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BIOLOGY 453 - COMPARATIVE VERT.

ANATOMY
WEEK 1, LAB 1: Anatomical Terms & Introduction to Chordates
Assignments
Additional Readings
Work
Tuesday Participation
Coloring

Quiz Yourself

Kardong & Zalisko: Chapter 1:1-7; Chapter 2:8, 11-15; Chapter 3:18-21, 27-28
Use my notes as a guide for what you should see & examine, but you must use the lab manual for
explanations & supplementary images. You will be expected to know the terms used in my laboratory
notes; use my notes as the guide for what to learn in Kardong & Zalisko.
Present some of the features on 1 of the anatomical slides, &/or use the anatomical terms to describe
microscopic sections or other features on a human. Complete the coloring of the 2 figures below.
Color the black-white drawings of Amphioxus & the Lamprey Larvae in Kardong & Zalisko
(Fig. 2.5 on pg. 12-13 & Fig. 3.8 on pg. 28) based on the germ layer origin for each organ as follows:
Blue: somatic ectoderm, Purple: Epidermal Placodes, Red: mesoderm, Green: endoderm
(Endoderm is typically colored yellow but it doesnt show up well in illustrations)
Use the Student Art section that follows the Index in Kardong & Zalisko:
Fig. 2.5 & 2.6 of the Amphioxus & Fig. 3.8 of the Ammocoetes larva.

Learning Goals
1.

Be able to use these positional terms to locate structures relative to each other:
a. cranial = anterior, caudal = posterior, dorsal = superior, ventral = inferior, anal, rostral, proximal, distal.
b. medial, lateral, ipsilateral, contralateral superficial, deep, parietal, visceral.

2.

Be able to recognize transverse, sagittal (mid- vs. para-) & coronal sections of microscopic slides of whole specimens.

3.

Learn who are members of the CLADES Deuterostomia, Chordata, Olfactores & Vertebrata. Learn the shared derived
trait(s) that unite the members of each clade.

4.

Be able to identify & locate these shared chordate features (when visible) in whole mount or transversely sectioned
amphioxus & lamprey larvae: notochord, endostyle, dorsal hollow neural tube, and a post-anal tail.
a. How is the endostyle modified in the lamprey larva? What does this structure become in an adult lamprey?

5.

Be able to identify & locate these features present in Amphioxus: gill slits & pharyngeal gill bars, myomeres, intestine,
hepatic intestine or midgut cecum/diverticulum (Many names; know one!), atriopore, gonad (ovary vs testes), & anus.
a. Why will you find large gonads in some Amphioxus slides, but not readily visible gonads in the Ammocoete?

6.

Compare & identify the visible sensory organs of Amphioxus (ocelli) with the larger sensory organs on the lamprey: eye,
otic vesicle (future ear). Find the single nostril on the preserved lamprey larvae.

7.

Identify these shared derived vertebrate traits in the slides of the Ammocoetes (larval lamprey): eye, otic vesicle (future
ear), brain, heart, liver, gall bladder, kidney, gill lamellae, & dorsal aorta. There are more to be seen later in quarter.

8.

Can you explain why the same structures are found in similar locations within the bodies of chordates & vertebrates?

9.

Can you describe the diet & feeding behavior of an Amphioxus & a larval lamprey?

Specimens to Examine
Specimens
Cephalochordates (Amphioxus)
Larval Lamprey (Ammocoete)

Whole,
preserved specimens
X
X

Types of Material
Whole mount,
microscopic slides
X
X

Transverse section,
Microscopic slides
X
X

Major Clades & Shared Derived Traits of Early Chordates & Vertebrates
------------------------------------------------------ Deuterostomia ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chordata ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Olfactores ----------------------------------------------------------- Vertebrata ------------------Echinoderms

Cephalochordata

& Hemichordates

(Branchiostoma)

Urochordata

Vertebrata

(Tunicates)

(Hagfish, Lamprey, Sharks, to Mammals)

Tripartite brain
Complex sense organs
Cranium (bone/cart.)
Vertebrae
Thyroid gland (from endostyle)
Liver & Gall Bladder
Kidney (mesoderm)
Gill Lamellae

Origins of:
Brain
Neural Crest cells
Epidermal Placodes (eg. olfactory)

Notochord
Dorsal hollow neural tube
Post-anal tail
Endostyle

Pharyngeal Slits

Neural Crest cells: contribute to many unique vertebrate features


Epidermal Placodes: form key parts of sensory organs on the head
Otic placode forms part of the ear
Optic placode forms lens of the eye

