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MP02: Motion Diagrams

Velocity and Acceleration of a Power Ball

Learning Goal: To understand the distinction between velocity and acceleration with the use of motion diagrams.
In common usage, velocity and acceleration both can imply having considerable speed. In physics, they are sharply
defined concepts that are not at all synonymous. Distinguishing clearly between them is a prerequisite to
understanding motion. Moreover, an easy way to study motion is to draw a motion diagram, in which the position of
the object in motion is sketched at several equally spaced instants of time, and these sketches (or snapshots) are
combined into one single picture.
In this problem, we make use of these concepts to study the motion of a power ball. This discussion assumes that we
have already agreed on a coordinate system from which to measure the position
of objects as a function of time. Let

and

be velocity and acceleration, respectively.

Harvaran Ghai
Consider the motion of a power ball that is dropped on the floor and bounces back. In the following questions, you
will describe its motion at various points in its fall in terms of its velocity and acceleration.
Part A
You drop a power ball on the floor. The motion diagram of the ball is sketched in the figure
the magnitude of the velocity of the ball is increasing, decreasing, or not changing.
increasing

. Indicate whether

decreasing
not changing
Correct

While the ball is in free fall, the magnitude of its velocity is increasing, so the ball is accelerating.
Part B

Since the length of is directly proportional to the length of

, the vector connecting each dot to the next could
represent velocity vectors as well as position vectors, as shown in the figure here
. Indicate whether the velocity
and acceleration of the ball are, respectively, positive (upward), negative, or zero.
Use P, N, and Z for positive (upward), negative, and zero, respectively. Separate the letters for velocity and
acceleration with a comma.
N,N
Correct

Part C
Now, consider the motion of the power ball once it bounces upward. Its motion diagram is shown in the figure here
. Indicate whether the magnitude of the velocity of the ball is increasing, decreasing, or not changing.
increasing
decreasing
not changing
Correct

Since the magnitude of the velocity of the ball is decreasing, the ball must be accelerating (specifically, slowing
down).
Part D
The next figure
shows the velocity vectors corresponding to the upward motion of the power ball. Indicate
whether its velocity and acceleration, respectively, are positive (upward), negative, or zero.
Use P, N, and Z for positive (upward), negative, and zero, respectively. Separate the letters for velocity and
acceleration with a comma.
P,N
Correct

Part E
The power ball has now reached its highest point above the ground and starts to descend again. The motion diagram
representing the velocity vectors is the same as that after the initial release, as shown in the figure of Part B. Indicate
whether the velocity and acceleration of the ball at its highest point are positive (upward), negative, or zero.
Use P, N, and Z for positive (upward), negative, and zero, respectively. Separate the letters for velocity and
acceleration with a comma.
Z,N
Correct

These examples should show you that the velocity and acceleration can have opposite or similar signs or that one of
them can be zero while the other has either sign. Try hard to think carefully about them as distinct physical
quantities when working with kinematics.

Motion of Two Rockets

LearningGoal:Tolearntouseimagesofanobjectinmotiontodeterminevelocityandacceleration.
imagewhereastroboscopehasilluminatedtherocketsattheuniformtimeintervalsindicated.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Atwhattime(s)dotherocketshavethesamevelocity?
attime

only

attime

only

attimes

and

atsomeinstantintimebetween

and

atnotimeshowninthefigure
Correct

Part B
Atwhattime(s)dotherocketshavethesamexposition?
attime

only

attime

only

attimes

and

atsomeinstantintimebetween

and

atnotimeshowninthefigure
Correct

Part C
Atwhattime(s)dothetworocketshavethesameacceleration?
attime

only

attime

only

attimes

and

atsomeinstantintimebetween

and

atnotimeshowninthefigure
Correct

Part D
ThemotionoftherocketlabeledAisanexampleofmotionwithuniform(i.e.,constant)__________.
andnonzero
acceleration
velocity
displacement
time
Correct

Part E
ThemotionoftherocketlabeledBisanexampleofmotionwithuniform(i.e.,constant)__________.
andnonzero
acceleration
velocity
displacement
time
Correct

Part F
before
after
before

only
only
andafter

between
and
atnotime(s)showninthe
figure
Correct

PSS 1.1: (Almost) a Dozen Diagrams

LearningGoal:TopracticeProblemSolvingStrategy1.1forconstructingmotiondiagrams.
Acaristravelingwithconstantvelocityalongahighway.Thedrivernoticesheislateforworksohestompsdown
onthegaspedalandthecarbeginstoaccelerate.Thecarhasjustachieveddoubleitsinitialvelocitywhenthedriver
andafewothers.

Harvaran Ghai
Representthemovingobjectasaparticle.Makesimplifyingassumptionswheninterpretingtheproblem
statement.
MODEL:

VISUALIZE:

Acompletemotiondiagramconsistsof:

clearbutwithoutovercrowdingthepicture.Morecomplexmotionsmayneedmoredots.

Theaveragevelocityvectors,foundbyconnectingeachdotinthemotiondiagramtothenextwithavector
.

eachsetoftwovelocityvectors.Eachaccelerationvectorisdrawnatthedotbetweenthetwovelocity
vectors .

Model
Itisappropriatetousetheparticlemodelforthecar.Youshouldalsomakesomesimplifyingassumptions.
Part A
Whichofthefollowingsimplifyingassumptionsisitreasonabletomakeinthisproblem?
A. Duringeachofthethreedifferentstagesofitsmotion,thecarismovingwithconstant(possiblyzero)
acceleration.
B. Duringeachofthethreedifferentstagesofitsmotion,thecarismovingwithconstant(possiblyzero)
velocity.
C. Thehighwayisstraight(i.e.,therearenocurves).
D. Thehighwayislevel(i.e.,therearenohillsorvalleys).
thinkthatassumptionsCandDarereasonable,enterCD.
ACD
Correct

Visualize
Nowdrawamotiondiagram,includingalltheelementslistedintheproblemsolvingstrategy.Useyourdiagramto
Ininterpretingthediagramsthatfollow,assumethatthecarismovinginastraightlinetotheright.
Refertothissetofmotiondiagrams

Part B
Whichofthediagramsbestdescribesthepositionandthevelocityofthecarbeforethedrivernoticesheislate?
A
B
C
Correct

Part C
Whichofthediagramsbestdescribesthepositionandthevelocityofthecarafterthedriverhitsthegas,butbefore
henoticesthepoliceman?
A
B
C
Correct

Part D
Whichofthediagramsbestdescribesthepositionandthevelocityofthecarafterthedrivernoticesthepoliceman?
A
B
C
Correct

Part E
Whichofthesediagrams
problemintroduction?

mostaccuratelydepictstheaccelerationofthecarduringtheeventsdescribedinthe

Assumethatthecarisinitiallymovingtotheright.
A
B
C
Correct

Nowlet'suseourresultsforthecarandapplythemtosomeotherproblems.Considerthesethreesituations:

Atrainhasitsbrakesreleasedandpullsoutofthestation,slowlypickingupspeed.
Asledisgivenaquickpushalongahorizontalsurface;thesledcomestoastopaftercoveringsome
distance.

Amotorcycleismovingalongastraighthighwayat105km/h(thelegalspeedlimitinmanystates).

Part F
Ofthethreesituationsdescribed,whichobjectcorrespondstothepositionandvelocitydiagramshownhere?
thetrain
thesled

the
motorcycle
Correct

Notethatthediagramshownisnotacompletemotiondiagram;itlacksthevectorrepresentingtheaccelerationof
theobject.
Part G
Ofthethreesituationsdescribed,whichobjectcorrespondstothemotiondiagramshownhere?
thetrain

thesled
the
motorcycle
Correct

Letusnowconsideranotherscenario.Acarandatruckaremovingatthesamevelocityalongastraighthighway.
Bothdriversapplythebrakesatthesamemoment.Thecarandtruckbothcometoastop.Thecartakeslesstimeto
stopthanthetruck.
Refertothemotiondiagramsshownhere

Assumethatbothcarsaremovingtotheright.
Part H
Whichofthethreediagramsshownbestdescribesthemotionofthecarandtruckafterthebrakeshavebeen
applied?
A
B
C
Correct

Part I
Diagram(B)isincorrectbecause,accordingtoit:
Thecarandtruckmoveindifferentdirections.
Thecarismovingatconstantvelocity.
Thetruckisspeedingup.
Thecarandthetruckhavethesame
acceleration.
Correct

Part J
Diagram(C)isincorrectbecause,accordingtoit:
Thecarandtruckmoveindifferentdirections.
Thecarismovingatconstantvelocity.
Thetruckisspeedingup.
Thecarandthetruckhavethesame
acceleration.
Correct

MP04: Using Motion Diagrams

Curved Motion Diagram
Themotiondiagramshownhere representsapendulumreleasedfromrestatanangleof45 fromthevertical.
Thedotsinthemotiondiagramrepresentthepositionsofthependulumbobatelevenmomentsseparatedbyequal
rose"ofdirectionsinwhichthedifferentdirectionsarelabeledwiththelettersofthealphabet.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Whatisthedirectionoftheaccelerationofthependulumbobatmoment5?
Entertheletterofthearrowwiththisdirectionfromthecompassroseinthefigure.TypeZiftheacceleration
vectorhaszerolength.
A
Correct

Part B
Whatisthedirectionoftheaccelerationofthependulumbobatmoments0and10?
Enterthelettersofthearrowswiththesedirectionsfromthecompassroseinthefigure,separatedby
commas.TypeZiftheaccelerationvectorhaszerolength.
directionsatmoment0,moment10=D,F
Correct

Part C
Inwhichofthefollowingotherscenarioscouldthemotionreasonablyberepresentedbythemotiondiagraminthe
introduction?
A. Aweightplacedontherimofabicyclewheelthatisbeingheldoffthegroundsoitcanrotatefreely
C. Aracecarroundingaturn
D. Amarblereleasedpartwayuptheinsidesurfaceofasmoothlyroundedbowl
Enterthelettersofallpossiblecorrectscenariosinalphabeticalorder.Donotusecommas.
Correct

Part D
Assumethatthediagramintheproblemintroductionrepresentsthemotionofaballtiedontheendofastringthat
is,apendulum.Alsoassumethattheintervalbetweeneachtimestepinthediagramis0.10s.Thetotaltimeittakes
forthispendulumtoswingbackandforth,alsocalledtheperiodofthependulum,isthenapproximately2s.
whateverotherobjectisused).Itdependsonlyonthelengthofthestring(withlongerperiodforlongerstrings)and
thestrengthoftheforceofgravity(whichisessentiallyconstantoverthesurfaceoftheearth).
Basedonobservationorcomparisonwithotherreallifependula,estimatethelength ofthestringneededforthe
pendulumtohaveaperiodof2s.
Express inmeters.Afactorof3errorisallowedineitherdirection.
=1.0
Correct

conceptsallowsaphysicisttomakereasonablyaccurateestimateslikethisoneveryquickly.Evenifyouwere
longcalculationisreasonable.

Average Velocity from a Position vs. Time Graph

Inthisproblemyoumustfindtheaveragevelocityfromagraphof
indicatetheaveragevelocityoverthetimeintervalfrom to .Thus
intervalfrom1to3s.

.Wewillusethenotation

to

istheaveragevelocityoverthetime

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Findtheaveragevelocityoverthetimeintervalfrom0to1second.

=0
Correct

Part B
Findtheaveragevelocityoverthetimeintervalfrom1to3seconds.

=20
Correct

Part C
Nowthatyouhave

and

,find

=13.3
Correct

Notethat

isnotequaltothesimplearithmeticaverageof

and

fortimeintervalsofdifferentlength.Youwouldhavetodoubletheweightgivento
intervaltwiceaslong.

,becausetheyareaverages
becauseitisforan

Part D
Findtheaveragevelocityoverthetimeintervalfrom1to5seconds.Youwillneedtointerpolatetofindtheposition
attime
.Donotsimplyeyeballthepositionoryouwilllikelynotbeabletoobtainthesolutiontothedesired
accuracy.

=6.7
Correct

Part E
kilometersperhour.

=24
Correct

Part F
Findtheaveragevelocityoverthetimeintervalfrom2.5to6.0seconds.

Correct

=8.6

Running and Walking

TimandRickbothcanrunatspeed andwalkatspeed
distance
half.

,with

.Theysetofftogetheronajourneyof

.Rickwalkshalfofthedistanceandrunstheotherhalf.Timwalkshalfofthetimeandrunstheother

Harvaran Ghai
Part A

HowlongdoesittakeRicktocoverthedistance

ExpressthetimetakenbyRickintermsof ,
=
Correct

,and

Part B
FindRick'saveragespeedforcoveringthedistance
ExpressRick'saveragespeedintermsof ,

=
Correct

,and

Part C
HowlongdoesittakeTimtocoverthedistance?
ExpressthetimetakenbyTimintermsof ,
=
Correct

,and

Part D
Whocoversthedistance morequickly?
Rick
Tim
Neither.Theycoverthedistanceinthesameamountof
time.
Correct

Part E
Intermsofgivenquantities,bywhatamountoftime, ,doesTimbeatRick?
Expressthedifferenceintime,
=
Correct

Part F

intermsof ,

,and

Inthespecialcasethat

Correct

,whatwouldbeTim'smarginofvictory

Graph of v(t) for a Sports Car

Thegraph
questions.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Findthemaximumvelocity
ofthecar.

=55
Correct

Part B
Duringwhichtimeintervalistheaccelerationpositive?
to
to
to
to
Correct

to

Part C
Findthemaximumacceleration
ofthecar.

=30
Correct

Part D
Findtheminimummagnitudeoftheacceleration
ofthecar.

=0
Correct

Part E
Findthedistance traveledbythecarbetween0and2s.
=55
Correct

Rearending Drag Racer

Todemonstratethetremendousaccelerationofatopfueldragracer,youattempttorunyourcarintothebackofa
dragsterthatis"burningout"attheredlightbeforethestartofarace.(Burningoutmeansspinningthetiresathigh
Youdriveataconstantspeedof towardthestoppeddragster,notslowingdowninthefaceoftheimminent
collision.Thedragsterdriverseesyoucomingbutwaitsuntilthelastinstanttoputdownthehammer,accelerating
fromthestartinglineatconstantacceleration, .Letthetimeatwhichthedragsterstartstoacceleratebe

Harvaran Ghai

Part A

Whatis
,thelongesttimeafterthedragsterbeginstoacceleratethatyoucanpossiblyrunintothebackofthe
dragsterifyoucontinueatyourinitialvelocity?

=
Correct

Part B
Assumingthatthedragsterhasstartedatthelastinstantpossible(soyourfrontbumperalmosthitstherearofthe
dragsterat

),findyourdistancefromthedragsterwhenhestarted.Ifyoucalculatepositionsonthewayto

thissolution,choosecoordinatessothatthepositionofthedragcaris0at
.Rememberthatyouaresolvingfor

=
Correct

Part C
Findnumericalvaluesfor

and

insecondsandmetersforthe(reasonable)values

and
.

,
Correct

=0.54,7.2s,m

(26.8m/s)

Thebluecurveshowshowthecar,initiallyat
acceleratingdragcar(red)at

,continuesatconstantvelocity(blue)andjustbarelytouchesthe

movestowardthewallwithconstantvelocity ofmagnitude .Attime

,theobjectislocatedatthesource .

Part A

Harvaran Ghai

=
Correct

Rocket Height
Arocket,initiallyatrestontheground,acceleratesstraightupwardfromrestwithconstantnetacceleration ,until
time ,whenthefuelisexhausted.

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
Findthemaximumheight

thattherocketreaches(neglectingairresistance).

Expressthemaximumheightintermsof , ,and/or .Notethatinthisproblem, isapositivenumber

equaltothemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity.
=a*t1*((a*t1)/g)(.5g((a*t1)/g)2)+(.5(t1)2*a)
Correct

Part B
Iftherocket'snetaccelerationis

for

,whatisthemaximumheighttherocketwillreach?
.

