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Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development CONTENTS OBJECTIV E ............................................................................................................... 2 PORT 2 ....................................................................................................................... PORT PLAN NING 2

CONTENTS

OBJECTIVE

...............................................................................................................

2

PORT

2

....................................................................................................................... PORT PLANNING

2

....................................................................

3

National Port Policy

3

4

Port Development and Master Planning

4

Long-Term Planning

5

5

....................................................................

6

Phases of Port Development

.........................................................................

6

FACTORS AFFECTING PORT PLANNING

6

TRAFFIC FORECAST & HINTERLAND

7

............................................................................. SITE / LOCATION RELATED FACTORS

7

Wind

7

.................................................................................................................... Waves ..................................................................................................................

10

11

8

Tide .....................................................................................................................

9

Draft (Draught)

Harbour Layout

14

Ship Types 14 ........................................................................................................... Shipping Terminology 14 ............................................................................................

Ship

Length

15

Ship

Cross-section

15

Ship

Movements

16

Type of Ships depending upon the Cargo 16 ..................................................................

Types of Terminals based on Cargo they handle

18

PORT STRUCTURES

19

Classification 19 ........................................................................................................

Port Components

20

Breakwater ..........................................................................................................

20

Wharf / Quay / Jetty

20

HYDRAUGRAPHIC SURVEYS AND CHARTS 20 ....................................................................

FAQs 22 QUESTIONS 23
FAQs
22
QUESTIONS
23

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development OBJECTIVE To provide basic information of Port Planning & Development so as

OBJECTIVE

To provide basic information of Port Planning & Development so as to gain suitable

understanding regarding the topic of Port Planning.

PORT

A port is a facility for receiving ships and transferring cargo to and from them. They are usually situated at the edge of an ocean or sea, river, or lake. The terms "port" and "seaport"

are used for ports that handle ocean-going vessels, and "river port" is used for facilities that handle river traffic, such as barges and other shallow draft vessels.

Port Planning & Development OBJECTIVE To provide basic information of Port Planning & Development so as

PORT PLANNING

Effective port

planning is essential to support the primary

role

of

the port which

is

to

facilitate trade.

Good planning will ensure that the port has the appropriate infrastructure to meet trade demands, that cargo can be moved efficiently between ship and shore, that the necessary transport linkages are available to assist the movement of the various cargoes through the transport chain, and that all this can be done in a sustainable, safe and efficient manner.

Planning for the Port has two distinct elements, namely, planning within and external to the port boundary. There are also many aspects to port planning, including port facility, land use, transport, heritage and buffer zone planning.

Within the port boundary it is essential that the ports major facilities, such as wharves, jetties, shipping channels, land areas, internal road and rail connections, are planned in a manner that supports trade growth within a sustainability context.

Externally, it is important that land uses around the port are compatible with port operations and that there are good road and rail transport corridors that link with the port. The transport corridors have to be designed to carry the forecast transport volumes, and need to have compatible land uses around them which will not constrain their use.

Moreover, following things are to be kept in mind while carrying out Port Planning:

Primary traffic forecasts

Port Planning & Development OBJECTIVE To provide basic information of Port Planning & Development so as

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development • Handling technology and berth occupancy studies • Layout plans • Conceptual

Handling technology and berth occupancy studies

Layout plans

Conceptual designs

Environmental appraisals

Cost estimates

Financial and economic analysis

Successful port construction requires careful planning based on detailed reconnaissance. Reconnaissance continues until actual occupation. Planning may appear complete before occupation, but last-minute enemy action may necessitate a major change in plans.

Port development can refer either to the creation of a new port or to the expansion of an existing one, usually aimed at increasing its capacity or upgrading port operations. The issue of port development is examined at three different levels:

PORT PLANNING National Level Local Level Terminal Level
PORT PLANNING
National Level
Local Level
Terminal Level

PORT PLANNING AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL National Port Policy

Until recently, ports in many countries have usually been developed as part of local port development programs. Such programs normally do not take into consideration the corresponding plans of other ports within the country, a factor that would have resulted in

better coordination for increased national benefit. Indeed, in many cases, instead of attempting to achieve mutual complementing of aims, undue competition tends to develop between ports within the same country. In government owned ports this situation can result in uneconomical investment of national capital in competing projects, and moreover, in loss of opportunities to attract a portion of international maritime traffic.

The competitive tendencies relate to the foreign trade of the country, foreign goods in transit, and goods being transshipped: the international flows that evidence potential for development as opposed to internal transports, which have more-or-less preset movement

patterns. These trade flows can be defined as follows:

Foreign trade flows relate to the exports and imports of a country, and consequently, have their origin or destination in that country. Goods in transit are those goods in international flow whose land transport leg uses the territory of the country and one of its ports. Goods being transshipped, where both origin and destination are located outside the country but both of whose transport modes are marine. Consequently, in this flow only the specific ports of the country are used, not overland transport.

The latter two flows in general make up the target of the competition between ports in a country.

Given that major ports constitute integral elements of the transport network of a country, it is evident that some sort of framework for centralized coordination of port development efforts is required at a national level. A significant service that such coordination would produce refers to determination of the most suitable ports for attracting transit or transshipment movement on a national level. This acquires particular significance nowadays, where such cargo movement is conducted mainly in containers, and the corresponding port installations are very costly.

Port Planning & Development • Handling technology and berth occupancy studies • Layout plans • Conceptual

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development In more general terms, the existence of a national port policy could

In more general terms, the existence of a national port policy could broadly define the role of each port in a country, so that in the context of the national economy, the available funding can be employed as productively as possible. Depending on a country’s development and its tendency for privatization, the allocation of roles to each port may be conducted in such a manner as to permit a large percentage of these ports to be released from national coordination and to undertake their own development.

The main quantity that may be affected by a suitably implemented national port policy lies in international cargo flow. Consequently, the initial and basic step in formulating a country’s port system includes the determination of those ports that will undertake to serve the flows of foreign trade, transshipment, or transit. These flows operate more-or-less independently of one another, and thus for simplification of the analysis, may be studied individually.

The basic criteria to be considered in developing a proposition as to the roles of a country’s ports may be classified into the following four groups:

  • 1. The national and regional development policies of the country

  • 2. The transportation infrastructure of the hinterland and its prospects

  • 3. Existing port capacity and potential for development

  • 4. Cargo forecasts for each port

After each of the three independent international flows has been examined, the findings should be pooled, to define the core of the country’s port system. Thus, the role of each port that participates in international cargo flow will be specified and the basic cargo throughputs can be determined. Considering these throughput values, and factoring in the national flows, master plans can be drawn up for individual ports.

