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Steady Heat Conduction in Plane Walls

17-1C (a) If the lateral surfaces of the rod are insulated, the heat transfer surface area of the cylindrical rod
is the bottom or the top surface area of the rod, As D 2 / 4 . (b) If the top and the bottom surfaces of the
rod are insulated, the heat transfer area of the rod is the lateral surface area of the rod, A DL .

17-2C In steady heat conduction, the rate of heat transfer into the wall is equal to the rate of heat transfer
out of it. Also, the temperature at any point in the wall remains constant. Therefore, the energy content of
the wall does not change during steady heat conduction. However, the temperature along the wall and thus
the energy content of the wall will change during transient conduction.
17-3C The temperature distribution in a plane wall will be a straight line during steady and one
dimensional heat transfer with constant wall thermal conductivity.
17-4C The thermal resistance of a medium represents the resistance of that medium against heat transfer.
17-5C The combined heat transfer coefficient represents the combined effects of radiation and convection
heat transfers on a surface, and is defined as hcombined = hconvection + hradiation. It offers the convenience of
incorporating the effects of radiation in the convection heat transfer coefficient, and to ignore radiation in
heat transfer calculations.
17-6C Yes. The convection resistance can be defined as the inverse of the convection heat transfer
coefficient per unit surface area since it is defined as Rconv 1 /( hA) .
17-7C The convection and the radiation resistances at a surface are parallel since both the convection and
radiation heat transfers occur simultaneously.
17-8C For a surface of A at which the convection and radiation heat transfer coefficients are hconv and hrad ,
the single equivalent heat transfer coefficient is heqv hconv hrad when the medium and the surrounding
surfaces are at the same temperature. Then the equivalent thermal resistance will be Reqv 1 /( heqv A) .
17-9C The thermal resistance network associated with a five-layer composite wall involves five singlelayer resistances connected in series.
is known, the temperature drop across any layer can be
17-10C Once the rate of heat transfer Q
determined by multiplying heat transfer rate by the thermal resistance across that layer,

R
Tlayer Q
layer

17-11C The temperature of each surface in this case can be determined from
Q (T1 T s1 ) / R 1 s1 Ts1 T1 (Q R 1 s1 )
Q (Ts 2 T 2 ) / R s 2 2 Ts 2 T 2 (Q R s 2 2 )

where R i is the thermal resistance between the environment and surface i.

17-12C Yes, it is.


17-13C The window glass which consists of two 4 mm thick glass sheets pressed tightly against each other
will probably have thermal contact resistance which serves as an additional thermal resistance to heat
transfer through window, and thus the heat transfer rate will be smaller relative to the one which consists of
a single 8 mm thick glass sheet.
17-14C Convection heat transfer through the wall is expressed as Q hAs (T s T ) . In steady heat
transfer, heat transfer rate to the wall and from the wall are equal. Therefore at the outer surface which has
convection heat transfer coefficient three times that of the inner surface will experience three times smaller
temperature drop compared to the inner surface. Therefore, at the outer surface, the temperature will be
closer to the surrounding air temperature.
17-15C The new design introduces the thermal resistance of the copper layer in addition to the thermal
resistance of the aluminum which has the same value for both designs. Therefore, the new design will be a
poorer conductor of heat.
17-16C The blanket will introduce additional resistance to heat transfer and slow down the heat gain of the
drink wrapped in a blanket. Therefore, the drink left on a table will warm up faster.

17-17 The two surfaces of a wall are maintained at specified temperatures. The rate of heat loss through the
wall is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Heat transfer through the wall is steady since the surface
temperatures remain constant at the specified values. 2 Heat transfer is
Wall
one-dimensional since any significant temperature gradients will exist
in the direction from the indoors to the outdoors. 3 Thermal
L= 0.3 m
conductivity is constant.
Properties The thermal conductivity is given to be k = 0.8 W/mC.
Analysis The surface area of the wall and the rate of heat loss
through the wall are
14C
2C