=1470m
Correct

A Flower Pot Falling Past a Window

Asyoulookoutofyourdormwindow,aflowerpotsuddenlyfallspast.Thepotisvisibleforatime ,andthe
verticallengthofyourwindowis .Takedowntobethepositivedirection,sothatdownwardvelocitiesare
positiveandtheaccelerationduetogravityisthepositivequantity .
Assumethattheflowerpotwasdroppedbysomeoneontheflooraboveyou(ratherthanthrowndownward).

Part A
Fromwhatheight abovethebottomofyourwindowwastheflowerpotdropped?

Harvaran Ghai

, ,and .

=
Correct

Part B
Ifthebottomofyourwindowisaheight abovetheground,whatisthevelocity
ofthepotasithitsthe
ground?Youmayintroducethenewvariable ,thespeedatthebottomofthewindow,definedby

.

=
Correct

, ,

,and .

Resolving Vector Components with Trigonometry

exertsaforceof

resultswithvectors,itisbesttoselectacoordinatesystemandmanipulatethecomponentsofthevectorsinthat
coordinatesystem.

Harvaran Ghai

Part A

Findthecomponentsofthevectorwithlength andangle withrespecttothexaxisasshown,named .Don't

forgetthatwhenmultiplyingtwofactors,youmustincludeamultiplicationsymbol;also,thecosandsinfunctions
musthaveparenthesesaroundtheirarguments.Forexample,avectormighttaketheformp*sin(Q),m*cos(N).
Writethecomponentsintheformx,y.
=
Correct

Part B
Findthecomponentsofthevectorwithlength andangle withrespecttothexaxisasshown,named .
Writethecomponentsintheformx,y.
=
Correct

Noticethatvectors

and havethesameformdespitetheirplacementwithrespecttotheyaxisonthedrawing.

Part C
Findthecomponentsofthevectorwithlength andangle asshown,named .
=
Correct

Tracking a Plane

,detectsanairplanecomingstraightat

thestationfromtheeast.Atfirstobservation(pointA),thepositionoftheairplanerelativetotheoriginis
positionvector

hasamagnitudeof360

trackedforanother123

andislocatedatexactly40

.The

abovethehorizon.Theairplaneis

intheverticaleastwestplanefor5.0 ,untilithaspasseddirectlyoverthestation

andreachedpointB.ThepositionofpointBrelativetotheoriginis
(themagnitudeof
is880 ).The
contactpointsareshowninthediagram,wherethexaxisrepresentsthegroundandthepositivezdirectionis
upward.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A

componentsof

.Whatarethe

Express
inmetersasanorderedpair,separatingthexandzcomponentswithacomma,totwo
significantfigures.

=1100,26
Correct

Twoforces,

and

,actatapoint.

hasamagnitudeof9.80 andisdirectedatanangleof60.0 abovethe

hasamagnitudeof6.40 andisdirectedatanangleof53.2 belowthe

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Whatisthexcomponentoftheresultantforce?
8.73
Correct

Part B
Whatistheycomponentoftheresultantforce?
3.36
Correct

Part C
Whatisthemagnitudeoftheresultantforce?
9.36
Correct

A Push or a Pull?
LearningGoal:Tounderstandtheconceptofforceasapushorapullandtobecomefamiliarwitheverydayforces.
Aforcecanbesimplydefinedasapushorapullexertedbyoneobjectuponanother.

Eachforceiscreatedbysomeobject.
Eachforceactsuponsomeotherobject.

Theactionofaforcecanbevisualizedasapushorapull.

Sinceeachforceiscreatedbyoneobjectandactsuponanother,forcesmustbedescribedasinteractions.The
properwordsdescribingtheforceinteractionbetweenobjectsAandBmaybeanyofthefollowing:

"ObjectAactsuponobjectBwithforce ."

"ObjectAexertsforce uponobjectB."

"Force isappliedtoobjectBbyobjectA."

"Force duetoobjectAisactinguponobjectB."

Oneofthebiggestmistakesyoumaymakeistothinkofaforceas"somethinganobjecthas."Infact,atleasttwo
objectsarealwaysrequiredforaforcetoexist.
changetheirvelocities:Forcescauseacceleration.However,inthisproblem,wewillnotconcernourselveswith
accelerationnotyet.

Harvaran Ghai
Somecommontypesofforcesthatyouwillbedealingwithincludethegravitationalforce(weight),theforceof
tension,theforceoffriction,andthenormalforce.
Itissometimesconvenienttoclassifyforcesaseithercontactforcesbetweentwoobjectsthataretouchingoras
longrangeforcesbetweentwoobjectsthataresomedistanceapart.Contactforcesincludetension,friction,andthe
butnotreallyfundamental:Forinstance,onamicroscopicscaletheforceoffrictionisreallyanelectromagnetic
force.
Inthisproblem,youwillidentifythetypesofforcesactingonobjectsinvarioussituations.
First,considerabookrestingonahorizontaltable.
Part A
thebookitself
theearth
thesurfaceofthe
table
Correct

Part B
Thedownwardforceactingonthebookis__________.
acontactforce
alongrange
force
Correct

Part C
Whatisthedownwardforceactingonthebookcalled?
tension
normalforce
weight
friction
Correct

Part D
Whichobjectexertsanupwardforceonthebook?
thebookitself
theearth
thesurfaceofthe
table
Correct

Part E
Theupwardforceactingonthebookis__________.
acontactforce
alongrange
force
Correct

Part F
Whatistheupwardforceactingonthebookcalled?
tension
normalforce
weight
friction

Correct

rightalongaroughhorizontaltable.
Part G
Whichobjectexertsaforceontheblockthatisdirectedtowardtheright?
theblockitself
theearth
thesurfaceofthe
table
thestring
Correct

Part H
Theforceactingontheblockanddirectedtotherightis__________.
acontactforce
alongrange
force
Correct

Toexertatensionforce,thestringmustbeconnectedto(i.e.,touching)theblock.
Part I
Whatistheforceactingontheblockanddirectedtotherightcalled?
tension
normalforce
weight
friction
Correct

Part J
Whichobjectexertsaforceontheblockthatisdirectedtowardtheleft?
theblockitself
theearth
thesurfaceofthe
table
thestring
Correct

Part K
Theforceactingontheblockanddirectedtotheleftis__________.
acontactforce
alongrange
force
Correct

Part L
Whatistheforceactingontheblockanddirectedtotheleftcalled?
tension
normalforce
weight
friction
Correct

Nowconsideraslightlydifferentsituation.Thesameblockisplacedonthesameroughtable.However,thistime,
thestringisdisconnectedandtheblockisgivenaquickpushtotheright.Theblockslidestotherightand
eventuallystops.Thefollowingquestionsrefertothemotionoftheblockafteritispushedbutbeforeitstops.
Part M
Howmanyforcesareactingontheblockinthehorizontaldirection?
0
1
2
3
Correct

Oncethepushhascommenced,thereisnoforceactingtotheright:Theblockismovingtotherightbecauseitwas
givenavelocityinthisdirectionbysomeforcethatisnolongerappliedtotheblock(probably,thenormalforce
exertedbyastudent'shandorsomespringlauncher).
Oncethecontactwiththelaunchingobjecthasbeenlost,theonlyhorizontalforceactingontheblockisdirectedto
theleftwhichiswhytheblockeventuallystops.
Part N
Whatistheforceactingontheblockthatisdirectedtotheleftcalled?
tension
normalforce

weight
friction
Correct

Theforceoffrictiondoesnotdisappearaslongastheblockismoving.Oncetheblockstops,fricionbecomeszero
(assumingthetableisperfectlyhorizontal).

Free-Body Diagrams: Introduction

LearningGoal:Tolearntodrawfreebodydiagramsforvariousreallifesituations.
involved.Frequently,thatanalysiswouldinvolvefindingtheaccelerationoftheobjects.That,inturn,requiresthat
youfindthenetforce.
problemwillwalkyouthroughseveralexamplesoffreebodydiagramsandwilldemonstratesomeofthepossible
pitfalls.
Hereisthegeneralstrategyfordrawingfreebodydiagrams:
forcesshouldbeshownasvectorsoriginatingfromthedotrepresentingtheobjectofinterest.Thereare
twopossibledifficultieshere:omittingsomeforcesanddrawingtheforcesthateitherdon'texistatall
orareappliedtootherobjects.Toavoidthesetwopitfalls,rememberthateveryforcemustbeapplied
totheobjectofinterestbysomeotherobjector,assomeliketosay,"everyforcemusthaveasource."

Oncealloftheforcesaredrawn,drawthecoordinatesystem.Theoriginshouldcoincidewiththedot
representingtheobjectofinterestandtheaxesshouldbechosensothatthesubsequentcalculationsof
vectorcomponentsoftheforceswillberelativelysimple.Thatis,asmanyforcesaspossiblemustbe
eitherparallelorperpendiculartooneoftheaxes.

Harvaran Ghai
Itshouldcomeasgoodnewsthat,eventhoughreallifecanpresentuswithawidevarietyofsituations,wewillbe
mostlydealingwithaverysmallnumberofforces.Herearetheprincipalonesofinterest:

Weight,ortheforceduetogravity.Weightactsoneveryobjectandisdirectedstraightdownunlessweare
consideringaprobleminvolvingthenonflatearth(e.g.,satellites).
Normalforce.Thenormalforceexistsbetweentwosurfacesthatarepressedagainsteachother;itisalways
perpendiculartothesurfaces.

Forceoftension.Tensionexistsinstrings,springs,andotherobjectsoffinitelength.Itisdirectedalongthe
stringoraspring.Keepinmindthataspringcanbeeithercompressedorstretchedwhereasastringcan
onlybestretched.

Forceoffriction.Africtionforceexistsbetweentwosurfacesthateithermoveorhaveatendencytomove
relativetoeachother.Sometimes,theforceofairdrag,similarinsomewaystotheforceoffriction,may
comeintoplay.Theseforcesaredirectedsothattheyresisttherelativemotionofthesurfaces.Keepin
wordfrictioncommonlyreferstoresistiveforcesotherthanairdragthatarecausedbycontactbetween
surfacessoyoucanignoreairdraginproblemsunlessyouaretoldtoconsideritseffects.

Thefollowingexamplesshouldhelpyoulearntodrawfreebodydiagrams.Wewillstartwithrelativelysimple
situationsinwhichtheobjectofinterestiseitherexplicitlysuggestedorfairlyobvious.
Part A
Ahockeypuckslidesalongahorizontal,smoothicysurfaceataconstantvelocityasshown.
diagramforthepuck.Whichofthefollowingforcesareactingonthepuck?
A. weight
B. friction
C. forceofvelocity
D. forceofpush
E. normalforce

Drawafreebody

F. airdrag
G. acceleration
AE
Correct

Thereisnosuchthingas"theforceofvelocity."Ifthepuckisnotbeingpushed,therearenohorizontalforces
actingonit.Ofcourse,somehorizontalforcemusthaveactedonitbefore,toimpartthevelocityhowever,inthe
situationdescribed,nosuch"forceofpush"exists.Also,theairdraginsuchcasesisassumedtobenegligible.
Finally,theword"smooth"usuallyimpliesnegligiblesurfacefriction.Yourfreebodydiagramshouldlooklikethe

oneshownhere.
Part B
Considerablockpulledbyahorizontalropealongahorizontalsurfaceataconstantvelocityasshown. The
tensionintheropeisnonzero.Drawafreebodydiagramfortheblock.Whichofthefollowingforcesareactingon
theblock?
A. weight
B. friction
C. forceofvelocity
D. forceoftension
E. normalforce
F. airdrag
G. acceleration

ABDE
Correct

Becausethevelocityisconstant,theremustbeaforceoffrictionopposingtheforceoftension.Sincetheblockis
moving,itiskineticfriction.Yourfreebodydiagramshouldlooklikethatshownhere.

ConsiderthefollowingsituationinpartsCF.
Ablockisrestingonaslopeasshown.

Part C
Whichofthefollowingforcesareactingontheblock?
A. weight
B. kineticfriction

C. staticfriction
D. forceofpush
E. normalforce
ACE
Correct

Part D
Whatisthedirectionoftheforceduetogravityactingontheblock?
verticallyupward
verticallydownward
perpendiculartotheslope

upwardalongtheslope
downwardalongtheslope
Correct

Part E
Whatisthedirectionofthenormalforceactingontheblock?
verticallyupward

verticallydownward
perpendiculartotheslope
upwardalongtheslope
downwardalongtheslope
Correct

Part F
Drawthefreebodydiagramfortheblock.Whatisthedirectionoftheforceoffrictionactingontheblock?
verticallyupward

verticallydownward
perpendiculartotheslope
upwardalongtheslope
downwardalongtheslope
Correct

Withoutfriction,theblockwouldslidedowntheslope;sotheforceofstaticfrictionmustopposesuchamotionand
bedirectedupwardalongtheslope.Yourfreebodydiagramshouldlooklikethatshownhere.

Nowconsiderablockslidinguparoughslopeafterhavingbeengivenaquickpushasshown.
Part G
Whichofthefollowingforcesareactingontheblock?
A. weight
B. kineticfriction

C. staticfriction
D. forceofpush
E. normalforce
F. theforceofvelocity
ABE
Correct

Theword"rough"impliesthepresenceoffriction.Sincetheblockisinmotion,itiskineticfriction.Onceagain,
thereisnosuchthingas"theforceofvelocity."However,itseemsatemptingchoicetosomestudentssincethe
blockisgoingup.
Part H
Drawthefreebodydiagramfortheblock.Whatisthedirectionoftheforceoffrictionactingontheblock?
verticallyupward
verticallydownward
perpendiculartotheslope
upwardalongtheslope
downwardalongtheslope
Correct

Theforceofkineticfrictionopposestheupwardmotionoftheblock.Yourfreebodydiagramshouldlooklikethe

oneshownhere.
Part I
Nowconsiderablockbeingpushedupasmoothslope.Theforcepushingtheblockisparalleltotheslope.
Whichofthefollowingforcesareactingontheblock?
A. weight
B. kineticfriction
C. staticfriction
D. forceofpush
E. normalforce
Correct

Yourfreebodydiagramshouldlookliketheoneshownhere.

bythepalmofthehandofthepersonpushingtheblock.

Theforceofpushisthenormalforceexerted,possibly,

Inalltheprevioussituationsjustdescribed,theobjectofinterestwasexplicitlygiven.Letusconsiderasituation
wherechoosingtheobjectsforwhichtodrawthefreebodydiagramsisuptoyou.
Twoblocksofmasses and areconnectedbyalightstringthatgoesoveralightfrictionlesspulley.Theblock
ofmass isslidingtotherightonaroughhorizontalsurfaceofalabtable.
Part J
Tosolvefortheaccelerationoftheblocks,youwillhavetodrawthefreebodydiagramsforwhichobjects?
A. theblockofmass
B. theblockofmass
C. theconnectingstring
D. thepulley
E. thetable
F. theearth
AB
Correct

Part K
Drawthefreebodydiagramfortheblockofmass
none
one
two

.Howmanyforcesareexertedonthisblock?

three
four
Correct

Yourfreebodydiagramshouldlooklikethatshownhere.

Part L
Drawthefreebodydiagramfortheblockofmass
none
one
two
three
four
Correct

.Howmanyforcesareexertedonthisblock?

Yourfreebodydiagramshouldlooklikethatshownhere.