Apart from international cargo flow, other aspects of the overall port development study are usually examined. Although these are not of primary significance in the formulation of the core of a national port system, they do have a role in evaluation of the main subsystems and in developing the final proposal. Such aspects include:

Special bulk cargoes, such as coal, cement, petroleum products, grains Industrial ports Shipbuilding and ship repair Free zones Coastal shipping Passenger movement

PORT PLANNING AT THE INDIVIDUAL PORT LEVEL (LOCAL LEVEL) Port Development and Master Planning

The master plan of a port allocates the land within the port to the various uses required, describes the projects needed to implement the plan, and gives an indicative implementation scheme by development phase. These phases are related directly to the projected port traffic which has to be monitored closely. When in due course a decision is reached to proceed with implementation of a development scheme, this should be integrated smoothly with, or derive from, the master plan for the port. Therefore, it is important that a master plan exist, and drafting one should be among the primary concerns of port management. Of course, a variety of continuously varying factors have a bearing on such a plan, ranging from statistical data on port traffic to international treaties. For this reason, the plan should be revised regularly, at least every five years. Moreover, if during the design of a particular development phase the need arises for a review of the plan, this should be conducted concurrently, if possible, to ensure compatibility with the other functions and operations of the port. However, the lack of a master plan at a particular port should not delay the making of decisions for small-scale immediate improvement, although it is recommended that at the first opportunity an effort should be made to draft a master plan for the port.

Port Planning & Development In more general terms, the existence of a national port policy could

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development Long-Term Planning In the event that a national ports plan does not

Long-Term Planning

In the event that a national ports plan does not exist, the consultant should proceed with

drafting a master plan, after studying the following components of long-term planning:

  • 1. The role of the port—in particular: The servicing of its inland area as regards foreign trade The support that the port may offer to the region’s commercial and industrial development The attraction of transiting and transshipment traffic

  • 2. The responsibility of the port for the construction of both port and land works. Frequently, more than one agency becomes involved: for example, when a port area is serviced by a railroad.

  • 3. The land use in the area and the potential for expansion of the port. It is important that there be general agreement between interested parties over the proposed expansions and land use so that the resulting master plan meets with wide acceptance.

  • 4. The policy for financing the port development, which may be formulated on the basis of its own resources and/or through a state grant.

In general, in modern port development the basic requirement is for large expanses of land to ensure productive operation of the individual terminals. Therefore, a careful examination of point 3 assumes particular importance.

Medium-Term Planning

As stated, each port development scheme should be incorporated in the master plan and should proceed to implementation following the results of an appropriate feasibility study. The latter study should refer individually to each independent section of the overall development proposal, such as a container terminal or a bulk cargo terminal. Thus, under a positive but reduced yield from the overall proposal, the risk of concealment of a nonproductive section is avoided. The drafting of a port development plan calls for the conduct of the following special studies:

  • 1. Analysis of the functionality of the port as regards the services offered in conjunction with capacity

  • 2. Designs, with budgets

  • 3. Operational design, with budget

  • 4. Financial and financing study

In large port development projects it is customary to reexamine the organization and management of the port operating agency and to recommend organizational improvements on a small or larger scale. It is possible that many of the ports in a country do not warrant a development effort beyond maintenance of existing structures or appropriate modification, such as to serve fishing vessels or pleasure craft. Such modifications are nowadays met quite frequently, since old ports, traditionally being part of the core of their town, cannot easily incorporate large land expanses needed in modern port layouts. Also, environmental and social issues do not allow in many cases major expanses of an old port site. The requirement that the citizenship should be granted free access to the waterfront of their city is gradually being respected by more and more authorities. Nevertheless, the problem of what to do with the old port installations is a complex one, where both the needs of the local community and the benefits of the relevant port authority should be accommodated. As noted above a common trend is to change the character of a past commercial port into a marina or fishing vessels refuge. There are also examples (London, Marseille, etc.) where old ports were completely refurbished into commercial or recreational zones, some of them arousing controversial discussions among town-planners.

Moreover, since ports interact in many ways with the surrounding township, port master planning should take into account, apart from strictly engineering issues, such aspects as social, economic, and environmental constraints and should easily fit within the relevant town and regional plans. This frequently calls for a compromise between the requirements of the port and the local authorities.

Port Planning & Development Long-Term Planning In the event that a national ports plan does not

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development PORT PLANNING AT THE TERMINAL LEVEL Phases of Port Development The course

PORT PLANNING AT THE TERMINAL LEVEL Phases of Port Development

The course of development of a port or port terminal usually undergoes phases, which also indicate its age. Evolution from a traditional break-bulk cargo port to a specialized unitized cargo port may be gradual. However, it is distinguishable into qualitative changes that take place in specific periods throughout the overall life of the port. These phases are as follows:

Phase 1: Traditional General Cargo Flow. A port with break-bulk or packaged bulk cargo terminals, such as for bagged grains or petroleum in barrels.

Phase 2: Break-Bulk Cargoes. When breakbulk cargo flow exceeds an economically acceptable limit, these cargoes are transported in bulk form and the port develops a special bulk cargo terminal. At the same time, the breakbulk berths are increased, to accommodate the higher demand.

Phase 3: Unit Loads. Unit loads start being carried on conventional vessels in small quantities in units such as palettes, containers, or packaged lumber. At the same time, break-bulk cargo flows, particularly those of bulked breakbulk cargoes, start diminishing to levels that require separation of cargo terminals for various cargo categories.

Phase 4: Multipurpose Terminal. Unitized cargoes on specialized vessels start appearing in quantities that do not yet require development of a specialized terminal. Thus, a multipurpose terminal is created in which break-bulk cargo traffic is diminished, although unitized cargo is also handled. At the same time, the specialization of dry bulk cargo terminals continues.

Phase 5: Specialized Terminal. With an increase in unit loads beyond certain levels, specialized cargo terminals are created for handling containers, packaged lumber, and Ro- Ro. The multipurpose terminal of phase 4 is converted into a specialized terminal, with the addition of specialized cargo handling equipment. Break-bulk general cargo is reduced further. It should be noted that in normal situations, the transition from phase 3 to Phase 5 should progress through phase 4, so as to provide an opportunity to the port to increase unitized cargo traffic to volumes that will enable economically feasible development of a specialized terminal in phase 5. Moreover, in the event that a port has entered phase 3 of its development, care should be taken to avoid creating additional general cargo berths.

