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DIgSILENT Technical

Documentation

General Load Model

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General Load Model


Published by
DIgSILENT GmbH, Germany
Copyright 2008. All rights
reserved. Unauthorised copying
or publishing of this or any part
of this document is prohibited.
TechRef ElmLod V4
Build 507 30.10.2008

General Load Model

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
1 General Description........................................................................................................................... 4
1.1 Load-Flow Analysis ................................................................................................................................... 4
1.1.1 Balanced Load-Flow ............................................................................................................................. 5
1.1.2 Unbalanced Load-Flow ......................................................................................................................... 5
1.1.2.1 3-phase loads ................................................................................................................................. 6
1.1.2.2 2-Phase Loads ................................................................................................................................ 7
1.1.2.3 1-phase loads ................................................................................................................................. 8
1.1.3 DC loads ............................................................................................................................................. 9
1.1.4 Voltage dependency........................................................................................................................... 10
1.1.5 Load Scaling factors ........................................................................................................................... 12
1.2 Short-Circuit Analysis .............................................................................................................................. 14
1.3 Harmonic Analysis................................................................................................................................... 15
1.3.1 Passive Load...................................................................................................................................... 15
1.3.2 Harmonic Current Injections ............................................................................................................... 17
1.4 RMS Simulation (Transient Stability) ........................................................................................................ 18
1.5 EMT Simulation....................................................................................................................................... 21
2 Input/Output Definition of the Dynamic Model .............................................................................. 22
2.1 Three-Phase Load................................................................................................................................... 22
2.1.1 RMS-Simulation ................................................................................................................................. 22
2.1.2 EMT-Simulation ................................................................................................................................. 23
2.2 Single-, Two-Phase Load and DC-Load ..................................................................................................... 23
3 Parameter Definitions ..................................................................................................................... 24
3.1 General Load Type (TypLod) ................................................................................................................... 24
3.2 General Load Element (ElmLod)............................................................................................................... 25

General Load Model

1 General Description
In power systems, electrical load consists of various different types of electrical devices, from incandescent lamps
and heaters to large arc furnaces and motors. It is often very difficult to identify the exact composition of static
and dynamic loads in the network. This load composition can also vary depending on factors such as the season,
time of day etc.
Additionally, the term load can be used for entire MV-feeders in case of an HV-system or LV-feeders if an MVsystem is in the centre of interest.
The PowerFactory model General Load can therefore represent:

A complete feeder

A combination of dynamic and static loads

The general load model diagram is shown in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1: DIgSILENT General Load Model

1.1 Load-Flow Analysis


In the element window for the load, the user is free to choose whether the load is balanced or unbalanced.
Furthermore the user can specify the input parameters for the load using the Input Mode drop down menu as
shown in Figure 2 below. Based on the available data, the user can select the relevant combination of parameters
from S (apparent power), P (real power), Q (reactive power), cos(phi) (power factor) and I (current).
For load-flow analysis, it suffices to only specify the load's electrical consumption.
Other data characterizing a load, such as the number of phases or voltage dependency factors (see also 1.1.3)
are defined in the Load Type. If no load type is specified, a balanced, three-phase load is assumed having default
parameters for voltage dependency kpu=1.6 and kqu=1.8 (see also section 1.1.4).

General Load Model

Figure 2: Specifying the input parameters for the load model

1.1.1 Balanced Load-Flow


Depending on the selected input mode, the user needs to specify two input parameters. Figure 3 shows the load
model used for balanced load-flow analysis, where only P0 and Q0 are specified.
All loads specified as 2-phase and/or 1-phase loads are only considered in unbalanced load flow calculations.
They are ignored when a balanced load-flow is performed.

Figure 3: Load model used for balanced load-flows.

1.1.2 Unbalanced Load-Flow


When running a load flow with a complete ABC-network representation, network unbalances resulting from either
unbalanced loads or unbalanced branch elements can be considered.
Additional data for unbalanced load flow analysis is:

Technology

Figure 4 shows the input dialog window for specifying the type data for General loads.

General Load Model

Figure 4: General load type data input window

1.1.2.1 3-phase loads (3PH-D, 3PH PH-E, 3PH-YN)


The actual load per phase is entered in the input dialogue-box of the load element. The user has the choice
between:

Balanced load, only specifying the sum of all phases. In this case, it is assumed that the load is shared
equally amongst the phases.

Unbalanced load, specifying the individual phase loads.

Figure 5: 3-phase, Technology 3PH D load model diagram

General Load Model

Figure 6: 3-phase, Technology 3PH PH-E load model diagram

Figure 7: 3-phase, Technology 3PH YN load model diagram

1.1.2.2 2-Phase Loads (2PH PH-E, 2PH-YN)


Such a load type can be used for modelling loads in two-phase or bi-phase systems.

