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Título original: A Fast Method for Generating Time-Varying Magnetic Field Patterns of Mid-range Wireless Power Transfer Systems

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Magnetic Field Patterns of Mid-Range Wireless

Power Transfer Systems

Cheng Zhang, Wenxing Zhong, Member, IEEE, Xun Liu, Senior Member, IEEE, and S. Y. Ron Hui, Fellow, IEEE

transfer systems enables researchers and engineers to understand

the operations and design the geometrical dimensions of the practical systems. However, time-domain transient simulations of 3-D

electromagnetic fields of complex wireless power transfer systems

with multiple coil-resonators are extremely time-consuming. This

paper describes a fast hybrid approach that combines the timedomain coupled circuit modeling and the magnetostatic analysis

to form a fast time-domain analytical tool for studying complex

wireless power transfer systems. The proposed methodology has

been successfully applied to several wireless domino-resonator systems. For the first time, the time-varying magnetic flux variations

of wireless power domino-resonator systems can be visualized in

computer simulations.

Index TermsElectromagnetic field solver, wireless power

transfer.

I. INTRODUCTION

ID-RANGE wireless power transfer systems with multiple coil-resonators have recently been investigated for

their capability of transferring energy with relative high power

and their flexibility of physical dimensions and positions of the

coils [1][6]. So far, their analyses rely on coupled circuit models, which however do not provide any information about the

time-varying magnetic flux paths and visual information of the

spatial magnetic flux interactions of various coil-resonators and

the loads. Commercial software such as Ansoft Maxwell can

perform transient analysis and magnetostatic analysis for the

system with given dimensions of the coils as well as the series capacitance and resistance of the resonator circuits [7]. If

high precision is required, however, the transient analysis based

on the Maxwell 3-D finite-element (FE) electromagnetic (EM)

Manuscript received November 20, 2013; revised February 7, 2014 and April

7, 2014; accepted April 7, 2014. Date of publication April 10, 2014; date of

current version October 15, 2014. This work was supported by the General

Research Fund of the Hong Kong Research Grant Council under Project HKU

712913. Recommended for publication by Associate Editor C. T. Rim.

C. Zhang and W. Zhong are with the Department of Electrical and Electronic

Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (e-mail:

czhang@eee.hku.hk; wenxingzhong@gmail.com).

X. Liu is with ConvenientPower (HK), Ltd., Shatin, Hong Kong (e-mail:

xun.liu@convenientpower.com).

S. Y. R. Hui is with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, U.K., and also with the

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong

Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (e-mail: ronhui@eee.hku.hk).

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2014.2316526

solver is extremely time-consuming and substantial computational resources are required. Taking a wireless power system

with seven resonator-coils as an example and assuming that a

desktop personal computer is used, the simulation time from the

start-up to the steady-state operation could take over 20 h, without guarantee of convergence, to reach reasonable solutions.

When more resonator coils are used in the wireless power system, the longer it will take to reach final steady-state solution of

the whole system.

In this paper, a time-efficient method is proposed as a simulation tool to study complex wireless power systems. The proposed method combines the uses of coupled circuit model and

the Magnetostatic Analysis of the FE software to obtain fast solutions and magnetic field plots at various points in time within

an excitation cycle. With known system parameters, the coupled

circuit model allows the steady-state solutions to be obtained at

different angles within an ac excitation cycle. Therefore, the

long transient analysis period required by the FE software can

be bypassed using the coupled circuit model. The steady-state

solutions obtained from the coupled circuit model are used by

the Magnetostatic Analysis software (which is also part of the

Ansoft Maxwell software package) to obtain the steady-state

3-D magnetic field plots at different points within an excitation

cycle. Then, the successive magnetic field plots can be displayed

in a time sequence to provide the visual information of the timevarying magnetic field in the wireless power transfer systems.

This approach is demonstrated in computer studies of straight,

circular and Y-shaped wireless power domino-resonator systems [4][6]. In principle, it can be applied to study any wireless

power transfer systems.

II. MODEL AND METHODOLOGY

Fig. 1 shows the lumped circuit model of a domino-resonator

system with n resonators. Its circuit equation is expressed with

0885-8993 2014 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.

