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TRA VINH UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF APPLIED CHEMISTRY

REPORT OF TOPIC:

NITROGEN

Advisory teacher: Chu Nguyn Trm Yn


Simination: GROUP 4

1. L Th Thu Tho
2. Nguyn Bo Lun
3. Nguyn Vn Sen
4. Trn Duy Tin
5. Trn Th Trc o
6. Thch Th Ngc Thi
7. L Hong Giang
8. H Th Nh Thy
9. Trn Hu Phc n

Table of content:

Page

Introduction
..3
The Haber process

..5
Ammonia gas

............................................................12
Nitric acid
.
........................................................16
Artificial fertilisers
.
19
Index..
....................................26

Nitrogen an essential element


Nitrogen (N2) has no smell, is colourless and is a very unreactive gas that makes
up 78.09% (by volume) of the air we breathe. It is nonflammable and it will not support
combustion.
Nitrogen gas is slightly lighter than air and slightly soluble in water. It is
commonly thought of and used as an inert gas; but it is not truly inert. It forms nitric
oxide and nitrogen dioxide with oxygen, ammonia with hydrogen, and nitrogen sulfide
with sulfur. Nitrogen compounds are formed naturally through biological activity.
Compounds are also formed at high temperature or at moderate temperature with the aid
of catalysts. At high temperatures, nitrogen will combine with active metals, such as
lithium, magnesium and titanium to form nitrides. Nitrogen is necessary for various
biological processes, and is used as a fertilizer, usually in the form of ammonia or
ammonia-based compounds. Compounds formed with halogens and certain organic
compounds can be explosive.
Nitrogen condenses at its boiling point, -195.8o C (-320.4o F), to a colorless
liquid that is lighter than water.
More nitrogen is used by customers than any other industrial gas. It is used in a
broad range of industries, including chemicals, pharmaceuticals, petroleum processing,
glass and ceramic manufacture, steelmaking and other metals refining and fabrication
processes, pulp and paper manufacture, and healthcare. Aside from N2, nitrogen may
be referred to as GAN or GN in its gaseous form, and LIN or LN in its liquid form.
Nitrogen is produced in large volumes in both gas and liquid form by cryogenic
distillation; smaller volumes may be produced as a gas by pressure swing adsorption
(PSA) or diffusion separation processes (permeation through specially designed hollow
fibers). Cryogenic processes can produce very pure nitrogen. Adsorption and diffusion
processes are typically used to make lower purity product in relatively small amounts.
This is attractive to users when purity is not critical and alternatives (purchase of bulk
liquid nitrogen, cylinders of high pressure nitrogen, or local cryogenic production) are
more expensive or impractical.

Gaseous nitrogen is valued for inertness. It is used to shield potentially reactive


materials from contact with oxygen.
Liquid nitrogen is valued for coldness as well as inertness. When liquid nitrogen
is vaporized and warmed to ambient temperature, it absorbs a large quantity of heat.
The combination of inertness and its intensely cold initial state makes liquid nitrogen an
ideal coolant for certain applications such as food freezing. Liquid nitrogen is also used
to cool materials which are heat sensitive or normally soft to allow machining or
fracturing. Examples are used tires, plastics, certain metals and even pharmaceuticals.

The Haber process forms the basis of the artificial fertiliser industry, as it is
used to produce ammonia gas. The process was developed by the German scientist Fritz
Haber in 1913. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1918 for his work. The process involves
reacting nitrogen and hydrogen. It was first developed to satisfy the need for explosives
during World War I, as explo-sives can be made from ammonia.

The Haber Process combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen derived
mainly from natural gas (methane) into ammonia. The reaction is reversible and the
production of ammonia is exothermic.