A (3 m) (6 m) 18 m 2

T T2
(14 2)C
Q kA 1
(0.8 W/m C)(18 m 2 )
576 W
L
0.3 m

17-18 A double-pane window is considered. The rate of heat loss through the window and the temperature
difference across the largest thermal resistance are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Heat transfer coefficients are constant.
Properties The thermal conductivities of glass and air are given to be 0.78 W/mK and 0.025 W/mK,
respectively.
Analysis (a) The rate of heat transfer through the window is determined to be

Lg

hi k g

AT
Lg
L
1
a

k a k g ho

(1 1.5 m 2 ) 20 - (-20)C
1
0.004 m
0.005 m
0.004 m
1

2
40 W/m C 0.78 W/m C 0.025 W/m C 0.78 W/m C 20 W/m 2 C

(1 1.5 m 2 ) 20 - (-20)C
210 W
0.025 0.000513 0.2 0.000513 0.05

(b) Noting that the largest resistance is through the air gap, the temperature difference across the air gap is
determined from

La
0.005 m
Ta Q R a Q
( 210 W)
28C
ka A
(0.025 W/m C) (1 1.5 m 2 )

17-19 The two surfaces of a window are maintained at specified temperatures. The rate of heat loss through
the window and the inner surface temperature are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Heat transfer through the window is steady since the surface temperatures remain constant
at the specified values. 2 Heat transfer is one-dimensional since any significant temperature gradients will
exist in the direction from the indoors to the outdoors. 3 Thermal conductivity is constant. 4 Heat transfer
by radiation is negligible.
Properties The thermal conductivity of the glass is given to be k = 0.78 W/mC.
Analysis The area of the window and the individual resistances are
A (1.2 m) ( 2 m) 2.4 m 2

1
1

0.04167 C/W Glass


2
h1 A (10 W/m .C)(2.4 m 2 )
L
L
0.006 m
R glass

0.00321 C/W
k1 A (0.78 W/m.C)(2.4 m 2 )
1
1
R o R conv, 2

0.01667 C/W
2
h2 A (25 W/m .C)(2.4 m 2 )
T1
Rtotal R conv,1 R glass R conv, 2
Ri R conv,1

0.04167 0.00321 0.01667 0.06155 C/W


The steady rate of heat transfer through
window glass is then

T T 2
[24 (5)]C
Q 1

471 W
Rtotal
0.06155 C/W

T1

Ri

The inner surface temperature of the window glass can be determined from

Rglass

Ro

T2

T T1
Q 1

Rconv,1

T1 T1 Q R conv ,1 24C (471 W)(0.04167 C/W) 4.4C

17-20 A double-pane window consists of two layers of glass separated by a stagnant air space. For specified
indoors and outdoors temperatures, the rate of heat loss through the window and the inner surface
temperature of the window are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Heat transfer through the window is steady
Air
since the indoor and outdoor temperatures remain constant at
the specified values. 2 Heat transfer is one-dimensional since
any significant temperature gradients will exist in the direction
from the indoors to the outdoors. 3 Thermal conductivities of
the glass and air are constant. 4 Heat transfer by radiation is
negligible.
Properties The thermal conductivity of the glass and air are
given to be kglass = 0.78 W/mC and kair = 0.026 W/mC.
Analysis The area of the window and the
individual resistances are
R1
R2
R3
Ri
Ro
A (1.2 m) ( 2 m) 2.4 m 2
T1
T2

1
1

0.0417 C/W
2
h1 A (10 W/m .C)(2.4 m 2 )
L
0.003 m
R3 Rglass 1
0.0016 C/W
k1 A (0.78 W/m.C)( 2.4 m 2 )
L
0.012 m
Rair 2
0.1923 C/W
k2 A (0.026 W/m.C)(2.4 m 2 )
1
1
Rconv , 2

0.0167 o C/W
2 o
h2 A (25 W/m . C)(2.4 m 2 )
Rconv ,1 2 R1 R2 Rconv , 2 0.0417 2(0.0016) 0.1923 0.0167

