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INMARSAT-C MOBILE EARTH STATION


MODEL

FELCOM 12

FURUNO E L E C T R I C C O., LT D.

Yo u r L o c a l A g e n t / D e a l e r

9-52, Ashihara-cho,
Nishinomiya, Japan 662
Te l e p h o n e :
Te l e f a x :

0798-65-2111
0798-65-4200

FIRST EDITION : APR 1998


All rights reserved.

Printed in Japan

PUB. No. SME-56130-A


(KAOK)

FELCOM 12

CONTENTS
Chapter 1 Inmarsat System
1.1 System Overview
LES ID List
1.2 Inmarsat C Services

1-1
1-3
1-4

1) Store-and-forward Telex Service

1-4

2) Communication Services

1-5

3) Code

1-6

1.3 Communications Network


Inmarsat C Channels and Signals
1.4 Message & Signal Transfer

1-7
1-9
1-10

1. Ship-originated Call

1-10

2. Shore-originated Call

1-12

3. Log in

1-14

4. Log out

1-14

5. Distress Alert

1-15

1.5 Different Classes of Inmarsat-C MES

1-16

Class 1 MES

1-16

Class 2 MES

1-16

Class 3 MES

1-16

Chapter 2 Channel Types and Signal Prosessing


2.1 Channel Types

2-1

1. NCS CC/CES TDM Channel

2-2

2. Signalling Channel

2-3

3. SES Message Channel

2-5

2.2 Signal Processing


1. Signal Processing Flow for Each Channel

2-6
2-6

Chapter 3 Block Description


3.1 General

3-1

3.2 Block Diagrams

3-2

1. Antenna and Communication Units

3-2

2. Terminal Unit

3-3

3.3 Functions of each board

3-4

3.4 Antenna Unit (IC-112)

3-5

3.5 Communication Unit (IC-212)

3-7

1. TX board (16P0157)

3-7

2. RF CON board (16P0147)

3-7

3. CPU board (16P0148)

3-9

Chapter 4 Location of Parts


4.1 Antenna Unit (IC-112)

4-1

4.2 Communication Unit (IC-212)

4-3

4.3 Distress Alert Unit/Received Call Unit (IC-302/303)

4-5

Chapter 5 Maintenance
5.1 PV (Performance Verification) Test

5-1

5.2 LED Check

5-4

5.3 Check Points

5-5

Measurement of DEMOD output


5.4 DIP Switch Setting
External Alarm Setting
5.5 Memory Contents Backed-up by Battery

5-5
5-6
5-6
5-7

Communication Unit: EE-PROM

5-7

Communication Unit: S-RAM(U40)

5-7

Terminal Unit Flash ROM

5-7

Memory for Menu Settings

5-8

5.6 Updating System Program

5-9

1. Terminal Unit

5-9

2. Communication Unit

5-10

5.7 Replacement of Backup Battery

5-11

Chapter 6 Troubleshooting
6.1 Self-Test

6-1

1. Self-test at Power-up

6-1

2. Self-test by F7 Key (F7:Test)

6-2

6.2 Description of Status Monitor Display


Analysis of NG Display

6-3
6-5

6.3 Error Messages

6-10

Appendix 1 Menu List

AP1-1

Appendix 2 Specifications

AP2-1

Parts List

D-0

Circuit Diagrams

S-0

Chapter 1
1.1

Inmarsat System

System Overview

The Inmarsat system divides the world into four regions and each region is covered by its
own satellite. The regions are Atlantic Ocean Region-East (AOR-E), Atlantic Ocean
Region West (AOR-W), Pacific Ocean Region (POR), and Indian Ocean Region (IOR).
The system consists of the bodies shown in the figure below. Each region has its own
SCC (Satellite Coordination Center), NCS (Network Coordination Station), and several
LES (Land Earth Stations).
The OCC is the nerve center of the system and is located at Inmarsat's London
headquarters.
The OCC provides round-the-clock coordination of all functions in the Inmarsat system.
OCC

NCS

LES

SCC

LES

LES

Same as left

Same as left

Same as left

AOR-E
Atlantic Ocean
Region-East

IOR
Indian Ocean
Region

POR
Pacific Ocean
Region

Satellite

MES

AOR-W
Atlantic Ocean Region-West

OCC : (Operation Control Center)


SCC : (Satellite Control Center)
NCS : (Network Coordination Station)
LES : (Land Earth Station), same as CES
MES : (Mobile Earth Station), same as SES
Figure 1-1

Inmarsat Bodies

1-1

1-2

LES ID List
LES

AOR WEST

AOR EAST

Perth
Goonhilly

002

France Telecom
Burum

012

POR

322

222

102
121

321

112

312

Blaavand

131

Eik

104

Sentosa
Tangua

IOR

304
328

014

114

Nakhodka

212

Odessa

107

Maadi

103

Arvi

307

306

Umm al Aish

106

Fucino

105

335

Thermopylae

305

Jeddah

315

Yamaguchi

303

Santa Paula
118
001

Ata

101
110

Kumsan

310
308

Raisting

115

Beijing
116

Boumehen

208

333
311

Psary

211

316
314

Buitrago
Laurentides

203
201

Sintra
Southbury

210

*
032

132

Nonthaburi

319
Goonhilly

Goonhilly

Thermopylae

Singapore

044

144

344

244

NCS

*:scheduled

1-3

1.2

Inmarsat C Services

The Inmarsat C system provides the following communication services. That is, all LESs
supports these services.
(1) Store-and-forward Telex message service
(2) EGC (Enhanced Group Call) broadcasting
(3) Distress alerting and safety services
The following services are also available if supported by the CES selected.
Ship-to-shore half duplex communication
Full duplex communication
Polling: Individual polling, Group polling, Area polling
(The facility whereby an operational center sends an instruction to selected MES, to
perform a defined task, such as return a pre-assigned data report.)
Data reporting
(Data report, such as ship's position is sent regularly to a terrestrial subscriber.)
EGC Fleet NETTM service (Commercial service)
1) Store-and-forward Telex service

In the store-and-forward techniqne, data that is to be transmitted is converted into digital


form, and sent in data packets over the satellite link, to be stored and subsequently
forwarded to the called party when traffic loading permits.
The following briefly describes how a MES sends a ship-to-shore message.
The MES operator prepares the message in the text editor. The MES stores the message
in its DTE, ready to pass it to the DCE for transmission.
The DCE transmits a channel assigment request to LES.
After receiving a channel assigment, the DCE starts transmitting the message in packets.
The LES checks the receivied packets for errors, and if it finds any, returns an
acknowlegement packets identifying the packets in error.
The CES receives all the data packets with no errors, and forwards the message via
public network to the intended desitination.

1-4

2) Communication services

TELEX: The MES can send and receive messages to and from a telex terminal
connected to the international telex networks.
The standard alpha-numeric character set known as Telex or ITA2 or 5-bit
packeted.
This character set is based on 5-bit codes, and supports only upper case
characters, so any lower case characters entered on your MES will be received
at the destination as upper case.
Note that if the destination is a Inmarsat C terminal, this limitation is ignored.
PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network):
The MES can send and receive messages to and from a computer or E-mail
service on the international PSTN (telephone) landlines. If the land subscriber
uses a modem T30 FAX, the MES can send messages to the fax.
PSDN (Packet Switched Data Network):
The MES can send and receive messages to and from a computer or E-mail
service on the international PSDN (data) landlines.
These networks are also known as the X.25 networks.
The Internet E-mail service uses this network.
X.400 (Electronic Mail):
The MES can send and receive messages to and from registered subscribers to
E-mail services which use the X.400 communications standards (protocol) on
the PSDN landlines.
This service is not available yet.
DNID (Data reporting Network ID):
For a data reporting closed network, the owner/shipping company must register
the MES with the relevant operational center. The center arranges with an
Inmarsat-C CES to download data reporting network identification information,
comprising a data network identification (DNID) code and a member number
within the group.
CSDN (Circuit Switched Data Network):
This service is not available yet.
SPEC: 2-digit codes
Special service provided by a LES is accessible, using a special access code.
Two-digit codes are examples of special access code.
E-mail: E-mail can be sent through the LES which supports E-mail service.
The MES must register with the LES at first time and use the mail format
specified by each LES.
22.5k byte image file can be attached to the E-mail if the LES supports.

1-5

3) Code

IA5:

Known as ASCII, characters 7-bit codes.


Supporting characters in messages sent or received using international alphabet 5.
Specify this code to transmit English containing lower case alphabet.

ITA2: Known as 5 bit packed.


International Telegraph Alphabet 2 supports only upper case. Specify this code
for message which contains only No.2 international communications alphabet.
ITA2 code is transmitted faster than IA5 code. Land-based telex machines use
ITA2. The LES converts all codes into ITA2. Codes which cannot be converted
is shown with a question mark.
DATA: Known as 8-bit data format.
Used when sending data.
Message

Destination
Network

Destination Type

Code

Inmarsat-C

TELEX

IA5

Telex terminal

TELEX

IA5

FAX terminal

PSTN

IA5

E-mail

PSDN

IA5

Inmarsat-C

PSDN

DATA

Telex terminal

not available

FAX terminal

not available

E-mail

PSDN

DATA

Inmarsat-C

PSDN

DATA

Telex terminal

TELEX

IA5

FAX terminal

not available

E-mail

PSDN

DATA

Inmarsat-C

PSDN

DATA

Landlines

PSDN

DATA

Remarks

English
Modem Type : T30 FAX

Japanese

Russian

Data

1-6

Thermopylae only

1.3

Communications Network

The illustration below shows the Inmarsat-C network.


6 NCS/NCS

Network
Coordination
Station (NCS)
2 NCS/CES

Signalling Channel

1 NCS Common Channel

Signalling Link
Mobile Earth Station (MES)
5 SES Signalling

Data landlines

Telex landlines

Land Earth
Station
(LES) or
Coast Earth
Station
(CES)

Channel
4 SES Message

Channel
3 CES TDM

Channel

Data Circuit
Terminating
Equipment
(DCE)

Data Terminal
Equipment (DTE)
7

EGC Received

8 Landlines

1) NCS commom channel

This channel is transmitted continuously (24 hours/day) by the NCS. All SESs must be
tuned to the NCS common channel when not engaged in message transfer. Its main
functions are;
a. shore-to-ship message announcements
b. ship-to-shore message announcements
c. polling commands
d. EGC message transmission
e. login and logout acknowledgement
2) NCS/CES signalling link

This is the link between an NCS and all LESs in its region. Its functions are;
a. establishing initial signalling link between CES and NCS to transmit via the NCS
common channel
b. forwarding EGC message to NCS
c. forwarding NCS received distress alerts to LES.
3) CES TDM channel

This channel carries all signalling and message traffic to the SESs concerned with
message transfer with a particular LES.