A flow scheme for the Haber Process looks like this:

Some notes on the conditions:


The catalyst
The catalyst is actually slightly more complicated than pure iron. It has potassium
hydroxide added to it as a promoter - a substance that increases its efficiency.
The pressure
The pressure varies from one manufacturing plant to another, but is always high.
You can't go far wrong in an exam quoting 200 atmospheres.
Recycling
At each pass of the gases through the reactor, only about 15% of the nitrogen and
hydrogen converts to ammonia. (This figure also varies from plant to plant.) By
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continual recycling of the unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen, the overall conversion is
about 98%.
Explaining the conditions
The proportions of nitrogen and hydrogen
The mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen going into the reactor is in the ratio of 1
volume of nitrogen to 3 volumes of hydrogen.
Avogadro's Law says that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and
pressure contain equal numbers of molecules. That means that the gases are going into
the reactor in the ratio of 1 molecule of nitrogen to 3 of hydrogen.
That is the proportion demanded by the equation.
In some reactions you might choose to use an excess of one of the reactants. You
would do this if it is particularly important to use up as much as possible of the other
reactant - if, for example, it was much more expensive. That doesn't apply in this case.
There is always a down-side to using anything other than the equation
proportions. If you have an excess of one reactant there will be molecules passing
through the reactor which can't possibly react because there isn't anything for them to
react with. This wastes reactor space - particularly space on the surface of the catalyst.
The temperature
Equilibrium considerations
You need to shift the position of the equilibrium as far as possible to the right in
order to produce the maximum possible amount of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture.
The forward reaction (the production of ammonia) is exothermic.

According to Le Chatelier's Principle, this will be favoured if you lower the


temperature. The system will respond by moving the position of equilibrium to
counteract this - in other words by producing more heat.
In order to get as much ammonia as possible in the equilibrium mixture, you need
as low a temperature as possible. However, 400 - 450C isn't a low temperature!
Rate considerations
The lower the temperature you use, the slower the reaction becomes. A
manufacturer is trying to produce as much ammonia as possible per day. It makes no
sense to try to achieve an equilibrium mixture which contains a very high proportion of
ammonia if it takes several years for the reaction to reach that equilibrium.
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You need the gases to reach equilibrium within the very short time that they will
be in contact with the catalyst in the reactor.
The compromise
400 - 450C is a compromise temperature producing a reasonably high proportion
of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture (even if it is only 15%), but in a very short time.
The pressure
Equilibrium considerations

Notice that there are 4 molecules on the left-hand side of the equation, but only
2 on the right.
According to Le Chatelier's Principle, if you increase the pressure the system will
respond by favouring the reaction which produces fewer molecules. That will cause the
pressure to fall again.
In order to get as much ammonia as possible in the equilibrium mixture, you need
as high a pressure as possible. 200 atmospheres is a high pressure, but not amazingly
high.
Rate considerations
Increasing the pressure brings the molecules closer together. In this particular
instance, it will increase their chances of hitting and sticking to the surface of the catalyst
where they can react. The higher the pressure the better in terms of the rate of a gas
reaction.
Economic considerations
Very high pressures are very expensive to produce on two counts.
You have to build extremely strong pipes and containment vessels to withstand
the very high pressure. That increases your capital costs when the plant is built.
High pressures cost a lot to produce and maintain. That means that the running
costs of your plant are very high.
The compromise
200 atmospheres is a compromise pressure chosen on economic grounds. If the
pressure used is too high, the cost of generating it exceeds the price you can get for the
extra ammonia produced.
The catalyst

The catalyst has no effect whatsoever on the position of the equilibrium. Adding
a catalyst doesn't produce any greater percentage of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture.
Its only function is to speed up the reaction.
Rate considerations
In the absence of a catalyst the reaction is so slow that virtually no reaction
happens in any sensible time. The catalyst ensures that the reaction is fast enough for a
dynamic equilibrium to be set up within the very short time that the gases are actually
in the reactor.
Separating the ammonia
When the gases leave the reactor they are hot and at a very high pressure.
Ammonia is easily liquefied under pressure as long as it isn't too hot, and so the
temperature of the mixture is lowered enough for the ammonia to turn to a liquid. The
nitrogen and hydrogen remain as gases even under these high pressures, and can be
recycled.
During industrial production of ammonia, the reaction never reaches equilibrium
as the gas mixture leaving the reactor is cooled to liquefy and remove the ammonia. The
remaining mixture of reactant gases are recycled through the reactor. The heat released
by the reaction is removed and used to heat the incoming gas mixture.
Uses of Ammonia