General Load Model

Figure 8: 2-phase, Technology 2PH PH-E load model diagram

Figure 9: 2-phase, Technology 2PH-YN load model diagram

1.1.2.3 1-phase loads (1PH PH-PH, 1PH PH-N, 1PH PH-E)


The 1PH PH-PH load model can be used for representing loads connected between two phases, which is in fact
a single-phase load between two phases (see Figure 10).

Figure 10: 1-phase, Technology 1PH PH-PH load model diagram


The 1PH PH-N load model can be used for a load connected between one phase and the neutral phase (see
Figure 11).

General Load Model

Figure 11: 1-phase, Technology 1PH PH-N load model diagram


The 1PH PH-E load model can be used for a load connected between one phase and earth (see Figure 12).

Figure 12: 1-phase, Technology 1PH PH-E load model diagram

1.1.3 DC loads
DC-loads are always single-phase, as shown in Figure 10. For load flow analysis, the load is characterized by
the active power flow P. Inductive effects are only considered in transient simulations.

Figure 13: 1-phase DC load model diagram

General Load Model

1.1.4 Voltage dependency


Voltage dependency of loads can be modelled using a potential approach, as shown in (1) and (2). In these
equations, the subscript 0 indicates the initial operating condition as defined in the input dialogue box of the Load
Element.
e _ aP
e _ bP
e _ cP

v
v
v

+ bP
P = P0 aP
+ (1 aP bP )

v
v
v
0
0
0

(1)

where

1 aP bP = cP

e _ aQ
e _ bQ
e _ cQ

v
v
v

Q = Q0 aQ
+ bQ
+ (1 aQ bQ )

v
v
v
0
0
0

(2)

where

1 aQ bQ = cQ
By specifying the respective exponents (e_aP/e_bP/e_cP and e_aQ/e_bQ/e_cQ ) the inherent load behaviour can
be modelled. Table 1 provides the value for the exponents required to achieve constant power, current and
impedance behaviour. However, the relative proportion of each coefficient can be freely defined using the
coefficients aP, bP, cP and aQ, bQ, cQ. See Figure 11.

Table 1: Selection of exponent value for different load model behaviour


Exponent

Constant

power

current

impedance

General Load Model

Figure 14: Specification of the voltage dependency factors


NOTE: These factors are only considered if the Consider Voltage Dependency of Loads is checked
in the Load-flow Calculation window, as shown in Figure 15 below.

Figure 15: Load-flow Calculation window indicating the use of voltage dependency terms for loadflow calculations

General Load Model

1.1.5 Load Scaling factors


Loads can be scaled individually by setting the Scaling Factor s of the Load Element (see also Figure 16).
Together with the scaling factor, the actual load is calculated as follows:

P = scale P0

(3)

Q = scale Q0

(4)

If voltage dependency of loads is considered then (3) and (4) become;


e _ aP
e _ bP
e _ cP

v
v
v

P = scale P0 aP
+ bP
+ (1 aP bP )

v
v
v
0
0
0

(5)

e _ aQ
e _ bQ
e _ cQ

v
v
v

Q = scale Q0 aQ
+ bQ
+ (1 aQ bQ )

v
v
v
0
0
0

(6)

Alternatively to explicit scaling factors, loads in radial feeders can be scaled based on the total inflow into the
feeder, as illustrated in Figure 17.
For considering a load in the feeder-load-scaling process, the option Adjusted by Load Scaling (see Figure 16)
has to be enabled. In this case, the individual Scaling Factor of the load is not considered but overwritten by
the feeder-scaling factor.
The feeder-load-scaling function can be enabled or disabled globally using the corresponding load-flow option
(see also Figure 15).

General Load Model

Figure 16: Scaling factor specification

Figure 17: Diagram indicating load scaling (adjustment) in order to maintain the feeder settings
specified in the Feeder Definition

General Load Model

1.2 Short-Circuit Analysis


Short circuit calculations according to IEC 60909, VDE102/103 or ANSI C37 generally neglect loads. Only motor
contributions are considered here.
The COMPLETE short circuit method utilises constant impedance (Z) or constant current I0 models. Z and I0 are
calculated from a preceding load-flow analysis. Figure 18 shows the type data window used to select whether the
load is constant current or constant impedance. See notes on Harmonic Analysis for further explanation of the
models.

Figure 18: Selection of load type of either constant current or constant impedance for consideration
in short circuit calculations using the Complete Method.
Figure 19 shows a 3-phase representation of a Y connected constant impedance and Figure 20 shows the 3phase representation of the D connected constant current model.

Figure 19: 3-phase constant impedance model, in Y and D connection, used for short circuit
calculations using the Complete method.