FACTORS AFFECTING PORT PLANNING

The main factors affecting the Port Planning are:

  • 1. Traffic & Hinterland

  • 2. Site / Location Related Factors Wind Wave Tide Draft

Harbour Layout

  • 3. Cargo & Ship Related Factors

Type of Cargo

Type of Ships

Type of Terminals

  • 4. Port Structures

Port Planning & Development PORT PLANNING AT THE TERMINAL LEVEL Phases of Port Development The course

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development TRAFFIC FORECAST & HINTERLAND The Hinterland of a port comprises of the

TRAFFIC FORECAST & HINTERLAND

The Hinterland of a port comprises of the area within which it enjoys not only comparative but also an absolute advantage over other ports in terms of costs and ease of movements.

The western sea-board of India, on its north has the flourishing major port of Mumbai, the major port of Kandla and Gujarat state ports in between. It is difficult to define the boundaries of the port’s economic hinterland. For zoning of hinterland, generally a study for alternative modes of transport, say a rail route distance study is made.

Geographically, say, for a port in south Gujarat, the hinterland extends from Rajasthan, to Delhi, parts of UP and Madhya Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab. With port facilities on the coast of south Gujarat, preferably an all weather deep draught port, some of the traffic originating from central and southern Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab and UP, presently going to Kandla and Mumbai could be available at such a port.

Traffic forecasts should be made based on the available data of the growth rates, and the known methods of forecasting. The traffic forecasting is very essential for efficient port planning as it is necessary to provide sufficient port facilities for present and future traffic that passes through the port. According to the Manual prepared by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Secretariat, the main objectives of forecasting are:

To assess the kind and quantity of commodities that is likely to be generated in the hinterland. To ascertain the extent to which cargoes could be transformed as maritime cargo, that would pass through the port. To estimate the types of ships and their arrivals to lift the cargo.

SITE / LOCATION RELATED FACTORS Wind

Air in motion is wind. For specifying wind both direction and speed should be stated. The direction is taken to be that from which the wind blows. If it is stated that the wind direction is NNW, it means that the wind blows from the North-North-West.

The speed of wind is expressed, in maritime works, in knots. A nautical mile is the length of one minute of arc of a meridian, and it varies slightly in different latitudes; the value accepted by the Admiralty is 6080 ft. (or 1852 m).

Therefore, one knot = 6080 feet per hour = 1.152 miles per hour = 1.852 km per hour

Before instrumental meteorology, the speed of wind was estimated by its effects. In 1805, Admiral Beaufort, of the British Navy, devised a scale of wind force, widely known after his name. This scale has figures, 0 to 12, and higher numerals are indicative of higher speeds. In common parlance, the descriptive phrases, “calm”, “slight breeze”, “strong breeze”, etc. are being used. Table below gives the phrases along with the corresponding Beaufort scales. Approximate velocities of winds are also given.

Description of

Beaufort No.

Velocity (mph)

Velocity (kmph)

Wind

Clam

  • 0 1

 

1.6

Light

 
  • 1 2

3.2

Slight Breeze

 
  • 2 5

8

Gentle Breeze

 
  • 3 10

16

Moderate Breeze

 
  • 4 15

24

Fresh Breeze

 
  • 5 21

34

Strong Breeze

 
  • 6 27

43

Port Planning & Development TRAFFIC FORECAST & HINTERLAND The Hinterland of a port comprises of the

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development Moderate Gale 7 35 56 Gale 8 42 67 Strong Gale 9

Moderate Gale

7

35

56

Gale

8

42

67

Strong Gale

9

50

80

Whole Gale

10

59

95

Storm

11

68

110

Hurricane

12

Greater than 75

Greater than 120

Waves

When wind blows over water, it exerts a drag on water surface, and water by virtue of its

fluidity gets disturbed, giving rise to waves. Such waves are referred to as wind waves or storm waves. They cause most of the damage

to

the

sea

coast. There

is

another type of

waves created

by

earthquakes

or

other

tectonic

disturbances on

 

the

sea bottom.

Referred

to

as tsunamis, they have caused

spectacular damages at times, “but

fortunately, major frequently”.

tsunamis

do

not occur

The different types of waves are (1) Deep sea waves (2) Shallow water waves (3) Translatory waves (4) Ripples or capillary waves.

Port Planning & Development Moderate Gale 7 35 56 Gale 8 42 67 Strong Gale 9

In the first three types, gravity is the major force acting and is called gravity waves. In the last type, the important force is surface tension and these waves are necessarily of very short length and of small height.

When local strong winds blow towards the shores, the waves generated will reach in nearly the form in which they are generated. The waves, under these conditions, are steep, that is the wavelength is 10 to 20 times the wave height. Such waves are called Seas.

When waves generated long distance away, they may travel through hundreds or even thousands of miles of calm areas before reaching the shore. It means that waves decay and short steep waves are eliminated, and only relatively long low waves reach the shore. Such waves have length from 30 to more than 500 times the wave height, and are called Swell.

The figure below shows the Motion of a Particle in Deep Water Wave & Shallow Water Wave.

Motion of a particle in an ocean wave. A = At deep water. The orbital motion
Motion of a particle in an ocean wave.
A = At deep water. The orbital motion of fluid
particles decreases rapidly with increasing depth
below the surface.
B = At shallow water (ocean floor is now at B). The
elliptical movement of a fluid particle flattens with
decreasing depth.
1
= Propagation direction.
2
= Wave crest.
3
= Wave trough.
Port Planning & Development Moderate Gale 7 35 56 Gale 8 42 67 Strong Gale 9

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development Tide Standing on the shore we observe an unending train of waves

Tide

Standing on the shore we observe an unending train of waves approaching and striking the shore. Apart from undulations of the waves, it is observed that the general water level rises and falls, approximately in a period of twelve hours and twenty five minutes. This rise and fall of the sea level is known as the phenomenon of Tides.

Port Planning & Development Tide Standing on the shore we observe an unending train of waves

The height of the tide is the vertical distance, at any moment, between the water level and the chart datum.