See http://www.ieee.org/publications standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

1514

Fig. 2.

operating frequency, inductance, resistance, and capacitance can

be put into (1), which can then be solved to get the values of the

currents.

Step 5: Magnetic flux calculation and plots. At each time

instant, the magnitude of the currents can be calculated and

used in a magnetostatic analysis to produce the magnetic field

pattern of the system. By repeating this step at different points

in time within each excitation cycle, the magnetic field patterns

at the successive points of a cycle can be obtained. Thus, the

magnetic flux variation can be displayed in the time sequence

to form a time-domain animation of the magnetic behavior of a

wireless power transfer system.

coil is denoted by Lu and the mutual inductance between the

uth and vth coils is denoted by Mu v . The ac resistance of the

resonator is Ru . The capacitance in the uth resonator is denoted

by Cu and the voltage source and the current are denoted by VSu

and Iu , respectively.

The currents of all the resonators (I 1 to I n ) can be calculated,

provided that the system parameters in (1) are known or can be

obtained by calculation [9], [10], [12][15] or measurement.

The currents can be used in a static magnetic analysis to plot the

magnetic field pattern of the entire system for a particular point

in time. Then, successive magnetic flux plots can be obtained

over a period of time. This approach will take much less time

in comparison with transient analysis and can be implemented

in personal computers. The flowchart of the proposed method is

given in Fig. 3.

The procedures of the proposed methodology are explained

as follows:

Step 1: Determination of the operating frequency of the system. The operating frequency of the system should first be decided according to the practical requirements such as the resonance frequency of the resonators including their cross-coupling

effects [3], the power level of the wireless power transfer system,

the power losses and energy efficiencies of switching devices

and the overall system, and other EM compatibility issues.

Step 2: Determination of the physical dimensions and relative

positions of the windings (L, M, R). Once the diameter of the

wires cross section, the shape and the size of the winding,

and the number of turns are determined, the self-inductance

of the windings and the mutual inductance between every two

windings can be calculated with analytical equations or with FE

Analysis [7]. Analytical equations suitable for the calculation of

the self-inductance and the mutual inductance for coaxial and

noncoaxial circular coils can be found in [8].

Step 3: Determination of the values of the compensating capacitors. The capacitance values are chosen to match the best

operating situation, based on either the maximum power transfer

or maximum power efficiency principle [11]. Numerical optimization tool could be used to get the optimum values for the

capacitors.

R1 + jX1

jM

12

..

jM

1(n 1)

jM1n

where Xu =Lu 1/(Cu ).

jM12

R2 + jX2

..

.

jM13

jM23

..

.

..

.

Rn 1

A. Implementation Issues of FE Transient Analysis

for High-Frequency Wireless Power Transfer Systems

For the transient analysis, the 3-D FE Transient Analysis

software (which is another module of the Ansoft Maxwell FE

software package) is employed in this study. For the proposed

hybrid approach, the 3-D FE Magnetostatic Software (which is

a module of the Ansoft Maxwell FE software package) is used

with the coupled circuit model equation (1). The advantage of

using the coupled circuit model is that it can determine the

steady-state solutions quickly and accurately. This feature has

been demonstrated in [5] for modeling wireless power transfer system with multiple resonators. Fig. 4 shows a wireless

power transfer system with three resonators. Typical measured

current waveforms and simulated current waveforms obtained

from the coupled circuit model are shown in Fig. 5. It is clear that

the coupled circuit model is a fast and accurate tool to predict

the steady-state solutions for a wireless power transfer system,

because solving a 3 3 matrix equation for 2050 sampled

points within an excitation cycle takes less than a few seconds

in a personal computer.

In order to highlight the time-consuming and inaccuracy issues of the 3-D FE Transient Analysis, a two-coil system (i.e.,

the simplest form of a wireless power transfer system) is adopted

as an example. Using the Ansoft Maxwell package, Table I

shows two sets of 3-D Transient Analysis results (based on two

different time steps). The load resistance R2 is set at 1 . An

ac voltage source of 1 V at 550 kHz is used to drive the transmitter coil. For each set of results, the plots of the magnetic

field contour surfaces (or simply called magnetic field patterns

hereafter) are generated at several angular positions in a sequential manner within one excitation cycle of 550 kHz. (The phases

..