Industry

Use

Fertilser

production of:

ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4


ammonium phosphate, (NH4)3PO4
ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3
urea, (NH2)2CO,also used in the production of
barbiturates (sedatives), is made by the reaction of
ammonia with carbon dioxide

CO2 + 2NH3 H2NCOONH4(heat, pressure ) (NH2)2CO


carbon dioxide + ammonia ammonium carbonate urea

Chemicals

synthesis of:
nitric acid, HNO3, which is used in making explosives
such as TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), nitroglycerine
which is also used as a vasodilator (a substance that
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dilates blood vessels) and PETN (pentaerythritol


nitrate).
sodium hydrogen carbonate (sodium bicarbonate),
NaHCO3
sodium carbonate, Na2CO3
hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic acid), HCN
hydrazine, N2H4 (used in rocket propulsion systems)

Explosives

ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3

Fibres and Plastics

nylon,-[(CH2)4-CO-NH-(CH2)6-NH-CO]-,and
polyamides

Refrigeration

used for making ice, large scale refrigeration plants, airconditioning units in buildings and plants

Pharmaceuticals

used in the manufacture of drugs such as sulfonamide which


inhibit the growth and multiplication of bacteria that require
p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) for the biosynthesis of folic
acids, anti-malarials and vitamins such as the B vitamins
nicotinamide (niacinamide) and thiamine.

Pulp and Paper

ammonium hydrogen sulfite, NH4HSO3, enables some


hardwoods to be used

Mining and Metallurgy

used in nitriding (bright annealing) steel,

other

used in zinc and nickel extraction


Cleaning

ammonia in solution is used as a cleaning agent such as in


'cloudy ammonia'

A Brief History
At the beginning of the 20th century there was a shortage of naturally occurring,
nitrogen-rich fertilisers, such as Chile saltpetre, which prompted the German Chemist
Fritz Haber, and others, to look for ways of combining the nitrogen in the air with
hydrogen to form ammonia, which is a convenient starting point in the manufacture of
fertilisers.This process was also of interest to the German chemical industry as Germany
was preparing for World War I and nitrogen compounds were needed for explosives.
The hydrogen for the ammonia synthesis was made by the water-gas process (a
Carl Bosch invention) which involves blowing steam through a bed of red hot coke

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resulting in the separation of hydrogen from oxygen. The nitrogen was obtained by
distillation of liquid air, then by cooling and compressing air.
These days, the hydrogen is produced by reforming light petroleum fractions or
natural gas (methane, CH4) by adding steam:
CH4(g) + H2O(g)

( )

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CO(g) + 3H2(g)

Enough steam is used to react with about 45% of the methane (CH4), the rest of
the methane is reacted with air:
2CH4(g) +

2() + 42()
()


2CO(g) + 4H2(g) + 4N2(g)

All the carbon monoxide (CO) in the mixture is oxidised to CO2 using steam and
an iron oxide catalyst:

CO(g) + H2O(g)


H2(g) + CO2(g)

The carbon dioxide (CO2) is removed using a suitable base so that only the
nitrogen gas (N2) and hydrogen gas (H2) remain and are used in the production of
ammonia (NH3).
In ammonia production the hydrogen and nitrogen are mixed together in a ratio
of 3:1 by volume and compressed to around 200 times atmospheric pressure.

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Ammonia gas
I. Natural States
Ammonia is found in trace quantities in the atmosphere, being produced from
the putrefaction (decay process) of nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter. Ammonia
and ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rainwater, whereas ammonium
chloride (sal-ammoniac), and ammonium sulfate are found in volcanic districts; crystals
of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Patagonian guano. The kidneys secrete
NH3 to neutralize excess acid. Ammonium salts are found distributed through fertile soil
and in seawater. Ammonia is also found throughout the Solar
System on Pluto, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Substances containing
ammonia, or those that are similar to it, are called ammoniacal.
II. Physical Properties of Ammonia
Ammonia is a colorless gas.
It has a pungent odor with and an alkaline or soapy taste. When inhaled suddenly,
it brings tears into the eyes.
It is lighter than air and is therefore collected by the downward displacement of
air.
It is highly soluble in water: One volume of water dissolves about 1300 volumes
of ammonia gas. It is due to its high solubility in water that the gas cannot be collected
over water.
It can be easily liquefied at room temperature by applying a pressure of about 810 atmosphere.
Liquid ammonia boils at 239.6 K (- 33.5C) under one atmosphere pressure. It
has a high latent heat of vaporization (1370 J per gram) and is therefore used in
refrigeration plants of ice making machines.
Liquid ammonia freezes at 195.3 K (-77.8C) to give a white crystalline solid.

