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FOOD ADULTRATION

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
NAME : Archita Ghosh
CLASS : XII A
SCHOOL : KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA NO.1,SALT
LAKE

YEAR : 2013-2014

Certified to the bonafide work


done
Miss Archita Ghosh of class XII A has performed her
chemistry investigatory project in the chemistry lab
as per instructions and without any external help
during the year 2013-2014 under the guidance of Mrs.
SSU
UM
MO
ON
NA
A CCH
HA
AT
TT
TEER
RJJEEEE (Chemistry teacher) of
K
KEEN
ND
DR
RIIY
YA
AV
VIID
DY
YA
ALLA
AY
YA
AN
NO
O--11,,SSA
ALLT
T LLA
AK
KEE.

Certified for
ALL INDIA SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE
PRACTICAL.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I owe a great thanks to a great number of people who
helped and supported me for the completion of this
project.
My deepest thanks to my chemistry ma'am
MRS SUMONA CHATTERJEE
The guide of the project for guiding correcting various
documents of mine with attention and cave.She has
taken pain to go through the project and make
necessary corrections as and when required.
I express my thanks to principal
Dr. SUMAN LATA
for extending her support. My deep sense of gratitude to
Mr. M.K. MAHALO(LAB ATTENDED)
for his support and guidance.
Thanks and appreciation to my friends for their support.
I would also thank my school
K.V.NO.1 SALT LAKE
And my teachers without whom this project would have
been a distant reality.
I also extend my hearty thanks to my family and well
wishers.

CONTENTS
SL NO.

TOPIC

1.

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

2.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

3.

WHY TO CHOOSE THE PROJECT?

4.

INTRODUCTION

5.

OBJECTIVE

6.

THEORY

7.

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

8.

APPARATUS

9.

PROCEDURE

10.

PHOTO GALLERY

11.

CONCLUSION

12.

RESULT

13.

FURTHER SCOPE OF
INVESTIGATION

14.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

WHY TO CHOOSE THE PROJECT?

Food Adulteration has become a common practice


these days. It is shortest and fastest way to make
quick money. This cause adverse effect on the health
of common people without their notice.
Many diseases like food poisoning, diahhorea, typhoid
are gifts of food adulteration. From dals to ice-creams
all are found adulterated.
So to keep a check on this adulteration we have
chosen this project.

INTRODUCTION
Adulterated food is impure, unsafe, or unwholesome food. In the United States,
the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), regulates and enforces laws on food
safety and has technical definitions of adulterated food in various United
States laws.

Poisonous or deleterious substances


Generally, if a food contains a poisonous or deleterious substance that may render it injurious to
health. It can cause various harms. It is adulterated. For example, apple cider contaminated
with E. coli O157:H7 and Brie cheese contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes are adulterated.
There are two exceptions to this general rule. First, if the poisonous substance is inherent or
naturally occurring and its quantity in the food does not ordinarily render it injurious to health, the
food will not be considered adulterated. Thus, a food that contains a natural toxin at very low levels
that would not ordinarily be harmful (for instance, small amounts of amygdalin in apricot kernels) is
not adulterated.
Second, if the poisonous or deleterious substance is unavoidable and is within an established
tolerance, regulatory limit, or action level, the food will not be deemed to be adulterated. Tolerances
and regulatory limits are thresholds above which a food will be considered adulterated. They are
binding on FDA, the food industry, and the courts. Action levels are limits at or above which
FDA may regard food as adulterated. They are not binding on FDA. FDA has established
numerous action levels (for example, one part per million methyl mercury in fish), which are set forth
in its booklet Action Levels for Poisonous or Deleterious Substances in Human Food andAnimal
Feed.
If a food contains a poisonous substance in excess of a tolerance, regulatory limit, or action level,
mixing it with "clean" food to reduce the level of contamination is not allowed. The deliberate mixing
of adulterated food with good food renders the finished product adulterated (FDA, Compliance
Policy Guide [CPG 555.200]).
In the past few decades, adulteration of food has become one of the serious problems. Consumption
of adulterated food causes serious diseases like cancer, .diarrhoea., , .asthma., .ulcers., etc.
Majority of fats, oils and butter are paraffin wax, castor oil and hydrocarbons. Red chilli powder
is mixed with brick powder and pepper is mixed with dried papaya seeds. These adulterants can be
easily identified by simple chemical tests.