General Load Model

Figure 20: 3-phase constant current load, in Y and D connection, used load for short circuit
calculations utilising the Complete method

1.3 Harmonic Analysis


In the type data of the general load model, the harmonic load model can be specified as either constant
impedance or current source. Figure 21 shows the selection of the harmonic load model type.

Figure 21: Selection of the load model type for harmonic analysis

1.3.1 Passive Load


Passive loads can be represented as purely inductive or capacitive or a mixture of inductive and capacitive. Figure
22 shows the single-phase representation of a purely inductive and capacitive load.

General Load Model

Figure 22: Purely inductive/capacitive load models used for harmonic analysis
The parameters R,L (G,C) are calculated from a preceding load-flow.
Figure 23 shows the single-phase load model for mixed inductive/capacitive load models (e.g. cables), used
during harmonic analysis.

Figure 23: The single phase equivalent for mixed inductive/capacitive load model
NOTE: Figure 22 and Figure 23 are single phase representations of the passive load. The 3-phase presentation is
similar to that shown in Figure 6 and Figure 5, and with either Y or D connections.
The inductive/capacitive portion of the load is specified by (7) and (8);

Qc
QC
1
=
=
Q QL + QC QL
+1
QC

nC =

y
QL
1
QC

General Load Model

(7)

(8)

1.3.2 Harmonic Current Injections


Nonlinear loads are described by their harmonic current spectrum. A requirement for modelling current injecting
loads is to set the corresponding parameter on the harmonics page to current source.
For balanced loads, only characteristic harmonics can be specified. Figure 24 shows the specification of the
characteristic harmonic spectrum in the element data window of the load.
The angles of harmonic currents are defined with reference to the fundamental frequency phase angle (cosine
reference). This way of entering phase angles allows defining the current waveform independent from the power
factor at fundamental frequency.
Figure 24 shows the current spectrum of an ideal 6-pulse rectifier. Absolute current angles will be adjusted by

PowerFactory according to (10).

Figure 24: Specification of the harmonic current spectrum for balanced loads
The harmonic currents are defined by (9) and the phase angle of the harmonic currents is defined by (10).

I ( f ) = k( f ). I ( f )
n

General Load Model

(9)

( f ) = +

f
1
fn

(10)

where fn is the nominal frequency and 1is phase angle of the fundamental current.
In case of unbalanced loads, frequency, phase angle and magnitude of harmonic currents can be entered
individually for each phase. Figure 25 shows the input window for entering such data.

Figure 25: Specification of the harmonic current spectrum per phase for unbalanced loads

1.4 RMS Simulation (Transient Stability)


For RMS simulations a three-phase load can be modelled as a percentage of static and dynamic load. The static
portion is modelled as constant impedance whereas the dynamic load can be modelled as either a linear load or a
non-linear load.
Two-phase, single-phase- and DC loads are generally modelled as constant impedance.

General Load Model

Figure 26: Diagram indicating the mixture of static and dynamic loads used for stability studies.
The background of the dynamic, voltage- and frequency dependent load model according to Figure 24 and Figure
25 is a motor-load in parallel to a static, non-linear load. The parameters of the block diagrams in Figure 24 and
Figure 25 can either be calculated from such a configuration, but they are usually identified from load
measurements.
The model according to Figure 24 is a small signal approximation of the model according to Figure 25.
Parameters with equal names correspond to each other.

Figure 27: Model used to approximate the behaviour of the linear dynamic load.

General Load Model

Figure 28: Model used to approximate the behaviour of the non-linear dynamic load.
Since the block diagrams according to Figure 27 and Figure 28 represent small signal models, they are only valid
in a limited voltage range. This voltage range is defined by the variables umin and umax. Outside this voltage range,
the power is adjusted according to Figure 29.

Figure 29: Low/High voltage approximations used in the non-linear dynamic load model.
With reference to the outputs of the block diagrams according to Figure 24 and Figure 25, the load equations
representing the full voltage range can be expressed as follows:

General Load Model

P = k .Pout
Q = k .Qout
k =1
k=

: u min < u < u max

2u

u min

: 0<u<

u u min
k = 1 2
u
min

k = 1 + (u u max )

u min
2

(11)

u min
< u < u min
2

: u > u max

1.5 EMT Simulation


In EMT type simulations, all the loads are modelled as passive loads using the equivalent circuits shown in the
harmonics-section.

NOTE: The use of negative active power leads in EMT simulations to unstable behaviour, since negative P is
interpreted as negative resistance.