Additional Sources of Information


Gross Anatomical Terms, Planes, Positional Terms
Fletcher TF. 2014. Veterinary Anatomy. Directions | Planes | Actions. Univ. of Minnesota, College of Veterinary Medicine.
http://vanat.cvm.umn.edu/anatDirections/index.html
Gillis R, Brice G, Hoar K. 2011. A/P Lab A Website for Human Anatomy & Physiology. University of Wisconsin La Crosse
Anatomical Terms for Quadrupeds: http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/aplab/Lab-Unit-01/Lab-01-01.html
Standard Anatomical Position (humans): http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/aplab/Lab-Unit-01/Lab-01-02.html
Wisc-Online 2014. Advanced Anatomy & Physiology, Univ. of Wisconsin.
Anatomical Terminology, Relative Position: http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP15305
Regional Body Parts: http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP14904
Cephalochordate: Amphioxus
Felsenstein / Kuhner Lab. 2013. The Amphioxus Song, or Its a Long Way From Amphioxus. Dept. of Genome Sciences,
Univ. of Washington http://evolution.genetics.washington.edu/amphioxus/amphioxus.html
Garcia-Fernndez J. 2006. Amphioxus: a peaceful anchovy fillet to illuminate Chordate Evolution (I). Int J Biol Sci 2(2):30-31.
http://www.biolsci.org/v02p0030.htm
McCauley B. 2014. Cephalochordates: Branchiostoma. Bio. 6A. DeAnza College.
http://www.deanza.edu/faculty/mccauley/6a-labs-chordates-03.htm
Rutgers University. 2001. Subphylum Cephalochordata (Amphioxus or Lancet) in Laboratory 3: Animal Diversity III - The Deuterostomes.
http://bio.rutgers.edu/~gb102/lab_3/402cm-cephalochord.html
Sievert L. 2007 (updated 2011). Protochordates. Vertebrate Structure and Development. ZO 515 & 516, Emporia State Univ.
http://academic.emporia.edu/sievertl/verstruc/protoch.htm
Savalli U. 2012. Vertebrate Diversity: Invertebrate Chordates. BIO 370, Vertebrate Zoology, Arizona State Univ.
http://www.savalli.us/BIO370/Diversity/01.Chordata.html
Larval Lamprey (Ammocoete)
McCauley B. 2013. Lamprey Larva: a jawless vertebrate. Biology 6A, DeAnza College.
http://www.deanza.edu/faculty/mccauley/6a-labs-chordates-04.htm
Rutgers University. 2001. Agnatha in Laboratory 3: Animal Diversity III - The Deuterostomes.
http://bio.rutgers.edu/~gb102/lab_3/403am-agnatha.html
Savalli U. 2012. Vertebrate Diversity, Jawless Fishes & Placoderms. LSC 370, Vertebrate Zoology, Arizona State Univ.
http://www.savalli.us/BIO370/Diversity/02.Agnatha.html

Microscope Slide Interpretations


Some microscope slides are whole mounts & contain the entire organism. Sometimes deeper tissues have been stains
and superficial structures made transparent, but in many cases, fine focal adjustments are needed to view structures at differing
depths. Some microscope slides are made of thin slices from a three-dimensional organism. How a particular organ was cut can
alter its appearance. Compare the following sections of the same tubes.
Figures from: Essential Histology. D.H. Cormack, J.B Lippincott Co., 1993

Anatomical Planes
Anatomical planes are imaginary "slices" through the body that divide it into 2 parts.
Sagittal [sagitt = arrow] - divides the body or structure into mirror images of right & left sides.
Mid-sagittal or Medial - made by a vertical cut along the midline.
Parasagittal [para = beside] Divide the body into unequal right & left sides
a vertical cut that is moved laterally from the midline onto the right or left side.
Transverse [trans = across] Divide the body or structure into cranial & caudal sections.
Frontal or Coronal [coron = crown] - divide the body or structure into dorsal & ventral sections.

Mid-sagittal

Parasagittal

Transverse

Frontal

Typical Positional Terms (Humans are slightly different for some)


Cranial or Anterior [crani = skull] - Toward the head region.
Caudal or Posterior [caud = tail] - Away from the head, towards the tail.
Dorsal - Superior The upper surface of a structure.
Ventral - Inferior the lower surface of a structure.
Rostral [rostr = beak, snout] - The nasal area of an organism.
Anal [ana = anus] - Region around the digestive system's exit from the body.
Proximal [proxim = nearest] - A body extremity (e.g. limb) that is closer to the trunk; object is closer to point of origin.
Distal [dist = stand apart] - A body extremity (e.g. limb) that is farther from the trunk; object is farther from point of origin.

Dorsal
Superior
Anal

Rostral

Posterior
Caudal

Proximal

Anterior
Cranial

Ventral
Inferior

Distal

Medial [medi = middle]- Nearer to the midline of the body or the midline of a structure.
The midline is a vertical line that divides the body into equal right & left sides.
Lateral - Farther from the midline of the body or the midline of a structure.
Ipsilateral [ipsi = same] - On the same side of the body as another structure.
Contralateral [contra = opposite] - The opposite side of the body as another structure.
Superficial - Toward or on the surface of the body or surface of a structure.
Deep - Away from the surface of the body or the surface of a structure.
Parietal [parie = a wall] - Pertaining to or forming the outer wall of a body cavity.
Visceral [viscer = organs] - Pertaining to the covering of an organ within ventral body cavity.