It is further observed that much higher water levels and also much lower water levels, occur at about the time of new and full moons. These are known as “Spring Tides”. Water levels which occur about seven days from new and full moons are moderate and are called “Neap Tides”.

High Water of a tide at a place refers to the highest level reached by the water surface in

Port Planning & Development Tide Standing on the shore we observe an unending train of waves

Tide Producing Force

one oscillation. An oscillation covers a complete cycle of high water and low water. The phrases High Water Spring, High Water Ordinary Spring Tide (HWOST), etc. refers to the highest

water level of the corresponding tides at a given place.

Low Water refers to the lowest level of water in one oscillation. The phrases Low Water Spring, Low Water Ordinary Spring Tide (LWOST), etc. refers to the lowest water level of the corresponding tides at a given place.

Mean

Sea Level

at

a

place

is

the

average

value

in

all

states

of

oscillations, i.e. the average level

taken up by the sea.

The range of tide is the difference of elevation between consecutive high and low tides.

If

the height

of

the

tide above

datum

is

calculated

for

any

particular time,

it

has

only

to

be

added to the charted depth of water to get the depth at that time. If the

height

is

negative

it

must

be

subtracted from the depth.

 

Tides

are

generated

by

the

differential in gravitational pull by the sun and by the moon. As the motions of the earth, the moon and

the

sun

are

periodic;

tides

are

periodic movements in the level of

the

surface of

the sea

due

to

the

periodical

forces

of

the

moon and

the

sun.

Tidal

streams

in

consequence

are

 

the

periodical

Port Planning & Development Tide Standing on the shore we observe an unending train of waves
Port Planning & Development Tide Standing on the shore we observe an unending train of waves

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development movements of the water, generally horizontal, in the sea, due to the

movements of the water, generally horizontal, in the sea, due to the periodic forces. But currents are the non-periodic movements of water, also generally horizontal, and some of these may be permanent and others may be temporary. They may be due to different temperatures or prevalent winds or other similar causes.

Tides with a period of about a day are called Diurnal Tides; those with a period of about half a day are called Semi-diurnal Tides. Normally, the tides are semi-diurnal and the average interval, between corresponding tides on successive days, is 24 hours 51 minutes. Some tides are same as semidiurnal except high and low tide levels vary; these are called Semi- diurnal mixed Tides.

Mean Tide Level (M.T.L.) is the average value of all the heights of high and low waters over a period. It must not be confused with Mean Sea Level (M.S.L.), which is the average level taken up by the sea. The two values will only agree if the tidal curve is perfectly symmetrical. Mean Tide Level is obtained in the field more easily than Mean Sea Level, and from fewer observations. For this reason, it is sometimes used in calculations instead of M.S.L. Either term is replaced at times by the expression Mean Level (M.L.). When tides are mainly semi-diurnal in character the values of Mean Higher High Water (M.H.H.W.) and Mean Lower Low Water (M.L.L.W.) are often referred to instead of M.H.W.S. and M.L.W.S. Mean Higher High Water is the mean of higher of the two daily high waters experienced over a period. Mean Lower Low Water is the mean of the lower of the two daily low waters experienced over a period of time.

Port Planning & Development movements of the water, generally horizontal, in the sea, due to the

Mundra Port Tide - December 2008

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

30-Nov

01-Dec

02-Dec

03-Dec

04-Dec

05-Dec

FQtr 12-06

H0317 5.8

H0350 5.8

H0423 5.7

H0458 5.6

H0535 5.4

H0616 5.3

L0027 1.9

L0929 2.4

L1003 2.4

L1040 2.4

L1123 2.4

L1212 2.3

L1309 2.1

H0702 5.2

H1450 4.6

H1523 4.5

H1600 4.4

H1642 4.2

H1732 4.1

H1836 4.0

L1408 1.6

L2101 0.8

L2131 1.0

L2205 1.1

L2242 1.4

L2327 1.6

H1955 4.1

07-Dec

08-Dec

09-Dec

10-Dec

11-Dec

Full 12-12

13-Dec

L0146 2.3

L0311 2.6

L0426 2.6

L0531 2.5

H0028 5.8

H0116 6.1

H0202 6.3

H0756 5.1

H0857 5.1

H1000 5.1

H1100 5.0

L0629 2.4

L0722 2.2

L0813 2.1

L1505 1.5

L1559 1.2

L1650 0.8

L1739 0.5

H1156 5.1

H1249 5.2

H1340 5.2

H2121 4.5

H2236 5.1

H2336 5.7

L1828 0.3

L1916 0.1

L2004 0.1

14-Dec

15-Dec

16-Dec

17-Dec

18-Dec

LQtr 12-19

20-Dec

H0248 6.4

H0333 6.4

H0418 6.3

H0503 6.1

H0549 5.8

L0022 1.6

L0130 2.2

L0904 2.0

L0955 1.9

L1048 1.8

L1143 1.7

L1242 1.6

H0637 5.5

H0728 5.3

H1430 5.2

H1522 5.1

H1615 5.0

H1710 4.8

H1813 4.5

L1342 1.4

L1443 1.4

L2052 0.2

L2141 0.4

L2231 0.7

L2324 1.1

H1925 4.4

H2052 4.4

21-Dec

22-Dec

23-Dec

24-Dec

25-Dec

26-Dec

New 12-27

L0247 2.7

L0407 2.9

L0520 2.9

H0016 5.2

H0056 5.4

H0131 5.6

H0203 5.7

H0826 5.0

H0929 4.9

H1031 4.6

L0621 2.9

L0708 2.7

L0748 2.6

L0822 2.5

L1541 1.3

L1635 1.2

L1722 1.2

H1126 4.5

H1212 4.5

H1253 4.5

H1331 4.6

H2219 4.7

H2326 5.2

L1804 1.1

L1842 1.0

L1916 0.9

L1949 0.9

28-Dec

29-Dec

30-Dec

31-Dec

01-Jan

02-Jan

03-Jan

H0235 5.8

H0305 5.9

H0335 5.9

H0404 5.9

H0434 5.8

H0501 5.7

H0534 5.6

L0854 2.4

L0925 2.3

L0955 2.2

L1026 2.0

L1054 1.9

L1129 1.7

L1210 1.4

H1407 4.6

H1442 4.6

H1517 4.6

H1554 4.6

H1632 4.6

H1716 4.6

H1807 4.6

L2020 0.8

L2052 0.9

L2123 0.9

L2155 1.1

L2227 1.3

L2305 1.5

L2351 2.0

Draft (Draught)

Port Planning & Development movements of the water, generally horizontal, in the sea, due to the

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development The draft (or draught) of a port is the vertical distance between

The draft (or draught) of a port is the vertical distance between the waterline and the seabed. Draft determines the maximum size of ship or boat which can be safely navigated. The draft of any port determines the size of vessel it can accommodate.