II. Chemical Properties of Ammonia


With metal oxides
Ammonia gets oxidized to nitrogen, when passed over heated metal oxides.

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With halogens
Ammonia reacts with halogens but the type of halogen and reaction conditions
determine the nature of products.
Chlorine
Nitrogen and ammonium chloride are formed with a limited amount of chlorine.
In the presence of excess of chlorine, nitrogen trichloride is formed.

Bromine
It gives ammonium bromide and nitrogen
Iodine
When rubbed with solid iodine, a dark colored precipitate of nitrogen
tri-iodide is obtained
After drying, if NH3.NI3 is struck against a hard surface or hit with a hammer, it
explodes producing iodine vapors.
With carbon dioxide (formation of urea)
Ammonia when heated under pressure with CO2 gives urea.

With alkali metals


When ammonia is passed over heated sodium or potassium, amides are formed
and hydrogen is set free.

Alkali metal dissolved in liquid ammonia gives a blue solutions, which upon
standing slowly, liberate hydrogen. The blue color of such solutions is due to the
presence of solvated electrons (e- (NH3)n). For instance, with sodium

Action with heavy metal ions


Ammonia forms metal hydroxides, which are insoluble and form precipitates,
with the metal ions of Al, Fe, Cr, and Zn.

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Formation of complex compounds


Ammonia forms complex compounds with the soluble salts of copper, silver etc.
With copper sulphate solution, it gives a deep blue colored complex compound,
tetramminecopper(II) sulphate.

III. Uses ammonia


Ammonia is used in the production of liquid fertilizer solutions which consist of
ammonia, ammonium nitrate, urea and aqua ammonia. It is also used by the fertilizer
industry to produce ammonium and nitrate salts.
Ammonia and urea are used as a source of protein in livestock feeds for
ruminating animals such as cattle, sheep and goats. Ammonia can also be used as a preharvest cotton defoliant, an anti-fungal agent on certain fruits and as preservative for the
storage of high-moisture corn.
Dissociated ammonia is used in such metal treating operations as nitriding,
carbonitriding, bright annealing, furnace brazing, sintering, sodium hydride descaling,
atomic hydrogen welding and other applications where protective atmospheres are
required.
Ammonia is used in the manufacture of nitric acid; certain alkalies such as soda
ash; dyes; pharmaceuticals such as sulfa drugs, vitamins and cosmetics; synthetic textile
fibers such as nylon, rayon and acrylics; and for the manufacture of certain plastics such
as phenolics and polyurethanes.

The petroleum industry utilizes ammonia in neutralizing the acid constituents


of crude oil and for protection of equipment from corrosion. Ammonia is used in the
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mining industry for extraction of metals such as copper, nickel and molybdenum from
their ores.
Ammonia is used in several areas of water and wastewater treatment, such as
pH control, in solution form to regenerate weak anion exchange resins, in conjunction
with chlorine to produce potable water and as an oxygen scavenger in boiler water
treatment.
Ammonia is used in stack emission control systems to neutralize sulfur oxides
from combustion of sulfur-containing fuels, as a method of NOx control in both catalytic
and non-catalytic applications and to enhance the efficiency of electrostatic precipitators
for particulate control.
Ammonia is used as the developing agent in photochemical processes such as
white printing, blue printing and in the diazo duplication process.
Ammonia is a widely used refrigerant in industrial refrigeration systems found
in the food, beverage, petro-chemical and cold storage industries.
Ammonia is used in the rubber industry for the stabilization of natural and
synthetic latex to prevent premature coagulation.
The pulp and paper industry uses ammonia for pulping wood and as a casein
dispersant in the coating of paper.
The food and beverage industry uses ammonia as a source of nitrogen
needed for yeast and microorganisms.
The decomposition of ammonia serves as a source of hydrogen for some
fuel cell and other applications.
Ammonia is used by the leather industry as a curing agent, as a slime
and mold preventative in tanning liquors and as a protective agent for leathers
and furs in storage.
Weak ammonia solutions are also widely used as commercial and
household cleaners and detergents.