Several agencies .have been set up by the Government of India to remove adulterants from food
stuffs.
Selection of wholesome and non-adulterated food is essential for daily life to make sure that such
foods do not cause any health hazard. It is not possible to ensure wholesome food only on visual
examination when the toxic contaminants are present in ppm level. However, visual examination of
the food before purchase makes sure to ensure absence of insects, visual fungus, foreign matters, etc.
Therefore, due care taken by the consumer at the time of purchase of food after thoroughly
examining can be of great help. Secondly, label declaration on packed food is very important for
knowing the ingredients and nutritional value. It also helps in checking the freshness of the food
and the period of best before use. The consumer should avoid taking food from an unhygienic place
and food being prepared under unhygienic conditions. Such types of food may cause various
diseases. Consumption of cut fruits being sold in unhygienic conditions should be avoided. It is
always better to buy certified food from reputed shop.

OBJECTIVE
The Objective of this project is to study some of the common food adulterants present in
different food stuffs.Adulteration in food is normally present in its most crude form;
prohibited substances are either added or partly or wholly substituted. Normally the
contamination/adulteration in food is done either for financial gain or due to carelessness
and lack in proper hygienic condition of processing, storing, transportation and
marketing. This ultimately results that the consumer is either cheated or often become
victim of diseases. Such types of adulteration are quite common in developing countries

or backward countries. It is equally important for the consumer to know the common
adulterants and their effect on health.
The increasing number of food producers and the outstanding amount of import foodstuffs
enables the producers to mislead and cheat consumers. To differentiate those who take
advantage of legal rules from the ones who commit food adulteration is very difficult. The
consciousness of consumers would be crucial. Ignorance and unfair market behavior may
endanger consumer health and misleading can lead to poisoning. So we need simple
screening, tests for their detection.
AGMARK acronym for agricultural marketing.this organization certifies food
products for their quality. Its objective is to promote the Grading and Standardization
of agricultural and allied commodities

THEORY
Food adulteration is the act of intentionally debasing the quality of
food offered for sale either by the admixture or substitution of inferior
substances or by the removal of some valuable ingredient. Food is
declared adulterated if:

a substance is added which depreciates or injuriously affects it


cheaper or inferior substances are substituted wholly or in part
any valuable or necessary constituent has been wholly or in
part abstracted
it is an imitation
it is coloured or otherwise treated, to improve its appearance or
if it contains any added substance injurious to health

Food-preservatives have a very extensive use, which often


constitutes adulteration. Salt is the classic preservative, but is
seldom classified as an adulterant. Salicylic, benzoic, and boric
acids, and their sodium salts, formaldehyde, ammonium fluoride,
sulphurous acid and its salts are among the principal
preservatives. Many of these appear to be innocuous, but there is
danger that the continued use of food preserved by these agents
may be injurious. Some preservatives have been conclusively

shown to be injurious when used for long periods.