Port Planning & Development The draft (or draught) of a port is the vertical distance between

Harbour Layout

A harbour is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. Harbors can be man-made or natural. A man-made harbor will have sea walls or breakwaters and may

require dredging. A natural harbor is surrounded on most sides by land.

Harbors and ports are often confused. A port is a man-made coastal or riverine facility where boats and ships can load and unload. It may consist of quays, wharfs, jetties, piers and slipways with cranes or ramps.

Various alternates are possible for the port construction and development. The table below shows benefits of various alternates.

Alternates Possible

Benefits

Losses

Coastal Natural

Higher Natural Draft. Depth increment

High current and wave velocities. Sedimentation Problems.

Coastal Breakwaters

possible Calm Harbour More Draft Depth Increment

Regular Dredging required. High construction cost. Sedimentation Problem. Regular Dredging required.

Coastal Tide

possible Calm Harbour Less Sedimentation

Dependent on Tidal Cycle. Gates are to be Constructed. Proper Operational Qualification is

River Basins

No sedimentation Calm Harbour

required. Less Draft. River should be perennial. Erosion Problems.

Port Planning & Development The draft (or draught) of a port is the vertical distance between

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development River Tides Combination of Coastal Tides and River Basins. No sedimentation. Functional
     

River Tides

Combination of Coastal Tides and River Basins. No sedimentation.

Functional difficulty in monsoon. Same as River Basin.

River Natural

No sedimentation Calm Harbour

Less Draft. River should be perennial. Erosion Problems.

Canal or Lake

Calm Harbour Used for inland trade

Functional difficulty in monsoon. High construction cost. Sedimentation Problem. Proper Operational Qualification is

Open Roadstead

Higher Natural Draft. Depth increment possible Very less sedimentation.

required. High current and wave velocities. Proper access has to be provided.

Port Planning & Development River Tides Combination of Coastal Tides and River Basins. No sedimentation. Functional

Coastal Natural

Port Planning & Development River Tides Combination of Coastal Tides and River Basins. No sedimentation. Functional

Coastal Tide Gates

Port Planning & Development River Tides Combination of Coastal Tides and River Basins. No sedimentation. Functional

Coastal Breakwater

Port Planning & Development River Tides Combination of Coastal Tides and River Basins. No sedimentation. Functional

River Natural

Port Planning & Development River Tides Combination of Coastal Tides and River Basins. No sedimentation. Functional

River Basins

Port Planning & Development River Tides Combination of Coastal Tides and River Basins. No sedimentation. Functional

Canal or Lake

Port Planning & Development River Tides Combination of Coastal Tides and River Basins. No sedimentation. Functional

River Tide Gates

Port Planning & Development River Tides Combination of Coastal Tides and River Basins. No sedimentation. Functional

Open Roadstead

Port Planning & Development River Tides Combination of Coastal Tides and River Basins. No sedimentation. Functional

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development Features of Harbour Main function of a harbour is to accommodation for

Features of Harbour

Main function of a harbour is to accommodation for vessels seeking repairs or the transfer of

cargo and provides safe and suitable refuge, supplies, refueling passengers.

In a harbour there are a variety of elements such as entrance approach channel, breakwater, wharves, jetties, locks and dry docks, depending on the necessity of these. Such elements can be of different types.

Harbour Entrance: The entrance to a harbour is usually more exposed to waves as compared to the harbour itself. Due to this, depth and width required at the entrance are more than those required in the channel. The width of entrance also depends upon density of traffic and number of entrances, besides the navigational requirements and the degree of protection the channel has and what is desired within the harbour. The entrance should be wide enough for navigational requirements and so as to avoid dangerous tidal currents. It should not, however, be too wide to increase wave height within harbour.

Approach Channel: Ideally, the depth of water naturally available in the entire harbour area should be sufficient for navigation of design vessel at all the times. When such ideal conditions do not prevail, a channel with sufficient depth and width must be dredged to provide for a passage of ships between the harbour entrance and the docks. The alignment and the dimensions of channel determined after considering factors involved in channel design. The terminology, approach channel, is used for the dredged fairway through which ships proceed from the open sea to the harbour basin. The portion of channel which lies beyond the harbour entrance in the open sea is called an outer channel. The portion lying between the harbour entrance and harbour basin is called inner channel. The inner channel is protected from storms and waves by natural configurations or by breakwaters.

Turning Basin: It is the area required for maneuvering the ship when it goes to or leaves the berth, so that a ship can leave head-on. The size of the turning basin primarily depends on the design vessel. It should preferably be designed to have a ship turn under continuous headway without help of a tug. This means that the turning basin should be large enough to permit a free turning.

Sheltered Basin: It is the area protected by shore and breakwaters. In this basin are located other elements of harbour including area for anchorage of vessels.

Locks and Locked Basin: Locked basin is an enclosed basin wherein a number of vessels can be berthed and has an entrance which is controlled by lock gate(s). The water within locked basin can be independent of outside water level changes.

Harbour Planning

The harbour area required depends on the number and size of ships to be accommodated at one time in the harbour. It also depends on the length and width needed for movement of ships to and from berths and the type of cargo being carried. The harbour should not, at the same time, be too big to generate waves within.

In order that the harbour is useful for operating and dispatching ships, the water depth in the entrance, approach channel and harbour basin should be sufficient even at the lower low water spring tide. If, however, this type of working is either not required or if it amounts to excessive capital and maintenance dredging a compromise condition for ship working has to be thought of. Normally, then, the ships are planned to be navigated near high tide and the berth basins are deepened to ensure floatation of ships at all stages of the tides.

Of great importance is the positioning i.e. locationing and alignment of various elements like entrance, approach channel, turning basin, breakwater, wharves or jetties and docks catering to the requirements of the vessels in order to ensure easy maneuverability and adequate navigational facilities.