.

+ jXn 1

jM(n 1)n

jM1n

I1

VS 1

jM2n

I 2 VS 2

..

..

..

.

.

.

=

In 1

VS (n 1)

jM(n 1)n

In

VS n

R + jX

n

(1)

ZHANG et al.: A FAST METHOD FOR GENERATING TIME-VARYING MAGNETIC FIELD PATTERNS OF MID-RANGE WIRELESS POWER

Fig. 3.

1515

180 approximately of the transmitter current waveform.) The

plots displayed in the same row in Table I are captured at the

same angular position. It is noted from the results in the two

columns that the accuracy of the Transient Analysis greatly depends on the step size of the simulation. When compared with

the steady-state currents obtained from the coupled circuit equation, the transient solutions are not accurate even after 90 min

of simulation with 181 steps per period (i.e., 0.01 s time step

while the operating frequency is 550 kHz). When the time step

is reduced to 0.001 s, the expected simulation would become

900 min (or 15 h). However, the transient analysis program

failed to complete after running for about 10 h. This illustrates

the inaccuracy and time-consuming issues of the 3-D Transient

Analysis even for a simple wireless power system.

The proposed methodology has been applied to the 1) straight;

2) circular; and 3) Y-shaped wireless power domino-resonator

The magnetic field pattern can be presented in the vector form

or contour form. For clear visualization in a computer screen,

the outer surface of the contours can be displayed in the time

sequence of the magnetic field plots. Since the contours only

indicate the density of the flux lines and not the direction of

the flux lines, the magnetic flux plots within the first half of the

ac excitation cycle are needed. The time-varying magnetic flux

variation in the second half of the cycle can be reconstructed

based on the magnetic flux plots of the first half-cycle.

For this computer simulation study, the windings of the coilresonators are identical. However, it should be stressed that the

proposed approach is not restricted to identical coil-resonators

because the coupled circuit equation (1), the analytical equations [8], and the FE method can deal with both identical and

nonidentical coils. Each circular winding consists of 11 turns

with a coil diameter of 30 cm, a winding width of 2 cm, and a

1516

TABLE I

TIME-STEP DEPENDENT RESULTS OF THE 3-D TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

Fig. 4.

equally-spaced three-resonator system (1 A/div.; 500 ns/div.) [5].

with a capacitor of 1 nF. The first coil in each system is connected with the ac power source and is used as the transmitter

coil.

When compared with the Transient Analysis method of the FE

EM field solver, the proposed method is more time efficient. For

a transient analysis of a wireless power system with seven coils,

it takes more than 10 h for the 3-D Transient Analysis solver

in Ansoft Maxwell to obtain a solution in personal computer if

the time step is set at 1/100 of the operating period with 1000

fragments for each coil. If more accurate results are needed,

the time steps should be smaller and the number of fragments

should be larger, meaning that much longer time will be needed.

The proposed method, however, takes about 10 min for plotting

the magnetic flux for one particular time point in the period on

a desktop computer.

B. Simulation and Observation

1) Straight Domino System: The straight domino system under consideration consists of three resonators as shown in Fig. 6.

The three resonators are placed in a straight line with the dis-

(Resonator-1 is excited as the transmitter coil and resonator-3 is connected to

loads.)

tance between the first (transmitter) coil and the last (receiver)

coil being 0.6 m. The coil parameters are tabulated in Table II.

The operating frequency equals to the resonant frequency of the

resonators. It is reported in [5] that the optimal efficiency operation of a straight domino system with three resonators depends

ZHANG et al.: A FAST METHOD FOR GENERATING TIME-VARYING MAGNETIC FIELD PATTERNS OF MID-RANGE WIRELESS POWER

TABLE II

PARAMETERS OF THE PRACTICAL RESONATORS

the load resistance. The magnetic field patterns of the system

with a light load (i.e., a small load resistance of 1 and a load

current of 1 A) are shown in Table III, while those for a heavy

load (i.e., a large load resistance of 75 and a load current of

1 A) are shown in Table IV. Under both load conditions, the

effects of the position of the second (relay) resonator on the

energy efficiency are also considered. The load current I3 is

used as the reference for the angular position. Visualization of

the time-varying expansion and contraction of the magnetic flux

contours in the time sequence indicates that wireless power flow

from the transmitter coil to the receiver coil looks like a heart

pumping blood through a blood vessel.