1-7

4) SES message channel

The SESs use this channel to transfer messages to a LES. Each LES has a number of SES
message channels assigned to it by the NCS. Message transfer begins with the reception
of a logical channel assignment packet. Allocation of SES message channels to SESs is
done by the LES via the assignment packet.
5) SES signalling channel

This channel is used by the SESs to transmit signalling packets (channel assignment
request, distress call, data reporting, etc.).
Each LES have more than one SES signalling channels.
6) NCS/NCS signalling link

This is an inter-regional data connection between each of the NCSs. It functions for
NCSs to exchange information about SESs currently operational in their coverage area.
7) MES interface

The MES consists of the Data Circuit Terminating Equipment (DCE) and the Data
Terminal Equipment (DTE). In this system, the DCE consists of the antenna unit and the
communication unit. And the DTE consists of the terminal unit (or PC).
8) Terrestrial network interface

The major functions of the LESs are;


(1) Store-and-forward telex service
(2) EGC broadcasting
(3) Distress alerting and Safety services
LES channel assignment

All LES channel assignments are made by the NCS in its region; the assignments can be
permanent or demand assigned on the following channels.
(a) CES TDM channel
(b) SES signalling channel (40 CH max per CES TDM channel)
(c) SES message channel requested by LES

1-8

Inmarsat C Channels and Signals


Data Report
Distress
Polling Status
Commission&Test Request
Registration
SES Status, SES Status Request
TDM Assignment
TDM Release Ack

Acknowledgement
Acknowledgement Requset
Bulletin Board
Clear
Data Packets
Distress Alert Ack
Distress Test Request
Forced Clear
Logical Channel Assignment
Message Status
Request Status
Test Results

Confirmation
Distress
EGC
Polling Request
SES Status
SES Status Request
TDM Release
Test Result

SES Signalling Channel

SES Message Channel


CES TDM Channel

Data

SES Signalling Channel

Acknowledgement
Announcement Response
Assignment Response
Clear
Data Reporting
Distress Alert
Forced Clear
Assignment Request
Request for Transfer Status
Request for Message Status

Network Coordination
Station (NCS)

Interstation Signalling Channel

Data Report
Distress Alert
Initiate Call
Log in Request
Log out Request
Message Status Request
Test Request

NCS Common Channel

Land Eart Station


(LES)

Ship Earth Station (MES)

The MES operates in the TX frequency band 1626.5 to 1646.5 MHz and the RX
frequency band 1530.0 to 1545.0 MHz.
The channel numbers are assigned in increments of 5 kHz as follows:
Channel No.

TX (MHz)

RX (MHz)

6000

1626.500

6002

1626.505

8000

1631.500

1530.000

8002

1631.505

1530.005

13998

1646.495

1544.995

14000

1646.500

1545.000

1-9

Announcement
Bulletin Board
Confirmation
Distress Alert Ack
EGC
Log in Ack
Log out Ack
Network Update
Polling
Request Status

1.4

Message & Signal Transfer

1. Ship-originated Call
The following describes how an MES send a ship-to-shore message, using store-and
forward techniques.
LES

MES

NCS

Creating message
Tunes to NCS CC
NCS CC
Decodes BB
(LES network data)

Transmitting message
Tunes to CES TDM
Tunes to SES
signalling channel

CES TDM

SES Sig. ch
(Assignment Request)
When LES is idle.
ISL
CES TDM

NCS updates data on this MES


to busy.

(MES Status: busy)

Tunes to CES TDM


(Channel Assignment)
Tunes to SES
message channel
SES Message ch

(Message)

CES TDM
Tunes to CES TDM

(Acknowledgement)
CES TDM
(Clear)
NCS CC
ISL

Re-tunes to NCS CC

(MES Status: idle)

END

ISL) Interstation Signalling Link

1-10

NCS updates data base


(MES status changed to idle).

Ship-to-shore Message Transfer Steps

1. The MES normally receives via the NCS common channel, which contains network
configuration information (LES frequency, etc.).
2. The MES tunes to the shore-to-ship CES TDM frequency for the required LES.
3. The MES sends an "Assignment Request" packet on a signalling channel associated
with the CES TDM.
4. In response to the "Assignment Request" packet, the LES informs the NCS that it is
communicating with the MES.
5. The LES sends the MES an "Assignment" packet. This establishes the link between
LES and MES.
6. The MES sends the message on the assigned channel slot timing.
7. After the LES receives all messages it sends "Aknowledgement" to the MES.
8. This "Acknowledgement" packet contains a list of any packets that were missed or
received in error. Reception of an "Acknowledgement" packet prompts the MES to
retransmit any messages in error.
9. When all messages are received error free, the LES sends "Clear" to the MES and
tells the NCS that the MES is idle.

1-11

2. Shore-originated Call
The following describes how a subscriber to the public telecommunications networks can
send a message to an MES.
Call

Terrestrial
subscriber

LES
Check if MES is logged-in.
Message

NCS

Stores all message.


ISL

Check of MES status.


not in the region
Idle
Busy

(MES Status Request


+ Announcement)

MES

(MES Status)
When MES is idle.

Tunes to NCS CC
NCS CC
Receives update on BB and
tunes to CES TDM channel.
And decodes BB & SCD.

ISL

(Announcement)

(MES Status: Announcing)


Tunes to SES
signalling channel

SES Signalling Channel


(Assignment Response)
ISL
(MES Status: busy)

NCS updates data on this MES


to busy.

Message Reception
CES TDM
Tunes to CES TDM
channel
Receives all messages
and finds packets in
error.

(Message)

CES TDM
(Acknowledgement Request)

Tunes to SES signalling


channel

SES Signalling Channel


(Acknowledgement)

Retransmits any packets


received by MES in error.

CES TDM
Tunes to CES TDM

(Clear)
NCS CC

Re-tunes to NCS CC

After 60 sec.
ISL
(MES Status: idle)

END

SCD) Signal Channel Descriptor Packet


ISL) Interstation Signalling Link
BB) Bulletin Board

1-12

NCS updates data base.


(MES status changed to idle)

Shore-to-ship Message Transfer Steps

1. On receipt of the call over the public networks, the LES checks its MES database, to
ensure that the MES is valid and logged-in.
2. The LES sends the result (MES status) to over the public networks.
3. If the MES is logged-in, the LES accepts and stores the incoming message.
4. The LES sends a MES status request over Interstation Signalling Link (ISL) to the
NCS in its ocean region.
5. The NCS checks its database to find the status of the MES, and returns this
information to the LES in a MES status packet over the ISL.
(a) Not in the region
(b) Idle (free)
(c) Busy (not free)
6. If the MES is idle, the NCS transmits a shore-to-ship announcement over its common
channel to the MES.
7. The MES receives the announcement and finds the CES TDM channel, to which it
should tune. And then, the MES tunes from NCS common channel to the CES TDM
channel.
8. The announcement signal contains the bulletin board and signalling channel packets,
which the MES uses to select a slot in one of the signalling channels to transmit an
"Assignment response" packet to the LES.
9. The MES transmits the "Assignment response" packet to the LES. This establishes
the connection between MES an LES.
10. The LES sends a "MES status" packet to the NCS indicating busy status.
11. The LES transmits the message on the LES TDM channel to the MES.
12. After the message is transmitted, the LES sends a "Acknowledgement request"
packet to the MES.
13. In response to the "Acknowledgement request" packet, the MES sends an
"Acknowledgement" packet, which contains a list of any packets that were missed or
received in error. Reception of an "Acknowledgement" packet prompts the LES to
retransmit any messages in error.
14. After all packets have been received error free, the MES sends the
"Acknowledgement" packet.
15. If there are no further calls, the LES begins the call clearing process by sending a
"Clear" packet.
16. After receiving the "Clear" packet the MES synchronizes to the NCS common
channel to go to idle status.
17. The LES tells the NCS that the MES is idle.
18. The NCS updates its data base to show the MES is idle.

1-13

Login and Logout

Each time the DTE and Communication Unit are turned on, the vessel should be
registered with the Inmarsat C system to enable communications between vessel and
CES. This is called login.
If the vessel is not going to be using the equipment for a prolonged period it should
logout from the Inmarsat C system so the vessel can be registered as inactive.

3. Log in
LES

MES

NCS

NCS CC

Power-up
Tunes to NCS CC

SES Signalling Channel


(Log in Request)
NCS CC
(Log in ACK)
ISL
Updating ship list

(Registration)

Informs other NCSs.

4. Log out
LES

MES

NCS

SES Signalling Channel


(Log out Request )

NCS CC
(Log out ACK)
Deleting MES from
ship list

ISL
(MES Status)
Informs other NCSs.

ISL) Interstation Signalling Link

1-14

5. Distress Alert
MES

LES

NCS

( MES logged-in)

Tunes to NCS CC
NCS CC
Decodes BB
(LES network data)
Permanently assigned TDM
Channel
Tunes to CES TDM
Tunes to SES
Signalling
Channel

SES Signalling Channel

(Continuous transmission on
defined frequency)

(DISTRESS ALERT)

CES TDM
Tunes to CES TDM

(DISTRESS ALERT ACK)

ISL
(DISTRESS ALERT)

Records MES distress alerted

(DISTRESS ALERT ACK)

Demand Assigned TDM


Channel
SES Signalling Channel

(assigned temporarily on a
demand basis)

(DISTRESS ALERT)
Records MES distress alerted
NCS CC
(DISTRESS ALERT ACK)

ISL
(DISTRESS)
(DISTRESS ALERT ACK)

( MES logged-out)

SES Signalling Channel


(DISTRESS ALERT)
Enforces a log-in for MES
sending distress alert.
NCS CC
(DISTRESS ALERT ACK)

Note) NCS Common channel includes the LES information, so the LES which receives
the distress alert is automatically selected.

1-15

1.5

Different Classes of Inmarsat-C MES

Different Classes of Inmarsat C MES are manufactured as below. The FELCOM12


belongs to class 2 MES.

Class 1 MES
This may be used only for ship-to-shore and shore-to-ship message transfer and distress
alerting, but is not able to receive EGC messages.
Inm-C Antenna

Transmitter

Receiver

Message Processor

Class 1 (no EGC)

Class 2 MES
This is capable of two modes of operation (selectable by the operator):
1. As Class 1, and also capable of receiving EGC messages when not engaeged in
Inmarsat-C traffic.
2. Ready for EGC reception exclusively, (and not available in that mode for Inmarsat-C
message transfer).
Inm-C Antenna

Transmitter

Receiver

Message Processor

EGC Message Processor

Class 2

Class 3 MES
This has two independent receivers, one capable of two-way Inmarsat-C message transfer,
the other capable of receiving EGC messages. So this class makes possible the
independent simultaneous operation of both modes, via the one MES.
In addition to the above classes, Figure 8-1 shows that EGC receives may be fitted as
listed below.
Inm-C Antenna

Transmitter

Receiver

Message Processor

EGC Receiver

EGC Message Processor

Class 3

1-16

Chapter 2
2.1

Channel Types and Signal


Processing

Channel Types

A MES uses the following channels for the communications.


1) NCS Common Channel (NCS CC)
2) CES TDM Channel
3) SES Signalling Channel
4) SES Message Channel
Details of each channel are tabulated below.
NCS Common
Channel
MES signalling
(Line control),
EGC, etc.

