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67

PART II

DESIGN OF MECHANISMS

69

Chapter 5

Cam Design
5.1

The reciprocating radial roller follower of a plate cam is to rise 50 mm with simple
harmonic motion in 180D of cam rotation and return with simple harmonic motion in the
remaining 180 . If the roller radius is 10 mm and the prime-circle radius is 50 mm,
construct the displacement diagram, the pitch curve, and the cam profile for clockwise
cam rotation.

5.2

A plate cam with a reciprocating flat-face follower has the same motion as in Problem
5.1. The prime-circle radius is 50 mm, and the cam rotates counterclockwise. Construct
the displacement diagram and the cam profile, offsetting the follower stem by 20 mm in
the direction that reduces the bending stress in the follower during rise.

70

5.3

Construct the displacement diagram and the cam profile for a plate cam with an
oscillating radial flat-face follower that rises through 30 with cycloidal motion in 150
of counterclockwise cam rotation, then dwells for 30D , returns with cycloidal motion in
120 , and dwells for 60 . Determine the necessary length for the follower face,
allowing 5 mm clearance at each end. The prime-circle radius is 30 mm, and the
follower pivot is 120 mm to the right.

Notice that, with the prime circle radius given, the cam is undercut and the follower will
not reach positions 7 and 8. The follower face length shown is 200 mm but can be made
as short as 195 mm (position 9)from the follower pivot.
Ans.

71

5.4

A plate cam with an oscillating roller follower is to produce the same motion as in
Problem 5.3. The prime-circle radius is 60 mm, the roller radius is 10 mm, the length of
the follower is 100 mm, and it is pivoted at 125 mm to the left of the cam rotation axis.
The cam rotation is clockwise. Determine the maximum pressure angle.

From a graphical analysis, max = 39


5.5

Ans.

For a full-rise simple harmonic motion, write the equations for the velocity and the jerk at
the midpoint of the motion. Also, determine the acceleration at the beginning and the end
of the motion.
Using Eqs. (5.18) we find
1 L
L
y = =
sin =
2 2
2 2

Ans.

1
3L
3L
y = =
sin =
2
2 3
2 3
2

Ans.

2L
2L
y = 0 =
cos 0 =
2 2

2 2

Ans.

2L
2L
y = 1 =
cos =
2 2

2 2

Ans.

72

5.6

For a full-rise cycloidal motion, determine the values of for which the acceleration is
maximum and minimum. What is the formula for the acceleration at these points? Find
the equations for the velocity and the jerk at the midpoint of the motion.
Using Eqs. (5.19), we know that acceleration is an extremum when jerk is zero. This
happens when cos 2 = 0 or when = 1 4 or = 3 4 .

5.7

1 2 L
2 L

y = =
sin =
= ymax
2 2
4 2

Ans.

3 2 L
3
2 L

=
= ymin
sin
y = =
2
2

4
2

Ans.

1 L
2L
y = = (1 cos ) =

Ans.

1 4 2 L
4 2 L

y = =
cos =
3
3
2

Ans.

A plate cam with a reciprocating follower is to rotate clockwise at 400 rev/min. The
follower is to dwell for 60 of cam rotation, after which it is to rise to a lift of 62.5 mm.
During 25 mm of its return stroke, it must have a constant velocity of 1000 mm/s.
Recommend standard cam motions from Sec. 5.7 to be used for high speed operation and
determine the corresponding lifts and cam rotation angles for each segment of the cam.
The curves shown are initially only
sketches and not drawn to scale.
They suggest the standard curve
types which might be chosen. The
actual choices are shown in the
table below.

( 400 rev/min )( 2 rad/rev )


( 60 s/min )

= 41.888 rad/s cw
To match the given velocity
condition in Seg. DE we must have
y 4 = y4
1000 mm/s = y4 ( 41.888 rad/s )

y4 = L4 4 = 23.87 mm/rad
( 25 mm ) 4 = 23.87 mm/rad

2 L5 5 = y4 = 0.954 930 in/rad

4 = 1.047339 rad = 60
Matching the first derivatives at D
and E we find
L5 = 11.9366 5
(1)

73

L3 ( 2 3 ) = y4 = 0.954 930 in/rad

L3 = 15.1981 3

(2)