Understanding Newton's Laws

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
Anobjectcannotremainatrestunlesswhichofthefollowingholds?
Thenetforceactingonitiszero.
Thenetforceactingonitisconstantand
nonzero.
Therearenoforcesatallactingonit.
Thereisonlyoneforceactingonit.
Correct

Ifthereisanetforceactingonabody,regardlessofwhetheritisaconstantforce,thebodyaccelerates.Ifthebody
isatrestandthenetforceactingonitiszero,thenitwillremainatrest.Thenetforcecouldbezeroeitherbecause
therearenoforcesactingonthebodyatallorbecauseseveralforcesareactingonthebodybuttheyallcancelout.
Part B
Ifablockismovingtotheleftataconstantvelocity,whatcanoneconclude?
Thereisexactlyoneforceappliedtotheblock.
Thenetforceappliedtotheblockisdirectedtothe
left.
Thenetforceappliedtotheblockiszero.
Theremustbenoforcesatallappliedtotheblock.
Correct

bodyismovingwithconstantvelocity,thenitisnotacceleratingandthenetforceactingonitiszero.Thenetforce
couldbezeroeitherbecausetherearenoforcesactingonthebodyatallorbecauseseveralforcesareactingonthe
bodybuttheyallcancelout.
Part C
Ablockofmass
isacteduponbytwoforces:
Itmustbemovingtotheleft.

(directedtotheleft)and

(directedtotheright).Whatcan

Itmustbemovingtotheright.
Itmustbeatrest.
Itcouldbemovingtotheleft,movingtotheright,orbeinstantaneouslyat
rest.
Correct

thiscase,thenetforceon(andthereforetheaccelerationof)theblockistotheright,buttheblockcouldbemoving
left,right,orinanyotherdirection.
Part D
Amassiveblockisbeingpulledalongahorizontalfrictionlesssurfacebyaconstanthorizontalforce.Theblock
mustbe__________.
continuouslychangingdirection
movingatconstantvelocity
movingwithaconstantnonzeroacceleration
movingwithcontinuouslyincreasing
acceleration
Correct

theforceactingonthebodyisconstant.Hence,accordingtoNewton's2ndlawofmotion,theaccelerationofthe
bodyisalsoconstant.
Part E
Twoforces,ofmagnitude
and
,areappliedtoanobject.Therelativedirectionoftheforcesisunknown.
Thenetforceactingontheobject__________.
A. cannotbeequalto
B. cannotbeequalto
C. cannotbedirectedthesamewayastheforceof

D. mustbegreaterthan
thinkonlythelastoptioniscorrect,enterD.
A
Correct

Conceptual Questions on Newton's 1st and 2nd Laws

LearningGoal:TounderstandthemeaningandthebasicapplicationsofNewton's1stand2ndlaws.
representtheobject'spositionatmomentsseparatedbyequalintervalsoftime.Thedotsareconnectedbyarrows
representingtheobject'saveragevelocityduringthecorrespondingtimeinterval.
Yourgoalistousethismotiondiagramtodeterminethedirectionofthenetforceactingontheobject.Youwill
thendeterminewhichforcediagramsandwhichsituationsmaycorrespondtosuchamotion.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
WhatisthedirectionofthenetforceactingontheobjectatpositionA?
upward
downward
totheleft
totheright
Thenetforceis
zero.

Correct

direction.Therefore,theaccelerationiszeroandsoisthenetforce.
Part B
WhatisthedirectionofthenetforceactingontheobjectatpositionB?
upward
downward
totheleft
totheright
Thenetforceis
zero.
Correct

Thevelocityisdirectedtotheright;however,itisdecreasing.Therefore,theaccelerationisdirectedtotheleftand
soisthenetforce.
Part C
WhatisthedirectionofthenetforceactingontheobjectatpositionC?
upward
downward
totheleft
totheright
Thenetforceis
zero.
Correct

Thehorizontalcomponentofthevelocitydoesnotchange.Theverticalcomponentofthevelocityincreases.
Therefore,theaccelerationandthenetforcearedirectedstraightdownward.
Thenextfourquestionsarerelatedtotheforcediagramsnumbered1to6. Thesediagramsrepresenttheforces
actingonamovingobject.Thenumbernexttoeacharrowrepresentsthemagnitudeoftheforceinnewtons.
Part D
WhichofthesediagramsmaypossiblycorrespondtothesituationatpointAonthemotiondiagram?
Type,inincreasingorder,thenumberscorrespondingtothecorrectdiagrams.Donotusecommas.For
instance,ifyouthinkthatonlydiagrams3and4arecorrect,type34.
6
Correct

Part E

WhichofthesediagramsmaypossiblycorrespondtothesituationatpointBonthemotiondiagram?
Type,inincreasingorder,thenumberscorrespondingtothecorrectdiagrams.Donotusecommas.For
instance,ifyouthinkthatonlydiagrams3and4arecorrect,type34.
35
Correct

Part F
WhichofthesediagramsmaypossiblycorrespondtothesituationatpointConthemotiondiagram?
Type,inincreasingorder,thenumberscorrespondingtothecorrectdiagrams.Donotusecommas.For
instance,ifyouthinkthatonlydiagrams3and4arecorrect,type34.
24
Correct

Part G
Whichofthesediagramscorrespondtoasituationwherethemovingobject(notnecessarilytheoneshowninthe
motiondiagram)ischangingitsvelocity?
Type,inincreasingorder,thenumberscorrespondingtothecorrectdiagrams.Donotusecommas.For
instance,ifyouthinkthatonlydiagrams3and4arecorrect,type34.
12345
Correct

Considerthefollowingsituations:
D. Ahockeypuckslidesalongasmooth(i.e.,frictionless)icysurface.
E. Ahockeypuckslidesalongaroughconcretesurface.
F. Acockroachisspeedingupfromrest.
G. Arockisthrownhorizontally;airresistanceisnegligible.
H. Arockisthrownhorizontally;airresistanceissubstantial.
I.

Arockisdroppedvertically;airresistanceisnegligible.

J.

Arockisdroppedvertically;airresistanceissubstantial.

Part H
WhichofthesesituationsdescribethemotionshowninthemotiondiagramatpointA?
instance,ifyouthinkthatonlysituationsCandDarecorrect,typeCD.
Correct

Part I
WhichofthesesituationsdescribethemotionshowninthemotiondiagramatpointB?
instance,ifyouthinkthatonlysituationsCandDarecorrect,typeCD.
BE
Correct

Part J
WhichofthesesituationsdescribethemotionshowninthemotiondiagramatpointC?
instance,ifyouthinkthatonlysituationsCandDarecorrect,typeCD.
G
Correct

A World-Class Sprinter
Worldclasssprinterscanaccelerateoutofthestartingblockswithanaccelerationthatisnearlyhorizontalandhas
magnitude

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Howmuchhorizontalforce mustasprinterofmass54.0
acceleration?

exertonthestartingblockstoproducethis

=810
Correct

Part B
Whichbodyexertstheforcethatpropelsthesprinter,theblocksorthesprinter?
theblocks
thesprinter
Correct

Tostartmovingforward,sprinterspushbackwardonthestartingblockswiththeirfeet.Asareaction,theblocks
pushforwardontheirfeetwithaforceofthesamemagnitude.Thisexternalforceacceleratesthesprinterforward.

Block on an Incline
Ablockliesonaplaneraisedanangle fromthehorizontal.Threeforcesactupontheblock:
gravity; ,thenormalforce;and
blockfromsliding .

,theforceoffriction.Thecoefficientoffrictionislargeenoughtopreventthe

Part A
Considercoordinatesystema,withthexaxisalongtheplane.Whichforcesliealongtheaxes?
only
only
only
and
and
and
and
Correct

,theforceof

and

Part B
Whichforcesliealongtheaxesofthecoordinatesystemb,inwhichtheyaxisisvertical?

Harvaran Ghai

only
only
only
and
and
and
and
Correct

and

Nowyouaregoingtoignorethegeneralrule(actually,astrongsuggestion)thatyoushouldpickthecoordinate
systemwiththemostvectors,especiallyunknownones,alongthecoordinateaxes.Youwillfindthenormalforce,
,usingverticalcoordinatesystemb.Inthesecoordinatesyouwillfindthemagnitude
andyequations,eachmultipliedbyatrigonometricfunction.

appearinginboththex

Part C
Becausetheblockisnotmoving,thesumoftheycomponentsoftheforcesactingontheblockmustbezero.Find
anexpressionforthesumoftheycomponentsoftheforcesactingontheblock,usingcoordinatesystemb.

,and .

Correct

Part D
Becausetheblockisnotmoving,thesumofthexcomponentsoftheforcesactingontheblockmustbezero.Find
anexpressionforthesumofthexcomponentsoftheforcesactingontheblock,usingcoordinatesystemb.

,and .

Correct

Part E
Tofindthemagnitudeofthenormalforce,youmustexpress

intermsof

equationsyoufoundinthetwopreviousparts,findanexpressionfor
=
Correct

since

involving

isanunknown.Usingthe
and butnot

Congratulationsonworkingthisthrough.Nowrealizethatincoordinatesystema,whichisalignedwiththeplane,
theycoordinateequationis
for

CONCLUSION:Athoughtfulexaminationofwhichcoordinatesystemtochoosecansavealotofalgebra.

Hanging Chandelier
Achandelierwithmass isattachedtotheceilingofalargeconcerthallbytwocables.Becausetheceilingis
coveredwithintricatearchitecturaldecorations(notindicatedinthefigure,whichusesahumblerdepiction),the
attachedthecablestotheceilingnearthewalls.Cable1hastension
Cable2hastension

andmakesanangleof withtheceiling.

andmakesanangleof withtheceiling.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Findanexpressionfor

,thetensionincable1,thatdoesnotdependon

accelerationduetogravity .
=
Correct

, ,and ,aswellasthemagnitudeofthe

Problem 5.11

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
Anastronaut'sweightonearthis805 .WhatishisweightonMars,where
309N
Correct

Problem 5.12
Awomanhasamassof

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
Whatisherweightonearth?
539N
Correct

Part B
Whatishermassonthemoon,where
55.0kg
Correct

Part C
Whatisherweightonthemoon?
89.1N
Correct

Problem 5.14
Thefigureshowsthevelocitygraphofa

passengerinanelevator.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Whatisthepassenger'sapparentweightat
1040N
Correct

Part B
Att= ?
735N
Correct

Part C
Att= ?
585N
Correct

Pushing a Chair along the Floor

Achairofweight120 liesatopahorizontalfloor;thefloorisnotfrictionless.Youpushonthechairwithaforce
of =35.0 directedatanangleof41.0 belowthehorizontalandthechairslidesalongthefloor.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
UsingNewton'slaws,calculate ,themagnitudeofthenormalforcethatthefloorexertsonthechair.
=143
Correct

Board Pulled Out from under a Box

Asmallboxofmass issittingonaboardofmass andlength .Theboardrestsonafrictionless
horizontalsurface.Thecoefficientofstaticfrictionbetweentheboardandtheboxis .Thecoefficientofkinetic
frictionbetweentheboardandtheboxis,asusual,lessthan .
Throughouttheproblem,use forthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity.Inthehints,use
magnitudeofthefrictionforcebetweentheboardandthebox.

forthe

Harvaran Ghai

Part A

Find
,theconstantforcewiththeleastmagnitudethatmustbeappliedtotheboardinordertopulltheboard
outfromunderthethebox(whichwillthenfalloffoftheoppositeendoftheboard).

=
Correct

, ,and .Donotinclude

inyour

Friction Force on a Dancer on a Drawbridge

betweenthedrawbridgeandthedancer'sfootare

and

,respectively. representsthenormalforceexertedon

thedancerbythebridge,and representsthegravitationalforceexertedonthedancer,asshowninthedrawing
.Forallthequestions,wecanassumethatthebridgeisaperfectlyflatsurfaceandlacksthecurvature
characteristicofmostbridges.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Beforethedrawbridgestartstoopen,itisperfectlylevelwiththeground.Thedancerisstandingstillononeleg.
Whatisthexcomponentofthefrictionforce,

,and/or

=0
Correct

Thisshowsaveryimportantpoint.Whenyouarenottoldthatanobjectisslippingoronthevergeofslipping,then
thefrictionforceisdeterminedusingNewton'slawsofmotioninconjunctionwiththeobservedmotionandtheother
forcesontheobject.Underthesecircumstancesthefrictionforceislimitedby or butisotherwisenot
necessarilyrelatedto or .
Part B

Thedrawbridgethenstartstoriseandthedancercontinuestostandononeleg.Thedrawbridgestopsjustatthe

pointwherethedancerisonthevergeofslipping.Whatisthemagnitude
=

Correct

ofthefrictionalforcenow?

,and/or

.Theangle shouldnotappear

Part C
Then,becausethebridgeisoldandpoorlydesigned,itfallsalittlebitandthenjerks.Thiscausesthepersontostart
toslidedownthebridgeataconstantspeed.Whatisthemagnitude

ofthefrictionalforcenow?

,and/or

.Theangle shouldnotappear

Correct

Part D
Thebridgestartstocomebackdownagain.Thedancerstopssliding.However,againbecauseoftheageanddesign
ofthebridgeitnevermakesitallthewaydown;ratheritstopshalfametershort.Thishalfametercorrespondsto
anangle

degree(seethediagram,whichhastheangleexaggerated).Whatistheforceoffriction

=
Correct

,and/or

now?

Skydiving

(includingparachute)jumpsoffaplaneandbeginsherdescent.

Throughoutthisproblemuse9.80

forthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Atthebeginningofherfall,doestheskydiverhaveanacceleration?
No;theskydiverfallsatconstantspeed.
Yesandheraccelerationisdirectedupward.
Yesandheraccelerationisdirected
downward.
Correct

speed,andaccelerationgraphedasfunctionsoftime.Youcanseehowheraccelerationdropstozeroovertime,
givingconstantspeedafteralongtime.

Part B
Atsomepointduringherfreefall,theskydiverreachesherterminalspeed.Whatisthemagnitudeofthedragforce
duetoairresistancethatactsontheskydiverwhenshehasreachedterminalspeed?

=784
Correct

Part C
Foranobjectfallingthroughairatahighspeed ,thedragforceactingonitduetoairresistancecanbeexpressed
as

,
wherethecoefficient

dependsontheshapeandsizeofthefallingobjectandonthedensityofair.Forahuman

body,thenumericalvaluefor
Usingthisvaluefor

,whatistheterminalspeed

.
oftheskydiver?

=56.0
Correct

Recreationalskydiverscancontroltheirterminalspeedtosomeextentbychangingtheirbodyposture.When
maximumdragandstability,skydiversoftenwillorientthemselves"bellyfirst."Inthisposition,theirterminal
speedistypicallyaround45meterspersecond(100milesperhour).
Part D
Whentheskydiverdescendstoacertainheightfromtheground,shedeploysherparachutetoensureasafelanding.
afterdeployingtheparachute,doestheskydiverhaveanonzeroacceleration?
No;theskydiverkeepsfallingatconstant
speed.
Yesandheraccelerationisdirecteddownward.
Yesandheraccelerationisdirectedupward.
Correct

Part E

3000 .)Immediately

Whentheparachuteisfullyopen,theeffectivedragcoefficientoftheskydiverplusparachuteincreasesto
60.0
.Whatisthedragforce

actingontheskydiverimmediatelyaftershehasopenedtheparachute?

=1.88105
Correct

Part F
Whatistheterminalspeed
oftheskydiverwhentheparachuteisopened?

=3.61
Correct

seen,thatmaybebecausetheskydiversyousawwereusinghighperformanceparachutes;theseofferthesky
diversmoremaneuverabilityintheairbutincreasetheterminalspeedupto4meterspersecond(10milesperhour).

An Object Accelerating on a Ramp

LearningGoal:Understandthattheaccelerationvectorisinthedirectionofthechangeofthevelocityvector.
Inonedimensional(straightline)motion,accelerationisaccompaniedbyachangeinspeed,andtheaccelerationis
alwaysparallel(orantiparallel)tothevelocity.
Whenmotioncanoccurintwodimensions(e.g.isconfinedtoatabletopbutcanlieanywhereinthexyplane),the
definitionofaccelerationis

inthelimit

Inpicturingthisvectorderivativeyoucanthinkofthederivativeofavectorasaninstantaneousquantitybythinking
ofthevelocityofthetipofthearrowasthevectorchangesintime.Alternatively,youcan(forsmall
approximatetheaccelerationas

.
Obviouslythedifferencebetween
inthesamedirection,

willbeparallelto

and

isanothervectorthatcanlieinanydirection.Ifitislongerbut
.Ontheotherhand,if

hasthesamemagnitudeas

butisinaslightlydifferentdirection,then
inbothmagnitudeanddirection,hence

willbeperpendicularto .Ingeneral,
canhaveanydirectionrelativeto

candifferfrom
.

