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Developments in Port Engineering

43rd International Port Seminar, April 2007


Prof. Han Ligteringen
April 26, 2007
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Vermelding onderdeel organisatie

Introduction on port development


Relation with shipping development
Overall port development
Two types of terminals
Conclusions

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Relation with Shipping Development


Statement: Port infrastructure design follows ship
design
Historical: Ship design adapted to natural constraints
Causes of change:
Economies of scale in shipping
Shipping economics and port economics treated
separately

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Emma Maersk, 13,500 TEU, 400 m long

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High Speed Ferry

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Overall Port Development


Larger ships lead to:
increased water depth --> dredged channels, shift to
deeper water

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Expansion of Port of Rotterdam

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Overall Port Development


Larger ships lead to:
increased water depth --> dredged channels, shift to
deeper water
increased depth at the quay --> complex and
expensive quay structures

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Development in Quay design

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Overall Port Development


Larger ships lead to:
increased water depth --> dredged channels, shift to
deeper water
increased depth at the quay --> complex and
expensive quay structures
more space for channels, turning circles and basins
increased capacity hinterland connections

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Amazonehaven,
Rotterdam

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Container Terminals

Historical development
Comparison with General Cargo Terminal
Summary consequences terminal design
Dilemmas

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Historical Development

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Comparison with General Cargo


Terminal
Quay length 320 m

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Surface area

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Comparison with General Cargo


Terminal
Quay length 320 m
General Cargo Terminal: 2 berths
Throughput 200,00 ton/yr, A = 5 ha

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Comparison with General Cargo


Terminal
Quay length 320 m
General Cargo Terminal: 2 berths
Throughput 200,00 ton/yr, A = 5 ha
Containerterminal : 1 berth
Throughput 1 mio ton/yr, A = 20 ha

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Summary Consequences Terminal


Design
More area behind the quay
Higher cranes, longer boom
Increased rail-gauge

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Dilemmas
Increase call size vs 24-hrs service time

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Ceres Terminal

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Floating Container Crane

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Dilemmas
Increase call size vs 24-hrs service time
Automated terminals, yes or no?

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AGVs

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Dilemmas
Increase call size vs 24-hrs service time
Automated terminals, yes or no?
Policy shipping companies

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Policy shipping companies


Easy change of Port of Call / Stevedore
Dedicated terminals

Reducing Investment Risks, leading to:


Shorter pay-back time
Increased flexibility

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Conclusions
Port infrastructure developments initiated by
developments in shipping
Deep-water requirements lead to sharp increase
capital expenditure
Private operators seeks risk reduction and faster return
on investment
Greater functional flexibility and/or reduction of
technical lifetime/costs sought

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