Port Planning & Development Features of Harbour Main function of a harbour is to accommodation for

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development CARGO & SHIP RELATED FACTORS Ship Features Harbour is meant for ships,

CARGO & SHIP RELATED FACTORS

Ship Features

Harbour is meant for ships, and port is planned and equipped to handle ship cargo. As ships have increased in size and also have become far more expensive, the harbour planning and port equipment should aim at most expeditious handling of cargo. Shipping has enormously expanded and harbours and ports have correspondingly gained in importance.

Ship Types

Trade-wise, a ship is a liner or a tramp. A ship travelling between definite ports and having particular departure and arrival date is termed a liner. A ship designed to carry no specific

type of cargo and travels anywhere in the world is a cargo tramp, or simply a tramp.

Function-wise, a ship is a dry cargo vessel or a tanker. A tanker carries oil or other liquid in bulk; oil being the most usual cargo. That carrying oil is termed oil tanker. Designwise, in dry cargo ships, there are two broad classifications of General cargo vessel and Bulk carrier. The first term, general cargo vessel, is self-explanatory. The bulk carrier is a vessel built to carry cargoes such as ore, coal, clinker, grain and sugar in large quantities. That built to carry coal is a collier; it is usually much smaller than the usual range of bulk carriers, being used mainly for coastal trading.

Sometimes, a combination vessel is built. As for example an OBO, one built to carry Ore in Bulk or Oil.

Lloyd’s Register of Shipping in World Fleet Statistics, gives information on World Fleet trading commercially. Lloyd’s classify types of ships, depending on the functions, in:

  • 1. Oil tankers

  • 2. Liquefied gas carriers

  • 3. Chemical tankers

  • 4. Bulk/Oil carriers

  • 5. Ore and bulk carriers

  • 6. General cargo carriers

  • 7. Container Ships

  • 8. RO-RO Cargo Carriers

  • 9. Refrigerated Cargo Carriers

10. Other Vessels

Shipping Terminology

Shipping has its phraseology which the port and harbour engineer has to know. Otherwise, it creates confusion amongst non-maritime persons. The size of a ship is given in terms of its gross registered tonnage, which is actually a measurement of internal space. The word tonnage, thus, misleads those who are not acquainted with the shipping terminology.

Gross Registered Tonnage (GRT): It is the total measured internal cubic capacity of a ship

expressed in units of

2.83

cu.

m.

(or

100 cu.

ft.).

In

1967 the Tonnage Rules were

completely revised in

an

attempt to

improve

the

safety of

ships.

But, a registered

ton,

representing 100 cubic feet of volume was not changed even with the introduction of SI

units.

Net Registered Tonnage (NRT): It is the carrying capacity of a ship expressed in units of 2.83 cu. m. (or 100 cu. ft.). It is ascertained according to Government regulations and is the space intended for revenue earning, It is arrived at by deducting from the gross internal cubic capacity (i.e. GRT) the volume of crew living space, engine room, machinery, fuel and provisions.

Deadweight Tonnage (DWT): It is the carrying capacity of a ship, by weight, in units of 1016 kg (2240 lb). It is the weight in units of 1.016 tonnes of cargo, stores, fuel, passengers, crew and provisions carried by the ship when loaded to her maximum summer load line. It is the

Port Planning & Development CARGO & SHIP RELATED FACTORS Ship Features Harbour is meant for ships,

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development difference between the displacement when loaded to the load line and displacement

difference between the displacement when loaded to the load line and displacement when light.

Displacement Tonnage (DT): It is the actual weight of the ship in units of 1.016 tonnes. It is the weight of water she displaces when afloat and may be either ‘loaded’ or ‘light’. Displacement, loaded, is the weight, in units of 1.016 tonnes, of the ship and its contents when fully loaded with cargo, to the plimsoll mark or the load line. Displacement, light, is the weight, in units of 1.016 tonnes, of the ship without cargo, fuel and stores. When not otherwise stated, displacement tonnage (DT) refers to displacement loaded.

Ship Length

Port Planning & Development difference between the displacement when loaded to the load line and displacement

Ship Cross-section

Port Planning & Development difference between the displacement when loaded to the load line and displacement
Port Planning & Development difference between the displacement when loaded to the load line and displacement

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development Ship Movements Type of Ships depending upon the Cargo Bulk carriers are

Ship Movements

Port Planning & Development Ship Movements Type of Ships depending upon the Cargo Bulk carriers are

Type of Ships depending upon the Cargo

Bulk carriers are cargo ships used to transport bulk cargo items such as ore or food staples (rice, grain, etc.) and similar cargo. It can be recognized by the large box-like hatches on its deck, designed to slide outboard for loading. A bulk carrier could be either dry or wet. Most lakes are too small to accommodate bulk ships, but a large fleet of lake freighters has been plying the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway of North America for over a century.

Port Planning & Development Ship Movements Type of Ships depending upon the Cargo Bulk carriers are

Container ships are cargo ships that carry their entire load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. They form a common means of commercial intermodal freight transport. Informally known as "box boats," they carry the majority of the world's dry cargo. Most container ships are propelled by diesel engines, and have crews of between 20 and 40 people. They generally have a large accommodation block at the stern, directly above the engine room.

Port Planning & Development Ship Movements Type of Ships depending upon the Cargo Bulk carriers are

Tankers are cargo ships for the transport of fluids, such as crude oil, petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas and chemicals, also vegetable oils, wine and other food - the tanker sector comprises one third of the world tonnage.

Port Planning & Development Ship Movements Type of Ships depending upon the Cargo Bulk carriers are
Port Planning & Development Ship Movements Type of Ships depending upon the Cargo Bulk carriers are

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development Reefer ships are cargo ships typically used to transport perishable commodities which

Reefer ships are cargo ships typically used to transport perishable commodities which require temperature- controlled transportation, mostly fruits, meat, fish, vegetables, dairy products and other foodstuffs.

Roll-on/roll-off ships are cargo ships designed to carry wheeled cargo such as automobiles, trailers or railway carriages. RORO (or ro/ro) vessels have built-in ramps which allow the cargo to be efficiently "rolled on" and "rolled off" the vessel when in port. While smaller ferries that operate across rivers and other short distances still often have built- in ramps, the term RORO is generally reserved for larger ocean-going vessels.

Coastal trading vessels, also known as coasters, are shallow-hulled ships used for trade between locations on the same island or continent. Their shallow hulls mean that they can get through reefs where sea-going ships usually cannot (sea-going ships have a very deep hull for supplies and trade etc.).