Thisproblemcontainsseveralexamplesofthis.Consideranobjectslidingonafrictionlessrampasdepictedhere.
concernthedirectionoftheobject'saccelerationvector, .Inthisproblem,youshouldfindthedirectionofthe
sincetheobjectmovesalongthetrack,itsvelocityvectoratapointwillbetangenttothetrackatthatpoint.The
accelerationvectorwillpointinthesamedirectionasthevectordifferenceofthetwovelocities.(Thisisaresultof
theequation

givenabove.)

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Whichdirectionbestapproximatesthedirectionof whentheobjectisatposition1?
straightup
downwardtotheleft
downwardtothe
right
straightdown
Correct

Part B
Whichdirectionbestapproximatesthedirectionof whentheobjectisatposition2?
straightup
upwardtotheright

straightdown
downwardtothe
left
Correct

Eventhoughtheaccelerationisdirectedstraightup,thisdoesnotmeanthattheobjectismovingstraightup.
Part C
Whichdirectionbestapproximatesthedirectionof whentheobjectisatposition3?
upwardtotheright
totheright
straightdown
downwardtothe
right
Correct

Problem 6.3
Aparticle'strajectoryisdescribedby

and

,where isins.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Whatistheparticle'sspeedatt
2.00m/s
Correct

Part B
Whatistheparticle'sspeedat =4.50 ?
12.6m/s
Correct

Part C
Whatistheparticle'sdirectionofmotion,measuredfromthexaxis,at
270 counterclockwisefromthe+xaxis
Correct

0?

Part D
Whatistheparticle'sdirectionofmotion,measuredfromthexaxis,at =4.50 ?
11.4 counterclockwisefromthe+xaxis
Correct

Projectile Motion Tutorial

LearningGoal:Understandhowtoapplytheequationsfor1dimensionalmotiontotheyandxdirections
separatelyinordertoderivestandardformulaefortherangeandheightofaprojectile.

Aprojectileisfiredfromgroundlevelattime
,atanangle withrespecttothehorizontal.Ithasaninitial
speed .Inthisproblemweareassumingthatthegroundislevel.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Findthetime
Express
=
Correct

ittakestheprojectiletoreachitsmaximumheight.

intermsof

, ,and (themagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity).

Part B
Find

,thetimeatwhichtheprojectilehitstheground.

Expressthetimeintermsof
=
Correct

, ,and .

Part C
Find

,themaximumheightattainedbytheprojectile.

Expressthemaximumheightintermsof

=
Correct

, ,and .

Part D
Findthetotaldistance (oftencalledtherange)traveledinthexdirection;inotherwords,findwheretheprojectile
lands.
Expresstherangeintermsof

=
Correct

, ,and .

Theactualformulafor

islessimportantthanhowitisobtained:

1.
2.

Considerthexandymotionseparately.
Findthetimeofflightfromtheymotion

3.

Findthexpositionattheendoftheflightthisistherange.

Ifyourememberthesesteps,youcandealwithmanyvariantsofthebasicproblem,suchas:acannononahillthat
fireshorizontally(i.e.thesecondhalfofthetrajectory),aprojectilethatlandsonahill,oraprojectilethatmusthita
movingtarget.

Horizontal Cannon on a Cliff

Acannonballisfiredhorizontallyfromthetopofacliff.Thecannonisatheight
ballisfiredwithinitialhorizontalspeed .

abovegroundlevel,andthe

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Assumethatthecannonisfiredat

andthatthecannonballhitsthegroundattime

positionofthecannonballatthetime

Expresstheypositionofthecannonballintermsof

Correct

.Whatisthey

.Thequantities

and shouldnotappearinyour

Part B
Expresstheinitialspeedintermsof
=
Correct

fromthecliff,asshown,findtheinitialspeedoftheprojectile,
, ,and

Part C
Expressthepositionofthecannonballintermsof

=
Correct

only.

fromthehill?

Problem 6.13
Aboattakes3.70

totravel15.0

downariver,then5.30

toreturn.

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
Howfastistheriverflowing?
0.612km/h
Correct

Crossing a River

Aswimmerwantstocrossariver,frompointAtopointB.Thedistance

distance

(fromCtoB)is150

swimmermakesanangleof
thefigure.

(fromAtoC)is200

,andthespeed ofthecurrentintheriveris5
(0.785

,the

.Supposethatthe

)withrespecttothelinefromAtoC,asindicatedin

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
ToswimdirectlyfromAtoB,whatspeed ,relativetothewater,shouldtheswimmerhave?
Expresstheswimmer'sspeednumerically,tothreesignificantfigures,inunitsofkilometersperhour.
=4.04
Correct

vectorially,andsettheanglethatthisvectormakeswithACortheriverbankequaltothatwhichABmakeswith
thesame.

Speed of a Bullet
,asshown.

aparttoashaftturningwitharotationalperiod

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Deriveaformulaforthebulletspeed intermsof , ,andameasuredangle betweenthepositionoftheholein
thefirstdiskandthatoftheholeinthesecond.Ifrequired,use ,notitsnumericequivalent.Bothoftheholeslieat
meansthattheholesareinalineand
meansthatwhenoneholeisup,theotherisdown.Assumethat
thebulletmusttravelthroughthesetofdiskswithinasinglerevolution.
=
Correct

Direction of Acceleration of Pendulum

LearningGoal:Tounderstandthatthedirectionofaccelerationisinthedirectionofthechangeofthevelocity,
whichisunrelatedtothedirectionofthevelocity.
Thependulumshownmakesafullswingfrom
to
.Ignorefrictionandassumethatthestringis

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
isequaltotheaccelerationduetogravity.
isequaltotheinstantaneousrateofchangein
velocity.
isperpendiculartothebob'strajectory.
istangenttothebob'strajectory.
Correct

Part B
Whatisthedirectionof whenthependulumisatposition1?
Entertheletterofthearrowparallelto .
H
Correct

Part C
Whatisthedirectionof atthemomentthependulumpassesposition2?
Entertheletterofthearrowthatbestapproximatesthedirectionof .
C
Correct

inward.
Part D
Whatisthedirectionof whenthependulumreachesposition3?
Givetheletterofthearrowthatbestapproximatesthedirectionof .
F
Correct

Part E
Asthependulumapproachesorrecedesfromwhichposition(s)istheaccelerationvector almostparalleltothe
velocityvector .
position2only
positions1and2
positions2and3
positions1and3
Correct

Banked Frictionless Curve, and Flat Curve with Friction

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
accelerationduetogravity .
=
Correct

, , ,aswellasthemagnitudeofthe

Part B
Now,supposethatthecurveislevel(
)andthattheicehasmelted,sothatthereisacoefficientofstatic
,theminimumvalueofthecoefficientofstaticfriction

accelerationduetogravity .

=
Correct

,aswellasthemagnitudeofthe

At the Test Track

Youwanttotestthegripofthetiresonyournewracecar.Youdecidetotaketheracecartoasmalltesttrackto

variousspeeds.

Part A
Whatis ,thecoefficientofstaticfrictionbetweenthetiresandthetrack?
=0.95
Correct

Harvaran Ghai

Conical Pendulum I

Abobofmass

issuspendedfromafixedpointwithamasslessstringoflength (i.e.,itisapendulum).You

aretoinvestigatethemotioninwhichthestringmovesinaconewithhalfangle .

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Whattangentialspeed, ,mustthebobhavesothatitmovesinahorizontalcirclewiththestringalwaysmakingan
angle fromthevertical?
gravity .
=
Correct

, ,and ,aswellastheaccelerationdueto

Part B
Howlongdoesittakethebobtomakeonefullrevolution(onecompletetriparoundthecircle)?
gravity .

, ,and ,aswellastheaccelerationdueto

Correct

Problem 7.18
Part A
Whatistheaccelerationduetogravityofthesunatthedistanceoftheearth'sorbit?

Harvaran Ghai

6.00103
Correct

Problem 7.19

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Whatisthecar'sspeedatthebottomofthedip?
14.0
Correct

Problem 7.23
car'saccelerationis3.40

,40.0 northofeast.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A

3.39
Correct

Part B
Whatisthetangentialcomponentoftheaccelerationatthatpoint?
0.296
Correct

A Satellite in Orbit
Asatelliteusedinacellulartelephonenetworkhasamassof1850
700

andisinacircularorbitataheightof

abovethesurfaceoftheearth.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Whatisthegravitationalforce

onthesatellite?

Takethegravitationalconstanttobe =6.671011

,themassoftheearthtobe

=1.47104
Correct

Part B
Whatfractionisthisofthesatellite'sweightatthesurfaceoftheearth?
Takethefreefallaccelerationatthesurfaceoftheearthtobe =9.80
0.811
Correct

=5.971024

Althoughitiseasytofindtheweightofthesatelliteusingtheconstantaccelerationduetogravity,itisinstructional
toconsidertheweightcalculatedusingthelawofgravitation:

.Dividingthegravitationalforceon

thesatellite
by ,wefindthattheratiooftheforcesduetotheearth'sgravityissimply
abovetheearth,
.Thiswillalsobethefractionoftheweightof,say,anastronautinanorbitatthe
samealtitude.Noticethatanastronaut'sweightisneverzero.Whenpeoplespeakof"weightlessness"inspace,what
theyreallymeanis"freefall."

Gravitational Acceleration inside a Planet

Considerasphericalplanetofuniformdensity .Thedistancefromtheplanet'scentertoitssurface(i.e.,the
locatedinsideoftheplanet.)

.(Theobjectis

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
Findanexpressionforthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity,

,insidetheplanet.

Expresstheaccelerationduetogravityintermsof , , ,and ,theuniversalgravitationalconstant.

=
Correct

Part B
Rewriteyourresultfor
functionofR.

intermsof

=
Correct

,thegravitationalaccelerationatthesurfaceoftheplanet,timesa

, ,and

Noticethat increaseslinearlywith ,ratherthanbeingproportionalto

centeroftheplanet,asrequiredbysymmetry.

.Thisassuresthatitiszeroatthe

Part C
Findanumericalvaluefor

,theaveragedensityoftheearthinkilogramspercubicmeter.Use

=5497

,andavalueof atthesurfaceof

for

Correct

Newton's 3rd Law Discussed

LearningGoal:TounderstandNewton's3rdlaw,whichstatesthataphysicalinteractionalwaysgeneratesapairof
forcesonthetwointeractingbodies.
InPrincipia,Newtonwrote:
Toeveryactionthereisalwaysopposedanequalreaction:or,themutualactionsoftwobodiesuponeachotherare
alwaysequal,anddirectedtocontraryparts.
(translationbyCajori)
force.Thecentralideaisthatphysicalinteractions(e.g.,duetogravity,bodiestouching,orelectricforces)cause
forcestoarisebetweenpairsofbodies.Eachpairwiseinteractionproducesapairofoppositeforces,oneactingon
eachbody.Insummary,eachphysicalinteractionbetweentwobodiesgeneratesapairofforces.Whateverthe
physicalcauseoftheinteraction,theforceonbodyAfrombodyBisequalinmagnitudeandoppositeindirectionto
theforceonbodyBfrombodyA.
Incidentally,Newtonstatesthattheword"action"denotesboth(a)theforceduetoaninteractionand(b)the
Markeachofthefollowingstatementsastrueorfalse.Ifastatementrefersto"twobodies"interactingviasome
force,youarenottoassumethatthesetwobodieshavethesamemass.

Part A
Everyforcehasoneandonlyone3rdlawpairforce.
true
false
Correct

Part B
Thetwoforcesineachpairactinoppositedirections.
true
false
Correct

Part C

Harvaran Ghai

Thetwoforcesineachpaircaneitherbothactonthesamebodyortheycanactondifferentbodies.
true
false
Correct

Part D
Thetwoforcesineachpairmayhavedifferentphysicalorigins(forinstance,oneoftheforcescouldbedueto
gravity,anditspairforcecouldbeduetofrictionorelectriccharge).
true
false
Correct

Part E
Thetwoforcesofa3rdlawpairalwaysactondifferentbodies.
true
false
Correct

Part F
Giventhattwobodiesinteractviasomeforce,theaccelerationsofthesetwobodieshavethesamemagnitudebut
oppositedirections.(Assumenootherforcesactoneitherbody.)
true
false
Correct

Newton's3rdlawcanbesummarixedasfollows:Aphysicalinteraction(e.g.,gravity)operatesbetweentwo
interactingbodiesandgeneratesapairofoppositeforces,oneoneachbody.Itoffersyouawaytotestforreal
forces(i.e.,thosethatbelongontheforcesideof
)thereshouldbea3rdlawpairforceoperatingon
someotherbodyforeachrealforcethatactsonthebodywhoseaccelerationisunderconsideration.
Part G
AccordingtoNewton's3rdlaw,theforceonthe(smaller)moonduetothe(larger)earthis
greaterinmagnitudeandantiparalleltotheforceontheearthduetothemoon.
greaterinmagnitudeandparalleltotheforceontheearthduetothemoon.
equalinmagnitudebutantiparalleltotheforceontheearthduetothemoon.
equalinmagnitudeandparalleltotheforceontheearthduetothemoon.
smallerinmagnitudeandantiparalleltotheforceontheearthduetothe
moon.

smallerinmagnitudeandparalleltotheforceontheearthduetothemoon.
Correct

A Book on a Table
Abookweighing5Nrestsontopofatable.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
thetable
gravity .
inertia
Correct

Part B
Anupwardforceofmagnitude_____isexertedonthe_____bythetable.
5N/book
Correct

Part C
DothedownwardforceinPartAandtheupwardforceinPartBconstitutea3rdlawpair?
yes
no

Correct

Part D
ThereactiontotheforceinPartAisaforceofmagnitude_____,exertedonthe_____bythe_____.Itsdirectionis
_____.
5N/earth/book/upward
Correct

Part E
ThereactiontotheforceinPartBisaforceofmagnitude_____,exertedonthe_____bythe_____.Itsdirectionis
_____.
5N/table/book/downward
Correct

Part F
WhichofNewton'slawsdictatesthattheforcesinPartsAandBareequalandopposite?
Newton's1stor2ndlaw
Newton's3rdlaw
Correct

Sincethebookisatrest,thenetforceonitmustbezero(1stor2ndlaw).Thismeansthattheforceexertedonitby
theearthmustbeequalandoppositetotheforceexertedonitbythetable.
Part G
WhichofNewton'slawsdictatesthattheforcesinPartsBandEareequalandopposite?
Newton's1stor2ndlaw
Newton's3rdlaw
Correct

Block on an Incline Adjacent to a Wall

Awedgewithaninclinationofangle restsnexttoawall.Ablockofmass isslidingdowntheplane,asshown.
Thereisnofrictionbetweenthewedgeandtheblockorbetweenthewedgeandthehorizontalsurface.

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
Findthemagnitude,
Express

=
Correct

,ofthesumofallforcesactingontheblock.

intermsof and

,alongwithanynecessaryconstants.

Part B
Findthemagnitude,
Express

=
Correct

,oftheforcethatthewallexertsonthewedge.

intermsof and

,alongwithanynecessaryconstants.

as getsverysmalloras approaches90degrees(

or

.Ineitherform,weseethat

goestozero.Thisiswhatweshouldexpect;inthefirstlimit( small),theblockisacceleratingveryslowly,andall
horizontalforceonthewedge.