Use

CES TDM
SES Signalling
Channel
Channel
NCS, LES
MES signalling
signalling
(Line control), LES
(Line control)
to MES message
Refer to section 1.3.
TDM
TDMA
(Time Division
Multiplex),
(Time Division
Multiplex Access)
Continuous or on
demand
1200 symbols/sec,
8.64sec/frame
28 slots
1200 symbols/sec
(2nd Gen.SV)
640 bytes
15 bytes
Every frame
-

Contents
Continuous
TDM

TX method

8.64sec/frame
1200
symbols/sec
640 bytes
Every frame

Speed
Packet
Bulletin Board
Scrambling
Encoding
Unique
word
Signal
process (TX)
Permuting
Preamble
Interleaving
Number of Symbols

128 symbols

128 symbols

10368 symbols

10368 symbols

64 symbols
316 symbols

SES Message
Channel
MES to LES
message

SCPC (Single
Channel Per
Carrier)
1200
symbols/sec
(2nd Gen.SV)
128 bytes
-

128 symbols
(192bits)
10368

TDM: Time division multiplex. A process for transmitting two or more channel
signals simultaneously to MES over a common channel path by using
successive time intervals (time slots) for different channels.
TDMA:Time division multiplex access. A system which allows a plural number of
MES to access an LES (NCS) over a single transmission line by assigning
each MES a time slot on the TDM channel in which to transmit over.
SCPC: Single channel per carrier. Enables assignment of channel for a call.
Satellite

1.5

Hz
z

1.6

Hz
4G

6G

4G

4G

1.6

Hz
Hz

6G

1.5
GH

GH

GH

GH

z
SE

z
NC

z
SE

CE
SM

SS

ST

ess

SC

ign

DM

ag

om

all

Ch

eC

ha

mo

ing

an

nn

nC

Ch

ne

ha

an

nn

ne

el

el

NCS
MES
LES

2-1

Figure 2-1

1. NCS CC/CES TDM Channel


The NCS common channel and CES TDM channels share a common overall structure.
The TDM channels are based on fixed-length frames of 10368 symbols tarnsmitted at
1200 symbols/s giving a frame time of 8.64S. 10,000 frames are transmitted every day
(8.64s x 10000= 24 hours).
Each frame carries a 639 byte information field, followed by a flush byte (all 0s).
The first packet in the information field is always the Bulletin Board (BB) packet.
The bulletin board contains information on the network configuration and the correct
frame number.
8.64sec (10368 TDM symbols)

TDM Frame

TDM Frame

TDM Frame
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Type

Length

Network Version

Frame Format

Packet descriptor
0 (gero) when in
CES TDM

Frame Number

Frame descriptor

2-F

Sig Channel
Count

Spare

Channel

Local

Spare

TDM descriptor
Origin ID

Bulltin Board Packet

Status

Service descriptor

14

Services

Signalling Channel
Descriptor Packet

Rnd Interval

Randomizing Interval

Check sum
14

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Message
or Signlling Packet

Type

A C D S

Length

L AE Spare

Satellite Freq. Code

640

Indicating the channel of the


signalling channel

28 2bit
Slot
State
Markers

Check sum
13

Figure 2-2

2-2

Packet descriptor

2. Signalling Channel
The SES signalling channel packet is always a fixed length of 15 bytes (120 bits).
This channel is used for signalling from MES to LES and NCS. For example, the
packet "Assignment Request" contains MES ID, LES ID, message size, and
information of network to be connected. Further, short messages such as data
reporting (ship's position, speed and course, etc.) is sent to LESs and NCSs on this
channel.
8.64 sec

UW
(64 Symbols)

26

27

28

Convolutional Encoded Data


(253 Symbols)

316 Symbols
(263.5ms)
370 Symbols

Figure 2-3 Signalling Channel Frame Format


(2nd Generation Satellite, 1200 symbols per second)
The signalling channel is based on the frame length of 8.64 seconds. Each frame is
divided into 28 slots and the transmission rate for a burst within a slot is 1200
symbols/s for second generation satellite. There are two types of access to the
signalling channel: reserved and unreserved. For reserved access the slot that is to be
used by the MES is pre-allocated by the LES (Bulletin Board). For unreserved
access the MES selects slot(s) unreserved for data transmission.

2-3

SES Signalling Channel Packet Types


Packet
Acknowledgement
Announcement Response
Assignment Response
Clear
Data Report
Distress Alert
Distress Alert Test
MES Forced Clear
Login Request
Logout Request
Message Status Request
Test Request
Test Result Acknowledgement
Transfer Status Request
Assignment Request

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Destination
LES
LES
LES
LES
NCS & LES
NCS & LES
LES
NCS & LES
NCS
NCS
NCS & LES
NCS
LES
NCS & LES
NCS & LES

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
P C

Type

Note) P: Priority (Distress,


Normal)
C: Continuation (Last
packet in sequence,
Another packet to follow)
Type:Packet type
Logical Channel No.:
Communication
Channel
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

P C

Type

MES ID

MES ID

LES ID

Logical Channel No.


Packets

Service Depend Descriptor

Check sum
Destination
Descriptor

FILL

Check sum
15

15

3. Assignment Response
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
P C

Type

15. Assignment Request

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1

P C

Type

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1

P C

Type

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
1

P C

Type

Logical Channel No.


Errored Packet No.

MES ID

MES ID

MES ID

Errored Packet No.


LES ID

Errored Packet No.

Class

Errored Packet No.

Check sum

Version Number

Errored Packet No.


Errored Packet No.

Check sum

Position

Errored Packet No.


Errored Packet No.
Errored Packet No.

Errored Packet No.

Nature

FILL

Speed

Errored Packet No.

DA PA CU

Check sum

Check sum
15

1. Acknowledgement

FILL

Course

15

15

6. Distress Alert

9. Login Request

Figure 2-4 Signalling Channel Packet Formats

2-4

15

10. Logout Request

3. SES Message Channel


The message channels operate in TDMA mode and are controlled by the LES.
Message channels are used by MESs to transfer messages to an LES. Each LES has
one or more message channels assigned to it by the NCS.
Allocation of a message channel to an MES is performed by the LES using
assignment packets. Each message channel may be used by several MESs
simultaneously engaged in From-Mobile calls.
The message channel is quasi-continuous mode with variable frame duration
depending on the length of the message to be transferred.
A maximum frame length is 640 bytes or 5 packets. The first packet of a message
contains a mssage header, destination address and message data. The remaining
packets contain message data only. It takes 8.64 seconds to send 5 packets or one
frame. The message can be up to 32k bytes, that is, about 50 frames can be sent
consecutirely.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Packet No. 1
C R

C : Delivery Class
(Immediate/Deferred)
R : Confirmation Request

Length

Logical Channel Number


Presentation Control

Message format (ITA2 or IA5)

Last Count

Number of whole characters in


last packet of message

Additional Information

1
Messagre Packet
No.1

Data

127
128

Flush byte : all "0"


Check sum

Messagre Packet
No.2
256

127

Flush byte : all "0"


Messagre Packet
No.3

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

14

Packet No. 2-5

Flush byte : all "0"


512

Messagre Packet
No.4
Data

640

Flush byte : all "0"


Messagre Packet
No.5

640

Flush byte : all "0"


Check sum
127

Figure 2-5

Message Channel

2-5

2.2

Signal Processing

1. Signal Processing Flow for Each Channel


Message are processed on each channel as below.
TX on SES
Signalling Channel

TX on NCS/CES
TDM Channel

TX on SES
Message Channel

RX on NCS/CES
TDM Channel

Message

Message

Message

RX signal

Scrambling

Scrambling

Scrambling

BPSK demod.

Convolutional
Encoding

Convolutional
Encoding

Convolutional
Encoding

Adding unique word

Adding unique word

Detecting U.W.
(Frame synch.)

Adding unique word

De-permuting

BPSK mod.

Interleaving

Interleaving

De-interleaving

TX signal

Permuting

Permuting

Viterbi decoding

Adding pre-amble

BPSK mod.

De-scrambling

BPSK mod.

TX signal

Packet detection

TX signal

Message

Scrambling

Data is scrambled by exclusive ORing original data with scramble generator output bit
by bit. Scrambling prevents 0 from continuing excessively; if 0 continues, clock
recovery would be reduced at the BPSK modulator. The scramble generator consists
of an eight step shift register and polynomial G.
Data
Scrambling
Generator

DATA
G

OUT

(To encoder)
Modulo-2 adder
(exclusive OR)

G=X3+X4+X5+X7
LSB
X0

MSB
X1

X2

X3

X4

X5

X6

X7

(Shift Register)

Start state : 1000000

Figure 2-6

Scrambling

2-6

Convolutional Encoding

The end of scrambled bit stream data of 120 bits is affixed with 6 bits of continuous
flash bits and sent to the half-rate convolutional encoder which consists of a 7 bits
shift register (constraint length-7) and two polynomials. 126 bits of signalling packet
input are encoder to 252 symbols. The first state of the shift register is all zeroes.
+

exclusive OR

G1=X0+X2+X3+X5+X6

G1
Formatted
(Scrambled) data

Coded symbols
(To interleaver)
X0

X1

X2

X3

X4

X5

X6

G2

Start state: 0 0 0 0 0 0

(Half-rate: Output of 2 bits


with input of 1 bit)

G2=X0+X1+X2+X3+X6

+
exclusive OR

Figure 2-7

Encoding

Unique Word

The 252 symbols from the encorder is affixed with an unique word (uw) to be used for
bit synchronization at the recorder. The uw is 64 bits in length on the SES signalling
channel and 64 2 bits on the NCS/CES TDM channel.
Interleaving and
Permuting Encoder

symbol

UW

BPSK modulator
or
interleaver

(added)

Figure 2-8

UW

Interleaving and Permuting Encoder

The figure below shows the interleave matrix, consisting of 64 rows by 162 columns.
Symbol data comes in column by column. Note that columns 0 and 1 are filled with
unique words.
Column
0
Row 0
1
2

2 ....................................161
1

65

10177

66

67

10177
10177

...............
62
63

Interleave Matrix

63 127

10239
10240

64 128

Bit stream
UW 64bits

UW 64bits

Figure 2-9

...

64 65 ... 128

..................

Interleave Matrix

2-7

10177 ... 10240

The first 64 symbols of convolutional encorder output go to column 2, rows 0 to 63.


The next 64 symbols to column 3, rows 0 to 63 and so on.
The interleave block is transmitted on a row by row basis. The symbols in a row are
transmitted in asccending order of column position; that is, the two indentical unique
word symbols are transmitted first. However, rows are not transmitted in a sequential
order; they are transmitted according to a permuted sequence. If the rows in the
interleave block are numbered from i = 00 to i = 63 sequentially and the transmitted
order is from j = 0 sequentially through to j = 63; then, i and j are related by
i = (j 39) modulo 64
1 st output j = 0 : i = (0 3S) modulo 64 = 0
2 st output j = 1 : i = (1 3S) modulo 64 = 39
3 st output j = 2 : i = (2 3S) modulo 64 = 14
Modulo 64 is the remainder of division by 64.
Column
0 1 2....................................161
Row 0
1
2

65

10177

66

67

10177
10177

Permute Matrix

...............
62
63

63 127

10239
10240

64 128

.................

25 row

39 row

(Last frame)

0 row
(1st frame)

Figure 2-10

Permuting

Preambling

The SES message channel is quasicontinuous therefore a preamble is added to aid


acquisition. The maximum message length is 32k bytes (about 32000 characters), as
about 50 frames can be sent consecutively.
2nd frame

n frame

1sd frame

(max : 50)
10240bits 128bits

DATA UW

...............

DATA UW

DATA UW

Preamble

clock regeneration : carrier recovery : 128bits


64bits
all = 1

Figure 2-11

Preambling

2-8

BPSK Modulation

BPSK is a kind of phase modulation using a digital signal. Depending on carrier phase
difference, BPSK is expressed as 0 or 1. Data signal "0" is not phase shifted; data
signal "1" is phase shifted 180 degrees.
H

BPSK modulator
Carrier

BPSK modulated signal

Digital signal
Phase
change
by 180

Figure 2-12

no phase
change

Phase
Phase
change change
by 180 by 180

BPSK Modulation

Frame synchronization

Detects a unique word.