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Nitric acid

Nitric acid is a chemical compound with chemical formula (HNO3).In nature,


nitric acid formed in the accompanying thunder thunderstorm rain and today it is one of
the causes of acid rain.

I.Physical properties.
Pure nitric acid is a colorless liquid,fuming strongly in air and there are density
ratio is 1,52.It solidifies at -41oC and boils at 86oC.Pure nitric acid unstable, prone to
decomposition under the effect of light and heat:
4HNO3 = 4NO2

+ O2 +2H2O

Concentrated nitric acid soluble in water in any proportions.It make up with water
mixture of co boiling contains 69.2% acidic and boiling at 121,8oC under normal
pressure.
II.Chemical properties.
1.The acidic:
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Nitric acid is a strong acid, are full the properties of an acid.


React with alkaline solution:
HNO3 + NaOH = NaNO3 + H2O
React with oxides bases:
2HNO3 + CaO = Ca(NO3)2 + H2O
2.The oxidizing:
React with metal:
Is a powerful oxidizing agent, nitric acid react violently with many organic
materials and the reactions may be explosive. Depending on the acid concentration,
temperature and the nature of the reducing agent, which nitric acid is often reduced to a
number of products such as: NO2,NO,N2,N2O,NH4NO3.
4Zn

10HNO3(aq) = 4Zn(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + 3H2O

3Cu

8HNO3(aq) = 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO + 4H2O

Pb

4HNO3()

Pb(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O

4Mg

10HNO3(aq)

5Mg

12HNO3(aq) =

4Mg(NO3)2 + N2O + 5H2O


5Mg(NO3)2

+ N2 + 6H2O

The passivation:
Though manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) soluble
in dilute nitric acid solution, but for cold concentrated acid to produce a metal oxide
layer to protect them from further oxidized this phenomenon is the passivation.
React with non-metals:
when react to the non-metallic elements except silicon and halogen the elements
often be oxidized to the highest oxidation state and create nitrogen dioxide for
concentrated acid and nitrogen oxide for dilute acid.
S

3C
P

HNO3(aq) = H2SO4 + 2NO


+

4HNO3(aq) = 2H2O

+ 3CO2 + 4NO

5HNO3 () = 5NO2 + H3PO4

H2 O

III. Nitric acid manufacturing


In industry: Nitric acid modulated from ammonia
4NH3 + 5O2 = 4NO + 6H2O
Cooled nitrogen oxide gas, which combines with air oxygen create nitrogen
dioxide, nitrogen gas dioxide dissolved in water.
2NO + O2 = 2NO2
3NO2 + H2O = 2HNO3 + NO
In laboratory:
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KNO3 + H2SO4 = KHSO4 + HNO3.


IV.The application:

Commonly used as a laboratory reagent, nitric acid is used to manufacture of


explosive
including
nitroglycerin,
Trinitrotoluene
(TNT)
and
cyclotrimethylenetrinitramin (RDX), as well as fertilizers (such as urea ammonium
nitrate). Nitric acid is also used to replace oxygen in missile technology.It is also a
chemical commonly used in the laboratory.

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Artificial fertilisers
ARTIFICIAL FERTILISERS
Artificial or inorganic fertilisers are manufactured chemicals, usually from
hydrocarbons or from mining minerals, and were responsible for a revolution in
agriculture, increasing yields tremendously.
Inorganic fertilizers are mineral salts that contain plant nutrients. There are 13
mineral nutrients essential for the growth and development of plants. Including 3 macro
elements are: N, P, K; 3 secondary elements are: Ca, Mg, S and 7 trace elements: Fe,
Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, B, Cl. In addition, there are some other elements required for each type
of tree, such as Na, Si, Co, Al.
Inorganic fertilizers include major categories:
Inorganic fertilizers Macro: Nitrogen - Phosphate - Potassium - Lime
compost
- synthetic fertilizers and compound fertilizers
Secondary inorganic fertilizer
Inorganic fertilizer micronutrients
Nitrogen:

Nitrogen fertilizer are essential and very important for the tree. Protein is
involved in elemental composition of clorophin, protit, amino acids, enzymes and
vitamins in plants.