General Load Model

2 Input/Output Definition of the Dynamic Model


2.1 Three-Phase Load
2.1.1 RMS-Simulation
Pext

Qext

Figure 30: Input/Output Definition of General Load Model (RMS-Simulation)


Table 2: Input Variables (RMS-Simulation)

Parameter

Description

Unit

Pext

Active Power Input

MW

Qext

Reactive Power Input

Mvar

Table 3: State Variables (RMS-Simulation)


Parameter

Description

Unit

xu

Delayed Voltage (Time constant T1)

p.u.

xf

Delayed Frequency (Time constant T1)

p.u

cosphiu

cosine of voltage angle

sinphiu

sine of voltage angle

Table 4: Additional Parameters and Signals (RMS-Simulation)


Parameter

Description

Unit

fe

Electrical Frequency

p.u.

scale

Scaling Factor

General Load Model

2.1.2 EMT-Simulation
Table 5: State Variables (EMT-Simulation)
Parameter

Description

Unit

curLA

Inductive Current, Phase A

p.u.

curLB

Inductive Current, Phase B

p.u

curLC

Inductive Current, Phase C

p.u.

2.2 Single-, Two-Phase Load and DC-Load


Constant impedance load models. No input or output variables.

General Load Model

3 Parameter Definitions
3.1 General Load Type (TypLod)
Table 6: Input parameters of Load - Type
Parameter

Description

loc_name

Name

systp

System Type

nlnph

Phases

cnm

Connection

kpu

Static Voltage Dependence: Volt. Dependence on P

kqu

Static Voltage Dependence: Volt. Dependence on Q

i_csrc

Current Source/Impedance

Unit

i_pure

Load model

pgrd

Capacitive/Inductive Reactive Power: QL/QC

qcq

Capacitive/Inductive Reactive Power: QC/Q

xt

Transformer Short Circuit Reactance

Prp

Power of parallel Resistance/Total Active Power

lodst

Percentage: Static (const Z)

loddy

Percentage: Dynamic

i_nln

Percentage: Nonlinear Model

t1

Dynamic Load Time Constant

kpf

Dynamic Active Load: Frequ. Dependence on P

kpu

Static Voltage Dependence: Volt. Dependence on P

tpf

Dynamic Active Load: Transient Frequency

Dependence
tpu

Dynamic Active Load: Transient Voltage

Dependence
kqf

Dynamic Reactive Load: Frequ. Dependence on Q

kqu

Static Voltage Dependence: Volt. Dependence on Q

tqf

Dynamic Reactive Load: Transient Frequency

Dependence
tqu

Dynamic Reactive Load: Transient Voltage

Dependence
udmax

Voltage Limits: Upper Voltage Limit

p.u.

udmin

Voltage Limits: Lower Voltage Limit

p.u.

i_nln

Percentage: Nonlinear Model

General Load Model

3.2 General Load Element (ElmLod)


Table 7: Input parameters of Load - Element
Parameter

Description

Unit

loc_name

Name

outserv

Out of Service

mode_inp

Input Mode

i_sym

Balanced/Unbalanced

plini

Operating Point: Total Active Power Load

MW

qlini

Operating Point: Total Reactive Power Load

Mvar

slini

Operating Point: Total Apparent Power

MVA

ilini

Operating Point: Current

kA

coslini

Operating Point: Power Factor

pf_recap

Operating Point: Power Factor

u0

Operating Point: Voltage

scale0

Operating Point: Scaling Factor

i_scale

Operating Point: Adjusted by Load Scaling

plinir

Phase a: Active Power

MW

qlinir

Phase a: Reactive Power

Mvar

slinir

Phase a: Apparent Power Load

MVA

ilinir

Phase a: Current

kA

p.u.

coslinir

Phase a: Power Factor

pf_recapr

Phase a: Power Factor

plinis

Phase b: Active Power

MW

qlinis

Phase b: Reactive Power

Mvar

slinis

Phase b: Apparent Power

MVA

ilinis

Phase b: Current

kA

coslinis

Phase b: Power Factor

pf_recaps

Phase b: Power Factor

plinit

Phase c: Active Power

MW

qlinit

Phase c: Reactive Power

Mvar

slinit

Phase c: Apparent Power

MVA

ilinit

Phase c: Current

kA

coslinit

Phase c: Power Factor

pf_recapt

Phase c: Power Factor

i_rem

Remote Control

p_cub

Controlled Branch (Cubicle) (StaCubic

NrCust

Number of connected customers

pSCDF

Interruption costs (ChaVec,ChaOut)

OptCost

Interruption costs

OptMeth

Characteristic

pStoch

Stochastic model

pCurve

Area Model (StoChalod)

General Load Model

StoLod

i_prty

Load shedding/transfer: Load priority

shed

Load shedding/transfer: Shedding steps

trans

Load shedding/transfer: Transferable

pTrans

Load shedding/transfer: Node to Transfer to


(ElmTerm,StaBar)

General Load Model