PSS 8.1: Dashing up the Slope

LearningGoal:TopracticeProblemSolvingStrategy8.1forproblemsinvolvingthedynamicsofaninteracting
systemsofobjects.
Agirlofmass
iswalkingupaslipperyslopewhilepullingasledofunknownmass;theslopemakesanangle
withthehorizontal.Thecoefficientofstaticfrictionbetweenthegirl'sbootsandtheslopeis ;thefriction
betweenthesledandtheslopeisnegligible.Itturnsoutthatthegirlcanpullthesleduptheslopewithacceleration
upto withoutslippingdowntheslope.Findthemassofthesled
.Assumethattheropeconnectingthegirland
theslediskeptparalleltotheslopeatalltimes.

Harvaran Ghai
MODEL:

Identifywhichobjectsaresystemsandwhicharepartoftheenvironment.Makesimplifyingassumptions.

VISUALIZE:

systemaseparatecoordinatesystem.Definesymbolsandidentifywhatyouaretryingtofind.Include
accelerationconstraintsaspartofthepictorialmodel.
Physicalrepresentation:Identifyallforcesactingoneachsystemandallactionreactionpairs.Drawa
separatefreebodydiagramforeachsystem.Connecttheforcevectorsofactionreactionpairswithdotted

lines.Usesubscriptlabelstodistinguishforces,suchas and ,thatactindependentlyonmorethanone

system.
SOLVE:

UseNewton's2ndand3rdlaws:

WritetheequationsofNewton's2ndlawforeachsystemusingtheforceinformationfromthefreebody
diagrams.
Equatethemagnitudesofactionreactionpairs.

Includetheaccelerationconstraints,thefrictionmodel,andotherquantitativeinformationrelevanttothe
problem.

Solvefortheacceleration,thenusekinematicstofindvelocitesandpositions.

ASSESS:

Model
Startbymakingsimplifyingassumptionsappropriateforthesituation.
Part A
Whichofthefollowingobjectsqualifyassystemsinthisproblem?
A. theslope
B. thegirl

C. theearth
D. thesled
E. theair
Listalphabeticallyalltheletterscorrespondingtothesystems.Donotusecommas.Forinstance,ifyouthink
BD
Correct

Theslope,theearth,andtheairallqualifyaspartoftheenvironment.Theyeachexertexternalforcesonthetwo
systems(thesledandthegirl).Unlikeforthetwosystems,however,itisnotimportanttokeeptrackofalltheforces
actingonelementsoftheenvironment.
Part B
Whichofthefollowingsimplifyingassumptionsarereasonable?
A. Theairresistanceactingonthegirlisnegligible.
B. Theairresistanceactingonthegirlequalstheforceoffrictionactingonher.
C. Theairresistanceactingonthesledisnegligible.
D. Thenormalforceactingonthesledisnegligible.
E. Theweightofthesledisaconstant.
F. Theweightofthesledincreasesasthesledaccelerates.
Listalphabeticallyalltheletterscorrespondingtoreasonableassumptions.Donotusecommas.Forinstance,
ifyouthinkAandBarereasonable,typeAB.
ACE
Correct

Part C
Whichofthefollowingsimplifyingassumptionsarereasonable?
A. Theropeconnectingthesledandthegirlismassless.
B. Theropeconnectingthesledandthegirlisunstretchable.
C. Thetensionintheropeconnectingthesledandthegirliszero.
D. Thesledhasthesameaccelerationasthegirl.
E. Thesledhasgreateraccelerationthanthegirl.
F. Thesledhassmalleraccelerationthanthegirl.
Listalphabeticallyalltheletterscorrespondingtoreasonableassumptions.Donotusecommas.Forinstance,
ifyouthinkAandBarereasonable,typeAB.
ABD
Correct

Visualize
Forallquestions,assumethattheslopeanglesdownhilltotheleft:

Part D
Whichfreebodydiagramforthegirliscorrect?Notethattheforcesarenotlabeled;however,theyshouldbe
labeledonyourdiagram.Youarelookingforthecorrectnumberofforcesinthecorrectdirections.Don'tworry

a
b
c
d
e
Correct

Part E
Whichfreebodydiagramfortheslediscorrect?Notethattheforcesarenotlabeled;however,theyshouldbe
labeledonyourdiagram.Youarelookingforthecorrectnumberofforcesinthecorrectdirections.Don'tworry

a
b
c
d
e
Correct

Part F
Whichofthesecoordinatesystemsismostconvenientforsolvingthisproblem?(Thesamecoordinatesystemis
appropriateforboththesledandthegirl.)

a
b
c
d

Correct

Part G
Youshouldhaveidentifiedthepairsofactionreactionforcesonyourfreebodydiagrams.Whichofthefollowing
pairsofforcesformactionreactionpairs,accordingtoNewton's3rdlaw?
A. Theweightofthegirlandthenormalforceonthegirl
B. Theweightofthesledandthenormalforceonthesled
C. Theweightofthegirlandtheweightofthesled
D. Theforceoffrictiononthegirlandthetensionofthestring
E. Theweightofthesledandthetensionofthestring
F. Theweightofthesledandthegravitationalforceappliedbythesledtotheearth
Listalphabeticallyalltheletterscorrespondingtotheactionreactionpairsinthisproblem.Donotuse
commas.Forinstance,ifyouthinkAandBarebothvalidactionreactionpairs,typeAB.
F
Correct

AnactionreactionpairbetweenobjectsAandBisalwaysapairofforces
and
.Inoursituation,if
weassumethatthegirlandthesledactdirectlyoneachother(areasonableassumptionsincethemassofthestring
isnegligible),thentheforces"girlonthesled"and"sledonthegirl"wouldformanactionreactionpair.
Eachoftheotherforcesmentionedinthisquestiondoeshaveareactionforce,ofcourse.However,theobjectson
whichsuchreactionforcesareactingarepartoftheenvironment:Forinstance,thereactionforcetotheweightof
thegirlisthegravitationalforceappliedbythegirltotheearth,whichispartoftheenvironment.

Therearemanyvariationsonhowyoumightdrawgoodpictorialandphysicalrepresentationsforthisproblem.

Hereisoneexample.

Solve
Nowusetheinformationandtheinsightsthatyouhaveaccumulatedtoconstructthenecessarymathematical
expressionsandtoderivethesolution.
Part H
Findthemassofthesled
.
Expressthesled'smassintermsofthegivenquantitiesand ,themagnitudeoftheaccelerationdueto
gravity.

=
Correct

Assess
Whenyouworkonaproblemonyourown,withoutthecomputerprovidedfeedback,onlyyoucanassesswhether
Part I
Intuitively,whatwouldhappeniftherewereverylittle(orno)staticfrictionbetweenthegirlandtheslope?

Verylittleforcewouldberequiredtopullaheavysleduptheslope.
Thegirlwouldslipdowntheslopeandneverbeabletopullthesledup.
Thegirlwouldbeabletopullthesleduptheslopewithaverylarge
acceleration.
Thegirlwouldbeabletopullthesleduponlyatconstantvelocity.
Correct

If isveryclosetoorequaltozero,theformulayouderivedintheSolvesectionwouldgiveanegativevaluefor
notapplicable:Thegirlwouldnotbeabletopullthesleduptheslope,nomatterhowsmallthemassofthesled.
Part J
Intuitively,whatwouldhappenifthe"slope"werehorizontalandthemassofthesledwereequaltothemassofthe
girl?
Thegirlwouldbeabletopullthesledwithaccelerationgreaterthan .
Thegirlwouldslipalongthesurfaceandnotbeabletopullthesled.
Thegirlwouldbeabletopullthesledwithuptosomemaximumaccelerationthatdependsonthefriction
betweenherandtheslope.
Thegirlwouldbeabletopullthesledonlyatconstantvelocity.
Correct

Iftheslopeishorizontal,

and

.Yourformulathenbecomes

and,if

,itfollowsthatthemaximumaccelerationis

Part K
Whichofthefollowingexpressionshavethedimensionsofmass?
A.
B.

C.

D.

E.
Listalphabeticallyalltheletterscorrespondingtoexpressionswiththecorrectdimensions.Donotuse
commas.Forinstance,ifyouthinkAandBhavethecorrectdimensions,typeAB.
ACE
Correct

Notethattrigonometricfunctionsandthecoefficientofstaticfrictionaredimensionless:Theydonotaffectthe

Pulling Three Blocks

Threeidenticalblocksconnectedbyidealstringsarebeingpulledalongahorizontalfrictionlesssurfacebya
horizontalforce .
blockhasmass .

ThemagnitudeofthetensioninthestringbetweenblocksBandCis .Assumethateach

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
Whatisthemagnitude oftheforce?
Expressthemagnitudeoftheforceintermsof .
=
Correct

Kinetic Friction in a Block-and-Pulley System

Considerthesystemshowninthefigure .BlockAhasweight
andblockBhasweight
.OnceblockBis
setintodownwardmotion,itdescendsataconstantspeed.Assumethatthemassandfrictionofthepulleyare
negligible.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Calculatethecoefficientofkineticfriction betweenblockAandthetabletop.
=
Correct

Part B
Acat,alsoofweight
,fallsasleepontopofblockA.IfblockBisnowsetintodownwardmotion,whatisthe
magnitudeofitsacceleration?
=
Correct

Two Masses, a Pulley, and an Inclined Plane

Block1,ofmass ,isconnectedoveranideal(masslessandfrictionless)pulleytoblock2,ofmass ,as
shown.Assumethattheblocksaccelerateasshownwithanaccelerationofmagnitude andthatthecoefficientof
kineticfrictionbetweenblock2andtheplaneis .

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
Findtheratioofthemasses

accelerationduetogravity .

=
Correct

The Impulse-Momentum Theorem

Usingtheconceptofmomentum,Newton'ssecondlawcanberewrittenas

,(1)

where

isthenetforce

actingontheobject,and

istherateatwhichtheobject'smomentumischanging.

Iftheobjectisobservedduringanintervaloftimebetweentimes and ,thenintegrationofbothsidesofequation

(1)gives

.(2)

Therightsideofequation(2)issimplythechangeintheobject'smomentum

.Theleftsideiscalledthe

impulseofthenetforceandisdenotedby .Thenequation(2)canberewrittenas

.
Thisequationisknownastheimpulsemomentumtheorem.Itstatesthatthechangeinanobject'smomentumis
equaltotheimpulseofthenetforceactingontheobject.Inthecaseofaconstantnetforce
directionofmotion,theimpulsemomentumtheoremcanbewrittenas

actingalongthe

.(3)
Here , ,and arethecomponentsofthecorrespondingvectorquantitiesalongthechosencoordinateaxis.If
themotioninquestionistwodimensional,itisoftenusefultoapplyequation(3)tothexandycomponentsof
motionseparately.

Harvaran Ghai
Thefollowingquestionswillhelpyoulearntoapplytheimpulsemomentumtheoremtothecasesofconstantand
varyingforceactingalongthedirectionofmotion.First,letusconsideraparticleofmass movingalongthex
axis.Thenetforce isactingontheparticlealongthexaxis. isaconstantforce.
Part A
Theparticlestartsfromrestat
that

.Whatisthemagnitude ofthemomentumoftheparticleattime ?Assume

=
Correct

Part B

, ,and .

Theparticlestartsfromrestat

.Whatisthemagnitude ofthevelocityoftheparticleattime ?Assumethat

.
=
Correct

, ,and .

Part C
Theparticlehasmomentumofmagnitude
secondslater?

atacertaininstant.Whatis

=
Correct

, ,and

,themagnitudeofitsmomentum

Part D
Theparticlehasmomentumofmagnitude
secondslater?

atacertaininstant.Whatis

=
Correct

, ,and

,themagnitudeofitsvelocity

Letusnowconsiderseveraltwodimensionalsituations.
Aparticleofmass

ismovinginthepositivexdirectionatspeed .Afteracertainconstantforceisappliedtothe

particle,itmovesinthepositiveydirectionatspeed

Part E
Findthemagnitudeoftheimpulse deliveredtotheparticle.
=
Correct

Part F
Whichofthevectorsbelowbestrepresentsthedirectionoftheimpulsevector ?

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Correct

Part G

Whatistheangle betweenthepositiveyaxisandthevector asshowninthefigure?

26.6degrees
30degrees
60degrees
63.4degrees

Correct

Part H
Ifthemagnitudeofthenetforceactingontheparticleis ,howlongdoesittaketheparticletoacquireitsfinal
velocity,

inthepositiveydirection?

=
Correct

, ,and .Ifyouuseanumericalcoefficient,usethreesignificantfigures.

Sofar,wehaveconsideredonlythesituationinwhichthemagnitudeofthenetforceactingontheparticlewas
eitherirrelevanttothesolutionorwasconsideredconstant.Letusnowconsideranexampleofavaryingforce
actingonaparticle.
Part I
Aparticleofmass

kilogramsisatrestat

seconds.Avaryingforce

isactingontheparticlebetween
speed oftheparticleat

seconds.

secondsand

seconds.Findthe

=43
Correct

Problem 9.11
A500 airtrackglidercollideswithaspringatoneendofthetrack.Thefigure
andtheforceexertedonthegliderbythespring.

showstheglider'svelocity

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Howlongisthegliderincontactwiththespring?
0.167s
Correct

Filling the Boat

Aboatofmass250

iscoasting,withitsengineinneutral,throughthewateratspeed3.00

rain.Therainisfallingvertically,anditaccumulatesintheboatattherateof10.0

whenitstartsto

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Whatisthespeedoftheboataftertime2.00 haspassed?Assumethatthewaterresistanceisnegligible.
2.78
Correct

Part B
momentumofthesystemparalleltothedirectionofmotionstillconserved?
yes
no
Correct

Theboatissubjecttoanexternalforce,thedragforceduetowaterresistance,andthereforeitsmomentumisnot
conserved.
Part C
Thedragisproportionaltothesquareofthespeedoftheboat,intheform
.Whatistheaccelerationof
theboatjustaftertherainstarts?Takethepositive axisalongthedirectionofmotion.
1.80102
Correct

PSS 9.1: Tools of the Trade

LearningGoal:TopracticeProblemSolvingStrategy9.1forproblemsinvolvingconservationofmomentum.
Anastronautperformsmaintenanceworkoutsideherspaceshipwhenthetetherconnectinghertothespaceship
shedecidestosacrificeherfavoritewrenchandhurlsitdirectlyawayfromthespaceshipataspeed relativetothe
spaceship.Whatisthedistance betweenthespaceshipandthewrenchbythetimetheastronautreachesthe
spaceship?
Themassoftheastronautis

;themassofthewrenchis

Harvaran Ghai
MODEL:

Clearlydefinethesystem.

Ifpossible,chooseasystemthatisisolated(
)orwithinwhichtheinteractionsaresufficiently
shortandintensethatyoucanignoreexternalforcesforthedurationoftheinteraction(theimpulse
approximation).Momentumisconserved.

Ifitisnotpossibletochooseanisolatedsystem,trytodividetheproblemintopartssuchthatmomentumis
conservedduringonesegmentofthemotion.Othersegmentsofthemotioncanbeanalyzedusing
Newton'slawsor,asyou'lllearninChapters10and11,conservationofenergy.

Drawabeforeandafterpictorialrepresentation.Definesymbolsthatwillbeusedintheproblem,list
knownvalues,andidentifywhatyouaretryingtofind.
VISUALIZE:

Themathematicalrepresentationisbasedonthelawofconservationofmomentum:
form,thisis
SOLVE:

.Incomponent

ASSESS:

Model
Westartbychoosingtheobjectsthatwouldmakeupthesystem.Inthiscase,itispossibletoidentifythesystem
thatisisolated.
Part A
problem?
A. thespaceship
B. thewrench
C. theearth
thinkthesystemconsistsofalltheobjectslisted,enterABC.
B
Correct

Part B
Whichofthefollowingreasonsbestexplainswhytheastronaut+wrenchcanbeconsideredanisolatedsystem?
Themassofthewrenchismuchsmallerthanthatofthe
astronaut.
Theforcethattheastronautexertsonthewrenchisverysmall.
Theforcethattheastronautexertsonthewrenchisverylarge.
Theforcethatthespaceshipexertsonthewrenchisverysmall.
Theforcethatthespaceshipexertsonthewrenchisverylarge.
Correct

Visualize
Nowdrawabeforeandafterpictorialrepresentationincludingalltheelementslistedintheproblemsolving
strategy.Besurethatyoursketchisclearandincludesallnecessarysymbols,bothknownandunknown.Bythetime
theastronautreachesthespaceship,thewrenchwillhavecoveredacertaindistance;onyourpictorial
representation,labelthisdistance

Part C
Afterthewrenchisthrown,theastronautandthewrenchmove
inoppositedirections.
inthesamedirection.
inperpendicular
directions.
Correct

Part D

,and

iscorrect?