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Nitrogen fertilizers promote plant growth, making plants more branches,


secondary branches, leaves much; leaves to the size, blue; leaf photosynthesis strong,
thereby increasing yield.
Nitrogen fertilizer needed for crops during growth, especially strong plant
growth stages. Among the group of plant proteins needed for crops such as leafy
vegetables, cabbage and so on. There are all kinds of nitrogen used as follows:

Urea CO (NH4) 2

Ammonium nitrate fertilizers (NH4NO3)

Distribution of nitrogen sulphate (NH4) 2SO4

Fertilizer chloride (NH 4 Cl)

Distribution of calcium cyanamide


Nitrogenous phosphatic fertilizers (also known as ammonium phosphate)
* Things to note when using nitrogen fertilizer:

To ensure efficient use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers need to pay attention to


the following points:

- Distribution should be stored in plastic bags. Place to identify needs


cool, dry, non-leaking roof warehouse. Not to common nitrogen fertilizers along with
others.
- Need to apply the correct characteristics and needs of plants. Plants
have very different characteristics. Needs of the crop for N is also very different. Trees
require more N, which requires fewer trees. If more fertilizer N, exceeds the
requirements of the plant, N also cause significant harm. The requirement of plant
fertilizer, N effective very good.
- Need to apply the correct format by the characteristics of plants and
soil. For upland crops such as maize, sugarcane, cotton and so on. Nitrate nitrogen is
appropriate, but for the rice to nitrogen chloride or SA. For legume nitrogen so soon,
before nodules formed on the roots. When on the roots have nodules, nitrogen should
not, because protein activity prevents nitrogen fixation from the atmosphere of the
nodule bacteria.
- Need nitrogen proper to the characteristics of the land:
Manure fertilizer for alkaline to acidic soils.
Physiological acidic fertilizer to the soil alkaline.
Boggy soil, muddy without nitrogen fertilization.
- Need to nitrogen at the right time. It is best to apply in the period of
maximum growth of plants.
- Need correct dosage and nitrogen to phosphorus and potassium balance.
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- Nitrogen fertilization should pay attention to the weather changes. Do


not apply when heavy rain, when water-filled fields and gardens.
- No nitrogen concentration at a time, a place, which needs to split into
multiple times to apply fertilizer and scatter them on the ground in places need fertilizer.
No excess nitrogen. Since excess nitrogen, plants thrive, easily falling, delayed
flowering, small particles, floaters much easier loss results, many pests, reduce fruit
quality. Expensive to buy fertilizer without any result obtained and waste.
- Nitrogen fertilization should be combined with weeding, grubbing, hot
mud (for rice).
Phosphate:

Lan has an important role in the life of the plant. Phosphorus is present in the cell
nucleus, is essential for the formation of new parts of the tree.
Lan engaged in component enzymes, proteins, involved in the synthesis of amino
acids
Phosphorus stimulates root growth, making deep roots into the soil and spread
around, creating more favorable conditions for resistant plants and less-term lodging.
Lan stimulate tillering, budding, flowering promoting early results and more.
Phosphorus increases resistance characteristics of plants to unfavorable factors:
anti-rust, anti-drought, soil acidity, against some pests etc ...
In some soils in our country, phosphorus becomes the limiting factor for crop
yields. Especially in most of the rice land in the southern provinces. Lack of phosphorus
not only reduce crop yield but also limited the effectiveness of the fertilizer.
The performance of high phosphorous fertilizer. On some soils in the Central
Highlands 1 kg P2O5 fertilizer efficiency gain 4.3 to 7.5 pounds of coffee beans, 8.5 kg
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of rice. In the newly reclaimed acid sulphate soils, performance of higher phosphate, 1
kg of P2O5 bring 90 kg of rice, fertilizer at 40-60 kg P2O5 / ha.
Excessive phosphate fertilizer in many cases can cause the plants to lack some
trace elements. Therefore, fertilizer micronutrients, especially Zn.
* Domestic phosphate
* Sub-apatite
* Superphosphate
* Tecmo phosphate (FMP, P Van Dien)
* Phosphate precipitation:
Potassium:

Group fertilizers provide plant nutrients potassium.