Coal-tar colours are employed a great deal, pickles and canned
vegetables are sometimes coloured green with copper salts; butter
is made more yellow by anatta; turmeric is used in mustard and
some cereal preparations. Apples are the basis for many jellies,
which are coloured so as to simulate finer ones. In confectionery,
dangerous colours, such as chrome yellow, prussian blue, copper
and arsenic compounds are employed. Yellow and orange-coloured
sweets are to be suspected. Artificial flavouring compounds are
employed in the concoction of fruit syrups, especially those used for
soda water. Milk is adulterated with water, and indirectly by
removing the cream. The addition of water may introduce disease
germs. Cream is adulterated with gelatin, and formaldehyde is
employed as a preservative for it. Butter is adulterated to an
enormous extent with oleomargarine, a product of beef fat. Brick
dust in chilli powder, coloured chalk powder in turmeric, injectable
dyes in watermelon, peas, capsicum, brinjal, papaya seeds in black
pepper etc.
To avoid illness, one is advised to select foods with care. All raw
foods must be checked for contamination particularly in areas
where hygiene and sanitation are inadequate. One is advised to
avoid salads, uncooked vegetables, and unpasteurised milk and
milk products such as cheese, and to eat only food that has been
cooked and is still hot. Undercooked and raw meat, fish, and
shellfish can carry various intestinal pathogens. Cooked food that
has been allowed to stand for several hours at ambient
temperature can provide a fertile medium for bacterial growth
and should be thoroughly reheated before serving. Consumption of
food and beverages obtained from street food vendors has been
associated with an increased risk of illness.
PREVENTING FOOD ADULTERATION
Food is essential for life. It should be pure, nutritious and free from
any type of adulteration for proper maintenance of human health.
Despite of improvement in production, processing and packaging,
more poisons seem to be entering our food chain. For example Indian
spices or 'masalas' add taste and flavour to food and also help in
digestion. Some spices like turmeric have an antiseptic effect on the
body. But what is most important is the quality of these ingredients.
Every consumer wants to get maximum quantity of a commodity for
as low a price as possible. This attitude of the consumer being coupled

with the intention of the traders to increase the margin of profit,


where the quality of the commodity gets reduced through addition of
a baser substance and / or removal of vital elements also commonly
known as food adulteration.
What Is Food Adulteration ?
Under the Prevention of Food Adulterant Act, an Adulterant is any
material which be employed for the purposes of adulteration.
Any article of food is adulterated if :

If any inferior or cheaper substance has been substituted wholly or in


part,

If any constituent of the article has been wholly or in part abstracted.

APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS:

TEST TUBES
GLASS ROD
PETRI DISH
MAGNET
BEAKER
WATER
HYDROCHLORIC ACID
NITRIC ACID
IODINE SOLUTION
NaOH
AMMONIUM MOLYBDATE
WASHING SODA
LEMON JUICE
SALT SOLUTION
ETHANOL
VANASPATI GHEE
MUSTARD OIL
TURMERIC POWDER
RED CHILLI POWDER
HONEY

GREEN CHILLIES
HEENG
BLACK PEPPER
RAVA SOOJI
COFFEE
TEA
WHEAT
BAJRA
DAL{PULSES-MOONG,ARHAR}
SUGAR
ICE CREAM
MILK

MATERIALS

MUSTAR
D OIL

PICTURE

ADULTRA
NT

PROCEDURE

OBSERVATIO
N

CASTOR

TAKE 1 ML. OF OIL IN A

OIL

CLEAN DRY TEST TUBE .

ADD

10 ML. O F ACIDIFIED
PETROLEUM ETHER .
VIGOROUSLY FOR

NO
ADULTRANT
WAS FOUND.

S HAKE

2 MINUTES .

ADD 1 DROP OF AMMONIUM


M OLYBDATE REAGENT . THE
FORMATION OF TURBIDITY
INDICATES PRESENCE OF

CASTOR OIL IN THE SAMPLE

VANASP
ATI
GHEE

SYNTHETI

POUR 2 GMS. O F FILTERED

FAT DISSOLVED IN ETHER .

COLOURIN
G MATTER

DIVIDE INTO 2 PORTIONS .


ADD 1 ML. O F HC L TO ONE
TUBE .

ADD 1 ML. O F 10%

N AOH TO THE OTHER TUBE .


S HAKE WELL AND ALLOW TO
STAND .

P RESENC OF BRISK

EFFERVESCENCE IN ALKALINE
SOLUTION INDICATES ADDED
COLOURING MATTER .

BUBBLES
APPEARED

RED
CHILLI
POWDE
R

BRICK
POWDER

TEA
LEAVES

ARTIFICIA

ADD SMALL AMOUNT OF


GIVEN RED CHILLI POWDER
IN A BEAKER CONTAINING
WATER .