De-permuting

Demodulated signal is de-permuted and input to the interleave matrix.


De-interleaving

Reassembles the message in the interleave matrix.


Viterbi Decoding

Decodes the viterbi-encoded signal.


De-scrambling

Scrambled signal is decorded.

2-9

Chapter 3
3.1

Block Description

General

Interconnection diagram of FELCOM 12 is shown below.


Communication Unit: IC-212 and Antenna Unit: IC-112 are connected with a coaxial
cable, through which receiving signals of 1530.0 to 1545.0 MHz, transmitting signals
of 1626.5 to 1646.5 MHz, and power supplies from IC-212 to IC-112 ( +29 V for the
transmitting and +18 V for the receiving ) are sent.
The signal transmission loss of the coaxial cable in 1.6 GHz band is estimated to be 3
to 13 dB, so the cable to be used should be selected from specified cables in
accordance with the cable length between the two units.
IC-212 consists of REG, CPU, RF CON, and TX boards. IC-112 consists of an
antenna board: ANT, a diplexer: DIPLEXER, and a helical antenna.
GPS position signals can be received with an optional GPS receiver board (GN-74)
installed in IC-212. The GPS signals are not only utilized for FELCOM 12, but
outputted therefrom in NMEA-0183 format. Outputted are GLL, GGA, VTG, RMC,
and ZDA.

IC-112

FURUNO

IB-581
5D-FB-CV : 30m
8D-FB-CV : 50m
12D-SFA-CV : 100m

DTE 1

KEYBOARD

PRINTER

COM 2

24V DC

DC24V
ANT

COM 1

KEYBOARD

IC-302

IC-302

NP

NP

PP-510

DC24V

IC-303

IC-212

DC24V

NP

DMC 1

IC-302 : Distress Alert Unit


IC-303 : Received Call Unit

DMC 2
BUZZER

*
* AC/DC power

24V DC

GPS received
board

supply
(PR-300)

NMEA

NMEA-0183

DTE 2

I/F BOX
(OP16-14)

Navaid

EGC printer
(PP-505)

AC100/200
BATT 24V

IB-581
DATA

IB-581
or PC

Figure 3-1

*
*

Configuration of FELCOM12

3-1

*: optional

3.2

Block Diagrams

1. Antenna and Communication Units


-148 ~ -136dBW/m 2
RX : 1530.0 ~ 1545.0MHz

12 ~ 16dBW (20W)
TX : 1626.5 ~ 1646.5MHz

+1.5dBi

IC-112
+43dBm

-141.5 ~ -129.5dBm

DIPLEXER
TX

RX GAIN
DIPLEXER+ANT=33 ~ 38dB
GPS) 29 ~ 38dB

RX

ANT

TX : -5 ~ +10dBm
RX : -118.5 ~ -91.5dBm

TX : +29V
RX : +18V

D-FB-CV : 30m
8D-FB-CV : 50m
12D-SFA-CV : 100m

Loss : -3 ~ -13dB

TX/RX L BAND

TX : +8 ~ 13dBm
RX : -120.5 ~ -94.5dBm

FAN

(on during TX)


TX : +30V
RX : +18V

TX
TX : 28dB
RX : -2dB

+12V
TX ON
HPA ON

CB1

REG
TX/RX L BAND
HPA ON
+5/15V

1575.42MHz

GPS
RF CON

RX IF 50kHz

GPS TD/RD

SYN DATA/CK/LE
HPA ON
REF CONT
TX ON
TX S-DATA
15.6MHz

ANT VOL/CUR

CPU
SYN UN-LOCK
AGC LVL

+24V

RCV BZ

DMC 2

DMC 1

PC / DATA

NMEA

DTE 2

DTE 1

IC-212

Figure 3-2 Block Diagram of Antenna and Communication Units

3-2

2. Terminal Unit (IB-581)

T. BOARD
(16P0141)
LCD

LCD
control

CPU CARD
(AR-B1374)
VGA CARD
(AR-B1041)

CPU
80386SX-33

Power supply
for LCD
illumination

IC-212

PRINTER

PRINTER
(PP-510)

SIMM MODULE

FLASH ROM
(AT29C040)

BRIGHT

CONTRAST

DET 1

COM 2

256k

KEYBOARD

FDD
(FD-235HF-7529)

KEY BOARD
(BTC-5100C PS/2)
5V/12V

+5V

POWER
(ACE-870C-B1)

VR
(16P0145)

+24V
POWER

IB-581

COM 1

2A

BREAKER

FIL
(16P0144)

+24V

Figure 3-3 Block Diagram of Terminal Unit (IB-581)

3-3

3.3

Functions of Each Board

Unit

PCB Name

PCB Type

Helical ant.

DIPLEXER

ANT

16P0146

TX

16P0157

RF CON

16P0147

Antenna
Unit
(IC-112)

Communication Unit
(IC-112)
CPU

Includes a switching regulator power supply circuit with a 24V input which supplies +5 V, +12 V, and a power switching
circuit; between +29 V in TX and +18 V in RX. ANT VOL
detection circuit to detect short-circuits in ANT coaxial cable
and ANT CUR detection circuit to detect transmitting power
are also included.
GPS receiver circuit

16P0149

GPS

GN-74

CPU CARD

AR-B1374

Controls printer, keyboard, main unit, and memory.

VGA CARD

AR-B1041
FD-235HF7529

Controls LCD.

T. BOAED

16P0141

POWER

ACE-870CB1

LCD
FIL
Keyboard

16P0144
BTC-5100C
PS/2
PP-510

Printer
Disterss
Alert Unit
Received
Call Unit

IB-302

16P0150

IB-303

16P0150

I/F BOX

OP16-14

EGC
Printer
AC/DC
PWR Unit

Consists of BPSK demodulation circuit, control circuit,


transmitting/receiving signal processing circuits (by CPU),
and input/output interfaces.

REG

FDD
Terminal
Unit
(IB-581)

16P0148

Function
Consists of two pairs of antenna elements different in length,
generating a right circular polarization wave.
An isolation circuit between transmitting and receiving
signals. Its Isolation is:
TX RX: more than 40 dB,
RX TX: more than 40 dB.
The loss in the pass band is less than 1.0 dB.
Comprises L-band amplifier circuits for signal transmission
(1626.5 - 1646.5 MHz) and reception (1530.0 - 1545.0 MHz).
The operational input voltage is +29 V for transmission and
+18 V for reception. The amplifier gain is:
-5 dBm (input) +43 dBm (output) for transmission, and
+33 to 38 dB for reception.
Consists of a switching circuit between transmitting and
receiving signals, and a transmitting amplifier circuit (L
band).
Transmitting gain: +28 dB
Receiving gain: -2 dB
Comprises a reference oscillator: VCXO (15.6 MHz),
transmitting/receiving synthesizer circuits, BPSK modulator,
and amplifier and frequency converter circuits for receiving
signals.
Receiving IF signal: 50 kHz, supplied to CPU board.
Transmitting modulation signal: S-DATA is fed from CPU
board.

Remarks

Do not
adjust any
screws.

EE-PROM
(U11)
Having
FID/RID
Fan is on
during TX.

Optional

Controls floppy disk drive.


Power supply circuit for VGA CARD - LCD relay and LCD
illumination.
Generates 12 and 5 V by a switching power circuit from
+24-V input.
LCD
A power line filter
A keyboard
Centronics specifications
Consists of a button-ON detector of distress alert unit, a lamp,
and a buzzer.
Consists of a reception buzzer, a buzzer-OFF detector, and an
indicator lamp.
A circuit for converting RS-232C to current loop for the
purpose of extending PP-505 cable

Optional
Two units
supplied

PP-505

A printer exclusively used for EGC

Optional

PR-300

An AC/DC automatic switching power supply

Optional

3-4

Optional

3.4

Antenna Unit (IC-112)

The transmitting signal from the Communication Unit (1626.5 to 1646.5 MHz) is
supplied to Antenna Unit with an input level of -5 to +10 dBm. The signal is
amplified in the ANT board a C-class amplifier which amplifies an input of -5
dBm to an output of +43 dBm , then sent through the diplexer to the antenna. The
transmitting signal is an EIRP of 12 to 16 dBW. The antenna is a Quadrifilar Herix
Antenna and radiates a right circular polarization wave. The antenna gain is 1.5 dBi.
The receiving signal from satellite (1530.0 to 1545.0 MHz) is supplied through the
antenna and diplexer to the ANT board, then amplified 33 to 38 dB, and output to the
Communication Unit.
The isolation between transmitting and receiving signals in the diplexer is more than
40 dB. The insertion loss of the diplexer is less than 1.0 dB.

RX : -148 ~ -136dB/m 2 (1530 ~ 1545MHz)


TX : 12 ~ 16dBW (1626.5 ~ 1646.5MHz)

ANT element
+1.5dBi

U3
5V REG

RX : 1530 ~ 1545MHz

AN78L05M

FL1
Q1
ATF10136

Q2

Q14

AT41486

AT42086

U2
12V REG

AN7812F

TX28V

RX18V TX30V

-141 ~ -129dBm

6DFC-1550K-10

CR1

VR1 : BIAS

C30

HSMP-3894

TX28V

-1dB

2SA1213/2SC2837

12V SW

TX : 1626.5 ~ 1646.5MHz
C81

C70
R36-38 75/1W

DIPLEXER

MRF16030

Q8
MRF16006

Q7
PTB20078

FL2

Q6

U5

AT42086

INA10386

ATT
-2dB

4DFB-1636G-12

U4
VR3 : BIAS

TX +8 13dBm
ANT

Communication unit
(IC-212)

RX -120.5 ~ -94.5dBm

Attenuation : -3 ~ -13dB (1.6G BAND)


5D-FB-CV : 30m
8D-FB-CV : 50m
12D-SFA-CV : 100m

Figure 3-4 Block Diagram of Antenna Unit (IC-112)

3-5

RX -108.5 ~ -91.5dBm

VR2 : BIAS

TX -5 ~ +10dBm

DS1-20R1.637G

RX18V TX29V

+44dBm

Q9

U1

T/R CONT

Q4/5
TX12V
RX12V

ANT (16P0146)

T/R DET.
PC842G2

3-6

3.5

Communication Unit (IC-212)

1. TX board (16P0157)
The TX board includes amplifier circuits and a transmission/reception switching
circuit. The receiving signal from the Antenna Unit is supplied to the RF CON board
through the transmission/reception switching circuit in the TX board. The switching
loss of the receiving signal is less than 2 dB.
The transmitting signal from RF CON board is amplified 28 dB and supplied to the
Antenna Unit through the transmission/reception switching circuit in the TX board.
TX (16P0157)

TX: 1626.5 ~ 1646.5MHz

RF CON
(16P0147)

TX RF

FL1
U1
PC2709

Q1

Q2

AT42086

AT42086

DFC31R64P034BHA

C23
+5V TX ON

RX -120.5 ~ -94.5dBm

Ant.unit
(IC-112)

HSMP-3894

RX: 1530 ~ 1545MHz

TX +8 ~ 13dBm
HPA ON
HPA ON

+12V
+5V TX ON
HPA ON
HPA ON

REG
(16P0149)