Potassium plays a key role in energy metabolism in the process of
assimilation of plant nutrients.
Potassium increases the plant's resistance to the beneficial impact from
outside and resistant to some diseases. Potassium makes plants rigid, less lodging,
increased tolerance to waterlogging, drought, cold.
Potassium increases the quality of agricultural products and contribute to
increasing the productivity of crops. Potassium increases the sugar content in the fruit
makes beautiful colorful fresh fruit, making fruit flavor and aroma increases the
likelihood of preservation of fruits. Potassium increases in potato powder, increase the
sugar content in sugarcane.
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In terms of volume, the plant needs more K than N. But because the land
is relatively more K than N and P, so people pay little attention to the K fertilizer for
plants.

Distribution of potassium chloride


Distribution of potassium sulphate
* Some other potassium fertilizers:
Potassium - magnesium sulphate with fine gray powder. Distribution content of
K2O: 20-30%; MGO: 5-7%; S: 16-22%. This classification is used effectively on poor
sandy, infertile soils.
Classification "Agripac" Canadian content is 61% K2O. This is the sort of dry,
coarse, non-clumping, easily applied, is often used as a raw material to mix with other
fertilizers to produce compound fertilizers.
40% potassium salt form of white crystalline flakes mixed with a little pinkish.
In addition to potassium accounted for 40% of the mass distribution, the distribution
component of table salt also with higher rates of fertilizer potassium chloride salt. This
classification should be used with restrictions on salty soils.
Lime for fields:
Calcium (Ca) accounted for 30% of the mineral composition of the plants. Lime
provides calcium for plants.
Lime also works to improve soil salty and sour. Lime facilitate beneficial
microorganisms in the soil works well to promote the resolution of organic matter in the
soil.
Lime increases the solubility of plant nutrients and increase the absorption of
nutrients for plants.
Lime is capable of destroying some tree pests and diseases. Lime trees detoxify
the excess soil elements Fe, Al, H2S.
* Lime zon
* Lime kilns
* Gypsum
Compost and manure mixture:
Compost as fertilizers were produced through chemical reactions to form an
multi-element fertilizer nutrients. This distribution is also known as compound
fertilizers.
Compound fertilizers are fertilizers that are created by the process of mixing
two or more different types of distributed applications with a motor and steadily.
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Compost and pleasure mixed with NPK ratios in different combinations were
selected to suit each type of soil and plant groups. Many cases of compost and manure
mixture also has all the elements Mg, Ca, S and other trace elements.
On the market are the following fertilizers:
- Type 2 N and P elements NPK ratio: 18: 46: 0 and 20: 20: 0.

- Type 3 elements with the ratio of NPK: 20:20:10 and 15:15:15.

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- Type 4 elements N, P, K, Mg with ratio: 14: 9: 21: 2; 12: 12: 17: 2;


etc....

* Sub-NP
* Analysis of NK
* Sub-PK
* Assignment of N, P, K
* Things to note when mixing:
- Fertilizers containing ammonium as ammonium sulfate, urea, ammonium
chloride, ammonium nitrate fertilizer may not be mixed with alkaline reaction as
calcium, phosphate Van Dien, phosphorite powder, ash. Because if these fertilizers
mixed together will make NH3 volatilization loss of nitrogen.
- Phosphate soluble in water, such as superphosphate, DAP is not mixed with
lime.
- Sub-soluble, hygroscopic, lumps as nitrate, urea, potash is mixed just before
use.
- Supe phosphatic acid can release some sort of harmful substances such as
nitrates produce bags bags, which should be noted in shipping.

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The end.

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