Correct

Hereisanexampleofwhatagoodbeforeandafterpictorialrepresentationmightlooklikeforthisproblem.

Solve
Nowusetheinformationandtheinsightsthatyouhaveaccumulatedtoconstructthenecessarymathematical
expressionsandtoderivethesolution.
Part E
Findthefinaldistance betweenthespaceshipandthewrench.
Expressthedistanceintermsofthegivenvariables.Youmayormaynotuseallofthem.

=
Correct

Assess
Whenyouworkonaproblemonyourown,withoutthecomputerprovidedfeedback,onlyyoucanassesswhether
Part F
Intuitively,whichofthefollowingstatementsarecorrect?
A. Forrealisticvaluesofthequantitiesinvolved,itispossiblethat
.
inthetimeittakestheastronauttoreachtheship.(Assumethespacepenweighslessthanthewrench).
C. Iftheastronautweremoremassive,thewrenchwouldtravelfurtherinthetimeittakestheastronautto
reachtheship.
onlyexpressionsCandDhavetheunitsofdistance,typeCD.
BC
Correct

couldonlybezeroif
astronautwerezero,whichisobviouslyunrealistic.
Part G
Whichofthefollowingmathematicalexpressionshavetheunitsofdistance,where
A.
B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

and

aredistances?

onlyexpressionsCandDhavetheunitsofdistance,typeCD.
ABE
Correct

Colliding Cars
Inthisproblemwewillconsiderthecollisionoftwocarsinitiallymovingatrightangles.Weassumethatafterthe
Twocarsofmasses and collideatanintersection.Beforethecollision,car1wastravelingeastwardata
andtraveloffinthedirectionshown.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
First,findthemagnitudeof ,thatis,thespeed ofthetwocarunitafterthecollision.
Express intermsof , ,andthecars'initialspeeds and .
=
Correct

Part B
Findthetangentoftheangle .

=
Correct

and

Part C
Supposethatafterthecollision,
;inotherwords, is
Themagnitudesofthemomentaofthecarswere
equal.
Themassesofthecarswereequal.

.Thismeansthatbeforethecollision:

Thevelocitiesofthecarswereequal.
Correct

Collision at an Angle
speed

,whilethesecondwastravelingatspeed atanangle southofeast(asindicatedinthefigure).Afterthe

collision,thetwocarsystemtravelsatspeed

atanangle eastofnorth.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Findthespeed

ofthejoinedcarsafterthecollision.

Correct

Part B
=
Correct

A Girl on a Trampoline
Agirlofmass
second.Atheight
Forthisproblem,use

kilogramsspringsfromatrampolinewithaninitialupwardvelocityof
metersabovethetrampoline,thegirlgrabsaboxofmass

kilograms.

meterspersecondpersecondforthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity.

Part A
Whatisthespeed
ofthegirlimmediatelybeforeshegrabsthebox?

=4.98
Correct

metersper

Harvaran Ghai

Part B
Whatisthespeed
ofthegirlimmediatelyaftershegrabsthebox?

=3.98
Correct

Part C
Isthis"collision"elasticorinelastic?
elastic
inelastic
Correct

Ininelasticcollisions,someofthesystem'skineticenergyislost.Inthiscasethekineticenergylostisconvertedto
heatenergyinthegirl'smusclesasshegrabsthebox,andsoundenergy.
Part D
Whatisthemaximumheight
thatthegirl(withbox)reaches?Measure
trampoline.

withrespecttothetopofthe

=2.81
Correct

Circling Ball
Aballofmass isattachedtoastringoflength .Itisbeingswunginaverticalcirclewithenoughspeedsothat
thestringremainstautthroughouttheball'smotion. Assumethattheballtravelsfreelyinthisverticalcircle
withnegligiblelossoftotalmechanicalenergy.Toavoidconfusion,taketheupwarddirectiontobepositive
throughouttheproblem.Atthetopandbottomoftheverticalcircle,labeltheball'sspeeds and ,andlabelthe
correspondingtensionsinthestring

and

and

havemagnitudes

and

Harvaran Ghai

Part A

Find
,thedifferencebetweenthemagnitudeofthetensioninthestringatthebottomrelativetothatatthe
topofthecircle.
Expressthedifferenceintensionintermsof and .Thequantities and shouldnotappearinyourfinal

=
Correct

Themethodoutlinedinthehintsisreallytheonlypracticalwaytodothisproblem.Ifdoneproperly,findingthe
differencebetweenthetensions,

,canbeaccomplishedfairlysimplyandelegantly.

Bungee Jumping
Kate,abungeejumper,wantstojumpofftheedgeofabridgethatspansariverbelow.Katehasamass

,andthe

surfaceofthebridgeisaheight abovethewater.Thebungeecord,whichhaslength whenunstretched,willfirst

Assumethefollowing:

Thebungeecordbehavesasanidealspringonceitbeginstostretch,withspringconstant .
Katedoesn'tactuallyjumpbutsimplystepsofftheedgeofthebridgeandfallsstraightdownward.

Kate'sheightisnegligiblecomparedtothelengthofthebungeecord.Hence,shecanbetreatedasa
pointparticle.

Use forthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
HowfarbelowthebridgewillKateeventuallybehanging,onceshestopsoscillatingandcomesfinallytorest?
Assumethatshedoesn'ttouchthewater.
Expressthedistanceintermsofquantitiesgivenintheproblemintroduction.
=
Correct

Part B
IfKatejusttouchesthesurfaceoftheriveronherfirstdownwardtrip(i.e.,beforethefirstbounce),whatisthe
springconstant ?Ignorealldissipativeforces.
Express intermsof , ,
=
Correct

,and .

Dancing Balls
Fourballs,eachofmass ,areconnectedbyfouridenticalrelaxedspringswithspringconstant .Theballsare
simultaneouslygivenequalinitialspeeds directedawayfromthecenterofsymmetryofthesystem.

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
Astheballsreachtheirmaximumdisplacement,theirkineticenergyreaches__________.
amaximum
zero
neitheramaximumnor
zero
Correct

Part B
Usegeometrytofind ,thedistanceeachofthespringshasstretchedfromitsequilibriumposition.(Itmayhelpto
drawtheinitialandthefinalstatesofthesystem.)
=

Correct

Part C
Findthemaximumdisplacement ofanyoneoftheballsfromitsinitialposition.
Express intermsofsomeorallofthegivenquantities , ,and
=
Correct

Elastic Collision in One Dimension

Block1,ofmass ,movesacrossafrictionlesssurfacewithspeed .Itcollideselasticallywithblock2,ofmass
,whichisatrest(
). Afterthecollision,block1moveswithspeed ,whileblock2moveswith
speed .Assumethat
,sothatafterthecollision,thetwoobjectsmoveoffinthedirectionofthefirst
objectbeforethecollision.

Part A
Thiscollisioniselastic.Whatquantities,ifany,areconservedinthiscollision?
kineticenergyonly
momentumonly
kineticenergyand
momentum
Correct

Part B
Whatisthefinalspeed ofblock1?
Express intermsof , ,and .
=
Correct

Part C
Whatisthefinalspeed ofblock2?
Express intermsof , ,and .
=
Correct

Sinking the 9-Ball

Harvaran Ghai

Jeanetteisplayingina9ballpooltournament.Shewillwinifshesinksthe9ballfromthefinalrack,sosheneeds
tolineuphershotprecisely.Boththecueballandthe9ballhavemass ,andthecueballishitataninitialspeed
of .Jeanettecarefullyhitsthecueballintothe9balloffcenter,sothatwhentheballscollide,theymoveaway
fromeachotheratthesameangle fromthedirectioninwhichthecueballwasoriginallytraveling(seefigure).
Furthermore,afterthecollision,thecueballmovesawayatspeed ,whilethe9ballmovesatspeed .
Forthepurposesofthisproblem,assumethatthecollisionisperfectlyelastic,neglectfriction,andignorethe
spinningoftheballs.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Findtheangle thatthe9balltravelsawayfromthehorizontal,asshowninthefigure.
=45.0
Correct

Notethattheanglebetweenthefinalvelocitiesofthetwoballsis
.Itturnsoutthatinanyelastic
collisionbetweentwoobjectsofequalmass,oneofwhichisinitiallyatrest,theanglebetweenthefinalvelocitiesof
thetwoobjectswillbeninetydegrees.

Energy in a Spring Graphing Question

Atoycarisheldatrestagainstacompressedspring,asshowninthefigure.
acrosstheroom.Let

Whenreleased,thecarslides

betheinitialpositionofthecar.Assumethatfrictionisnegligible.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Sketchagraphofthetotalenergyofthespringandcarsystem.Thereisnoscalegiven,soyourgraphshouldsimply
reflectthequalitativeshapeoftheenergyvs.timeplot.HORIZONTALLINE

Correct

Part B
Sketchaplotoftheelasticpotentialenergyofthespringfromthepointatwhichthecarisreleasedtothe
equilibriumpositionofthespring.Makeyourgraphconsistentwiththegivenplotoftotalenergy(thegrayline

Correct

Part C
Sketchagraphofthecar'skineticenergyfromthemomentitisreleaseduntilitpassestheequilibriumpositionof
thespring.Yourgraphshouldbeconsistentwiththegivenplotsoftotalenergy(graylineingraphingwindow)and
GIVEN

Correct

Graphing Gravitational Potential Energy

A1.00

ballisthrowndirectlyupwardwithaninitialspeedof16.0

Agraphoftheball'sgravitationalpotentialenergyvs.height,
,foranarbitraryinitialvelocityisgiveninPart
A.Thezeropointofgravitationalpotentialenergyislocatedattheheightatwhichtheballleavesthethrower's
hand.
Forthisproblem,take

astheaccelerationduetogravity.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Drawalineonthegraphrepresentingthetotalenergy oftheball.HORIZONTALLINEAT126

Correct

Part B
Usingthegraph,determinethemaximumheightreachedbytheball.
12.8
Correct

Theballreachesitsmaximumheightwhenitsvelocity(andthereforekineticenergy)iszero,soallofitsenergyis
potential.Thisoccursattheheightatwhichthetotalenergyandpotentialenergygraphsintersect.
Part C
Drawanewgravitationalpotentialenergyvs.heightgraphtorepresentthegravitationalpotentialenergyiftheball
reference.
Take

.Thegraphfora1.00

ballwithanarbitraryinitialvelocityisprovidedagainasa

astheaccelerationduetogravity.(100,5)(150,7.5)

Correct

Foraballwithtwicethemass,youshouldexpecttheplotofpotentialenergyvs.heighttohavetwicetheslope.

Understanding Work and Kinetic Energy

thatobject.
Thekineticenergy ofanobjectofmass movingataspeed isdefinedas
.Itseemsreasonable
tosaythatthespeedofanobjectand,therefore,itskineticenergycanbechangedbyperformingworkonthe
object.Inthisproblem,wewillexplorethemathematicalrelationshipbetweentheworkdoneonanobjectandthe
changeinthekineticenergyofthatobject.

Harvaran Ghai

First,letusconsiderasledofmass beingpulledbyaconstant,horizontalforceofmagnitude alongarough,

horizontalsurface.Thesledisspeedingup.
Part A
Howmanyforcesareactingonthesled?
one
two
three
four
Correct

Part B
Theworkdoneonthesledbytheforceofgravityis__________.
zero
negative
positive
Correct

Part C
Theworkdoneonthesledbythenormalforceis__________.
zero
negative
positive
Correct

Part D
Theworkdoneonthesledbythepullingforceis__________.
zero
negative
positive
Correct

Part E
Theworkdoneonthesledbytheforceoffrictionis__________.
zero
negative
positive

Correct

Part F
Thenetworkdoneonthesledis__________.
zero
negative
positive
Correct

Part G
Inthesituationdescribed,thekineticenergyofthesled__________.
remains
constant
decreases
increases
Correct

Letusnowconsiderthesituationquantitatively.Letthemassofthesledbe
actingonthesledbe

andthemagnitudeofthenetforce

.Thesledstartsfromrest.

.Wewillusethisinformationtofindtherelationshipbetweentheworkdonebythenetforce(otherwiseknown
asthenetwork)andthechangeinthekineticenergyofthesled.
Part H
Findthenetforce
actingonthesled.

=
Correct

, , ,and

Part I
Findthenetwork

doneonthesled.

=
Correct

and .

Part J
Use
tofindthenetwork
doneonthesled.

=
Correct

, ,and

or
,
where

and

are,respectively,theinitialandthefinalkineticenergiesofthesled.Finally,onecanwrite
.

ThisformulaisknownastheWorkEnergyTheorem.Thecalculationsdoneinthisproblemillustratethe
applicabilityofthistheoreminaparticlarcase;however,theyshouldnotbeinterpretedasaproofofthistheorem.
Nevertheless,itcanbeshownthattheWorkEnergyTheoremisapplicableinallsituations,includingthose
involvingnonconstantforcesorforcesactingatanangletothedisplacementoftheobject.Thistheoremisquite
usefulinsolvingproblems,asillustratedbythefollowingexample.
HereisasimpleapplicationoftheWorkEnergyTheorem.
Part K
Acarofmass

acceleratesfromspeed tospeed

whilegoingupaslopethatmakesanangle withthe

horizontal.Thecoefficientofstaticfrictionis ,andtheaccelerationduetogravityis .Findthetotalwork

doneonthecarbytheexternalforces.
=
Correct

Work Done by a Spring

Consideraspring,withspringconstant ,oneendofwhichisattachedtoawall.
unstretched,withtheunconstrainedendofthespringatposition

Thespringisinitially

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
Thespringisnowcompressedsothattheunconstrainedendmovesfrom

to

.Usingtheworkintegral

,
findtheworkdonebythespringasitiscompressed.
Expresstheworkdonebythespringintermsof and .
=
Correct

Work from a Constant Force

LearningGoal:Tounderstandhowtocomputetheworkdonebyaconstantforceactingonaparticlethatmovesin
astraightline.

Inthisproblem,youwillcalculatetheworkdonebyaconstantforce.Aforceisconsideredconstantif
independentof .ThisisthemostfrequentlyencounteredsituationinelementaryNewtonianmechanics.

is

Harvaran Ghai

Part A

ConsideraparticlemovinginastraightlinefrominitialpointBtofinalpointA,acteduponbyaconstantforce

Theforce(thinkofitasafield,havingamagnitudeanddirectionateveryposition )isindicatedbyaseries
ofidenticalvectorspointingtotheleft,paralleltothehorizontalaxis.Thevectorsareallidenticalonlybecausethe
forceisconstantalongthepath.Themagnitudeoftheforceis ,andthedisplacementvectorfrompointBtopoint

,theworkthattheforce

performsontheparticleasitmovesfrompointBtopointA.

=
Correct

Thisresultisworthremembering!Theworkdonebyaconstantforceofmagnitude ,whichactsatanangleof
withrespecttothedirectionofmotionalongastraightpathoflength ,is

.Thisequation

;hence

Part B
Nowconsiderthesameforce actingonaparticlethattravelsfrompointAtopointB.
vector nowpointsintheoppositedirectionasitdidinPartA.Findthework

Thedisplacement

doneby inthiscase.

=
Correct

The Work Done in Pulling a Supertanker

north.

towardthe

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Whatisthetotalworkdonebythetwotugboatsonthesupertanker?
2.76109
Correct

Work on a Sliding Block

Ablockofweight sitsonafrictionlessinclinedplane,whichmakesanangle withrespecttothehorizontal,as
shown.