Matching the second derivatives at C we find


131.707 ( 62.5 ) 22 = 2 L3 4 32

22 = 133.447632 L3

(3)

For geometric continuity, we have


L1 + L2 = L3 + L4 + L5 or
L3 + L5 = 37.5 mm
(4)
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 2 or
2 + 3 + 5 = 4.188 790 rad
(5)
Equations (1) to (5) are now solved simultaneously for 2 , L3 , 3 , L5 , and 5 . The
results are summarized in the following table:
Seg. Type
Eq.
L, mm
, rad
, deg
AB dwell
--0
1.047 198
60.000
BC 8th order poly.
(5.20)
62.5
1.083 747
62.094
CD half harmonic
(5.26)
2.03
0.133 763
7.664
DE constant velocity
--25
1.047 198
60.000
EA half cycloidal
(5.31)
35.47
2.971 280
170.242
5.8

Repeat Problem 5.7 except with a dwell that is to be for 20 of cam rotation.
The procedure is the same as for Problem 5.7. The results are:
Seg. Type
Eq.
L, mm
, rad
AB dwell
--0
0.349 066
th
BC 8 order poly.
(5.20)
62.5
1.852 072
CD half harmonic
(5.26)
5.93
0.390 658
DE constant velocity
--25
1.047 198
EA half cycloidal
(5.31)
31.56
2.644 191

5.9

, deg
20.000
106.116
22.383
60.000
151.501

If the cam of Problem 5.7 is driven at constant speed, determine the time of the dwell and
the maximum and minimum velocity and acceleration of the follower for the cam cycle.
The time duration of the dwell is t = 1 = 1.047 198 rad 41.888 rad/s = 0.025 s Ans.
Working from the equations listed, the maximum and minimum values of the derivatives
in each segment of the cam are as follows:
Seg.
Eq.

ymax
ymin
ymax
ymin
AB
--0
0
0
BC
(5.20)
102.48
0
280.346
CD
(5.26)
0
-23.86
0
DE
---23.87
-23.87
0
EA
(5.31)
0
-23.873
12.62
= (102.48 mm/rad )( 41.888 rad/s ) = 4.292 m/s
y max = ymax

0
-280.346
-280.346
0
0
Ans.

= ( 23.87 mm/rad )( 41.888 rad/s ) = 1 m/s


y min = ymin

Ans.

2 = ( 280.346 mm/rad ) ( 41.888 rad/s ) = 0.4919 m/s 2



ymax = ymax

Ans.

2 = ( 280.346 mm/rad ) ( 41.888 rad/s ) = 0.4919 m/s 2



ymin = ymin

Ans.

74

5.10

A plate cam with an oscillating follower is to rise through 20 in 60D of cam rotation,
dwell for 45 , then rise through an additional 20 , return, and dwell for 60 of cam
rotation. Assuming high-speed operation, recommend standard cam motions from
Section 5.7 to be used, and determine the lifts and cam-rotation angles for each segment
of the cam.
From the sketches shown (not drawn to scale), the
curves types identified in the table below were
chosen.
Next, equating the second derivatives at D, the
remaining entries in the table were found.
L
L
5.26830 32 = 5.26830 42

L
= 4 = 2.000

L3
2
4
2
3

4 = 23

3 + 4 = 1 + 2 3 = 195
3 = 80.772
4 = 114.228
Seg.
AB
BC
CD
DE
EA
5.11

Type
cycloidal
dwell
8th order poly.
8th order poly.
dwell

Eq.
(5.19)
--(5.20)
(5.23)
---

L, deg
20.000
0
20.000
40.000
0

, rad
1.047 198
0.785 399
1.409 731
1.993 661
1.047 198

, deg
60.000
45.000
80.772
114.228
60.000

Determine the maximum velocity and acceleration of the follower for Problem 5.10,
assuming that the cam is driven at a constant speed of 600 rev/min.

= ( 600 rev/min )( 2 rad/rev ) ( 60 s/min ) = 62.832 rad/s


Working from the equations listed, the maximum and minimum values of the derivatives
in each segment of the cam are as follows:
Seg.
Eq.

ymax
ymin
ymax
ymin
AB
(5.19)
0.666 667
0
2.000 000
BC
--0
0
0
CD
(5.20)
0.440 004
0
0.925 344
DE
(5.23)
0
-0.622 264
0.925 402
EA
--0
0
0
= ( 0.666 667 rad/rad )( 62.832 rad/s ) = 41.89 rad/s
y max = ymax
2 = ( 2.000 rad/rad )( 62.832 rad/s ) = 7 896 rad/s 2

ymax = ymax
2

-2.000 000
0
-0.924 344
-0.925 402
0
Ans.
Ans.

