|
Ld (mm) |
752.2
|
1175.3
|
752.2
|
---------------------------------------------------------------------------============================================================================

11A.8 Wall Design in accordance with IS 456-2000


The design of walls in accordance with IS 456-2000 is available in STAAD.Pro.
The design is performed for in-plane shear, in-plane & out-of-plane bending, and out-of-plane
shear. The wall has to be modeled using STAADs Surface elements (Refer to Section 5.13.3 of the
Technical Reference Manual). The use of the Surface element enables the designer to treat the
entire wall as one entity. It greatly simplifies the modeling of the wall and adds clarity to the
analysis and design output. The results are presented in the context of the entire wall rather than
individual finite elements thereby allowing users to quickly locate required information.
The program reports shear wall design results for each load case/combination for the specified
number of sections given in the SURFACE DIVISION command (default value is 10) command. The
shear wall is designed at these horizontal sections. The output includes the required horizontal and
vertical distributed reinforcing, the concentrated (in-plane bending) edge reinforcing and the link
required for out-of-plane shear.
Refer to Section 5.55 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional details on shear wall design.

11A.8.1 Design Parameters


START SHEARWALL DESIGN
CODE INDIAN
shearwall-parameters

440 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

11A.8 Wall Design in accordance with IS 456-2000

DESIGN SHEARWALL LIST shearwall-list


END
The following table explains the parameters used in the shear wall design.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is specified
again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Table 11A.2-Shear Wall Design Parameters
Parameter
Name

Default Value

Description

CLEAR

25 mm

Clear concrete cover, in current


units.

EMAX

36

Maximum size of vertical


reinforcing bars located in edge
zones (range 6mm 36mm). If
input is 6 (integer number) the
program will assume 6 mm
diameter bar.

EMIN

Minimum size of vertical


reinforcing bars located in edge
zones (range 6mm 36mm). If
input is 6 (integer number) the
program will assume 6 mm
diameter bar.

FYMAIN

415 Mpa

Yield strength of steel, in


current units.

FC

30 Mpa

Compressive strength of
concrete, in current units.

HMIN

Minimum size of horizontal


reinforcing bars (range 6 mm
36 mm). If input is 6 (integer
number) the program will
assume 6 mm diameter bar.

HMAX

36

Maximum size of horizontal


reinforcing bars (range 6 mm
36 mm). If input is 6 (integer
number) the program will
assume 6 mm diameter bar.

KSLENDER

1.0

Slenderness factor for finding


effective height.

International Design Codes Manual 441

11A.8 Wall Design in accordance with IS 456-2000

Parameter
Name

Default Value

Description

LMAX

16

Maximum size of links (range


6mm 16mm). If input is 6
(integer number) the program
will assume 6 mm diameter
bar.

LMIN

Minimum size of links (range


6mm 16mm). If input is 6
(integer number) the program
will assume 6 mm diameter
bar.

TWOLAYERED

Reinforcement placement
mode:
0. single layer, each
direction
1. two layers, each
direction

VMAX

36

Maximum size of vertical


reinforcing bars (range 6mm
36mm). If input is 6 (integer
number) the program will
assume 6 mm diameter bar.

VMIN

Minimum size of vertical


reinforcing bars (range 6mm
36mm). If input is 6 (integer
number) the program will
assume 6 mm diameter bar.

1. Command SET DIVISION 12 indicates that the surface boundary node-to-node segments
will be subdivided into 12 fragments prior to finite element mesh generation.
2. Four surfaces are defined by the SURFACE INCIDENCES command.
3. The SUPPORTS command includes the new support generation routine. For instance, the line
2 to 5 gen pin assigns pinned supports to all nodes between nodes 2 and 5. As the nodeto-node distances were previously subdivided by the SET DIVISION 12 command, there will
be an additional 11 nodes between nodes 2 and 5. As a result, all 13 nodes will be assigned
pinned supports. Please note that the additional 11 nodes are not individually accessible to
the user. They are created by the program to enable the finite element mesh generation and
to allow application of boundary constraints.
4. Surface thickness and material constants are specified by the SURFACE PROPERTY and

442 STAAD.ProV8i (SELECTseries 5)

11A.8 Wall Design in accordance with IS 456-2000

SURFACE CONSTANTS, respectively.


5. The shear wall design commands are listed between lines START SHEARWALL DES and END.
The CODE command selects the design code that will be the basis for the design. For Indian
code the parameter is INDIAN. The DESIGN SHEARWALL LIST command is followed by a list
of previously defined Surface elements intended as shear walls and/or shear wall
components.

11A.8.2 Technical Overview


The program implements provisions of section 32 of IS 456-2000 and relevant provisions as
referenced therein, for all active load cases. The following steps are performed for each of the
horizontal sections of the wall.

Checking of slenderness limit


The slenderness checking is done as per clause no. 32.2.3. The default effective height is the height
of the wall. User can change the effective height. The limit for slenderness is taken as 30.

Design for in-plane bending and vertical load