Port Planning & Development Reefer ships are cargo ships typically used to transport perishable commodities which
Port Planning & Development Reefer ships are cargo ships typically used to transport perishable commodities which
Port Planning & Development Reefer ships are cargo ships typically used to transport perishable commodities which
Port Planning & Development Reefer ships are cargo ships typically used to transport perishable commodities which

Ferries are a form of transport, usually a boat or ship, but also other forms, carrying (or ferrying) passengers and sometimes their vehicles. Ferries are also used to transport freight (in lorries and sometimes unpowered freight containers) and even railroad cars. Most ferries operate on regular, frequent, return services. A foot-passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, is sometimes called a waterbus or water taxi. Ferries form a part of the public transport systems of many waterside cities and islands, allowing direct transit between points at a capital cost much lower than bridges or tunnels. Many of the ferries operating in Northern European waters are ro/ro ships.

LNG carrier is a ship designed for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. Liquefied natural gas takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas at a stove burner tip. It is odorless, colorless, non-corrosive, and non-toxic. When vaporized, it burns only in concentrations of 5% to 15% when mixed with air. Neither LNG, nor its vapor, can explode in an unconfined environment.

Port Planning & Development Reefer ships are cargo ships typically used to transport perishable commodities which

Cruise ships are passenger ships used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. Cruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, with millions of passengers each year as of 2006. The industry's rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to a North American clientele added every year since 2001, as well as others servicing European clientele. Smaller markets such as the Asia-Pacific region are generally serviced by older tonnage displaced by new ships introduced into the high growth areas.

Tugboat is a boat used to maneuver, primarily by towing or pushing other vessels (see shipping) in harbours, over the

Port Planning & Development Reefer ships are cargo ships typically used to transport perishable commodities which
Port Planning & Development Reefer ships are cargo ships typically used to transport perishable commodities which
Port Planning & Development Reefer ships are cargo ships typically used to transport perishable commodities which

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development open sea or through rivers and canals. They are also used to

open sea or through rivers and canals. They are also used to tow barges, disabled ships, or other equipment like towboats.

Barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. Most barges are not self-propelled and need to be moved by tugboats towing or towboats pushing them. Barges on canals (towed by draft animals on an adjacent towpath) contended with the railway in the early industrial revolution but were outcompeted in the carriage of high value items due to the higher speed, falling costs, and route flexibility of rail transport.

Port Planning & Development open sea or through rivers and canals. They are also used to

Types of Terminals based on Cargo they handle Container Terminal

A container terminal is a facility where cargo containers are transshipped between different transport vehicles, for onward transportation. The transshipment may be between ships and land vehicles, for example trains or trucks, in which case the terminal is described as a maritime container terminal. Alternatively the transshipment may be between land vehicles, typically between train and truck, in which case the terminal is described as an inland container terminal.

Dry Bulk Terminal

A Dry Bulk Terminal is a facility where dry cargo, such

as coal, iron ore, fertilizers, etc., is handled. This cargo is mainly hinterland cargo. There are separate terminals for Coal, Iron Ore, etc. which are dedicated for single commodity only.

Port Planning & Development open sea or through rivers and canals. They are also used to
Port Planning & Development open sea or through rivers and canals. They are also used to

LNG Terminal

The LNG receiving terminal receives liquefied natural gas from special ships, stores the liquid in special storage tanks, vaporises the LNG, and then delivers the natural gas into a distribution pipeline. The receiving terminal is designed to deliver a specified gas rate into a distribution pipeline and to maintain a reserve capacity of LNG.

Port Planning & Development open sea or through rivers and canals. They are also used to

RO-RO Terminal

Roll-on/roll-off (RORO or ro-ro) terminal is designed to transport wheeled cargo such as automobiles, trucks, semi- trailer trucks, trailers or railroad cars. This is in contrast to lo-lo (lift on-lift off), which use a crane to load and unload cargo.

Oil Terminal

An Oil Terminal is an industrial facility for the storage of oil and/or petrochemical products and from which these products are usually transported to end users or further storage facilities. An oil depot typically has tankage, either

above ground or underground, and gantries for the discharge of products into road tankers or other vehicles (such as barges) or pipelines. Oil Terminals are usually situated close to oil refineries or in locations where marine tankers containing products can discharge their cargo. Some depots are attached to pipelines from which they

Port Planning & Development open sea or through rivers and canals. They are also used to
Port Planning & Development open sea or through rivers and canals. They are also used to
Port Planning & Development open sea or through rivers and canals. They are also used to

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development draw their supplies and depots can also be fed by rail, by

draw their supplies and depots can also be fed by rail, by barge and by road tanker

Break Bulk Terminal

A Break Bulk Terminal is a facility where cargo, such as pipes, plates, coils, scrap, etc., are handled. This cargo is mainly hinterland cargo. Such cargo takes more time to handle as they take larger area for storage.

PORT STRUCTURES

Classification

Port Planning & Development draw their supplies and depots can also be fed by rail, by

Port Structures

Port Planning & Development draw their supplies and depots can also be fed by rail, by
 

On-shore

Loading/Unloading

 

Structures

 
  • Gravity Type

  • Sheet Pile

Protection Work

 

Shore

  • Protection

Work

  • Breakwaters

    • Diaphragm wall

    • Open Pile Structures

Off-shore Loading/Unloading Structures

Port Planning & Development draw their supplies and depots can also be fed by rail, by

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development Port Components Breakwater Container Staking Area Tug Boat Quay wall Gantry Crane

Port Components

Breakwater Container Staking Area Tug Boat Quay wall Gantry Crane Ship Jetty Wharf Wall Container Staking
Breakwater
Container Staking Area
Tug Boat
Quay wall
Gantry Crane
Ship
Jetty
Wharf Wall
Container Staking Area

Breakwater

Breakwaters, also called bulkheads, reduce the intensity of wave action in inshore waters and thereby reduce coastal erosion. They are constructed some distance away from the coast or built with one end linked to the coast. The breakwaters may be small structures, placed one to three

hundred feet offshore in relatively shallow water, designed to protect a gently sloping beach. Breakwaters may be either fixed or floating; the choice depends on normal water depth and tidal range.

