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Sensory Analysis of Foods

How humans experience their food

Copyright2010UmamiInformationCenter

Olfaction

Image courtesy of www.pacsci.org/public/education/champions/


smell2.html

Olfaction
Olfactory bulb

Olfactory membrane

Olfaction

Image courtesy of www.umds.ac.uk/physiology/jim/tasteolf.htm

Odor
Requirements for odor
Molecule must be volatile
Molecule must be adsorbed onto the
olfactory hair (receptor)

Amoore Odors

Ethereal
Camphoraceous
Musky
Floral
Minty
Pungent
Putrid

Basic Tastes (APK)


Sour -- from acids (hydrogen ion)
Salt -- metal salts (NaCl)
Sweet -- sugars, sugar alcohols,
synthetics
Bitter -- alkaloids (caffeine)
Umami -- savory, meaty tastes

Tongue surface

Image courtesy of www.tcm.hut.fi/~mpaasiva/test/39/lhminen/


kopf/kieli2.html

Circumvallate papilla

Image courtesy of Anne LeMaistre (dpalm2.med.uth.tmc.edu/


edprog/00000661.htm)

Circuvallate papillae
1 = Circumvallate
papillae
2 = Von Ebners
glands

Taste buds
Arrow marks the
taste bud

Taste buds

Image courtesy of Anne Lemaistre (dpalm2.med.uth.tmc.edu/


edprog/00000661.htm)

Taste buds

Image courtesy of Anne LeMaistre (dpalm2.med.uth.tmc.edu/


edprog/00000661.htm)

Taste buds
X

Image courtesy of Tim Jacob (www.cf.ac.uk/uwcc/momed/jacob/


teaching/sensory/taste.html#Anatomy)

Taste Requirements
Molecule must be soluble in water

Molecule must bind to taste


receptor (protein)

Threshold concentrations
Salt

0.02 M

Sweet

0.02 M

Sour

0.005 M

Bitter

0.002 M

Flavor potentiators
Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
O

OH

HO

Glutamic acid

NH2

Nucleotide monophosphates
IMP, GMP, and XMP

Flavor potentiators
O

H
N

H
H

X = H, inosine monophosphate,
IMP
X = NH2, guanosine monophosphate, GMP

O
O
O

P
O-

X = OH, xanthosine monoO phosphate, XMP

Types of Sensory Tests

Difference tests
Rank order
Rating differences
Descriptive analysis
Threshold
Affective tests
Note: See pages 11-13 in your lab manual for more
information about this topic.

Panel Type

Trained -- 3-10 people


Semi-trained -- 8-25 people
Untrained or consumer -- 100 plus
Within these panels it is necessary
to consider
Selection criteria (target audience)
Composition (age, sex, etc.)

Material Evaluated
Preparation
Method
Carrier (if used)

Presentation
Coding -- random 3 digit numbers
Order of serving -- randomization
Sample size
Temperature and method of control

Presentation (cont.)
Sample container and utensils used
Time of day
Special conditions (time interval
between samples, mouth rinsing,
etc.)

Statistical Design
Type of experiment
Randomized block

Factorial

Environmental Conditions
Setting (controlled sensory booth,
store, State Fair, etc.)
Lighting (color)

Paired Comparison
Which sample has more of a
particular characteristic?
512

314

The probability of guessing the


sample is 0.50.

Paired Comparison Form


Judge:

Date:

Circle the sample


you prefer

Pair
A
B
C
D

Sample No.

Sample No.

Paired Comparison Form


Judge:
Circle the sample
you prefer

Pair
A
B
C
D

Date:
Sample No.
555
312
498
332

Sample No.
467
778
087
714

Null hypothesis
This is the no effect or no difference
hypothesis which states that there is no
difference between the test and control
samples
Usually referred to as Ho
The hypothesis that states that there is
a difference is called the alternative
hypothesis (Ha )

Level of significance
In order to determine significant
differences, a level of significance
is set up, usually called p, as in p <
0.05
What this means is that there is a
less than 5% probability of getting
the experimental results that you
got and Ho being true at the same
time

Example of null
hypothesis and p< 0.05
Suppose we were doing an experiment
in which we were examining the effect
of steaming time on the tenderness of
broccoli. The broccolis are numbered
317 (steamed 5 minutes) and 512
(steamed 10 minutes). The alternative
hypothesis is: Longer steaming time
produces a more tender broccoli.

Example of null
hypothesis and p < 0.05

The null hypothesis is: Steaming


time has no effect on the
tenderness of broccoli
If we have 20 panelists and we are
doing a paired comparison we
could get any number of responses
if we asked them to choose the
more tender broccoli

Example of null
hypothesis and p< 0.05

317

512

Panel 1

10

10

Panel 2

12

Panel 3

14

Panel 4

15

Panel 5

16

Example of null
hypothesis and p < 0.05
If the null hypothesis is really true, we
might expect the results from Panel 1
But if it is not, we might get more
selections of 512 than 317. How do we
tell what a significant difference is?
How do we reject the null hypothesis?

Example of null
hypothesis and p< 0.05

Panel 1

317

512

Ho OK?

10

10

Yes

Example of null
hypothesis and p< 0.05
317

512

Ho OK?

Panel 1

10

10

Yes

Panel 2

12

Maybe?

Example of null
hypothesis and p< 0.05
317

512

Ho OK?

Panel 1

10

10

Yes

Panel 2

12

Maybe?

Panel 3

14

Example of null
hypothesis and p< 0.05
317

512

Ho OK?

Panel 1

10

10

Yes

Panel 2

12

Maybe?

Panel 3

14

Panel 4

15

Seems unlikely

Example of null
hypothesis and p< 0.05
317

512

Ho OK?

Panel 1

10

10

Yes

Panel 2

12

Maybe?

Panel 3

14

Panel 4

15

Seems unlikely

Panel 5

16

Are you kidding


me?

Example of null
hypothesis and p < 0.05

Set levels of significance


Set at p < 0.05
Examine statistical table for paired
comparison tests at a level of p <
0.05 and utilizing 20 panelists
(Lecture notes, page 28)

Example of null
hypothesis and p < 0.05

We see that we need 15 out of 20


selections of a sample to establish
that the two samples are
significantly different
When we have 15 selections out of
20 we are saying that there is less
than a 5% chance of having that
result and have Ho be true at the
same time

Example of null
hypothesis and p < 0.05
Note that if we make the statistical test
more rigorous by setting p < 0.01, it
takes more choices of one sample over
another (16 out of 20) to establish
significant differences
When we have 16 selections out of 20
we are saying that there is less than a
1% chance of having that result and
have Ho be true at the same time

Duo-Trio
Which of the samples is the same
as the reference sample?
512

Ref.

314

Probability of guessing the right


answer is 0.50.

Triangle Test

512

Find the odd sample, or find the two


samples that are identical.
711

314

Probability of guessing the right answer


is 0.33. Thus, this test has more
statistical power than the paired
comparison or duo-trio tests.

Triangle Test Form


Judge:

Date

Sample No.

Duplicate
Samples (indicate
with an x)

546
790
243

Two of these samples are identical


and the other is different.
Please enter all sample numbers and
check the duplicate samples in
the right-hand column.

Triangle Test Form


Judge:

Date

Sample No.
546

Duplicate
Samples (indicate
with an x)
x

790
243

Problems with the Triangle Test


Suppose the triangle test was presented as shown here.

512

311

771

Further imagine that even though the panelists were told


that one sample was different, they were, in fact, all the
same!

Middle Sample Bias

in the Triangle Test


Test no. 1 and 2
1
3
2
1
3
4
4
2
5
4
6
2
16

1 and 3
5
6
4
6
4
5
30

2 and 3
2
3
2
2
2
3
14

Ranking/Rating
Structured

Unstructured

Structured Rating

Moderately
tough

Extremely
tough

Slightly
tough

Moderately
tender

Slightly
tender

Extremely
tender

Note that each point on the scale has a word anchor.


To use, simply make a mark where you believe the sample falls.

Unstructured Rating

No Acidity

High Acidity

Note here that only the ends of the scale are anchored.
Again to use, simply make a make where you think
the sample falls.

Consumer Preference
Form styles vary.
The important thing about
consumer panels is that you need
large numbers of panelists in order
to make the statistics work out.

Hedonic Ranking

Essentially a measure
of how much the panelist
__Like extremely
__Like very much likes a sample. Results are
X
__Like
moderately independent of other
panelist rankings.
__Like slightly
__Neither like nor dislike
__Dislike slightly
__Dislike moderately To use, simply make
a mark beside the
__Dislike very much
statement that you
__Dislike extremely

agree with.

Texture Evaluation
Mechanical characteristics
Geometrical characteristics
Other characteristics

Mechanical Characteristics
Primary
parameters

Secondary
parameters

Hardness
Cohesiveness Brittleness
Chewiness
Gumminess
Viscosity
Elasticity
Adhesiveness

Popular
terms
Soft, hard
Crunchy
Chewy,tough
Pasty,gummy
Thin,viscous
Plastic,elastic
Sticky,gooey

Geometrical Characteristics
Class

Examples

Particle size,
shape

Gritty,grainy,
coarse

Particle shape,
orientation

Fibrous, cellular,
crystalline

Other Characteristics
Primary
Secondary Popular
parameters parameters terms
Dry, moist,
wet,watery
Oily
Fat content Oiliness
Greasiness Greasy
Moisture