Figure 3-5

RX18V TX29V

RX RF

ANT

CR1

Block Diagram of TX Board

2. RF CON board (16P0147)


A simplified block diagram of RF CON board is shown below. The RF CON board
includes a 15.6 MHz reference oscillator, a PLL synthesizer local oscillator for
transmission and reception, a BPSK transmitting modulator, and receiver circuits.
In the transmitting circuit a carrier of 1626.5 to 1646.5 MHz is modulated in BPSK by
serial data (S-DATA) which is supplied from CPU board.
In the receiving circuit a receiving signal of 1530.0 to 1545.0 MHz is converted to a
first IF signal of 90.05 MHz by mixing with a RX 1Lo signal of 1620.05 to 1635.05
MHz, and further converted to a second IF signal of 50 kHz by mixing with a RX 2Lo
signal of 90.1 MHz. This 50kHz signal (TP2: 4Vp-p) is supplied to the CPU board
and demodulated in BPSK there.
Block diagram of RF CON board is shown on next page.
RF CON (16P0147)
TP2

RX: 1530 ~
1545MHz

90.05MHz

50kHz

TX
(16P0157)

(4Vp-p)
90.1MHz

CPU
(16P0148)

PLL3
REF CONT

1620.05 ~
1635.05MHz

15.6MHz

REF

T/RX L Band

PLL1/2

SW

1626.5 ~
1646.5MHz

RX18V
TX 29V
T/RX Vcc

TX: 1626.5 ~
1646.5MHz

S-DATA
BPSK MOD

Figure 3-6

Block Diagram of RF CON Board

3-7

3-8

+5 /+12V

TX RF

+5V TX ON

+12V

HPA ON
HPA ON

TX
(16P01570)

RX RF

U7, 8
Q7, 8

DIV

TX ON

BPSK MOD

U7

U19

U40

Figure 3-7

890 ~ 915MHz

TX: 736.5 ~
731.5MHz

U15

U10

U34

SUB
PLL

MAIN
PLL

U30

U31

U33

AGC

50kHz

REF (15.6MHz)

UNLOCK 1

SYN DATA, CK, LE1

REF (15.6MHz)

UNLOCK 2

SYN DATA, CK, LE2

REF (15.6MHz)

UNLOCK 3

Q10

U32

R122

TP2

VCXO

50kHz

REF CONT

U34
U10
U15

U10, 15, 34

U10, 15, 34

U33

TP1

GPS RF

U4
TCO-976X1 ( 15.6MHz)

DET

CR8

REF (15.6MHz)
SYN DATA, CK, LE3

TP3

Q12

90.1MHz

2nd Lo
PLL

U29

PLL IC: U10 / 15 (MC145158)


U34 (MC145170D1)

U39

1633.3MHz

FL2

U28

FL6

Block Diagram of RF CON

TX Lo: 1626.5
~ 1646.5MHz

S-DATA

DIV

U27

FL5

90.05MHz

RX Lo: 1620.05
~ 1635.05MHz

U18

U25

RF CON
(16P0147)

U41

UNLOCK 2

UNLOCK 1

+5V TX

U24 FL4

TX: 1626.5 ~ 1646.5MHz

U23

RX: 1530 ~ 1545MHz

GPS: 1575.42MHz

HPA ON
TX ON

S-DATA

REF CONT

15.6MHz

UNLOCK 2

SYN LE3
SYN LE2
SYN LE1

UNLOCK 1

SYN CK

UNLOCK 3

SYN DATA

AGC LEV

CPU
(16P0148)

(4Vp-p)

50kHz IF (3dBm/1k )

GPS
(GN-74)

3. CPU board (16P0148)


A simplified block diagram of the CPU board is shown below. The CPU board
includes CPU1, CPU2, and interfacing circuits with outside. The functions of CPU1
are BPSK demodulation, and receiving signal processing, such as unique word
detection, de-permutation, de-interleaving, Viterbi decoding, de-scrambling, and
packet separation. The functions of CPU2 are communication protocol control, system
control for operating units, communication with terminal units, and processing of
transmitting data signal, such as scrambling, convolution encoding, adding unique
words, interleaving, permutation, and adding preambles.
The receiving 50kHz signal from the RF CON board is demodulated in BPSK and
quantized to a 3-bit signal. That is, the demodulated output (H- or L-level) is
expressed by 3 bits to indicate which level, H or L, is more probable for the output.
For example, if all three bits are H, it means it is most probable for the signal to be H.
This 3-bit quantized signal is processed in CPU 1 and then passed to CPU2. In
accordance with the content of the signal, CPU2 delivers a message to the own ship
and EGC message to terminals, or follows a protocol of communicative information.
During transmission, transmitting data such as IA2, ITA5, and DATA (binary) from
terminal units input to CPU2 through interfaces. CPU2 processes the transmitting
signal and outputs serial data (S-DATA) to RF CON board, where the serial data is
modulated in BPSK.
RF CON
(16P0147)
1.5GHz

Receiver

CPU
(16P0148)
RX: 50kHz

BPSK modulation

A/D
DSP
A/D
0/90

PLL 1/2/3

15.6MHz

DDS
3 bit digital data

T/RX REF CLK


VITERBI

REF
(15.6MHz)

REF CONT

CPU 1

Signal
processing

D/A

DTE 1 : IB-581
SYN DATA

I/F

DTE 2 : IB-581

S-DATA (TX)

1.6GHz
BPSK modulation

SHR
System control data (TX ON,HPA ON)

PC/DATA
I/F

Detected data (PLL, AGC LVL)


1) RX Signal processing
2) TX Signal prosessimg
3) Communication protocol controlling
4) System Contorolling
5) Interfacing

NAV

CPU 2
Distress alert unit : IC-302
I/F

Distress alert unit : IC-302


Received call unit : IC-303

Figure 3-8 Block Diagram of RF CON and CPU Boards

3-9

3-10

15.6MHz

50kHz

REF
CONT

50kHz

36MHz

TEST
LOCK
CARRIER

RAM
(U53/52)

15.6MHz

DEMODO
DSP (U58)

RUN
ERR
UWDET

VITERBI
(U54)

(U10)

INT

MRES

RESET
8MHz

0/90

DDS
(U66)

RAM
(U56)

ROM
(U44)

D/A
(U12)

BIO
CONT

DMA 0
DMA 1

Analog
PIN

Flash
ROM
(U26)

16MHz

P/S
CONV.

TX DATA

Watch Dog
Timer
Power ON
Reset

(U17)

SRAM
(U27 )

CTC 0
CTC 1
CTC 2

SRAM
(U40 )

S-DATA

INTP2

INTP0
INTP1

DMA 1
DMA 0

NMEA level
converter

SIO
(U33)

EE-PROM
(U11)

TIM CRT
TIM 1
TIM 0

SIO 1

SIO 0

PIO

Analog
PIN

CPU 2 (U23)
CPU 2

RTC
(U36)

Block Diagram of CPU Board

REF
DIV.

Dual port
RAM
(U41)

TIM 0
TIM 1
TIM CTR

CPU1

CPU 1 (U49)

SIO 0
SIO 1

INTP1
INTP2

INTP0

PIO

SRAM
(U51)

Figure 3-9

ROM
(U39)

RESET

REF CONT

8MHz

BATT

RESET

PIO
(U13)

TX ON

ALARM
driver

RS-232C Level
converter
BZ

ANT CUR
ANT VOL
AGC LEVEL
TX LEVEL

UNLOCK 1
UNLOCK 2
UNLOCK 3

RUN
ERR
SYN
HPA ON

Level
converter
RS-232C Level
converter

A/D
(U71)

DIP SW
(S1)

NMEA-0183

SIO
(U22)

RX MODE

RS-232C Level
converter

TX ON
S-DATA

RCV BZ
DMC 1
DMC 2
DTE 1
DTE 2

NAV DEVICE

PC/DATA

GPS

CPU block
CPU board consists of a pair of CPU1 and CPU 2 a demodulator, and a Viterbi
decoder. Functions of each circuit are summarized as follows.
CPU1:

Data entry of a receiving symbol every RX CLK


Synchronous detection by unique words
Receiving data processing before Viterbi decoding
Frequency adjustment control
Synchronization control of TX CLK
TX start timing control

CPU2:

Receiving data processing after Viterbi decoding


Transmitting data processing
Transmitting control
Slot number control
Synthesizer control
Measurement of TX/RX level
RF block monitoring
Alarm processing
Releasing alarm sound
Clock control
Data interfacing with terminals (DTE1, 2) and its data processing
Data interfacing with DATA (PC) and its data processing
Data interfacing with navigation devices (including internal GPS) and its data
processing
Input/output control of distress alert unit (DMC1, 2) and received call unit
Polling and data-reporting
Forward and return ID handling
Demodulator:

Regenerates RCV CLK from receiving IF signal (50 kHz, BPSK signal), and
demodulates to 3-bit quantized data.
Viterbi Decoder:

Decodes 3-bit quantized data which is supplied from the demodulator through
CPU1.

3-11

Communication between DCE (Data Circuit terminating Equipment)


and DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)
The two units are connected by a serial I/O, using hardware that conforms to RS-232C,
start-stop synchronization, and non-procedure protocol. Communications between
DCE and DTE are in a free flow. However, DCE checks commands sent from DTE
and returns its responses to DTE. For example, suppose that DTE sends a setup data to
DCE and asks DCE for its various relevant data. If DCE does not return its response
within 2 seconds, DTE resends the request command up to twice. Then, if DTE does
not yet receive any response from DCE, DTE asserts a warning ' No response from
communication unit ' and terminates the communication process.
Communication parameters

Baud rate
: 4800
Data length
: 8 bits
Stop bit
: 1 bit
Parity
: ODD
Flow control line : No (using TX/RX data line)

Signals between DCE and DTE


No.

Command from DTE to DCE

Information from DCE to DTE

Changing EGC channel

Network information

Abort

Alarm stop

Finding TX message storage area

Current channel type


Rx message data
(LES, date, priority, size, etc)
EGC message

Login

Login status

Logout

TDM Information

Forced clear

No. of RX message in DCE

Message transmission start

Distress alert

10

Start PV test start

BBER
Available memory size for RX message in
DCE
MES status

11

TX channel

Current TDM type

12

Message delivery confirmation request

NCS in use

13

Common channel assignment

PV test result

14

NCS scan

Message transmission result

15

Distress alert test

16

Response for repeating

17

Message transfer

18

Self-test start

Message delivery information


Request for repeating (distress alarm, distress
alarm test)
DCE information
(Status, position, Self-monitoring,
self-test result)
Alarm (Print, command response, etc.)

19

Polling data

3-12

Chapter 4
4.1

Location of Parts

Antenna Unit (IC-112)

Antenna element

N-type coaxial
connector

Reflector

Figure 4-1

Antenna Reflector

Antenna element and reflector removed

Note: Do not adjust


any screws.

Diplexer
cover

Diplexer

Figure 4-2

4-1

Diplexer

Diplexer cover removed

Cavity resonator

Antenna base fixing screw


(Hex. socket head bolt :
M6 x 30 4 pcs.)

Figure 4-3

Cavity Resonator

Antenna base cover

Antenna fixing hole


(4xM6)

Figure 4-4

Antenna Base

4-2

Antenna base cover removed


Antenna board
(16P0146)
Q7: Pre-driver
(PTB20078)

Q8: Driver
(MRF16006)

Q2: RX RF
(AT41486)
Q1: LNA (ATF10136)

Q9: PA (MRF16030)

U2: AVR (AN7812F)

Figure 4-5

4.2

U4: Circulator

Antenna Board

Communication Unit (IC-212)


DMC 1
BUZZER

DTE 1

ANT
DMC 2

24V DC
BREAKER

DATA
DTE 2

GND
NMEA

Figure 4-6 Communication Unit, Rear Panel

4-3

Top cover removed


ANT
RX:1530 - 1545MHz
(-120.5 ~ - 94.5dBm)
TX:1626.5 - 1646.5MHz
(+8 ~ 13dBm)

R21 (+12V ADJ)

REG board
(16P0149)

RX 2Lo PLL
(90.1MHz)
RF CON board
(16P0147)

TX board
(16P0157)

U4 : VCXO
(TCO-976 x 1 15.6MHz)

MOD:U19
MAIN PLL
(736.5 - 731.5MHz)

Figure 4-7

SUB PLL
(890 - 915MHz)

RF CON/TX/REG Board

Figure 4-8

TX Board

4-4

Bottom cover removed


GPS board
(Optional)

LED:CR2/3/4/5/6

U44:DEMOD ROM

U58:DSP
FAN
U66:DDS

U11:EE-PROM
(Forward and
return IDs
memorized)

LED:CR7/8/9

CPU board
(05P0148)

BT1:CR1/2 8L
(BACKUP BATT)

JP 1

S1

U39:CPU 1 ROM
TP4 TP5
(Used to measure Lissajous figure.)

Figure 4-9

4.3

CPU Board

Distress Alert Unit/Received Call Unit (IC-302/303)

Buzzer

Switch
BUZZER board
(05P0150)
T.B.

Figure 4-10

IC-302/303

4-5

Chapter 5
5.1

Maintenance

PV (Performance Verification) Test

The PV test consists of the message reception test, message transmission test and distress
alert transmission test. The results of the test appear on the PV Test Result display (see
page 5-3).
The MES-originated PV test proceeds in the following sequence.
When an LES originates a test, the test starts from the step 5.
Sequence

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Select PV test on the Test menu.


The MES requests NCS to conduct PV test.
The NCS acknowledges request for testing.
The MES, upon receiving acknowledgement from NCS, goes into pending state.
NCS selects a (not busy) LES to perform the test.
The LES transmits a test message to the MES.
The MES transmits the test message to the designated LES.
The LES receives the test message.
Distress alert testing. The MES transmits the distress alert transmission test, either
manually or automatically. (The distress alert is automatically transmitted if it is not
transmitted within two minutes after the completion of step 8.)
10. When the distress alert test is finished the results of the PV test are sent to MES.

5-1

Procedure

Be sure to Communication Unit is in idle condition and logged in before beginning the
test. This test can only be conducted from the main DTE.
1. Press [7] to display the "option" menu.
2. Press [6] to display the Test menu.
3. Press [1].
Options
Test
PV Test
Start
Yes

No

4. Press [Enter] to transmit the PV Test request to NCS.


Options
Test
PV Test
Starting PV Test Process.
Automatic test mode : Normal communication disabled.
Do not press any distress button unless you are in
distress.

5. Press [Esc] to return to the default display.


6. The screen displays "Current State: IDLE (pending!)" when the acknowledge signal
is received from the NCS.
7. Testing begins and the screen displays "Current State: TESTING".
8. A to-mobile test message transfer and a from-mobile call the LES tests are
automatically carried out.
9. After about 2 minutes, a test distress alert is initiated.
10. When testing is completed the indication "TESTING" is replaced by "IDLE".
The test results appear on the Disp menu. (The next section shows how to interpret the
results.)

5-2

How to display the results of the PV test

1. At the default display, press [F7] to display the Disp menu.


2. Press [6].
Options
Test
1. PV Test
2. PV Test Result
3. Self Test
4. Distress Alarm Button Test

3. Press [2] key. The results of the PV test appear on the display.
Options
Test
PV Test Result
Ctrl + P : print ESC : quit
Test Date & Time

97-12-12 01 : 58 (UTC)

Attempts
BBER
Shore - to - Ship Attempts
Ship - to - Shore Attempts
Distress Alert
Signal strength
Overall Result

First attempt
Pass
First attempt
First attempt
Pass (Test OK)
Pass (Greater than Std level + 6dB)

Pass (Applicable tests pass)

4. To escape, press any key. The default display appears.


The test result can be printed out by pressing [P] while pressing and holding down
[Ctrl].

Interpreting the PV Test Results Display

Test Date & Time:

Date and time of test

Attempts:

Number of times the PV test was conducted.

BBER:

Bulletin Board Error Rate (%). "Pass" appears for no error.

Shore-to-Ship Attempts:Number of tests initiated by LES.


Ship-to-Shore Attempts:Number of tests initiated by MES.
Distress Alert:

"Pass (Test OK)" appears for successful testing.

Signal Strength:

"Pass" appears if Tx signal strength is greater than +6dB


(standard).

Overall Result:

"Pass" appears for satisfactory completion of test.

5-3

5.2

LED Check

The table below shows LED state on the PCBs.


: on

Board

LED No.
CR 2

CPU Board
(16P0147)

: blinking

: off

State

Function
Blinks when CPU2 operates correctly.

(GRN)

CR 3 (RED)

Lights when CPU2 error is detected.

CR 4 (GRN)

Blinks when unique words are detected


(on for 8.14 sec, off for 0.5 sec)

CR 5 (RED)

Lights when CPU1 error is detected.

CR 6 (GRN)

Blinks when CPU1 operates correctly.

CR 7

Lights during carrier signal acquisition and


goes off when signal is aquired. (FFT)

CR 8
CR 9

(RED)

Lights when signal is acquired. (FFT)


(GRN)

Lights during set-up process at power-up.

(ORG)

TP1

BUZZER

CR 2
CR 3
CR 4
CR 5
CR 6

FFT: Font Fourier Transform

U11 : EE-PROM

TP3 TP2

U44 : DEMOD
ROM

CR 7
CR 8
CR 9

U39 : ROM

TP4 TP5

BATT

S1

Figure 5-1 Location of LED and Test Point on CPU Board

5-4

5.3

Check Points
Board name

CPU Board
(16P0148)

TP No.

Status

Signal

TP 1

GND

TP 2

GND
5Vp-p
(1200Hz)

TP 3

Remarks

TX CLK

TP 4
DEMOD OUT

Rx waveform, during synchronization

TP 5
TP 1

RF CON Board
(16P0147)

TP2
TP 3

4Vp-p

DC5V ~ 6V

50kHz IF

Rx waveform

50kHz IF

Rx waveform output

AGC Level

Rx IF AGC Level on status monitor


display; 130=5V, 100=4V, 80=3V

GND

TP 4

Measurement of DEMOD output


Oscilloscope Settings

MODE :
X-Y CONV
VOLTS/DIV : 0.5/DIV
TIM/DIV :
X-Y
Connections

CH1 ------ TP4 or TP5


CH2 ------ TP5 or TP4
GND ----- TP1 or TP2
Lissajous Figures

When C/N in status monitor display is 40dB


(synchronized); Two poles can be recognized.
When C/N in status monitor display is 35dB
(synchronized); Two poles can be recognized.
When C/N in status monitor display is 28dB
(not synchronized); Two poles cannot be recognized.

Note) The synchrozination is made when the C/N is 32dB or more.


Figure 5-2

5-5

Lissajous Figures

5.4

DIP Switch Setting

External Alarm Setting


All bits of the DIP switch S1 on the CPU board must be set to "OFF" position. If the
switch is set to "ON" position, the received call unit IC-302 and/or the distress message
controller DMC-5 cannot release alarm signal when a distress and an urgency (including
EGC) message are received.

TP1

BUZZER

CR 2
CR 3
CR 4
CR 5
CR 6

Note that the distress alert unit IC-303 does not release alarm sound when a distress and
an urgency message are received.

TP3 TP2

U11 : EE-PROM

U44 : DEMOD
ROM

CR 7
CR 8
CR 9

U39 : ROM

TP4 TP5

S1

BATT

ON
OFF
1

Figure 5-3

SW No.

Alarm type

CPU Board (16P0148)

OFF

ON

Remarks

Always OFF

Factory use

Always OFF

Not used

Distress

Output

No output

Urgency

Output

No output

5-6

5.5

Memory Contents Backed-up by Battery

Communication Unit: EE-PROM

TP1

U11 (M6M80041P) : EE-PROM


Forward/Return ID programmed

BUZZER

CR 2
CR 3
CR 4
CR 5
CR 6

MES ID, Foward ID and Return ID is factory-programmed. When replacing


the CPU Board (16P0148), remove the EEROM from the old board and put it
on the new board.

U11 : EE-PROM

TP3 TP2

U44 : DEMOD
ROM

CR 7
CR 8
CR 9

U39 : ROM
U36

BACK UP
U40 (SRM20100LLM70) : SRAM
U36 (RTC62423) : TIMER

TP4 TP5

BATT

S1
JP1

U40

BACK UP ON/OFF

Figure 5-4

CPU Board

Communication Unit: S-RAM (U40)


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

System Setup Menu --------[F8]


EGC Setup Menu-----------[F8]
NCS Channel List Menu --[F8]
EGC Channel List Menu --[F8]
PV Test Result --------------[F7]
Distress Message Setup----[F8]
Ship Position ----------------[F9]
Ocean Region ---------------[F7]

[2]
[5]
[9]
[9]
[6]
[1]

[4]
[3]
[2]

[5]

Terminal Unit: Flash ROM


1
2
3
4
5
6
7

LES List Menu--------------[F8]


Station List Menu ----------[F8]
Editor Setup -----------------[F8]
Terminal Setup -------------[F8]
Auto Mode Setup-----------[F8]
E-Mail Setup ----------------[F8]
E-Mail Service List --------[F8]

[9]
[9]
[3]
[4]
[6]
[7]
[9]

[2]
[1]

[5]

5-7

Memory for Menu Settings

FUNCTION
key

Menu

Communication
unit SRAM:U40
(Backed-up)

Stored onto;
Terminal
unit
(Flash
ROM)

Communication
unit SRAM:U27
(Not backed-up)

Remarks

1. Transmit Message
[F3] : Transmit
3. Request Delivery Status
1. Display EGC Message
[F4] : EGC
2. EGC Network ID
1. Data Report
[F5] : Reports

2. Message Report
3. Data Network ID
1. Send Message Log
2. Receive Message Log

[F6] : Logs
3. EGC Log
4. Log
5. Ocean Region
[F7] : Options
6-2. PV Test Result
1. Distress Message Setup
2. System Setup
3. Editor Setup
4. Terminal Setup
5. EGC Setup
6. Auto Mode Setup
[F8] : Setup

7. E-Mail Setup
8. Directories

FDD

9-1. Station List


9-2. LES List
9-3. EGC Channel List
9-4. NCS Channel List
9-5. E-Mail Service List
[F9] : Position

Ship Position

5-8

5.6

Updating System Program

1. Terminal Unit
The following describes how to change the terminal software.

*Terminal software number: 16501161xx

Note) Flash ROM is assigned to Drive A, and floppy disk drive to Drive B.
Procedure

1. While pressing and holding down [Alt] and [Fn], press [F2]. "OK to quit system
Yes/No" appears.
2. Select "Yes" with the cursor, and press [Enter].
"A: > FELCOM12", MS-DOS prompt display appears.
3. Insert the program floppy disk.
4. Type [B] [:] and press [Enter].
The prompt, B: > appears.
5. Type [I] [B] [I] [N] [S] [T] and press [Enter].
After a while, "It is completed to install programs to A: >FELCOM12." appears. And
then, the message changes to "B: >".
6. Turn off the unit.
7. Insert a working floppy disk.
8. Turn on the unit. The normal display must appear.

5-9

2. Communication Unit
The system program for the CPU2 in the communication unit is stored onto the flash
ROM U26 on the CPU Board. Updating the software is made as follows.

*Program Number for CPU 2: 16501181XX


U26 contains loader program and system program.
Procedure

1. While pressing and holding down [Alt] and [Fn], press [F2]. "OK to quit system
Yes/No" appears.
2. Select "Yes" with the cursor and press [Enter].
"A: > FELCOM12", MS-DOS prompt display appears.
3. Insert the floppy disk which contains CPU2 system program.
4. Type [B] [:] and press [Enter]. The prompt "B: >" appears.
5. Type [U] [P] [F] [1] [2] and press [Enter].
The message "About to update FELCOM12 CPU2 software. Press 'Y' to update the
software to 165-0118-1xx. If you wish to cancel, press 'N' key" appears.
6. Press [Y].
"Loader Version 6.00 Erase wait: 0 sec Write wait:0 Wait counter = 100
TARGET power ON" appears.
7. Turn off the communication unit and turn it on again.
"Execute STEP1, Execute STEP2, 233096 byte transfer Now Erasing
xxx percent completed" appears.

Note) xxx changes from 000 to 100.


8. After about 5 minutes, erasing will finish with the following indication.
"Finish version update.
B: >"
9. Turn off the terminal and communication units.
10. Insert a working floppy disk.
11. Turn on the unit.

5-10

5.7

Replacement of Backup Battery

TP1

U11 (M6M80041P): EE-PROM


Forward/Return ID programmed

BUZZER

CR 2
CR 3
CR 4
CR 5
CR 6

The life of the lithium battery on the CPU board is about five years. The longer the time
when the unit is off, the shorter the life of the battery.

TP3 TP2

U11: EE-PROM

U44: DEMOD
ROM

CR 7
CR 8
CR 9

U39: ROM
U36

TP4 TP5

BACK UP
U40 (SRM20100LLM70): SRAM
U36 (RTC62423): TIMER

S1

BATT
JP1

U40

BACK UP ON/OFF

Figure 5-5
Battery Type:

CPU Board

CR 1/2 8L-F

Code Number: 000-103-769

Note) Remove JP1 when replacing the battery soldered. The settings backed-up by the
battery is listed on page 5-7. The figure below shows the outline of memory back-up
circuit.
JP1

U17
VBAT

U40

VOUT

VBAT

(CPU
monitor)

(SRAM)

U36
(RTC)

BT1

J8-5

CPU (16P0148)

Figure 5-6

5-11

GN-74
(GPS)

Chapter 6 Troubleshooting
6.1

Self-Test

The self-test is carried out at every power-up, however you can diagnose the
communication unit by using the self-test menu at any time.

1. Self-test at Power-up
The communication unit is checked for proper operation each time the power is turned on.
The conducted tests are;
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

ROM sum test


RAM read and write test
DP RAM read and write test
EE PROM sum test
VITERBI decoder test

At the completion of each test, a short beep is released. If an error is detected, a long keep
is released and CR3 or CR5 on the CPU board will light with the following message(s).
The self-test proceeds until the end of the sequence even if any error is detected. The
CPU board must be replaced when an error message appears.
Error Indications
TROUBLE:CPU1 ROM NG.
TROUBLE:CPU2 ROM NG.
TROUBLE:CPU1 RAM NG.
TROUBLE:CPU2 RAM1 NG.
TROUBLE:CPU2 RAM2 NG.
TROUBLE:CPU1 DP RAM NG.
TROUBLE:CPU2 DP RAM NG.
TROUBLE:CPU1 VITERBI NG.
TROUBLE:CPU2 EEPROM NG.

Note) Very important!


EE-PROM (U11) contains Forward and Return ID. When ordering the EEPROM, ships name and serial number must be written down.

6-1

2. Seft-test by F7 Key (F7:Test)


Procedure

1. Press [F7] to display the Test menu.


2. Press [6].
3. Press [3]. The Communication Unit test screen appears.
Options
Test
Communication Unit
Start
Yes

No

4. Press [Enter] to start the test.


The message " Now Communication Unit testing" appears in blinking reverse video
during testing.
5. When the test is completed the screen shows the test result.
Option
Test
Communication Unit
CPU1
165-0112-10X
ROM
OK
RAM
OK
DP-RAM OK
Viterbi
OK

CPU2
ROM
RAM1
RAM2
EEPROM
GPS
DP-RAM

165-0118-10X
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK

Press any key to escape

6. Press any key to terminate the Communication Unit Test.

6-2

6.2

Description of Status Monitor Display

This section shows how to interpret the System Status Monitor.

File

Edit

Transmit

Date
Time
Position

EGC

Reports

97-12-24
06:12 (UTC)

Course
Speed
Current NCS
Current Channel
Current TDM
MES Status
GPS Status

LAT 35:00.00N
LON 135:00.00E
LAT
LON
DEG
KTS
344 (IOR) LOGIN
LES TDM
LES TDM
Busy
3D

DCE Memory

32818 Bytes free

Waypoint

Logs

Current State : TESTING


TESTING -- RECEVING MESSAGE
DCE Ver 0x Oct - 199x

Options

Setup

Position

BBER
C/N
Send Level
RxIF AGC Level
REF Offset Freq
Synthe 1st-1 Local
1st-2 Local
RX2nd Local

000
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK

Antenna Power Supply

OK

Water Temperature
Water Current
Direction
Speed
Depth

DEG
DEG
KTS

SYNC (LES)
NCS : IOR LOGIN

StopAlarm

(38dB)
( 0)
(133)
( 0Hz)

97-12-24 06:12 (UTC)


LAT : 35:00.00N
LON : 135:00.00

Interpreting the Status Monitor Display

Date:

Current date

Time:

Current time

Position:

Vessel's position (either manual entry or automatic input by


navigation aid)

Waypoint:

Position of waypoint selected on navigation aid

Course:

Heading

Speed:

Ship's speed

Current NCS:

NCS which your vessel is logged in with

Current Channel:

Channel in use, such as NCS common channel, MES message


channel etc.

Current TDM:

Current TDM (NCS Commom TDM or CES TDM)

MES Status:

Operational status of MES

6-3

GPS Status:

GPS signal status


CST: Cold Start
ACQ: Acquired; Almanac data acquired
IMP: Impossible; Cannot receive GPS signal
INT: Interrupted; Object interfering with reception of GPS
signal
ALM: Receiving the almanac
2D, 3D: Position-fixing method by 2 or 3 dimensions

DCE memory:

Memory not is used.

BBER:

Bulletin Board Error Rate (%)

C/N*:

Check of circuit status with LES, receiving circuit in Antenna


Unit, RF CONV Board, TX/RX IF Board and CPU Board
(DEMOD section). OK appears when figure is higher than 31.

Send Level*:

TX level check. At transmission, OK appears when figure is


higher than 123. At reception OK appears when figure is lower
than 32.

RX IF AGC Level*:

Check the RX circuit in the Antenna Unit and the RF CONV


Board or TX/RX IF Board in the Communication Unit. OK
appears when figure is higher than 80.

REF Offset Freq*:

Operating normally if SYNC lamp on Communication Unit


lights during synchronizing. If it does not light check RX
Synthesizer or REF OSC on the TX/RX IF Board. OK appears
when figure is lower than 150.

Synthe 1st Local*:

Check of local oscillator on RF CONV Board.

RX 2nd local*:

Check of RX 2nd local oscillator on RF CON Board.

Antenna Power Supply*: NG appears for discontinuity or short in cable.


Water Temperature:

Water temperature

Water Current
Direction :

Tidal current direction

Speed:

Tidal current speed

Depth:

Depth of water

(*1): See "Analysis of NG display" beginning on the next page.

6-4

Analysis of NG Display
CN/NG

NG appears, even if the equipment is operating normally when the satellite signal is weak.
The CPU1 on the CPU board receives C/N data from the DEMOD circuit. If the signal
level is below 31dB, NG appears, indicating that receiver circuit is defective, ocean
region selection is incorrect, or blocking problem exists.

1530 - 1545MHz
DIPLEXER

ANT

TX

Antenna unit

Communication unit
C/N data (8bit)

RF CON

50kHz
J10-4

DEMOD

RX
sig.

CPU 1
(U49)

RX freq.
offset data
VITERBI
(U54)

CPU

6-5

RX
sig.

CPU 2
(U23)

To terminal unit

Send Level NG

Send level is calculated based on the current on the power supply line to the antenna unit.
The current detector R51 locates at the output of the rectifier on the SW REG board. The
signal detected by R51 is sent to U8, Q55 and Q51, and output to the CPU board as ANT
CUR signal. On the CPU board, the ANT CUR signal is A/D-converted by U71 and
delivered to CPU2 U23.
Transmission sequences:
The HPA ON signal generated by CPU2 U23 is sent to the PIO U13 and then the voltage
controller Q52/U10 through U54 and U57 on the SW REG board. The voltage controller
selects +29V for transmission, resulting that the current on Q51 increases and Q56 goes
on to turn on the fun. The send level is more than 123, normally the maximum 255. If the
level is less than 123, TX circuit in the antenna unit or the SW REG board may be
defective.

Power trans

Rectifier

(T1)

+ 18V (RX)
J3-1 or + 29V (TX)

Voltage control
(Q52/U10)
R61

R52

R51

R62

(0.05)

5V

IN

U8FRC9083

Q57

Q54

J4-6
J4-5

ANT VOL

J4-8

HPA ON

J4-7

ANT CUR

Q55

Q51
J5-2 FAN
Q56

SW REG
(16P0149)

12V

FAN

J5-2

ANT VOL
A/D
(U71)

J9-7
J9-6

ANT CUR
AGC LEV
TX LEV

CPU2
(U23)
HPA ON

J9-8

PIO
(U13)

CPU
(16P0148)

6-6

Antenna unit

Antenna Power Supply NG

RX+18V/TX+29V, supply voltage to the antenna is divided by R61 and R62 to generate
a monitor signal ANT VOL. The A/D converter (U71) receives the ANT VOL signal and
sends it to the CPU2. If the voltage is not within the rating, NG will appear to indicate
short-circuit and/or disconnection. The voltage between J4, #6(+) and J4,#5(-) must be;
RX; 0.91 to 1.01 Vdc
TX; 1.45 to 1.49 Vdc
RX AGC Level NG

CPU 2 (U23) monitors the IF AGC level from the RF CON Board. If the level is less than
80, the receiver circuit in the antenna unit, TX Board, or RF CON Board may be
defective.

1530 - 1545MHz
DIPLEXER

ANT
Antenna unit

Communication unit

TX
1530 - 1545MHz

J6

U30,31

U25

U32

Q12

90.05MHz

50kHz

J2-4

U33
AGC AMP

RX Lo
2nd Lo
(1620.05-1635.05MHz) (90.1MHz)

AGC LEV J2-17

RF CON (16P0147)

AGC LEV J10-17

CPU 2
(U23)

ANT VOL

A/D
(U71)

ANT CUR
TX LEV

J10-4

CPU (16P0148)

6-7

DEMOD

50kHz

REF Offset Freq NG

CPU1 (U49) receives offset data generated by the DEMOD and finely adjusts the
frequency of the reference oscillater VCXO. Based on the received signal, the oscillation
frequency of TX/RX PLL synthesizer is adjusted to 15.6 MHz 150Hz. When the offset
frequency is more than 150Hz, REF Offset Freq. NG appears, indicating that CPU
and/or RF CON board may be defective.