75

5.12

The boundary conditions for a polynomial cam motion are as follows: for = 0 , y = 0 ,
and y = 0 ; for = , y = L, and y = 0 . Determine the appropriate displacement
equation and the first three derivatives of this equation with respect to the cam rotation
angle. Sketch the corresponding diagrams.

Since there are four boundary conditions,


we choose a cubic polynomial

( ) ( ) ( )
3C
C
2C

y =
+
( )+
( )
y = C0 + C1

+ C2

+ C3

Then from the boundary conditions:

( = 0) = C = 0
C
y ( = 0 ) =

=0
y ( = 1.0 ) = C + C = L

3C
2C
y ( = 1.0 ) =

+
=0
y

C0 = 0
C1 = 0
C2 = 3 L
C3 = 2 L

Therefore the equation and its three derivatives are:


2
3
2
3

y
= 3L
2L
= L 3
2

2
2

= 6L
6L
= 6L

y





6L
6L

12 L 2
y
= 2
= 2 1 2

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
y ( ) = 12L

5.13

Ans.
Ans.
Ans.

Ans.

Determine the minimum face width using 2.5 mm allowances at each end, and determine
the minimum radius of curvature for the cam of Problem 5.2.
Referring to Problem 5.2 for the data and figure,
L = 50 mm
= 180 = rad
R0 = 50 mm
From Eqs. (5.18) and (5.21) for simple harmonic motion,
= L ( 2 ) = 25 mm
= L ( 2 ) = 25 mm
ymax
ymax
From Eq. (5.35)
+ allowances
Face width=ymax ymin

Face width= ( 25 mm ) ( 25 mm ) + 2 ( 2.5 m ) = 55 mm

From Eq. (5.33)

Ans.

76

= R0 + y + y
L
L
L

1 cos
+ cos
= R0 + (constant)
2

2
2
= ( 50 mm ) + ( 50 mm ) 2 = 75 mm
= R0 +

5.14

Ans.

Determine the maximum pressure angle and the minimum radius of curvature for the cam
of Problem 5.1.
Referring to Problem 5.1 for the data and figure,
L = 50 mm
= 180 = rad
R0 = 50 mm
Rr = 10 mm
For simple harmonic motion, Eq. (5.18) can be substituted into Eq. (5.43) to give
sin
. This can be differentiated and d d set to zero to find the angle
tan =
3 cos
= 70.53 at which max = 19.47 . However, it is much simpler to use the nomogram of
Fig. 5.28 we find max = 20 directly. For the accuracy needed, the nomogram is
considered sufficient.
Ans.
From Fig. 5.30a, using R0 L = 1.0 , we get ( min + Rr ) R0 = 1.43 .
This gives

min = 1.43R0 Rr = 1.43 ( 50 mm ) (10 mm ) = 61.5 mm


5.15

Ans.

A radial reciprocating flat-face follower is to have the motion described in Problem 5.7.
Determine the minimum prime-circle radius if the radius of curvature of the cam is not to
be less than 12.5 mm. Using this prime-circle radius, what is the minimum length of the
follower face using allowances of 3.75 mm on each side?
From

Problem

P5.9,

= 102.48 mm/rad ,
ymax

= 23.87 mm/rad ,
ymin

= 280.346 mm/rad 2
ymin
Therefore, from Eq. (5.34),
y = (12.5 mm ) ( 280.346 mm ) ( 62.5 mm ) = 230.34 mm
R0 > min ymin

Ans.

Also, from Eq. (5.35),


ymin
+ allowances = (102.48 mm ) ( 23.87 mm ) + 2 ( 3.75 mm ) = 133.85 mm
Face width = ymax
Ans.
5.16

Graphically construct the cam profile of Problem 5.15 for clockwise cam rotation.

77

5.17

A radial reciprocating roller follower is to have the motion described in Problem 5.7.
Using a prime-circle radius of 500 mm, determine the maximum pressure angle and the
maximum roller radius that can be used without producing undercutting.
We will use the nomogram of Fig. 5.28 to find the maximum pressure angle in each
segment of the cam. Calculations are shown in the following table. Asterisks are used to
signify values used with the nomogram to adjust half-return curves to equivalent full
return curves, and to adjust baseline.
Seg.
max , deg
R0* , mm
L* , mm
R0* L*
* , deg
BC
500
62.5
CD
558.435
4.065
EA
500
70.935
For the total cam, max = 12 deg

8.0
137.4
7.0

62.1
15.3
340.5

12
1
3
Ans.

Also we use Figs. 5.32 and 5.33 to check for undercutting. Again, asterisks are used to
denote values that are adjusted for use with the charts. Note that doubling as was done
for use of the nomogram is not necessary since we do have figures for half-harmonic and
half-cycloidal cam segments. Note also that segment EA need not be checked since
undercutting only occurs in segments with negative acceleration.
, deg
L, mm
Seg.
R0* , mm
R0* L
Rrmax ,
( min + Rr ) R0*
mm
BC
500
62.5
8.0
62.1
0.725
362.5
CD
560.4675
2.0325
275.8
7.7
0.680
380
To avoid undercutting for the entire cam, Rr < 362.5 mm .
5.18

Ans.

Graphically construct the cam profile of Problem 5.17 using a roller radius of 20 mm.
The cam rotation is to be clockwise.

78

5.19

A plate cam rotates at 300 rev/min and drives a reciprocating radial roller follower
through a full rise of 75 mm in of cam rotation. Find the minimum radius of the primecircle if simple harmonic motion is used and the pressure angle is not to exceed 25D .
Find the maximum acceleration of the follower.
Using

max = 25

= 180 , Fig. 5.28 gives

and

R0 = 0.75 L = 0.75 ( 75 mm ) = 56 mm

( 300 rev/min )( 2

=
ymax

rad/rev )

60 s/min
2 ( 0.075 m )

R0 L = 0.75 .

Ans.

= 31.416 rad/s

2L
=
= 0.037 5 m/rad 2
2
2
2
2 ( rad )

2 = ( 0.037 5 m/rad 2 ) ( 31.416 rad/s ) = 37.0 m/s 2



ymax = ymax

Ans.

Repeat Problem 5.19 except that the motion is cycloidal.


Fig. 5.28 gives R0 L = 0.95 . Therefore R0 = 0.95L = 0.95 ( 75 mm ) = 71 mm

Ans.

5.20

=
ymax

2 L

2 ( 0.075 m )

rad )

= 0.047 7 m/rad 2

2 = ( 0.047 7 m/rad 2 ) ( 31.416 rad/s ) = 47.1 m/s 2



ymax = ymax

Ans.

Repeat Problem 5.19 except that the motion is eighth-order polynomial.


Fig. 5.28 gives R0 L = 0.95 . Therefore R0 = 0.95L = 0.95 ( 75 mm ) = 71 mm

Ans.

5.21

=
ymax

5.2683L

5.2683 ( 0.075 m )

rad )

= 0.040 0 m/rad 2

2 = ( 0.040 0 m/rad 2 ) ( 31.416 rad/s ) = 39.5 m/s 2



ymax = ymax
2

5.22

Therefore

Ans.

Using a roller diameter of 20 mm, 180 determine whether the cam of Problem 5.19 will
be undercut.
Using R0 L = 0.75 and = 180 , Fig. 5.30a gives ( min + Rr ) R0 = 1.55 .

min = 1.55 ( 56 mm ) ( 20 mm ) = 66.8 mm > 0 ; this cam is not undercut.

Ans.

79

5.23

Equations (5.36) and (5.37) describe the profile of a plate cam with a reciprocating flatface follower. If such a cam is to be cut on a milling machine with cutter radius Rc ,
determine similar equations for the center of the cutter.

In complex polar notation, using


Eq. (5.32) and using u and v to
denote the local rectangular part
coordinates of the cam shape, the
loop closure equation is
ue j + jve j = jR0 + jy + y + jRc

Dividing this by e j
u + jv = j ( R0 + Rc + y ) e j + ye j

Now separating this into real and


imaginary parts we find
u = ( R0 + Rc + y ) sin + y cos
v = ( R0 + Rc + y ) cos y sin Ans.