Ri Rconv ,1
R1
R2
Ro
Rtotal

0.2539 C/W
The steady rate of heat transfer through window
glass then becomes

T T 2 [24 (5)]C
Q 1

114 W
Rtotal
0.2539C/W
The inner surface temperature of the window glass can be determined from

T T1
Q 1

R conv ,1

T1 T1 Q R conv ,1 24 o C (114 W)(0.0417C/W) = 19.2C

17-29E A wall is constructed of two layers of sheetrock with fiberglass insulation in between. The thermal
resistance of the wall and its R-value of insulation are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Heat transfer through the wall is one-dimensional. 2 Thermal conductivities are constant.
Properties The thermal conductivities are given to be ksheetrock
= 0.10 Btu/hftF and kinsulation = 0.020 Btu/hftF.
Analysis (a) The surface area of the wall is not given and thus
we consider a unit surface area (A = 1 ft2). Then the R-value of
insulation of the wall becomes equivalent to its thermal
resistance, which is determined from.
L1
L2
L3

R sheetrock R1 R3
R fiberglass R 2

L1
0.7 / 12 ft

0.583 ft 2 .F.h/Btu
k1
(0.10 Btu/h.ft.F)

L2
7 / 12 ft

29.17 ft 2 .F.h/Btu
k2
(0.020 Btu/h.ft.F)

Rtotal 2 R1 R 2 2 0.583 29.17 30.34 ft 2 .F.h/Btu


(b) Therefore, this is approximately a R-30 wall in English units.

R1

R2

R3

17-36 The wall of a refrigerator is constructed of fiberglass insulation sandwiched between two layers of
sheet metal. The minimum thickness of insulation that needs to be used in the wall in order to avoid
condensation on the outer surfaces is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Heat transfer through the refrigerator walls is steady since the temperatures of the food
compartment and the kitchen air remain constant at the specified values. 2 Heat transfer is one-dimensional.
3 Thermal conductivities are constant. 4 Heat transfer coefficients account for the radiation effects.
Properties The thermal conductivities are given to be k = 15.1 W/mC for sheet metal and 0.035 W/mC
for fiberglass insulation.
Analysis The minimum thickness of insulation can be
determined by assuming the outer surface temperature of the
refrigerator to be 20C. In steady operation, the rate of heat
transfer through the refrigerator wall is constant, and thus heat
insulation
transfer between the room and the refrigerated space is equal to
the heat transfer between the room and the outer surface of the
refrigerator. Considering a unit surface area,
h A(T
Q
o
room T s ,out )
(9 W/m 2 C)(1 m 2 )(25 20)C = 45 W

1 mm

1 mm

Using the thermal resistance network, heat


transfer between the room and the refrigerated
space can be expressed as

Q
/ A
Q

Troom T refrig

Troom

R total

R1

Ri

Troom T refrig
1

2
ho

metal

insulation

Rins

R3

Ro

Trefrig

1
hi

Substituting,

45 W/m 2

( 25 3)C
1
2 0.001 m
L
1

2
2
2
9 W/m C 15.1 W/m C 0.035 W/m C 4 W/m 2 C

Solv ing for L, the minimum thickness of insulation is determined to be


L = 0.0045 m = 0.45 cm

17-54 A wall consists of horizontal bricks separated by plaster layers. There are also plaster layers on each
side of the wall, and a rigid foam on the inner side of the wall. The rate of heat transfer through the wall is
to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Heat transfer is steady since there is no indication of change with time. 2 Heat transfer
through the wall is one-dimensional. 3 Thermal conductivities are constant. 4 Heat transfer by radiation is
disregarded.
Properties The thermal conductivities are given to be k = 0.72 W/mC for bricks, k = 0.22 W/mC for
plaster layers, and k = 0.026 W/mC for the rigid foam.
Analysis We consider 1 m deep and 0.33 m high portion of wall which is representative of the entire wall.
The thermal resistance network and individual resistances are
R3
T1

Ri

R1

Ri

R4

R2

R6

R5

R2

R6

R3

R5

R4

R brick

Ro
1
R mi d
R total

foam

Ri

L
kA

plaster
center

L
kA

1
R4

R1

( 0.0
L

kA

1
h2 A

(
1

plaster
si de

R conv , 2
1
R3

T2

1
h1 A

R conv ,1

R1

R7

1
R5

2 R2

The steady rate of heat transfer through the wall per 0.33 m 2 is

T T 2 [(22 ( 4)]C
Q 1

6.27 W
Rtotal
4.145C/W
Then steady rate of heat transfer through the entire wall becomes
2

( 4 6) m
Q total (6.27 W)
456 W
0.33 m 2

17-58E A wall is to be constructed using solid bricks or identical size bricks with 9 square air holes. There
is a 0.5 in thick sheetrock layer between two adjacent bricks on all four sides, and on both sides of the wall.