Superficial
Lateral
Medial
Deep

Visceral

Parietal

Clade Chordata: Amphioxus


Whole Mount Amphioxus
Identify the following:
Positions: cranial = anterior, caudal = posterior, dorsal = superior, ventral = inferior.
Ocelli; simple visual receptors lack lenses.
Major regions of GI tract: pharynx with pharyngeal bars & slits, hepatic/intestinal/midgut cecum, intestine, anus. Locate atriopore.
Metameric structure: myomeres.
Visible Chordate traits: notochord, dorsal hollow neural tube, "post-anal" tail - i.e. region beyond anus

12 (translucent Vbands along body)


2

13

24

15
14

9 (black dots)

Anterior Section

7
1
2

12

Posterior Section (without tail)

7
1
24

13
13

3
Atriopore - exit for water from gills

Transversely Sectioned Amphioxus Through Pharynx


Identify these:
Positions: dorsal = superior, ventral = inferior, medial & lateral.
Major region of the digestive tract: pharynx with pharyngeal bars & slits, hepatic cecum might be visible.
Metameric structure: myomere.
Gonads: ovaries (large eggs visible) vs. testes.
Visible chordate traits: notochord, dorsal hollow neural tube, and endostyle
Transversely Sectioned Amphioxus Through intestinal region or tail:
Identify these:
Positions: dorsal = superior, ventral = inferior, medial & lateral.
Major region of the digestive tract: intestine.
Metameric structure: myomere.
Gonads: ovaries (large eggs visible) vs. testes.
Visible chordate traits: notochord, dorsal hollow neural tube
Label these illustrations using the numbers below.
Amphioxus section through pharynx.
Amphioxus section through intestine.

1 notochord
2 pharynx
3 pharyngeal bars
4 gill lamellae
5 endostyle
6 subpharyngeal gland
7 neural tube/spinal cord
8 brain

9 ocelli = photoreceptors
10 eye
11 ear (otic vesicle)
12 myomere
13 intestine
14 anus
15 post-anal tail
16 ovary

17 testes
18 heart
19 liver
20 kidney
21 posterior cardinal veins
22 dorsal aorta
23 24 hepatic cecum or / intestinal/midgut cecum/diverticulum

Clade Vertebrata: Larval Lamprey


Whole Mount Microscope Slide: Larval Lamprey (Ammocoete)
Positions: cranial = anterior, caudal = posterior, dorsal = superior, ventral = inferior.
Major regions of the digestive tract: pharynx, intestine, anus
Metameric structure: myomere
Shared derived Chordate traits:
notochord, brain & spinal cord (derived from dorsal hollow neural tube), "post-anal" tail - i.e. region beyond anus,
subpharyngeal gland - homolog to the endostyle of Amphioxus, becomes thyroid gland of adult
Shared derived Vertebrate traits (list is NOT complete):
large brain (extends anterior to the notochord & posterior over part of pharynx), gill lamellae in pharynx,
eye spot, ear = otic (= auditory) vesicle - visible on some slides (not seen in image below), heart, liver, gall bladder

7
12

11

10
2
6

7
12

13

7
13
19
18

14
Posterior or
Caudal Region

15

Transversely Sectioned Larval Lamprey (Ammocoete)


Positions in all transverse sections of the Ammocoete: dorsal, = superior, ventral = inferior, medial, lateral.
Major regions of the digestive tract: pharynx & gill lamellae (filament) & intestine
Metameric structure in all transverse sections: myomere
Shared derived chordate traits that the Ammocoete shares with the Amphioxus:
in a section through pharynx: notochord, spinal cord, and subpharyngeal gland
in a section through intestinal region or tail: notochord, dorsal hollow neural tube
Shared derived Vertebrate trait visible in the intestinal region: kidney tissue, dorsal aorta
Shared derived Vertebrate trait visible in the pharynx: gill lamellae, dorsal aorta
Make a drawing to show the ammocoete larva in a post-anal transverse section. Label it.
This view is not shown in my notes or the lab manual, but compare the adult lamprey in this section on pg 25 of the lab manual.

Label these illustrations using the numbers below (not all numbers may be needed).
Section through pharynx
Section through intestine
(More anterior sections might pass through the liver (solid mass
of cells) & gall bladder (hollow thin wall)

1 notochord
2 pharynx
3 pharyngeal bars
4 gill lamellae
5 endostyle
6 subpharyngeal gland
7 neural tube/spinal cord
8 brain

9 ocelli = photoreceptors
10 eye
11 ear (otic vesicle)
12 myomere
13 intestine
14 anus
15 post-anal tail
16 ovary

17 testes
18 heart
19 liver
20 kidney
21 posterior cardinal veins
22 dorsal aorta
23 hypobranchial groove
24 hepatic cecum or / intestinal/midgut cecum/diverticulum

How can you distinguish the chordate (Amphioxus) from the vertebrate (larval lamprey)?

What trait or traits will help you do this in whole mount vs. transverse sections?