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-content explanation

-role play demonstration

-dialogue/narrative presentation
In this technique, a student or a group of students read their prepared passage
to the other students. It was presented for passive reception where the other students
do not express various responses and arguments related to the topic presented
-dialogue/narrative recitation
In this technique, the students present or recite text that they have written or
know beforehand
-reading aloud
This technique is done by asking the students to read text given directly and
loudly. Bright and McGregor (1982:176) state that the majority of teacher use reading
aloud as the main medium to improve their students speaking skill in English.
This technique is done by the teacher through circulating or guiding the
correction of the students oral work and providing feedback to the students.
In this technique, the teacher asks some questions to the students , the answer
of which could be predicted by the teacher before.
Drill is one of the techniques which play a useful role in language course by
helping the learners to be formally accurate in their speech and to learn a useful
collection of phrases and sentences (brown and nation 1997:1) the technique involves
the fixed pattern of the teacher prompting and students responding usually the
activities are repetition, substitution, etc

This technique is done through guiding the students to review the previous
lesson as the formal summary and test for the students recall performance.
In semi controlled techniques, the teacher controls the teaching and learning
activities but the students are still given wider oppurtunity to express their idea and
ability. Some common controlled techniques are:
Brainstorming is an activity that usually conducted in the beginning of the
lesson. This activity is used to prepare the student to be ready for the lesson by giving
some question.
Brown (2001:184) describes braistorming as a technique whose purpose is to
initiate some sort of thinking process. It involves the students in a rapid fire, free
association listing of concepts or ideas or fact or feelings relevant to specific topic or
context. It is intended to generate the students idea about the given topic. Kayi
(journal) 2006:3 argues that the good idea of brainstorming is that the students are not
criticized for the ideas, so they will be open to sharing new ideas.
Storytelling is a presentation of expressing idea by telling a story in front of
class. This activity can be done by both the teacher or students.
In this technique, the teacher invites the students to give various responses
which are sometimes surprising and unpredictable by giving a debatable or interesting
-cued narrative/dialogue

Teacher asks the students to create their own dialogue based on the given
stimuli which can be in the form of questions, pictures, diagrams, or some other
-informational exchange
This technique involves the two-way communications. It demands the
interaction of students who have the specific information with the others who do not
In this technique, the teacher and the students produce the summary of the
lesson that have been learned or practiced.
This technique is done through presentation of a story or explanation derived
from the prior stimuli given by the teacher. The teacher does not give many
immediate stimuli to the students.
In this technique, the teacher asks the students to be prepared to do the later
activity or lesson that will be learned by doing silent reading, pair planning and
In this technique, the students are given a wide range of opportunity to express their idea and
explore their ability. The teachers role only as observer or facilitator. There are several kinds
of free techniques, as follow:

Role play

Brown (2001: 183) states that role play is the activity whih gives a role to one or more
members of a group and assigns an objective or purpose that participants must

Games are activities that can provide intensive language practice because they remove
the tension and inhibition that the students usually have formed in language lesson

In this techniquem the students are asked to report the prepared exposition of books,
experiences or project work without any immediate stimuli from the teacher. This
technique allows the students to talk about their past experiences.
-problem solving
This technique involves specified problem and limitation of means to resolve it. It
requires the cooperation of the participants in small or large groups
In this technique, the students plan and perform a play or story. It allows the students
to express various expression and explore various ideas and imaginations.

The technique involves complex interaction between groups and individual based on
the real-life action or experiences.

This technique directs the students to be able to produce questions and give response
to the questions given.

Arti diskusi

Harmer (2001:54) argued that the most teachers hope that they will be able to
organize discussion sessions in their classroom, particularly if the exchange of
opinions provokes spontaneous language use.