L
ho

( 0.7

(2

The rates of heat transfer through the wall constructed of solid bricks and of bricks with air holes are to be
determined.
Assumptions 1 Heat transfer is steady since there is no indication of change with time. 2 Heat transfer
through the wall is one-dimensional. 3 Thermal conductivities are constant. 4 Heat transfer coefficients
account for the radiation heat transfer.
Properties The thermal conductivities are given to be k = 0.40 Btu/hftF for bricks, k = 0.015 Btu/hftF
for air, and k = 0.10 Btu/hftF for sheetrock.
Analysis (a) The representative surface area is A (7.5 / 12)(7.5 / 12) 0.3906 ft 2 . The thermal
resistance network and the individual thermal resistances if the wall is constructed of solid bricks are
R2
T1

Ri

R1

R3
R4

R5

Ro

T2

1
1

1.7068 h F/Btu
2
hi A (1.5 Btu/h ft F)(0.3906 ft 2 )
L
0.5 / 12 ft
R1 R5 R plaster

1.0667 h F/Btu
kA (0.10 Btu/h ft F)(0.3906 ft 2 )
Ri

L
9 / 12 ft

288 h F/Btu
kA (0.10 Btu/h ft F)[(7.5 / 12) (0.5 / 12)]ft 2
L
9 / 12 ft

308.57 h F/Btu
o
kA (0.10 Btu/h ft F)[(7 / 12) (0.5 / 12)]ft 2

R 2 R plaster
R3 R plaster

L
9 / 12 ft

5.51 h F/Btu
kA (0.40 Btu/h ft F)[(7 / 12) (7 / 12)]ft 2
1
1
Ro

0.64 h F/Btu
2
ho A (4 Btu/h ft F)(0.3906 ft 2 )
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

R mid 5.3135 h F/Btu


R mid
R 2 R3 R 4
288 308.57 5.51
R 4 Rbrick

Rtotal Ri R1 R mid R5 Ro 1.7068 1.0667 5.3135 1.0667 0.64 9.7937 h F/Btu


T T 2
(80 30)F
Q 1

5.1053 Btu/h
Rtotal
9.7937 h F/Btu
Then steady rate of heat transfer through entire wall becomes

(30 ft)(10 ft)


Q total (5.1053 Btu/h)
3921 Btu/h
0.3906 m 2

(b) The thermal resistance network and the individual thermal resistances if the wall is constructed of bricks
with air holes are
R2
T1

Ri

R1

Aairholes 9(1.5 / 12) (1.5 / 12) 0.1406 ft 2

R3
R4

R6

Ro

T2

R5

Abricks (7 / 12 ft) 2 0.1406 0.1997 ft 2


L
9 / 12 ft

355.62 h F/Btu
kA (0.015 Btu/h ft F)(0.1406 ft 2 )
L
9 / 12 ft

9.389 h F/Btu
kA (0.40 Btu/h ft F)(0.1997 ft 2 )

R 4 R airholes
R5 Rbrick

1
R mid

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

R mid 8.618 h F/Btu


R 2 R3 R 4 R5 288 308.57 355.62 9.389

Rtotal Ri R1 R mid R 6 R o 1.7068 1.0667 8.618 1.0667 0.64 13.0992 h F/Btu


T T 2
(80 30)F
Q 1

3.817 Btu/h
Rtotal
13.0992 h F/Btu
Then steady rate of heat transfer through entire wall becomes

(30 ft)(10 ft)


Q total (3.817 Btu/h)
2932 Btu/h
0.3906 ft 2