Part A

Aforceofmagnitude ,appliedparalleltotheincline,pullstheblockuptheplaneatconstantspeed.

Harvaran Ghai

movewithconstantspeed.Whatisthetotalwork
doneontheblockbyallforces?(Includeonlytheworkdone
aftertheblockhasstartedmoving,nottheworkneededtostarttheblockmovingfromrest.)

=0
Correct

Part B
Whatis
Expresstheworkdonebygravityintermsoftheweight andanyotherquantitiesgivenintheproblem
introduction.

=
Correct

Part C
Whatis

=
Correct

Part D
Whatis
plane?

=0
Correct

Potential Energy Graphs and Motion

LearningGoal:Tobeabletointerpretpotentialenergydiagramsandpredictthecorrespondingmotionofa
particle.
Potentialenergydiagramsforaparticleareusefulinpredictingthemotionofthatparticle.Thesediagramsallow
onetodeterminethedirectionoftheforceactingontheparticleatanypoint,thepointsofstableandunstable
equilibrium,theparticle'skineticenergy,etc.

Considerthepotentialenergydiagramshown. Thecurverepresentsthevalueofpotentialenergy asa

functionoftheparticle'scoordinate .Thehorizontallineabovethecurverepresentstheconstantvalueofthetotal
energyoftheparticle .Thetotalenergy isthesumofkinetic(

)andpotential( )energiesoftheparticle.

Thekeyideaininterpretingthegraphcanbeexpressedintheequation

where
isthexcomponentofthenetforceasfunctionoftheparticle'scoordinate .Notethenegativesign:It
meansthatthexcomponentofthenetforceisnegativewhenthederivativeispositiveandviceversa.Forinstance,
iftheparticleismovingtotheright,anditspotentialenergyisincreasing,thenetforcewouldbepullingtheparticle
totheleft.
Ifyouarestillhavingtroublevisualizingthis,considerthefollowing:Ifamassiveparticleisincreasingits
gravitationalpotentialenergy(thatis,movingupward),theforceofgravityispullingintheoppositedirection(that
is,downward).
Ifthexcomponentofthenetforceiszero,theparticleissaidtobeinequilibrium.Therearetwokindsof
equilibrium:

Stableequilibriummeansthatsmalldeviationsfromtheequilibriumpointcreateanetforcethat
acceleratestheparticlebacktowardtheequilibriumpoint(thinkofaballrollingbetweentwohills).
Unstableequilibriummeansthatsmalldeviationsfromtheequilibriumpointcreateanetforcethat
acceleratestheparticlefurtherawayfromtheequilibriumpoint(thinkofaballontopofahill).

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
TheforceactingontheparticleatpointAis__________.
directedtothe
right
directedtotheleft
equaltozero
Correct

ConsiderthegraphintheregionofpointA.Iftheparticleismovingtotheright,itwouldbe"climbingthehill,"and
theforcewould"pullitdown,"thatis,pulltheparticlebacktotheleft.Another,moreabstractwayofthinking
Part B
TheforceactingontheparticleatpointCis__________.
directedtothe
right
directedtotheleft
equaltozero
Correct

Part C
TheforceactingontheparticleatpointBis__________.
directedtothe
right
directedtotheleft
equaltozero
Correct

Theslopeofthegraphiszero;therefore,thederivative
Part D
TheaccelerationoftheparticleatpointBis__________.
directedtothe
right
directedtotheleft
equaltozero
Correct

,and

Ifthenetforceiszero,soistheacceleration.Theparticleissaidtobeinastateofequilibrium.
Part E
IftheparticleislocatedslightlytotheleftofpointB,itsaccelerationis__________.
directedtothe
right
directedtotheleft
equaltozero
Correct

Part F
IftheparticleislocatedslightlytotherightofpointB,itsaccelerationis__________.
directedtothe
right
directedtotheleft
equaltozero
Correct

Asyoucansee,smalldeviationsfromequilibriumatpointBcauseaforcethatacceleratestheparticlefurtheraway;
hencetheparticleisinunstableequilibrium.
Part G
Namealllabeledpointsonthegraphcorrespondingtounstableequilibrium.
Listyourchoicesalphabetically,withnocommasorspaces;forinstance,ifyouchoosepointsB,D,andE,
BF
Correct

Part H
Namealllabeledpointsonthegraphcorrespondingtostableequilibrium.
Listyourchoicesalphabetically,withnocommasorspaces;forinstance,ifyouchoosepointsB,D,andE,
DH
Correct

Part I
Namealllabeledpointsonthegraphwheretheaccelerationoftheparticleiszero.
Listyourchoicesalphabetically,withnocommasorspaces;forinstance,ifyouchoosepointsB,D,andE,
BDFH
Correct

Part J
Namealllabeledpointssuchthatwhenaparticleisreleasedfromrestthere,itwouldacceleratetotheleft.
Listyourchoicesalphabetically,withnocommasorspaces;forinstance,ifyouchoosepointsB,D,andE,
AE
Correct

Part K
ConsiderpointsA,E,andG.Ofthesethreepoints,whichonecorrespondstothegreatestmagnitudeofacceleration
oftheparticle?
A
E
G
Correct

Kineticenergy
Ifthetotalenergy oftheparticleisknown,onecanalsousethegraphof
kineticenergyoftheparticlesince

.
Asareminder,onthisgraph,thetotalenergy isshownbythehorizontalline.
Part L
Whatpointonthegraphcorrespondstothemaximumkineticenergyofthemovingparticle?
D
Correct

Itmakessensethatthekineticenergyoftheparticleismaximumatoneofthe(force)equilibriumpoints.For
example,thinkofapendulum(whichhasonlyoneforceequilibriumpointattheverybottom).
Part M
Atwhatpointonthegraphdoestheparticlehavethelowestspeed?
B
Correct

problemshouldproveusefulinimprovingsuchanunderstanding.

Potential Energy Calculations

LearningGoal:Tounderstandtherelationshipbetweentheforceandthepotentialenergychangesassociatedwith
thatforceandtobeabletocalculatethechangesinpotentialenergyasdefiniteintegrals.
Imaginethataconservativeforcefieldisdefinedinacertainregionofspace.Doesthissoundtooabstract?Well,
thinkofagravitationalfield(theonethatmakesapplesfalldownandkeepstheplanetsorbiting)oranelectrostatic
fieldexistingaroundanyelectricallychargedobject.
Ifaparticleismovinginsuchafield,itschangeinpotentialenergydoesnotdependontheparticle'spathandis
determinedonlybytheparticle'sinitialandfinalpositions.Recallthat,ingeneral,thecomponentofthenetforce
actingonaparticleequalsthenegativederivativeofthepotentialenergyfunctionalongthecorrespondingaxis:

.
Therefore,thechangeinpotentialenergycanbefoundastheintegral

where

isthechangeinpotentialenergyforaparticlemovingfrompoint1topoint2, isthenetforceacting

ontheparticleatagivenpointofitspath,and

isasmalldisplacementoftheparticlealongitspathfrom1to2.

easier:
1. Becausetheresultispathindependent,itisalwayspossibletoconsiderthemoststraightforwardwayto
reachpoint2frompoint1.
2. Themostcommonrealworldfieldsarerathersimplydefined.

Inthisproblem,youwillpracticecalculatingthechangeinpotentialenergyforaparticlemovinginthreecommon
forcefields.
Notethat,intheequationsfortheforces, istheunitvectorinthexdirection, istheunitvectorintheydirection,

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
Considerauniformgravitationalfield(afairapproximationnearthesurfaceofaplanet).Find

,
where

and

Correct

, ,

,and .

Part B
ConsidertheforceexertedbyaspringthatobeysHooke'slaw.Find

,
where

,
andthespringconstant ispositive.

Correct

,and

Part C
Finally,considerthegravitationalforcegeneratedbyasphericallysymmetricalmassiveobject.Themagnitudeand
directionofsuchaforcearegivenbyNewton'slawofgravity:

,
where

; ,

,and

areconstants;and

.Find

Correct

, ,and .

Asyoucansee,thechangeinpotentialenergyoftheparticlecanbefoundbyintegratingtheforcealongthe
particle'spath.However,thismethod,aswementionedbefore,doeshaveanimportantrestriction:Itcanonlybe
appliedtoaconservativeforcefield.Forconservativeforcessuchasgravityortensiontheworkdoneonthe
particledoesnotdependontheparticle'spath,andthepotentialenergyisthefunctionoftheparticle'sposition.
Incaseofanonconservativeforcesuchasafrictionalormagneticforcethepotentialenergycannolongerbe
definedasafunctionoftheparticle'sposition,andthemethodthatyouusedinthisproblemwouldnotbe
applicable.

A Mass-Spring System with Recoil and Friction

Anobjectofmass istravelingonahorizontalsurface.Thereisacoefficientofkineticfriction betweenthe
objectandthesurface.Theobjecthasspeed whenitreaches

andencountersaspring.Theobjectcompresses

thespring,stops,andthenrecoilsandtravelsintheoppositedirection.Whentheobjectreaches
trip,itstops.

onitsreturn

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Find ,thespringconstant.
Express intermsof ,
=
Correct

, ,and .

Dragging a Board
Auniformboardoflength andmass liesnearaboundarythatseparatestworegions.Inregion1,thecoefficient
ofkineticfrictionbetweentheboardandthesurfaceis ,andinregion2,thecoefficientis .Thepositive
directionisshowninthefigure.

Harvaran Ghai

Part A

Findthenetwork donebyfrictioninpullingtheboarddirectlyfromregion1toregion2.Assumethattheboard
movesatconstantvelocity.
Expressthenetworkintermsof
=
Correct

, , ,

,and

average,itinfactdid.
Part B
Whatisthetotalworkdonebytheexternalforceinpullingtheboardfromregion1toregion2?(Again,assumethat
theboardmovesatconstantvelocity.)

=
Correct

, , ,

,and

Drag on a Skydiver
magnitude .Assumethatthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravityis .

Part A

Harvaran Ghai

Whatisthework

doneontheskydiver,overthedistance ,bythedragforceoftheair?

Expresstheworkintermsof , ,

=
Correct

,andthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity .

Part B
Findthepower suppliedbythedragforceaftertheskydiverhasreachedterminalvelocity .
Expressthepowerintermsofquantitiesgivenintheproblemintroduction.
=
Correct

Power Dissipation Puts a Drag on Racing

Thedominantformofdragexperiencedbyvehicles(bikes,cars,planes,etc.)atoperatingspeedsiscalledform
sodoestheamountofforceyoumustexertoneachsmallvolumeofair).Thus
,
where isthecrosssectionalareaofthevehicleand

iscalledthecoefficientofdrag.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Consideravehiclemovingwithconstantvelocity .Findthepowerdissipatedbyformdrag.
=
Correct

, ,andspeed .

Part B
Acertaincarhasanenginethatprovidesamaximumpower .Supposethatthemaximumspeedofthecar, ,is
modified,sothatthenewpower
Assumethefollowing:

is10percentgreaterthantheoriginalpower(

Thetopspeedislimitedbyairdrag.
Themagnitudeoftheforceofairdragatthesespeedsisproportionaltothesquareofthespeed.

Bywhatpercentage,
,isthetopspeedofthecarincreased?
Expressthepercentincreaseintopspeednumericallytotwosignificantfigures.

Correct

=3.2%

dependenceofsmallchangesoneachother,whenthequantitiesarerelatedbyproportionalitiesofexponents,is
commoninphysicsandoftenmakesausefulshortcutforestimations.

Energy of a Spacecraft
Veryfarfromearth(at
),aspacecrafthasrunoutoffuelanditskineticenergyiszero.Ifonlythe
gravitationalforceoftheearthweretoactonit(i.e.,neglecttheforcesfromthesunandothersolarsystemobjects),
thespacecraftwouldeventuallycrashintotheearth.Themassoftheearthis
resistancethroughoutthisproblem,sincethespacecraftisprimarilymovingthroughthenearvacuumofspace.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Findthespeed ofthespacecraftwhenitcrashesintotheearth.
Expressthespeedintermsof
=
Correct

,andtheuniversalgravitationalconstant .

Part B
Nowfindthespacecraft'sspeedwhenitsdistancefromthecenteroftheearthis
Expressthespeedintermsof and .
=
Correct

Orbiting Satellite

,where

Asatelliteofmass
density .(
constant.

ismeasuredfromthecenteroftheplanet,notitssurface.)Use

fortheuniversalgravitational

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
Findthekineticenergyofthissatellite,

Expressthesatellite'skineticenergyintermsof ,
=
Correct

, ,

,and .

Part B
Find ,thegravitationalpotentialenergyofthesatellite.Takethegravitationalpotentialenergytobezeroforan
objectinfinitelyfarawayfromtheplanet.
Expressthesatellite'sgravitationalpotentialenergyintermsof
=
Correct

, ,

Part C
Whatistheratioofthekineticenergyofthissatellitetoitspotentialenergy?
Express

intermsofparametersgivenintheintroduction.

,and .

=0.500
Correct

Theresultofthisproblemmaybeexpressedas

where

istheexponentoftheforcelaw(i.e.

mechanicsknownastheVirialTheorem.Thetheoremappliestotheaverageofthekineticandpotentialenergiesof
ofanyoneormultipleobjectsmovingoveranyclosed(oralmostclosed)paththatreturnsveryclosetoitself
providedthatallobjectsinteractviapotentialswiththesamepowerlawdependenceontheirseparation.Thusit
appliestostarsinagalaxy,ormassestiedtogetherwithsprings(where

sincetheforcelawis

).

Problem 12.28
Thespaceshuttleisina250

highcircularorbit.Itneedstoreacha700

HubbleSpaceTelescopeforrepairs.Theshuttle'smassis8.00104

highcircularorbittocatchthe

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
Howmuchenergyisrequiredtoboostittotheneworbit?
1.531011J
Correct

An Exhausted Bicyclist
Anexhaustedbicyclistpedalssomewhaterratically,sothattheangularvelocityofhistiresfollowstheequation

,
where representstime(measuredinseconds).

Harvaran Ghai
Part A

Thereisaspotofpaintonthefronttireofthebicycle.Takethepositionofthespotattime

tobeatangle

measurepositiveanglesinthedirectionofthetire'srotation.Whatangulardisplacement hasthespotofpaint
undergonebetweentime0and2seconds?
=0.793
Correct

Part B
Expresstheangulardisplacementundergonebythespotofpaintat

secondsindegrees.

=45.5
Correct

Part C
=39.7
Correct

Part D
Whichoneofthefollowingstatementsdescribesthemotionofthespotofpaintat
seconds?
Theangularaccelerationofthespotofpaintisconstantandthemagnitudeoftheangularspeedisdecreasing.
Theangularaccelerationofthespotofpaintisconstantandthemagnitudeoftheangularspeedisincreasing.
Theangularaccelerationofthespotofpaintispositiveandthemagnitudeoftheangularspeedisdecreasing.
Theangularaccelerationofthespotofpaintispositiveandthemagnitudeoftheangularspeedisincreasing.
Theangularaccelerationofthespotofpaintisnegativeandthemagnitudeoftheangularspeedis
decreasing.
Theangularaccelerationofthespotofpaintisnegativeandthemagnitudeoftheangularspeedisincreasing.
Correct

A Spinning Grinding Wheel

Attime

agrindingwheelhasanangularvelocityof23.0

32.0
433

.Ithasaconstantangularaccelerationof

untilacircuitbreakertripsattime =1.90 .Fromthenon,thewheelturnsthroughanangleof

asitcoaststoastopatconstantangulardeceleration.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Throughwhattotalangledidthewheelturnbetween

andthetimeitstopped?

534
Correct

Part B
Atwhattimedoesthewheelstop?
12.2
Correct

Part C
Whatwasthewheel'sangularaccelerationasitsloweddown?
8.11
Correct

Finding Torque
Aforce ofmagnitude ,makinganangle withthexaxis,isappliedtoaparticlelocatedatpointA,atCartesian
coordinates(0,0)inthefigure.Thevector andthefourreferencepoints(i.e.,A,B,C,andD)alllieinthexy

Thetorque ofaforce actingonaparticlehavingapositionvector withrespecttoareferencepoint(thus

pointsfromthereferencepointtothepointatwhichtheforceacts)isequaltothecrossproductof and ,
.Themagnitudeofthetorqueis

isperpendiculartoboth and .Forthisproblem

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
=0
Correct

Part B
Whatisthetorque

distance fromtheoriginalongtheyaxis.)
=
Correct

Part C
Whatisthetorque
alongthexaxis?

=
Correct

Part D
Whatisthetorque
axis?

=
Correct

Notethatthecrossproduct

whichsimplifiesto

canalsobeexpressedasathirdorderdeterminant

Pivoted Rod with Unequal Masses

smallsphereofmass isattachedtotheleftendoftherod,andasmallsphereofmass isattachedtotheright
end.Thespheresaresmallenoughthattheycanbeconsideredpointparticles.Thegravitationalforceacts
downward,withthemagnitudeofthegravitationalaccelerationequalto .

Part A

Harvaran Ghai

Expressthemomentofinertiaintermsof
=
Correct

,and .Remember,thelengthoftherodis

,not .

Part B
Supposetherodisheldatresthorizontallyandthenreleased.(Throughouttheremainderofthisproblem,your
firstpartcorrectly.)
Whatistheangularacceleration oftherodimmediatelyafteritisreleased?
Takethecounterclockwisedirectiontobepositive.Express intermsofsomeorallofthevariables

, , ,and .
=
Correct

Pulling a String to Accelerate a Wheel

Abicyclewheelismountedonafixed,frictionlessaxle,asshown

.Amasslessstringiswoundaroundthe

wheel'srim,andaconstanthorizontalforce ofmagnitude startspullingthestringfromthetopofthewheel

startingattime

whenthewheelisnotrotating.Supposethatatsomelatertime thestringhasbeenpulled

Harvaran Ghai

Part A

Find ,theangularaccelerationofthewheel,whichresultsfrom pullingthestringtotheleft.Usethestandard

conventionthatcounterclockwiseangularaccelerationsarepositive.
Expresstheangularacceleration, ,intermsof , ,
=
Correct

,and (butnot

).

Part B

Theforce pullingthestringisconstant;thereforethemagnitudeoftheangularacceleration ofthewheelis

constantforthisconfiguration.
Notethattherearetwowaystofindanexpressionfor ;theseexpressionslookverydifferentbutareequivalent.
Expresstheangularvelocity ofthewheelintermsofthedisplacement ,themagnitude oftheapplied
force,andthemomentofinertiaofthewheel ,ifyou'vefoundsuchasolution.Otherwise,followingthe
=
Correct

Thissolutioncanbeobtainedfromtheequationsofrotationalmotionandtheequationsofmotionwithconstant
acceleration.Analternateapproachistocalculatetheworkdoneoverthedisplacement bytheforce andequate
thisworktotheincreaseinrotationalkineticenergyofrotationofthewheel
Part C
Expressthespeedofthestringintermsof , , ,and
=
Correct

;donotinclude , ,or

Notethatthisisthespeedthatanobjectofmass

(whichislessthan

forcewithconstantmagnitude .

A Bar Suspended by Two Vertical Strings

Arigid,uniform,horizontalbarofmass

andlength issupportedbytwoidenticalmasslessstrings.

Both

fromtheleftendofthebarandisconnectedtothe
ceiling;stringBisattachedtotheleftendofthebarandisconnectedtothefloor.Asmallblockofmass is
Throughoutthisproblempositivetorqueisthatwhichspinsanobjectcounterclockwise.Use forthemagnitudeof
theaccelerationduetogravity.

Harvaran Ghai

Part A
Find

,thetensioninstringA.

ExpressthetensioninstringAintermsof ,
=
Correct

Part B
Find

,themagnitudeofthetensioninstringB.

, , ,

,and .

ExpressthemagnitudeofthetensioninstringBintermsof
=
Correct

,and .

Part C
Ifthebarandblockaretooheavythestringsmaybreak.Whichofthetwoidenticalstringswillbreakfirst?
string
A
stringB
Correct

Part D
Ifthemassoftheblockistoolargeandtheblockistooclosetotheleftendofthebar(nearstringB)thenthe
horizontalbarmaybecomeunstable(i.e.,thebarmaynolongerremainhorizontal).
Whatisthesmallestpossiblevalueof suchthatthebarremainsstable(callit

intermsof

=
Correct

)?

, ,and .

Part E
Notethatsince
,ascomputedinthepreviouspart,isnotnecessarilypositive.If
stablenomatterwheretheblockofmass isplacedonit.
Assumingthat

, ,and areheldfixed,whatisthemaximumblockmass

stable?Inotherwords,whatisthemaximumblockmasssuchthat

=
Correct

, ,and .

A Person Standing on a Leaning Ladder

,thebarwillbe

forwhichthebarwillalwaysbe
?

andlength restsagainstasmoothwall.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Whatistheminimumcoeffecientofstaticfriction
Express

=
Correct

intermsof

, , ,and .

Part B
Supposethattheactualcoefficentoffrictionisoneandahalftimesaslargeasthevalueof

.Underthesecircumstances,whatisthemagnitudeoftheforceoffriction thatthefloorappliesto

and .
=
Correct

.Thatis,

, , , ,and .Remembertopayattentiontotherelationofforce

A Rolling Hollow Sphere

Ahollowsphericalshellwithmass1.80
thehorizontal.

rollswithoutslippingdownaslopethatmakesanangleof39.0 with

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Findthemagnitudeoftheacceleration

ofthecenterofmassofthesphericalshell.

Takethefreefallaccelerationtobe =9.80

=3.70
Correct

Part B
Findthemagnitudeofthefrictionalforceactingonthesphericalshell.
Takethefreefallaccelerationtobe =9.80

=4.44
Correct

Thefrictionalforcekeepsthesphericalshellstucktothesurfaceoftheslope,sothatthereisnoslippingasitrolls
down.Iftherewerenofriction,theshellwouldsimplyslidedowntheslope,asarectangularboxmightdoonan
inclined(frictionless)surface.
Part C
Findtheminimumcoefficientoffriction neededtopreventthesphericalshellfromslippingasitrollsdownthe
slope.
=0.324
Correct

Weight and Wheel

Considerabicyclewheelthatinitiallyisnotrotating.Ablockofmass

isattachedtothewheelandisallowedto

Harvaran Ghai
Part A

.Find

Express

intermsof

, , ,

=
Correct

,and .

Part B

.Find

Express
=
Correct

intermsof

, , ,

,and .

Part C
Whichofthefollowingdescribestherelationshipbetween

Correct

and

Thisisrelatedtowhygearsarefoundontheinsideratherthantheoutsideofawheel.

Record and Turntable

LearningGoal:Tounderstandhowtouseconservationofangularmomentumtosolveproblemsinvolving
collisionsofrotatingbodies.
Consideraturntabletobeacirculardiskofmomentofinertia rotatingataconstantangularvelocity
aroundanaxisthroughthecenterandperpendiculartotheplaneofthedisk(thedisk's"primaryaxisofsymmetry").
Theaxisofthediskisverticalandthediskissupportedbyfrictionlessbearings.Themotoroftheturntableisoff,so
thereisnoexternaltorquebeingappliedtotheaxis.
Anotherdisk(arecord)isdroppedontothefirstsuchthatitlandscoaxially(theaxescoincide).Themomentof
inertiaoftherecordis .Theinitialangularvelocityoftheseconddiskiszero.
Thereisfrictionbetweenthetwodisks.
Afterthis"rotationalcollision,"thediskswilleventuallyrotatewiththesameangularvelocity.

Part A
Whatisthefinalangularvelocity,
Express
=
Correct

Part B

intermsof , ,and

Harvaran Ghai
,ofthetwodisks?
.

Becauseoffriction,rotationalkineticenergyisnotconservedwhilethedisks'surfacesslipovereachother.Whatis
thefinalrotationalkineticenergy,

,ofthetwospinningdisks?

Expressthefinalkineticenergyintermsof , ,andtheinitialkineticenergy
=
Correct

ofthetwodisksystem.No

Someoftheenergywasconvertedintoheatandsoundasthefrictionalforce,torqueacted,stoppingrelativemotion.
Part C
Assumethattheturntabledecceleratedduringtime beforereachingthefinalangularvelocity( isthetime
intervalbetweenthemomentwhenthetopdiskisdroppedandthetimethatthedisksbegintospinatthesame
angularvelocity).Whatwastheaveragetorque,

,actingonthebottomdiskduetofrictionwiththerecord?

Expressthetorqueintermsof ,

=
Correct

,and

Problem 13.87
balancedbyanoutwardpressureforceduetotheheatofthenuclearreactionsinthecore.Butafterallthehydrogen
"fuel"isconsumedbynuclearfusion,thepressureforcedropsandthestarundergoesagravitationalcollapseuntilit
becomesaneutronstar.Inaneutronstar,theelectronsandprotonsoftheatomsaresqueezedtogetherbygravity
pulseperrotation.These"pulsingstars"werediscoveredinthe1960sandarecalledpulsars.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Astarwiththemass
andsize
ofoursunrotatesonceevery34.0days.
6.46104m
Correct

Part B
starcannotbeaccuratelymodeledasasolidsphere.
4.06106m/s
Correct

Analyzing Simple Harmonic Motion

graphofitspositionversustime.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Whatisanexpressionfor
,thepositionofmassIasafunctionoftime?Assumethatpositionismeasuredin
metersandtimeismeasuredinseconds.

=
Correct

Part B
Whatis
,thepositionofmassIIasafunctionoftime?Assumethatpositionismeasuredinmetersandtimeis
measuredinseconds.

=
Correct

Harmonic Oscillator Acceleration

LearningGoal:Tounderstandtheapplicationofthegeneralharmonicequationtofindingtheaccelerationofa
springoscillatorasafunctionoftime.
Oneendofaspringwithspringconstant isattachedtothewall.Theotherendisattachedtoablockofmass .
Theblockrestsonafrictionlesshorizontalsurface.Theequilibriumpositionoftheleftsideoftheblockisdefined
tobe

.Thelengthoftherelaxedspringis .

Theblockisslowlypulledfromitsequilibriumpositiontosomeposition
theblockisreleasedwithzeroinitialvelocity.
Thegoalofthisproblemistodeterminetheaccelerationoftheblock
and
.

alongthexaxis.Attime

asafunctionoftimeintermsof ,

Itisknownthatageneralsolutionforthepositionofaharmonicoscillatoris
,
where , ,and areconstants.

connectionbetween

and

,and

andthenusethe

tofindtheacceleration.

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
CombineNewton's2ndlawandHooke'slawforaspringtofindtheaccelerationoftheblock
time.

=
Correct

,andthecoordinateoftheblock

asafunctionof

directedoppositetotheblock'sdisplacement.Whentheblockispulledtotherightfromtheequilibriumposition,
therestoringforceispullingback,thatis,totheleftandviceversa.
Part B
Usingthefactthataccelerationisthesecondderivativeofposition,findtheaccelerationoftheblock
functionoftime.

asa

=
Correct

Part C
Findtheangularfrequency .
=
Correct

Notethattheangularfrequency and,therefore,theperiodofoscillations dependonlyontheintrinsicphysical

characteristicsofthesystem( and
amplitudeofthemotion.

).Frequencyandperioddonotdependontheinitialconditionsorthe

Energy of Harmonic Oscillators

LearningGoal:Tolearntoapplythelawofconservationofenergytotheanalysisofharmonicoscillators.
Systemsinsimpleharmonicmotion,orharmonicoscillators,obeythelawofconservationofenergyjustlikeall
othersystemsdo.Usingenergyconsiderations,onecananalyzemanyaspectsofmotionoftheoscillator.Suchan
analysiscanbesimplifiedifoneassumesthatmechanicalenergyisnotdissipated.Inotherwords,
,
where isthetotalmechanicalenergyofthesystem,

isthekineticenergy,and isthepotentialenergy.

Harvaran Ghai
Asyouknow,acommonexampleofaharmonicoscillatorisamassattachedtoaspring.Inthisproblem,wewill
considerahorizontallymovingblockattachedtoaspring.Notethat,sincethegravitationalpotentialenergyisnot
changinginthiscase,itcanbeexcludedfromthecalculations.
Forsuchasystem,thepotentialenergyisstoredinthespringandisgivenby

,
where istheforceconstantofthespringand isthedistancefromtheequilibriumposition.
Thekineticenergyofthesystemis,asalways,

,
where

isthemassoftheblockand isthespeedoftheblock.

Wewillalsoassumethattherearenoresistiveforces;thatis,

Consideraharmonicoscillatoratfourdifferentmoments,labeledA,B,C,andD,asshowninthefigure
Assumethattheforceconstant ,themassoftheblock,
thefollowingquestions.

Part A
Whichmomentcorrespondstothemaximumpotentialenergyofthesystem?
A
B

C
D
Correct

Part B
Whichmomentcorrespondstotheminimumkineticenergyofthesystem?
A
B
C
D
Correct

blockismomentarilyatrest.Therefore,themaximumpotentialenergyis
course,

.Recallthat

.Atthatmoment,of

.Therefore,

.
Ingeneral,themechanicalenergyofaharmonicoscillatorequalsitspotentialenergyatthemaximumorminimum
displacement.
Part C
Considertheblockintheprocessofoscillating.
attheequilibriumposition.
attheamplitudedisplacement.
Ifthekineticenergyoftheblockisincreasing,theblockmust
be

movingtotheright.
movingtotheleft.
movingawayfrom
equilibrium.
movingtowardequilibrium.

Correct

Part D
Whichmomentcorrespondstothemaximumkineticenergyofthesystem?
A
B

C
D
Correct

Part E
Whichmomentcorrespondstotheminimumpotentialenergyofthesystem?
A
B
C
D
Correct

Whentheblockisattheequilibriumposition,thespringisnotstretched(orcompressed)atall.Atthatmoment,of
course,

.Meanwhile,theblockisatitsmaximumspeed(

thenbewrittenas

.Recallthat

andthat

.
Recallingwhatwefoundoutbefore,

,
wecannowconcludethat

,
or

.
Part F
Atwhichmomentis
A
B

).Themaximumkineticenergycan
attheequilibriumposition.Therefore,

C
D
Correct

Part G
Findthekineticenergy

oftheblockatthemomentlabeledB.

=
Correct

Energy of a Spring
Anobjectofmass

attachedtoaspringofforceconstant oscillateswithsimpleharmonicmotion.Themaximum

displacementfromequilibriumis andthetotalmechanicalenergyofthesystemis .

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Whatisthesystem'spotentialenergywhenitskineticenergyisequalto

Correct

Part B
Whatistheobject'svelocitywhenitspotentialenergyis

Correct

Gravity on Another Planet

Afterlandingonanunfamiliarplanet,aspaceexplorerconstructsasimplependulumoflength55.0
explorerfindsthatthependulumcompletes108fullswingcyclesinatimeof136 .

.The

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Whatisthevalueoftheaccelerationofgravityonthisplanet?

=13.7
Correct

136/1082pi/ansans*0.55

The Fish Scale

thespringoscillatesverticallyatafrequencyof2.95

Part A
Ignoringthemassofthespring,whatisthemass

.Afishhangingfromthebottomof

Harvaran Ghai
ofthefish?

=4.42
Correct

Vertical Mass-and-Spring Oscillator

Ablockofmass isattachedtotheendofanidealspring.Duetotheweightoftheblock,theblockremainsatrest
constant .

Thespringhasanunknownspring

Harvaran Ghai
Part A
Whatisthespringconstant ?
Expressthespringconstantintermsofgivenquantitiesand ,themagnitudeoftheaccelerationdueto
gravity.
=
Correct

Part B
Supposethattheblockgetsbumpedandundergoesasmallverticaldisplacement.Findtheresultingangular