It is important to note that the volume (size) of the magnetic field pattern is proportional to the current magnitude and

is related to the conduction loss in the coil. Therefore, visualization of these magnetic field patterns can provide some physical insights into the energy efficiency of the system design. In

Table III, the magnetic field patterns on the left-hand column

have the relay resonator placed at a distance of 0.2 m from

the transmitter coil, while those in the right-hand column have

the relay resonator placed half way between the transmitter and

the receiver coils (i.e., 0.3 m from the transmitter coil). In this

simulation, the load current I3 is set at 1 A and is used as the

reference for the angular position of the sinusoidal waveform.

From the two columns of plots in Table III, the following points

should be noted.

1) The sizes of the magnetic field patterns of the receiver coils

are identical because the currents in the receiver coils in

both cases are identical.

2) The sizes of the magnetic field patterns in the transmitter

coils are quite different. In the case of placing the relay

resonator half way between transmitter and receiver coils,

the sizes of the magnetic field patterns in the transmitter

coil are much larger, implying that the current and its associated conduction loss in the transmitter coil are also much

larger. This observation agrees with the energy efficiencies of these two cases calculated by the coupled circuit

model as tabulated in Table III. By putting the relay resonator closer to the transmitter coil, an energy efficiency

of 46.9% can be achieved. If the relay resonator is placed

in the middle of the system, the energy efficiency drops to

33.9%.

With the load resistance changed to 75 while maintaining

a load current I3 at 1 A, Table IV shows another comparison.

With the relay resonator placed in the middle (i.e., d12 = 0.3 m),

the magnetic field patterns are included in the left-hand col-

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TABLE III

MAGNETIC FLUX CONTOURS OF A STRAIGHT DOMINO-RESONATOR SYSTEM

WITH THREE RESONATORS AND A LOAD RESISTANCE OF 1

umn. With the relay resonator placed closer to the receiver coil

(i.e., d12 = 0.38 m), the magnetic field patterns are shown in

the right-hand column. The sizes of the magnetic field patterns

on the left-hand column are generally larger than those in the

right-hand column. The overall effect is that the efficiency of

placing the relay resonator in the middle (53.1%) is less than

that with the relay resonator closer to the receiver coil (69.3).

2) Circular Domino Systems: In [6], it has been pointed out

that the magnetic flux flows in both clockwise and anticlockwise directions in circular domino systems, which may face

flux cancellation issues if they are not properly designed. This

phenomenon can in fact be visualized from the magnetic field

1518

TABLE IV

MAGNETIC FLUX CONTOURS OF A STRAIGHT DOMINO-RESONATOR SYSTEM

WITH THREE RESONATORS AND A LOAD RESISTANCE OF 75

Fig. 7.

TABLE V

DEFINITIONS OF THE FOUR COILS IN THE SAMPLE

TABLE VI

MAGNETIC FLUX CONTOURS OF A CIRCULAR DOMINO-RESONATOR SYSTEM

WITH FOUR RESONATORS UNDER DIFFERENT LOADING POSITIONS

domino system with four coils. This system is tested under:

1) a symmetric load condition in which a load resistor of 21.2

is connected to the opposite resonator as indicated in Fig. 7; and

2) an asymmetric load condition in which the load resistor is

placed in a resonator next to the transmitter coil.

