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PHILOSOPHY

philia love ; ghophia wisdom


The science of all things and their causes as known
in the light of reason
SCIENCE- Approximate cause; PHILOSOPHY;
Ultimate cause
Philosophical Conditions
-Continental (Metaphysical Concepts)
-Analytic (Science and Mind)

Who am I? Indians
Psychocentric (psyche soul)
What am I? Chinese
Anthropocentric (anthropo- Man)
Where am I? Greek
Cogmocentric (cogmoSOCRATES
Foundation of Philosophy
An unexamined life is not worth living
How can we live a good life if we dont know the
meaning of GOOD and EVIL.
He wants to know whos the wisest man in the
world.
The oracle said : You!
When he conversed to different Sophist:
All I know is I know nothing
Socratic method/ Intellectual midwifery
PLATO
Student of Socrates
He founded the Academy
He believed in two worlds
World of Forms
-perfect world
-Abstract ideas
-cannot be touched
-intangible

Material World
-Can change, be
modified and die
-tangible
-imperfect

He believed in INNATE Knowledge


-inherent knowledge
-How can we gain knowledge (Recollection and
Remembering)
POLITICAL Philosophy
-King be a philosopher
Theory of Forms
-For every earthly things have a corresponding form
to the world of forms.
Allegory of the Cave prisoner since birth

-The people only see shadows


Earthly knowledge is but a shadow
ARISTOTLE
Student of Plato
Founded the Lyceum
He favors the MATERIAL WORLD
He believed that there is NO INNATE KNOWLEDGE.
We gain it through experience.

MATERIAL
-material which
we use to build
things

EFFICIENT
-How the things
came into being.

FORMAL
-the shape or
arrangement of
things.

FINAL
- Function and
purpose of
things

Summum bonum of life is HAPPINESS


Summum bonum greatest goal
Aristotelean Logic
2 minor premises and 1 conclusion
Example
All men are mortal,
Socrates is a mortal,
Therefore Socrates is a mortal
St. Augustine
PROBLEM OF EVIL
Why there is evil in this world.
God is not the parent of evil
Human are free. They can choose good or evil

City of God
-Those who
love God

City of Man
-Those who
love
themselves
and the
world

Faith and Reason


should be joined together.
ST. THOMAS AQUINAS
Five proofs of Gods existence
1. MOTION- There is a prime mover, a first
mover, a unmoved person
2. CAUSE- The must be someone who is not
caused by another

3.

NECESSARY BEING- There must be someone


not subject to someone. The possible being
will die unlike Necessary being.
4. PERFECTION- There are order of perfection.
Good-Better-Best. We are imperfect being.
God is PERFECT.
5. ORDER- The world is perfectly designed.
There must be some who arranged
everything perfectly.
VIA NEGATIVA- Knowing God form who he is not.
KNOWLEDGE OF ANALOGY
1. UNIVOCAL- The same of meaning. (Ex. God
is happy, I am happy)
2. EQUIVOCAL-God and people are totally
different.
3. ANALOGICAL- Neither alike nor totally alike.
(Ex. What is in God is also in human being)
Four Kinds of Law
1. Eternal
2. Natural
3. Human
4. Divine
NICOLLO MICHIAVELLI
The Prince- Absolute Monarchy
The end justifies the mean- defines as to attain the
goal in ANY means.
Double Standard Behavior How masses should
behave and how a ruler should behave.
2 QUALITIES A RULER SHOULD POSSESS
1. LION- ferocity, in able to put away all his
enemy
2. FOX- cunning and deceitfulness
RENE DESCARTES
Method of Doubts- Universal doubt
Senses cant be trusted
Cogmito Ergo Sum (I think therefore I am)
DUALISM1. Ex Cogitans- (Mind) Reason, ideas
2. Des Extensa- (Body) Senses
IMMANUEL KANT
Noumina-(Thing in itself)
CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE
Act on that maxim whereby you can at the same
time will look for it to become a universal law
THOMAS HOBBES
State of Nature (Freewill, Man has no authority and
is not organize)
Man with force authority (Sovereign)
Sovereign- Absolute Authority- Leviathan
Man aims to preserve life.

JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU


Men are born free yet everywhere are in chains
SOVEREIGN (General Will)
Government- People
Sum of all Will (People)- Not Sovereign
Sum of the General Will (Representatives)- Sovereign
JEREMY BENTHAM (Quantity Pleasure)
Utilitarianism
Masters in life: Pleasure and Pain
To be ETHICAL- Increase PLEASURE and Reduce
PAIN.
The greatest happiness for the greatest number
HEDONISTIC Calculus
JOHN STUART MILL (Quality Pleasure)
On Liberty- Utilitarianism
Better Socrates dissatisfied than pigs satisfied
Qualitative Hedonism
Individuals opinion is important
GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH HEGEL
Phenomenology of the Spirit
The spirit of man has broken with old order of things
The out of minervas spreads its wings at the setting of
the dusk- we learn at the end.
at the setting of the dusk means- philosophy comes
after history
Consciousness develops & History moves
Thesis, Anti-Thesis, and Synthesis (The goal is absolute
spirit)
SOREN KIERKEGARD
Subjectivity- about ourself
Three Stages of Life
1. AESTHETICS- Enjoyment, Happiness, No
commitment
2. ETHICS- Commitment, Marriage,
3. RELIGION- Relationship with God
Absolute Paradox- God is a man and not a man
KARL MARX
Communism
Abolish all private property
1. Revolution
2. A dictator or a leader
3. Achievement of Utopia (perfect place)
Bourgeoisie- Capitalist
FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE
Nihilism Life is useless
Tran valuation of the Church
Two modes of Life
1. Ascending
2. Descending

Two kinds of Morality


1. Master
2. Slave
Death of God- means death of morality not God.
SUPERHUMAN- someone who will go beyond the
tradition
-New values
-O brothers lets break the old tablets, break the old
tablets."