1530 - 1545MHz
DIPLEXER

ANT

Antenna unit

Communication unit

TX

C/N data (8bit)


RX sig.
CPU 1
(U49)

50kHz
RXLo

2ndLo

J2-4

DEMOD

J10-4

RX freq.
offset data

TXLo

TX/RX PLL SYN

VCXO
S-DATA (TX)

15.6MHz

J2-1

J10-1

RFE CNT

CPU (16P0148)

RF CON (16P0147)

6-8

U10

D/A
(U12)

RX
sig.

CPU 2
(U23)

Synthe 1st-1Local, 2Local, RX 2nd Local NG

Synthe 1 st 1 Local
When the PLL (U15) unlocks, LD(Lock Detect) line becomes to L level. The
CPU 2 receives the unlock signal and generates the NG indication.
Synthe 1 st 2 Local
When the PLL (U10) unlocks, LD(Lock Detect) line becomes to L level. The
CPU 2 receives the unlock signal and generates the NG indication.
Synthe RX 2 nd Local
When the PLL (U34) unlocks, LD(Lock Detect) line becomes to L level. The
CPU 2 receives the unlock signal and generates the NG indication.
UNLOCK 1 and 2 signals are also used to generate 5V TX ON signal which controls the
TX circuit on the TX board. When the PLL, either of U10 or U15 unlocks, transmission
is automatically stopped.
TX Lo 1626.5-1646.5MHz

1626.5-1646.5MHz

TX

S-DATA

To terminal unit

BPSK

RX Lo

1620.05-1635.05MHz
Q12

1530-1545MHz

90.05MHz

50kHz IF

Q25
U34
90.1MHz

PLL 3

U5

LD

730MHz

FL7

Q39

RX Lo

FL2

CPU 2
(U23)

J10-12/10/11

TX Lo
U6

U15

UNLOCK 2

J2-11

FL1

CPU (16P0148)

900MHz

U6

LD

J2-10

UNLOCK 1

VCXO
(15.6MHz)
VCXO CNT

UNLOCK 1

DIV

LD

PLL 1
(SUB)

UNLOCK 3
UNLOCK 2

U10

PLL 2
(MAIN)

J2-12

UNLOCK 3

5V TX

RF CON (16P0147)

J7-2
U7/8

6-9

5V TX ON

TX (16P0157)

6.3
No.

Error Messages
Message

Meaning

Action

Warning : Internal GPS UNIT


failure

GPS signal could not be


detected.

Replace GPS receiver Board


(GN-74) or check cable between
CPU, J8 and GN74, J2.

Warning : External NAV


equipment failure

No input of NMEA 0183 data


from navigation device.

Check navigation device


connected.

No response from
communication unit

No response.

Turn on or check the unit.

TROUBLE : ANT power


voltage abnormality

Supply voltage for antenna unit


is out of rating.

Check if antenna cable is


shorted (Check antenna
connector).
If OK, replace SW REG Board.

TROUBLE: EE PROM ERROR

EE PROM is damaged.

Replace EE PROM with a new


one having vessel's ID.

No ID number in EE PROM.
Not registered with Inmarsat.

Replace EE PROM with a new


one having vessel's ID.

EE PROM not installed.

Put EE PROM having vessel's


ID.

TROUBLE: Invalid MES ID.


This equipment is deffected,
Please contact FURUNO.
TROUBLE: Invalid MES ID .
This equipment is deffected,
Please contact FURUNO.
TROUBLE: EE PROM ERROR

TROUBLE: Synthesizer
UNLOCK

Synthesizer circuit is faulty.

Find out which circuit is


defective on "System Status
Monitor" display.

TROUBLE: Remote cable short

Remote lines (BZ OUT-H and C) for IC-303 are shorted.

Check remote lines.


(Check connector.)

10

TROUBLE: DMC 1(2) cable


short

Remote lines (DMC IN-H and C) for DMC or IC-302 are


shorted.

Check remote lines.


(Check connector.)

TX current could not be


detected by SW REG Board at
transmission, that is, no
transmission.

Check system status monitor for


send level in ST-BY.
If 255, check cable between SW
REG Board J4 and CPU Board
J9.
If 0, check TX, ANT, RF CON
Boards.

11

TROUBLE: Carrier power level

6-10

Appendix 1
Function

Menu 1

Menu 3

Menu 4

Menu 5

Short cut Key

1. New

Alt+N

2. Open

Alt+O

3. Close

F1: File

Menu 2

Menu List

Yes or No

Alt+Q

4. Save

Yes or No

Alt+S

5. Delete

Yes or No

Alt+D

6. Rename
7. Print
8. Format Disk

Alt+P
2HD(1.44MB)
2DD(720KB)

Yes or No

9. MIME
(Decode)
1. Cut

Del

2. Copy

Alt+C

3. Paste
4. Insert
(With Citation)

INS

5. Select All

Alt+A
Search Word
1.Seach

Direction

Alt+F
Forward

Search Start ?
(Yes or No)

Back

Search Word
F2: Edit

6. Serch or
Replace

Replace Word
2. Replace

Direction
Query or All

7. Goto Line

Alt+R
Forward
Back

Replace Start ?
(Yes or No)

Query
All

1. Top of Text

Home

2. End of Text

End

3. Go to Line

Line No.

8. Time or Pos. 1. Time


Ins
2. Position
9.ChangeWindow

Alt+V

AP1-1

Function

Menu 1

Menu 2
Priority

Menu 3

Menu 4

Menu 5

Note

Normal
Distress

Message File
Station Name
TELEX

Country /
Ocean Code
Station ID
Country /
Ocean Code

FAX

Station ID
Modem Type T30/V21--Other

T30

Address
Destination
Type

E-Mail

Subject

No LES ID

Attach File
CSDN

1. Transmit
Message

PSDN

F3:
Transmit

Country /
Ocean Code
Station ID

X400
DNID

Station ID

SPEC

Station ID

LES ID
Confirmation
Send Delay
Option

Delivery Delay

ON
OFF
00:00
Immediate
Deferred
IA5

Code

ITA2
DATA

[TRANSMIT]

Yes / No

2. Cancel
3. Request
Delivery Status
1. Display EGC
Message
F4 : EGC
2. EGC
Network ID

AP1-2

No LES ID

Function

Menu 1

Menu 2
Status

Menu 3

Menu 4

Menu 5

Note

ON
OFF
1

Report Length

2
3
DNID

1. Data Report

Destination

LES ID

Entry
(Yes/No)

Member No.
Regular
Interval

Interval Time
Report Times
Start Time 1

Activation
Daily

Start Time 2
Start Time 3
Start Time 4

PIN Code
Status

ON
OFF

Station Name
TELEX

Country /Ocean
Code
Station ID
Country/Ocean
Code

F5:
Reports

FAX

Destination
Type

E-Mail

Station ID
Modem Type
(T30/V21--Other)

T30

Address

No LES ID

Subject

CSDN

2. Message
Report

PSDN

Country/Ocean
Code

Entry
(Yes/No)

Station ID
X400
DNID

Station ID

SPEC

Station ID

LES ID
Regular
Interval

Interval Time
Report Times
Start Time 1

Activation
Daily

Start Time 2
Start Time 3
Start Time 4

Report
Contents

NAV+SEA
INF

3. Data
Network ID

AP1-3

No LES ID

Function

Menu 1

F6: Logs

1. Send
Message Logs
2. Receive
Message Logs

Menu 2

Menu 3

3. EGC Logs
4. Logs
1. Login
2. Logout
3. Abort

YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO

4. Select NCS
Auto
West-Atlantic
F7:
Options

5. Ocean
Region

East-Atlantic

Start
(Yes/No)

Pacific
Indian
1. PV Test

Yes
No

2. PV Test
Result
6. Test
3. Self Test
4. Distress Alert
Button Test

Yes
No
Yes
No

AP1-4

Menu 4

Menu 5

Note

Function

Menu 1

Menu 2

Menu 3

Menu 4

Menu 5

Note

LES ID
Update Time
Position
Protocol

LAT
LON
Maritime

Fix

Undesignated
Fire/Explosion
Flooding
Collision
Grounding

1. Distress
Message Setup

Listing
Nature

Update
(Yes/No)

Sinking
Disabled
&Adrift
Abandoning
ship
Further assistance
required
Piracy or
Armed attack

Course
F8:
Setup

Speed
System Date &
Time
Auto
AOR(WEST)
Preferred NCS AOR(EAST)
POR
IOR
MES Operation INMARSAT-C
Mode
EGC
OFF
2. System Setup

Nav Port

EXT
INT

Active Port

DTE 1
ALL
DTE 1

Message
Output Port

DTE 2
PC/DATA
AUTO

EGC Output
Port

DTE 1
DTE 1+DTE 2

AP1-5

Update
(Yes/No)

Function

Menu 1

Menu 2
Text Mode
Edit Mode
Word Wrap
Line No.

3. Editor Setup

Menu 3

Menu 4

Menu 5

Note

Telex
Ascii
Insert
Overwrite
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
2 Cha

Tab Width

4 Char
8 Char

F8: Setup

Column Width
Cursor Type
Scroll

Telex(69 )
ASCII(40-80)
Block
Underline
Full Screen
Half Screen
YY-MM-DD

Date Disp.
Form

MMM-DD-YY
DD-MMM-YY

4. Terminal
Setup

Screen Saver
Display Mode

ON
OFF
Normal Mode
Reverse Mode

AP1-6

Fixed

Function

Menu 1

Menu 2

Menu 3

Menu 4

Additional
Position
Navarea
Fixed Area
Waypoint

ON
OFF

Station Code
Ice reports
Meteo.forecasts
Pilot service
5. EGC Setup
DECCA
messages
LORAN
messages
F8: Setup

OMEGA
message
SATNAV
massages
Other navaid
msg
QRU
(no message)
Auto Log Print
Receive Alarm
6. Auto Mode
Setup

Auto Telex
Msg Save

ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON

Auto EGC Msg


Save

ON(No Print)
OFF

AP1-7

Update
(Yes/No)

Menu 5

Note

Function

Menu 1

Menu 2

7. E-Mail Setup
8. Directories

Menu 3

Menu 4

Menu 5

Note

Update(Yes/No)
Message
Directory
EGC Message
Directory
Station Name
TELEX

Country Code
Station ID
Country Code

FAX

Station ID
Modem Type T30/V21--Other

1. Station List

Destination
Type

E-Mail

E-Mail Address

CSDN
PSDN

Country Code
Station ID

X400
DNID

Station ID

SPEC

Station ID

Remarks

F8: Setup

Name
2. LES List

ID
Remarks

9. Configuration
3. EGC channel
List
4. NCS Channl
List

Update(Yes/No)
Update(Yes/No)
Service Station
Name
Service ID
LES
ID(AORW)
(AORE)

5. E-Mail
Service List

(POR)
(IOR)
TO:
Cc:
Subject:
Separator
Attach
File(MIME)

F9:
Position

LAT
LON

Update(Yes/No)

F10: Stop
Alarm

AP1-8

ON
OFF