Unlike the previous simulation for the straight domino system

(which is studied under the identical load power condition), this

study of the circular domino system assumes the current in the

transmitter coil to be identical (i.e., I1 = 1 A). The information

of the four-coil system is given in Table V. The magnetic field

patterns are displayed in Table VI. For the symmetric load case,

ZHANG et al.: A FAST METHOD FOR GENERATING TIME-VARYING MAGNETIC FIELD PATTERNS OF MID-RANGE WIRELESS POWER

TABLE VII

MAGNETIC FLUX CONTOURS OF A Y-SHAPED DOMINO-RESONATOR SYSTEM

WITH TEN RESONATORS UNDER NONIDENTICAL AND IDENTICAL

LOAD CONDITIONS

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field patterns in the two split branches are not identical. The

nonidentical loads cause the induced currents in the relay resonators of the two split branches to have different phase angles. However, different load values will not affect the power

flow in the split branches. In the second case of the identical load test, two resistors of 10 are used. The corresponding magnetic field patterns are shown in the right-hand

column of Table VI. The magnetic field patterns in the two

split branches are found to be identical. The asymmetric symmetric flux patterns for the nonidentical loads and the identical cases, respectively, can be determined from the matrix

equation. The proposed fast method enables such patterns to

be visualized. The proposed method enables the designers to

quickly generate the magnetic field patterns in the time domain. If such patterns are displayed in the time sequence in the

form of a video, this method provides visual information for the

designers to evaluate the performance of the system.

IV. CONCLUSION

obvious in the loaded resonator (opposite to the transmitter coil),

indicating that power has been successfully transferred to the

load. The success of such wireless power transfer is due to

the magnetic flux re-enforcement explained previously in [6].

But for the asymmetric load case, the loaded resonator has no

noticeable magnetic field pattern, implying that no power is

transferred to the load (due to flux cancellation). Therefore, the

magnetic field patterns do provide useful information to the

designers to evaluate the performance of the system.

3) Y-Shaped Domino Systems: The last example is a

Y-shaped wireless domino system comprising ten resonators.

Four of the resonators form a straight line with the first resonator being the transmitter coil as shown in Table VII. Then,

the domino is split into two branches, with each branch comprising three resonators. The load resistors are attached to the

last resonators of these two branches. In the simulation study,

a current of 1 A at the resonant frequency of the resonators is

injected into the transmitter coil. The system is tested under the

1) non-identical loads; and 2) identical loads situations. In the

first case, two nonidentical loads (namely resistors of 10 and

20 ) are used. The corresponding magnetic field patterns for

the first half of the excitation cycle are displayed in the lefthand column of Table VII. It can be seen that the magnetic

A fast methodology of generating time-varying visual images of the magnetic field patterns for wireless power transfer

systems is presented. It combines the fast and accurate calculation of the coupled circuit model equation and the time-efficient

magnetostatic analysis (of a commercial 3-D FE EM field simulation software) together as a tool for studying the behavior of

wireless power transfer systems. This approach overcomes the

time-consuming problem of the time-domain transient EM field

3-D solver and enables researchers to visualize the time-varying

magnetic field patterns in wireless power transfer systems.

The magnetic field patterns within an excitation cycle can be

displayed in a sequential manner to form a time-domain animation of the magnetic behavior of the system. For the first

time, the visual images of the magnetic flux contours displayed

in the time sequence have enabled us to explain the behavior

of straight, circular, and Y-shaped domino-resonator systems.

This approach can be used as an educational tool for students

and researchers to understand more about the mechanisms of

wireless power transfer.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This paper is an extended version of a conference paper [16].

The computer animations of some of the wireless power transfer

systems described in this paper can be watched at the following

link: http://www.eee.hku.hk/research/eets.html.

REFERENCES

[1] F. Zhang, S. A. Hackworth, W. Fu, C. Li, Z. Mao, and M. Sun, Relay effect

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[2] J. W. Kim, H. C. Son, K. H. Kim, and Y. J. Park, Efficiency analysis

of magnetic resonance wireless power transfer with intermediate resonant coil, IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 389392,

May 2011.

[3] M. Kiani, U. M. Jow, and M. Ghovanloo, Design and optimization of

a 3-coil inductive link for efficient wireless power transmission, IEEE

Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 579591, Dec. 2011.

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Teslas resonators in domino forms for wireless power transfer, IEEE

Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 261270, Jan. 2013.

[5] C. K. Lee, W. X. Zhong, and S. Y. R. Hui, Effects of magnetic coupling of non-adjacent resonators on wireless power domino-resonator systems, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 19051916, Apr.

2012.

[6] W. X. Zhong, C. K. Lee, and S. Y. R. Hui, Wireless power dominoresonator systems with noncoaxial axes and circular structures, IEEE

Trans. Power Electron., vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 47504762, Nov. 2012.