L DYE IN
TEA
LEAVES

TAKE A SMALL PART OF


THE SAMPLE AND PLACE
IT OVER A MOISTENED
WHITE BLOTTING PAPER,
THE IMPRESSION OF THE
COLOUR ON PAPER
INDICATES THE PRESENCE

BRICK PWDER
SETTLES AT THE
BOTTOM AND
PURE CHILLI
POWDER
FLOATS ON
WATER

A LIGHT
REDDISH
BROWN AND
LIGHT BLUE
COLOUR
APPEARS ON
THE PAPER

OF MALACHITE GREEN.

MILK

STARCH
IN MILK

ADD A DROP OF IODINE


SOLUTION TO A SMALL
QUANTITY OF MILK .

A COFFEE
SHADE COLOUR
APPEARS

MILK CONTAINING
STARCH TURNS BLUE .

PURE MILK TURNS A


COFFEE SHADE .

ICE
CREAM

WASHING
POWDER

PUT SOME LEMON JUICE ,


BUBBLES ARE OBSERVED
ON THE PRESENCE OF
WASHING POWDER .

BUBBLE
APPEARS

SUGAR

CHALK
POWDER

DISSOLVE SUGAR IN A
TEST TUBE OF WATER ,
CHALK WILL SETTLE
DOWN AT THE BOTTOM .

SALT

CHALK
POWDER

DISSOLVE SALT IN A
TEST TUBR OF WATER ,
CHALK WILL SETTLE
DOWN AT THE BOTTOM .

FLOUR

BAKING
POWDER

ADD SMALL AMOUNT


INTO WATER, A RING
OF BROWNISH

CHALK
POWDER
SETTLED AT
THE BOTTOM

CHALK
POWDER
SETTLED AT
THE BOTTOM

A BROWNISH
RING
APPEARED

COLOUR APPEARS
OVER THE SOLUTION

HONEY

JAGGERY

IF THE HONEY IS PURE


A RIBBON OF HONEY
APPEARS WHEN
DROPPED INSIDE
WATER FROM THE TOP

NO
ADULTRANT
WAS FOUND

BUTTER

STARCH

ADD

A DROP OF IODINE

SOLUTION TO A SMALL
QUANTITY OF MILK .

MILK

COLOUR
CHANGED TO
BLACK

CONTAINING STARCH
TURNS BLUE .

P URE

MILK

TURNS A COFFEE SHADE

BESAN

KHESARI
FLOUR

ADD 50 ML OF DILUTE
HYDROCHLORIC ACID TO
10 GMS OF THE SAMPLE

NON
ADULTERATE
D

AND KEEP ON SIMMERING


WATER FOR ABOUT 15
MINUTES. THE PINK
COLOUR DEVELOPED
INDICATES THE PRESENCE
OF KHESARI FLOUR.

TURME
RIC
POWDE
R

METANIL
YELLOW

ADD A FEW DROPS OF HCL


TO THE EXTRACT OF
TURMERIC FROM WATER.

A VIOLET
COLUR
APPEARED

INSTANT APPEARANCE OF
VIOLET, WHEN THE
COLOUR PERSISTS WHEN
DILUTED WITH WATER
INDICATES THE PRESENCE
OF METANIL YELLOW.