Port Planning & Development Port Components Breakwater Container Staking Area Tug Boat Quay wall Gantry Crane

Wharf / Quay / Jetty

A wharf is a landing place or pier where ships may tie up and load or unload. A wharf is a fixed platform, commonly on pilings. They often serve as interim storage areas with

warehouses, since the typical objective is to unload and

reload vessels as quickly

as possible.

Where capacity is

sufficient a single quay constructed along the land adjacent to the water is normally used; where there is a need for more capacity many wharfs will instead be constructed projecting into the water, as with the well known collection of wharfs.

Port Planning & Development Port Components Breakwater Container Staking Area Tug Boat Quay wall Gantry Crane

HYDRAUGRAPHIC SURVEYS AND CHARTS

The depths of water, and, hazards to navigation noticed during hydrographic surveys are reproduced on a map constructed to serve the needs of a mariner. The map also includes the adjacent land area, emphasizing outstanding shore features and must include all artificial aids to navigation. Such a map is usually referred to as a nautical chart,

In mariner’s language, the phrase sea mile, or nautical mile, is often used. The sea mile is defined as being the length of an arc on the earth that subtends a minute of latitude at the centre. It is, therefore, intimately connected with the radius of curvature in the meridian. A

Port Planning & Development Port Components Breakwater Container Staking Area Tug Boat Quay wall Gantry Crane

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development sea mile is least on the equator and greatest at the poles.

sea mile is least on the equator and greatest at the poles. The Admiralty had standardized it at 6080 feet. Now, in metric units, the International Nautical Mile equals 1852 metres.

The surface of the earth is spheroidal and the measurements and observations are to be recorded on a flat sheet of paper. This cannot be done without introducing some degree of distortion. But, the distortion can be limited and controlled by the choice of the projection formula which is used to effect the conversion. A projection is simply a means of representing the earth’s spheroidal surface on a plane. Numerous types of projections have been devised, each with a particular purpose in view, but the two most useful in navigation are the Mercator and the Gnomonic. A third, Polyconic, is used for large scale charts.

Gerhard Kramer (Mercator) published his well-known world map in 1569, on the projection which bears his name. His was the first real attempt to base a map on a mathematical projection. In it meridians and parallels are represented by straight parallel lines intersecting one another at right angles. The meridians being equally spaced on this form of projection, the intervals between the parallels of latitude are increased proportionately, varying with the secant of the latitude, to compensate for the actual convergence of the meridians on the earth.

Mercator projection has the advantages of simplicity of construction, convenience in plotting positions from the border divisions and that, on it alone, a course can be laid off from any meridian or Compass rose within its border. The greater advantage, however, and which is responsible for its worldwide use for nautical charts, is that any straight line drawn on it, in any direction, is a rhumb me. A rhumb line cuts all meridians at the same angle, and is a line followed by a ship sailing on one course. Theoretically at least, a ship on such a course will pass all features along that line exactly as they are charted. This is a great advantage in extensive coastal navigation.

Mercator projection has the disadvantages of exaggerating areas appreciably, seriously where an extensive north or south area is included, and of constantly changing scale with latitude.

The gnomonic is a perspective projection upon a tangent plane, the projecting lines radiating from the centre of the sphere. Obviously, only small areas can be represented on this projection. But, what is of special value to seamen is that any line of sight, or a part of great circle, is represented by a straight line on this projection. Thus all plotted bearings, either visual or radio, are straight lines, and by it a mariner can readily determine the shortest route between any two points.

In a harbour survey, which has a limited area, the surface of the earth, for all practical purposes, is a plane surface. For an area, with about 20 km radius from a point, the errors introduced by assuming earth to be flat will be less than those of measurement of angles and distances. The chart so prepared can be considered as a small scale gnomonic chart.

In the Polyconic projection each parallel is constructed with radius as though it were the standard parallel of a simple conical projection, but with different centres, so that the distances apart of the parallel, where they cut the central meridian, are correctly represented. Each parallel is then correctly divided into units of longitude. The meridians project as curves. The scale along the central meridian only is correct. This projection is used by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. In slightly modified forms, in which the meridians project as straight lines, the polyconic projection is used for 1:1 million scale International Maps and for most large scale Admiralty Charts.

Port Planning & Development sea mile is least on the equator and greatest at the poles.

Port Planning & Development

Port Planning & Development FAQs 1. What is Port? A port is a facility for receiving

FAQs

  • 1. What is Port?

A port is a facility for receiving ships and transferring cargo to and from them. They are usually situated at the edge of an ocean or sea, river, or lake.

  • 2. Which are the governing factors for Port Planning?

The main factors affecting the Port Planning are:

  • 1. Traffic & Hinterland

  • 2. Port Structures

  • 3. Site / Location Related Factors Wind Wave Tide Draft

Harbour Layout

  • 4. Cargo & Ship Related Factors

Type of Cargo

Type of Ships

Type of Terminals

  • 3. List the type of waves.

    • 1. Deep sea waves

    • 2. Shallow water waves

    • 3. Translatory waves

    • 4. Ripples or capillary waves

  • 4. Which are the types of ship depending upon the Cargo?

    • 1. Bulk Carrier

    • 2. Container Ships

    • 3. Tankers

    • 4. Reefer

    • 5. Roll-on/Roll-off

    • 6. Coastal Trading Vessels

    • 7. Ferries

    • 8. Cruise Ships

    • 9. LNG Carriers

      • 10. Tugs

      • 11. Barges

  • 5. Which are the types of terminals depending upon the cargo they handle?

    • 1. Container Terminal

    • 2. Dry Bulk Terminal

    • 3. Break Bulk Terminal

    • 4. RO-RO Terminal

    • 5. LNG Terminal

    • 6. Oil / Liquid Terminal

  • Port Planning & Development FAQs 1. What is Port? A port is a facility for receiving

    Port Planning & Development

    Port Planning & Development QUESTIONS 1. Define Port. What are its major components? 2. Explain with

    QUESTIONS

    • 1. Define Port. What are its major components?

    • 2. Explain with Schematic Diagram – Factors to be considered while Port Planning

    • 3. What is Tide & how it generates?

    • 4. Enlist & Draw various ship movements.

    • 5. Give Definition of the following: 1.) GRT

    2.) DT

    3.) DWT

    4.) NRT

    • 6. Explain in brief basic types of ships & terminals.

    • 7. Write a short note on Traffic Forecast & Hinterland.

    Port Planning & Development QUESTIONS 1. Define Port. What are its major components? 2. Explain with

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