[7] Ansys Maxwell Manual. (2013) [Online]. Available: http://

www.ansys.com/Products/Simulation+Technology/Electromagnetics/

Electromechanical+Design/ANSYS+Maxwell

[8] J. C. Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed., vol. 2.

Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon, 1892, pp. 6873.

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pp. 17431750, Jul. 2008.

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multiple windings, arbitrary waveforms, and two-dimensional or threedimensional field geometry, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 16, no. 1,

pp. 142150, Jan. 2001.

[11] S. Y. R. Hui, W. Zhong, and C. K. Lee, A critical review of recent progress

of mid-range wireless power transfer, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Sep.

2014.

[12] A. E. Ruehli, Equivalent circuit models for three-dimensional multiconductor systems, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. MTT-22, no. 3,

pp. 216221, Mar. 1974.

[13] E. B. Rosa and L. Cohen, Formulae and tables for the calculation of

mutual and self-inductance, Bull. Bureau Standards, vol. 5, pp. 3550,

1907.

[14] A. E. Ruehli, Inductance calculations in a complex integrated circuit

environment, IBM J. Res. Develop., vol. 16, pp. 470481, 1972.

[15] C. Hoer and C. Love, Exact inductance equations for rectangular conductors with applications to more complicated geometries, J. Res. Nat.

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[16] C. Zhang, W. X. Zhong, S. Y. R. Hui, and X. Liu, A time-efficient

methodology for visualizing time-varying magnetic flux patterns of midrange wireless power transfer systems, in Proc. IEEE Energy Convers.

Congr. Expo., Denver, Oct. 2013, pp. 36233628.

Cheng Zhang was born in China, in 1990. He received the B.Eng. degree with first class honors

in electronic and communication engineering from

the City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong

Kong SAR, in 2012, and is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in the Department of Electrical

and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong

Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR.

His current research interests include designs and optimizations for wireless power transfer

applications.

He received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering

from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in 2007,

and the Ph.D. degree from the City University of

Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

He is currently a Postdoctoral Research Fellow

in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. His current research interests include synchronous rectification and wireless power

transfer.

He received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China,

in 2001 and 2003, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree

from the City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon,

Hong Kong, in 2007.

He is currently the Chief Technology Officer of

ConvenientPower (HK), Ltd., Shatin, Hong Kong,

where he is leading research, innovation, and standardization of wireless power technology and products. He is also the Vice-Chair of Low Power Work

Group and Medium Power Work Group in the Wireless Power Consortium. His

current research interest includes power electromagnetics.

Dr. Liu received 2009 IEEE Power Electronics Society Transaction Prize

Paper Award.

Imperial College London, London, U.K., in 1987.

He is currently the Chair Professor of power electronics at The University of Hong Kong (HKU), Pokfulam, Hong Kong, and Imperial College London.

At HKU, he holds the Philip Wong Wilson Wong

Endowed Professorship in electrical engineering. He

has published more than 200 technical papers, including more than 170 refereed journal publications and

book chapters. More than 50 of his patents have been

adopted by industry.

Dr. Hui is an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics and the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. Since 2013, he has

been an Editor of the IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power

Electronics. He has been appointed twice as an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer by

the IEEE Power Electronics Society in 2004 and 2006. He served as one of the

18 Administrative Committee members of the IEEE Power Electronics Society

and was the Chairman of its Constitution and Bylaws Committee from 2002 to

2010. He received the Excellent Teaching Award in 1998. He won an IEEE Best

Paper Award from the IEEE IAS Committee on Production and Applications

of Light in 2002, and two IEEE Power Electronics Transactions Prize Paper

Awards for his publications on Wireless Battery Charging Platform Technology

in 2009 and on LED system theory in 2010. His inventions on wireless charging

platform technology underpin key dimensions of Qi, the worlds first wireless

power standard, with freedom of positioning and localized charging features for

wireless charging of consumer electronics. In November 2010, he received the

IEEE Rudolf Chope R&D Award from the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society,

the IET Achievement Medal (The Crompton Medal) and was elected to the Fellowship of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences & Engineering.

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