PEPPER

PAPAYA
SEEDS

FLOAT THE SAMPLE IN


ALCOHOL. THE MATURE
BLACK PEPPER BERRIES
SINK WHILE PAPAYA
SEEDS AND LIGHT BLACK
PEPPER FLOAT

SEEDS WERE
FLOATING ON
THE
SOLUTION

JAGGER
Y

METANIL
YELLOW

HYDROCHLORIC ACID
ADDED TO A
SOLUTION OF THE
JAGGERY WILL TURN IT
MAGENTA RED

A LIGHT RED
COLOUR
APPEARED

ARHAR
DAL

METANIL
YELLOW

EXTRACT THE COLOUR


WITH LUKE WARM

PINK COLOUR
WAS
OBSERVED

WATER FROM THE


SAMPLE OF PULSES,
ADD DROPS OF HCL. A
PINK COLOUR
INDICATES PRESENCE
OF METANIL YELLOW

GREEN
CHILLI

MALACHI
TE GREEN

TAKE A SMALL PART OF


THE SAMPLE AND PLACE
IT OVER A MOISTENED
WHITE BLOTTING PAPER,
THE IMPRESSION OF THE
COLOUR ON PAPER

A GREEN
COLOUR
IMPRESSION
WAS FOUND
ON THE
PAPER

INDICATES THE PRESENCE


OF MALACHITE GREEN

COFFEE

CHICORY

GENTLY SPRINKLE THE COFFEE


POWDER ON SURFACE OF
WATER IN A GLASS. THE
COFFEE FLOATS OVER THE
WATER BUT CHICORY BEGINS
TO SINK DOWN WITHIN FEW
SECONDS. THE FALLING
CHICORY POWDER PARTICLES
LEAVE BEHIND THEM A TRAIL
OF COLOUR, DUE TO LARGE
AMOUNT OF CARAMEL THEY
CONTAIN

IRON FILLING
CLINKED TO
THE MAGNET

MOONG
DAL

METANIL
YELLOW

PASS A MAGNET
THROUGH THE RAWA.
THE IRON FILING WILL

PINK COLOUR
WAS
OBSERVED

CLING TO IT

SOOJI

IRON
FILINGS
IN RAWA
(SOOJI)

PASS A MAGNET
THROUGH THE RAWA.
THE IRON FILING WILL
CLING TO IT

IRON FILLINGS
CLINKED TO
THE MAGNET

PHOTO GALLERY

RESULT
Honey, Mustard oil, Besan were
found non adultered rest of all are
adultrated

CONCLUSION

FURTHER SCOPE
OF INVESTIGATION:Common Adulterants/Contaminants
in food and Simple screening tests for their detection

Adulteration in food is normally present in its most crude form, prohibited substances are either
added or partly or wholly substituted. In India normally the contamination/adulteration in food is
done either for financial gain or due to carelessness and lack in proper hygienic condition of
processing, storing, transportation and marketing. This ultimately results that the consumer is
either cheated or often become victim of diseases. Such types of adulteration are quite common in
developing countries or backward countries. However, adequate precautions taken by the consumer
at the time of purchase of such produce can make him alert to avoid procurement of such food. It is
equally important for the consumer to know the common adulterants and their effect on health.

INJURIOUS ADULTERANTS/CONTAMINANTS IN FOODS


AND THEIR HEALTH EFFECTS
SL. NO.

ADULTRANT

FOODS

DISEASES OR

COMMONLY
INVOLVED

HEALTH EFFECTS

Mustard seeds

Epidemic dropsy,

Edible oils
and fats

Glaucoma,
Cardiac arrest

Adulterants in food

Argemone seeds
Argemone oil

Artificially coloured
foreign seeds

As a substitute for
cumin seed, Poppy
seed, black pepper

Injurious to
health

Foreign leaves or
exhausted tea leaves,
saw dust artificially
coloured

Tea

Injurious to
health, cancer

Rancid oil

Oils

Destroys vitamin A
and E

Sand, marble chips,


stones, filth

Food grains,
pulses etc.

Damage digestive
tract

Chemical
Contamination

Mineral oil (white oil,


petroleum fractions)

Edible oils
fats,
Black pepper

Lead chromate

Turmeric whole
and powdered,
mixed spices

Anemia, abortion,
paralysis, brain
damage

Fruits such as
apples sprayed
over with lead
arsenate

Dizziness, chills,
cramps, paralysis,
death

Foods
contaminated by
rat poisons
(Barium
carbonate)

Violent
peristalisis,
arterial
hypertension,
muscular
twitching,
convulsions,
cardiac
disturbances

Water, liquors

Cardiac
insufficiency and
mycocardial
failure

Water, natural
and processed
food

Lead poisoning
(foot-drop,
insomnia,
anemia,
constipation,
mental
retardation,

Arsenic

Barium

10

and

Cobalt

11

Lead

Cancer

brain damage)

12

Food

Vomiting,
diarrhoea

Food

Colic, vomiting

Food

Colic, vomiting

Copper

13

Tin

14

Zinc

BIBILOGRAPHY

HYPOTHESIS

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS