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# The problems in this booklet are organized into strands.

A
problem often appears in multiple strands. The problems are
suitable for most students in Grade 9 or higher.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Keep On Rolling
The dice shown below are unusual. A usual six-sided die would have the
numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 on the sides. These dice, however, are unusual
because the numbers on the other three sides are 2, 7 and 9.
Two of these unusual dice, one red and one blue, are rolled and the numbers on
the upper faces are added together. A winning roll occurs when the sum is
either a perfect square or a prime number. (A prime number has only two
factors, 1 and itself.)
Determine the probability that you win on any particular roll.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Keep On Rolling
Problem
A usual six-sided die would have the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 on the sides. The dice in this
problem, however, are unusual because the numbers on the sides are 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9. Two of
these unusual dice, one red and one blue, are rolled and the numbers on the upper faces are
added together. A winning roll occurs when the sum is either a perfect square or a prime
number. (A prime number has only two factors, 1 and itself.) Determine the probability that
you win on any particular roll.

Solution
To solve this problem we will create a chart showing all of the possible rolls and the
corresponding sums.

1
2
Upper Face 3
of Red Die 5
7
9

## Upper Face of Blue Die

1 2 3 5 7 9
2 3 4 6 8 10
3 4 5 7 9 11
4 5 6 8 10 12
6 7 8 10 12 14
8 9 10 12 14 16
10 11 12 14 16 18

From the table, we see that there are 36 possible outcomes. We also see that the perfect
squares 4, 9 and 16 appear in the table seven times.
The lowest number in the table is 2 and the highest number in the table is 18. The prime
numbers appearing in the table in this range of numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, and 11. These numbers
appear in the table a total of nine times.
Since a number cannot be both a prime number and a perfect square, we can be certain that
we have not counted a desirable outcome more than once. The total number of prime number
sums and perfect square sums is 7 + 9 = 16.
To determine the probability of a specific outcome, we divide the number of times the specific
outcome occurs by the total number of possible outcomes. The probability of winning on a
particular roll is 16 36 = 49 . You have approximately a 44% chance of winning. A game is
considered fair if you have a 50% chance of winning.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Heroes and Villains
On an island, there are two types of inhabitants: Heroes, who always tell the
truth, and Villains, who always lie.
Four of the inhabitants of the island are seated around a circular table. When
asked, Are you a Hero or a Villain?, all four replied, Hero. When asked,
Is the person on your right a Hero or a Villain?, all four replied, Villain.
How many Heroes are there seated at the table? Verify that your solution is
the only possible solution.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Heroes and Villains
Problem
On an island, there are two types of inhabitants: Heroes, who always tell the truth, and
Villains, who always lie. Four of the inhabitants of the island are seated around a circular
table. When asked, Are you a Hero or a Villain?, all four replied, Hero. When asked, Is
the person on your right a Hero or a Villain?, all four replied, Villain. How many Heroes
are there seated at the table? Verify that your solution is the only possible solution.

Solution
There are really five possibilities to check: there could be four Heroes, there could be four
Villains, there could be three Villains and one Hero, there could be three Heroes and one
Villain, or there could be two Villains and two Heroes.
We can eliminate cases as follows:
1. Can two Villains ever sit beside each other?
Since Villains always lie, when the two Villains sitting beside each other
answer the first question Hero, they are in fact lying. However, in
responding to the second question, the Villain with the other Villain on the
right hand side would have to lie and say Hero. But everyone responded
Villain. This is a contradiction and there can therefore never be two
Villains seated beside each other. This conclusion effectively eliminates
the possibility that there are four Villains or three Villains and one Hero.

## 2. Can two Heroes ever sit beside each other?

Since Heroes always tell the truth, when the two Heroes sitting beside each
other answer the first question Hero, they are in fact telling the truth.
However, in responding to the second question, the Hero with the other
Hero on the right hand side would have to tell the truth and say Hero.
But everyone responded Villain. This is a contradiction and there can
therefore never be two Heroes seated beside each other. This conclusion
effectively eliminates the possibility that there are four Heroes or three
Heroes and one Villain.

The only possibility left is that there are two Villains and two Heroes such that
no two Villains or two Heroes can sit next to each other. The diagram illustrates
how they are sitting relative to each other. We can confirm that this is the correct
answer. Since all Villains lie and all Heroes tell the truth, they must all answer
the first question Hero. Since all Villains lie and all Heroes tell the truth, they
must all answer the second question Villain. Therefore, there are two Heroes
and two Villains, and when seated at a circular table they alternate Hero, Villain,
Hero, Villain.

!
!
"

"
!

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Triangle, Meet Square
The area of 4ACD is twice the area of square BCDE. AC and AD meet BE
at K and L respectively.
If the side length of the square is 12 cm, determine the area of trapezoid
KCDL.

'

"

&

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
'

## Triangle, Meet Square

Problem
The area of 4ACD is twice the area of square BCDE. AC and
AD meet BE at K and L respectively. If the side length of the
square is 12 cm, determine the area of trapezoid KCDL.
Solution

## To find the area of a trapezoid, multiply the sum of the lengths

of the two parallel sides, KL and CD, by the height, BC, and
divide the product by 2. To solve this problem we need to find
the length of KL. Let x represent the length of KL.

"

&

## Draw AP Q perpendicular to KL and CD. It follows that AP is an altitude of

4AKL and AQ is an altitude of 4ACD.
Area of square BCDE
Area 4ACD
But Area 4ACD
288
288
AQ

=
=
=
=
=
=

12 12 = 144 cm2
2 Area of Square BCDE = 288 cm2
CD AQ 2
12 AQ 2
6(AQ)
48 cm

## Since AQ = 48 and P Q = BC = 12, then AP = AQ P Q = 48 12 = 36 cm.

Area of trapezoid KCDL + Area of 4AKL
(KL + CD) BC 2 + KL AP 2
(x + 12)(12) 2 + x(36) 2
6(x + 12) + 18x
6x + 72 + 18x
24x
x

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Area 4ACD
288
288
288
288
216
9 cm

(KL + CD) P Q
2
(9 + 12)(12)
=
2
= 126 cm2

## Therefore the area of trapezoid KCDL is 126 cm2 .

Notes:
1. In order to find the length of KL, we could establish that
4ACD 4AKL. From this we can use the fact that the ratio of the
altitudes of the two triangles equals the ratio of the corresponding sides in
the two similar triangles. The reader may wish to justify this fact.
AP
AQ
36
48
3
4
x

KL
CD
x
=
12
x
=
12
= 9 cm
=

## 2. Instead of using the formula to determine the area of the trapezoid, we

could find the area by subtracting the area of 4AKL from the area of
4ACD.
Area of trapezoid KCDL = Area 4ACD Area of 4AKL
(KL)(AP )
= 288
2
9 36
= 288
2
= 288 152
= 126 cm2

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Give Me Some Volume
The side, front and top faces of a rectangular solid have areas of 2x,
25xy cm2 , respectively.
Determine the volume of the rectangular solid in terms of x and y.

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!
!

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y
2

and

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Give Me Some Volume
Problem
The side, front and top faces of a rectangular solid have areas of 2x, y2 and
25xy cm2 , respectively. Determine the volume of the rectangular solid in terms
of x and y.

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#
!
!

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Solution
Let the length, height and width of the rectangular solid be a, b, c,
respectively.
To determine the volume we need to find the product abc.
Since the area of the side is 2x, then bc = 2x.
(1)
y
y
Since the area of the front is 2 , then ab = 2 .
(2)
Since the area of the top is 25xy, then ac = 25xy. (3)
If we multiply the left sides and multiply the right sides of each of the
equations (1), (2) and (3), we obtain:
y
(bc)(ab)(ac) = (2x)( )(25xy)
2
2 2 2
2 2
a b c = 25x y
(abc)2 = (5xy)2
Taking the square root,
abc = 5xy, since all quantities are positive.
But abc is the volume. Therefore the volume of the rectangular solid, in terms
of x and y, is 5xy cm3 .

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Can You See It?
A circle with centre O has points A, B and C on its circumference.
OBA = 20 and OCA = 52 .
Determine the measure of BOC and the measure of BAC. What is the
relationship between these two angles?

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## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Can You See It?
Problem
A circle with centre O has points A, B and C on its circumference. OBA = 20 and
OCA = 52 . Determine the measure of BOC and the measure of BAC. What is the
relationship between these two angles?
#
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Solution
OB and OA are both radii of the circle so OB = OA. Then 4OBA is isosceles and
OAB = OBA = 20 . Since the angles in a triangle add to 180 ,
BOA = 180 2 20 = 140 .
OC and OA are both radii of the circle so OC = OA. Then 4OCA is isosceles and
OAC = OCA = 52 . Since the angles in a triangle add to 180 ,
COA = 180 2 52 = 76 .
We will now find the size of BAC and BOC in order to determine the relationship.
BAC =
=
=
BOC =
=
=
=
=

OAC OAB
52 20
32
BOA COA
140 76
64
2 32
2 BAC

## BAC = 32 , BOC = 64 and BOC is double the size of BAC.

This problem illustrates the following result: The angle inscribed at the centre of a circle is
twice the size of the angle inscribed at the circumference by the same chord. The 20 and 52
angles are irrelevant. The second solution generalizes this result.

## The Problem Generalized

A circle with centre O has points A, B and C on its circumference. OBA = a and
OCA = b . Determine the measure of BOC and the measure of BAC. What is the
relationship between these two angles?
#
!

&

"

Solution
OB and OA are both radii of the circle so OB = OA. Then 4OBA is isosceles and
OAB = OBA = a . Since the angles in a triangle add to 180 , BOA = (180 2a) .
OC and OA are both radii of the circle so OC = OA. Then 4OCA is isosceles and
OAC = OCA = b . Since the angles in a triangle add to 180 , COA = (180 2b) .
We will now find the size of BAC and BOC in order to determine the relationship.
BAC = OAC OAB
= (b a)
BOC =
=
=
=
=

BOA COA
(180 2a) (180 2b)
(2b 2a)
2 (b a)
2 BAC

## BOC is double the size of BAC.

In general, the angle inscribed at the centre of a circle is twice the size of the angle inscribed at
the circumference by the same chord. In the following diagram, BOC is inscribed at the
centre of the circle by chord BC and BAC is inscribed at the circumference by the same
chord. Therefore, BOC = 2BAC.
#
&

!
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"

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Not A Mickey Mouse Problem
The shape of the head and ears of a famous mouse is
contained in a rectangle.
The two smaller circles have equal radii. Each of the
three circles is tangent to the other two circles, and
each is also tangent to the sides of the rectangle. The
width of the rectangle is 4 m.
Determine the area of the rectangle not covered by
the head and ears of the famous mouse.

For this problem, the following known results about circles may be useful:
If a line is tangent to a circle, it is perpendicular to the radius drawn to
the point of tangency.

If two circles are tangent to each other at point P , a line segment through
the point of tangency can be drawn connecting the two centres, C1 and C2 .

!"

!#

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Not A Mickey Mouse Problem
%

Problem
The shape of the head and ears of a famous mouse is
contained in a rectangle. The two smaller circles have
equal radii. Each of the three circles is tangent to the
other two circles, and each is also tangent to the sides
of the rectangle. The width of the rectangle is 4 m.
Determine the area of the rectangle not covered by the
head and ears of the famous mouse.
Solution
Since the larger circle is tangent to two opposite sides
of the rectangle, its diameter is 4 m, the width of the
rectangle. It follows that the radius of the larger circle
is 2 m.

"
"

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#

"
#

The two smaller circles have equal radii, are tangent to each other and to
opposite sides of the rectangle. It follows that the diameter of each of the
smaller circles is half the width of the rectangle, namely 2 m. The radius of
each of the smaller circles is 1 m.
Let the centre of the large circle and leftmost small circle be B and E
respectively. Let the two small circles be tangent at C. Let the leftmost small
circle and the larger circle be tangent at F . Position line segment AD so that
it is parallel to the longer side such that A and D are midpoints of the shorter
sides of the rectangle. AD will pass through C and B.
Let the length of the rectangle be d. This is the same as the distance from A to
D on the diagram. We know that AB = 2 m, the radius of the larger circle, and
CD = 1 m, the radius of the smaller circle. We need to find the length of BC.
AD is tangent to the smaller circles at C. Using the first property, we know
that EC AD at C. Using the second property, EF B is a straight line
segment and EB = EF + F B = 1 + 2 = 3 m.

## Combining the information, 4ECB is right angled at C. Using the

Pythagorean Theorem, BC 2 = EB 2 EC 2 = 32 12 = 8 and BC = 8
follows. Then the length of the rectangle is

d = AB + BC + CD = 2 + 8 + 1 = 3 + 8.
To find the area not covered by the head and ears we need to find the shaded
area. To do this we find the area of the rectangle and subtract the area of the
large circle and the area of the two equal radii smaller circles.

=
=
=
=

Area of Rectangle Area of Large Circle Area of two smaller circles

4 (3 + 8) 22 2 ( 12 )

12 + 4 8 4 2

12 + 4 8 6

Some
students
have

learned to simplify radicals and know that
8 = 4 2 = 2 2. The shaded
area can then be written

4.5 m2 .

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
The Rhombus Rules!
A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel. A rhombus is a
parallelogram with all four sides having equal length.
ABCD is a rhombus. H is on BC and K is on CD such that
AB = AH = HK = KA. Determine the measure of BAD.

"

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
The Rhombus Rules
!

Problem
&

## A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel. A

rhombus is a parallelogram with all four sides having equal length.
ABCD is a rhombus. H is on BC and K is on CD such that
AB = AH = HK = KA. Determine the measure of BAD.
"

'

Solution
Draw the diagram based on the given information. Since ABCD is a rhombus, we know
AB = BC = CD = DA. Let ABH = x .
Since AH = HK = KA, 4AHK is equilateral and each angle is 60 . In particular,
HAK = 60 .
In 4ABH, AB = AH and the triangle is isosceles. Therefore, AHB = ABH = x . Then
BAH = (180 2x) .
Since ABCD is a rhombus, AB k CD and ABC + BCD = 180 . It follows that
BCD = (180 x) . But in the rhombus BC k AD and BCD + ADC = 180 . It follows
that ADC = 180 (180 x) = x .
In 4AKD, KA = AD and the triangle is isosceles. Therefore, AKD = ADK = x . Then
DAK = (180 2x) .
All of this new information is shown on the second diagram.

## (180 2x) + 60 + (180 2x)

(420 4x)
240

=
=
=
=

180 ABC
(180 x)
(!"#\$%'&
(180 x)

(3x)

x = 80
(180 x) = 100
But BAD = (180 x) .

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## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Cut, Cut, Cut!
A rope of length 200 cm is cut into four pieces. Three of the pieces are used to
form identical equilateral triangles with integer side lengths. The fourth piece
is used to form a square with integer side lengths. Determine all possible side
lengths for the triangle and square.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Cut, Cut, Cut!
Problem
A rope of length 200 cm is cut into four pieces. Three of the pieces are used to form identical
equilateral triangles with integer side lengths. The fourth piece is used to form a square with
integer side lengths. Determine all possible side lengths for the triangle and square.

Solution
Let x represent the integer side length of the equilateral triangles and let y represent the
integer side length of the square.
!

"

The perimeter of each figure is the length of the piece of rope used to form it. For each
triangle, the length of rope is 3x and for the square the length of rope is 4y. The total rope
used is 3(3x) + 4y = 9x + 4y. But the length of the rope is 200 cm. Therefore,
9x + 4y = 200
9x = 200 4y
4(50 y)
x =
9
Since both x and y are integers, 4(50 y) must be a multiple of 9. But 4 is not divisible by 9,
so 50 y must be divisible by 9. There are five multiples of 9 between 0 and 50, namely 9, 18,
27, 36, and 45. So 50 y = {9, 18, 27, 36, 45} and it follows that y = {41, 32, 23, 14, 5}. The
corresponding values of x are computed in the chart below.
y

4y

200 4y

41
32
23
14
5

164
128
92
56
20

36
72
108
144
180

x=

200 4y
9
4
8
12
16
20

When the side length of the square is 41 cm, the side length of the triangle is 4 cm; when the
side length of the square is 32 cm, the side length of the triangle is 8 cm; when the side length
of the square is 23 cm, the side length of the triangle is 12 cm; when the side length of the
square is 14 cm, the side length of the triangle is 16 cm; and when the side length of the square
is 5 cm, the side length of the triangle is 20 cm.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Its Been A Slice
M ON is a sector of a circle with centre O, radius n and M ON =

"


360
.
n

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!

Determine all positive integers n for which the sector M ON has perimeter
greater than 20 and less than 30.
Did you know that the ratio of the length of an arc to the circumference is the
same as the ratio of the sector angle to 360 ? The same ratio holds when
comparing sector area to the total area of a circle.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Its Been A Slice
Problem

M ON is a sector of a circle with centre O, radius n and M ON = 360
. Determine all
n
positive integers n for which the sector M ON has perimeter greater than 20 and less than 30.

Solution
As the sector angle gets larger, so does the length of the arc if the radius remains the same. In

## decreases. It is difficult to see

this problem, as the radius n increases, the sector angle 360
n
what happens to the length of the arc.
Since the ratio of the arc length to the circumference of the circle is the same as the ratio of
the sector angle to 360 ,
Sector Angle
Arc Length =
circumference
360
360
n

d
360
1
=
2n,
n
= 2
=

since d = 2r = 2n

As the radius increases, the sector angle decreases and the arc length M N remains constant,
2 units.
Perimeter = M O + ON + arc length M N
= n + n + 2
= 2n + 2
We want all integer values of n such that:
20 < 2n + 2 and 2n + 2 < 30
10 < n + and n + < 15
10 < n and n < 15
We want all integer values of n such that n > 10 =
6.9 and n < 15 =11.9.

The only
integer values of n that satisfy these conditions are n = 7, n = 8, n = 9, n = 10, and n = 11.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Inside the Box
P QRS is a rectangle. A and B are points on QR such that QA = AB = BR.
C is the midpoint of P Q. The area of 4ACS is 10 cm2 . Determine the area of
rectangle P QRS.

'

"

&

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Inside the Box
Problem
P QRS is a rectangle. A and B are points on QR such that QA = AB = BR. C is the
midpoint of P Q. The area of 4ACS is 10 cm2 . Determine the area of rectangle P QRS.

Solution
Let QA = AB = BR = x. Then P S = QR = 3x and AR = 2x.
Since C is the midpoint of P Q, P C = CQ = y. Then SR = P Q = 2y.
!

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We will formulate an equation connecting the areas of the four inside shapes to the entire
rectangle.
Area P QRS = Area 4P CS + Area 4SRA + Area 4AQC + Area 4ACS
SR AR
QA CQ
PC PS
+
+
+ 10
P Q QR =
2
2
2
y 3x
2y 2x
xy
(2y) (3x) =
+
+
+ 10
2
2
2
3xy
xy
6xy
=
+
2xy
+
+ 10
2
2
Multiply by 2: 12xy = 3xy + 4xy + xy + 20
4xy = 20
xy = 5
The area of rectangle P QRS is 6xy = 6(5) = 30 cm2 .

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Know How to Fold Em
A square piece of paper ABCD has side length 20 cm. The
page is grey on one side and white on the other. Point M
is the midpoint of side AB and point N is the midpoint of
side AD. (Refer to the top diagram.)
Point A is folded along M N so that A touches the paper.
(Refer to the second diagram.)
Point C is then folded over a line P Q parallel to M N
so that C lies on M N . (Refer to the third and bottom
diagram.)
What is the area of hexagon N M BP QD?
A square is a four sided figure with sides of equal length and
corner angles each measuring 90 . Here are some known
properties of the diagonals of squares:
the diagonals are equal length; and
the diagonals right bisect each other; and
the diagonals bisect the corner angles.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Know How to Fold Em
Problem
A square piece of paper ABCD has side length 20 cm. The page is
grey on one side and white on the other. Point M is the midpoint of
side AB and point N is the midpoint of side AD. The paper is folded
along M N so that A touches the paper. Point C is then folded over a
line P Q parallel to M N so that C lies on M N . What is the area of
hexagon N M BP QD?

Solution
If we are able to find the area of 4AM N and 4P CQ, we can subtract these areas from the
total area to find the area of hexagon N M BP QD. To find the area of 4P CQ, we must find
the length of P C and CQ.
Since M and N are midpoints of AB and AD respectively, AM = 21 (AB) = 10 and
AN = 12 (AD) = 10. Therefore AM = AN = 10 and 4AM N is an isosceles right triangle. It
follows that AN M = AM N = 45 . Since P Q is parallel to M N , P Q also meets the sides of
the square at a 45 angle. It follows that 4P CQ is also an isosceles right triangle with
P C = CQ and CP Q = CQP = 45 .
After the first fold, let A touch the paper at A0 . 4M A0 N is a reflection
of 4M AN in the line M N . It follows that AM N = A0 M N = 45
and AN M = A0 N M = 45 . Then AM A0 = AN A0 = 90 . Since
all four sides of AM A0 N are equal in length and all four corners are
90 , AM A0 N is a square.
Since M AA0 = M AC = 45 , the diagonal AA of square AM A0 N
lies along the diagonal AC of square ABCD. (In fact, A0 lies at the
intersection of the two diagonals of ABCD, the centre of the square.)
The length of the diagonal of square AM A0 N can be found using the Pythagorean Theorem.
p

## AA0 = (AM )2 + (M A0 )2 = 102 + 102 = 200 = 10 2

Some students may not be familiar with simplifying radicals:

## 200 = 100 2 = 100 2 = 10 2

Let O be the intersection of the two diagonals of square AM A0 N . It is also the intersection of
M N and AC. (We will show later that this is in fact
of contact of C with the paper
the point

## We know that 4P CQ is a right isosceles triangle. When the triangle

is reflected in the line segment P Q, a square, P CQC 0 , is created with
C 0 being the image of C. We will not present the argument here
because it is very similar to the argument presented for AM A0 N .
Since P CC 0 = P CA = 45 , CC 0 lies along the diagonal CA. Also,
C 0 is the intersection of CA with M N . This means that C 0 and O are
the same point.
The length of the diagonal of square ABCD can be calculated using the Pythagorean Theorem.
p

## AC = (AB)2 + (BC)2 = 202 + 202 = 800 = 20 2

The length of CC 0 equals the length of AC subtract the length of OA.

CC 0 = 20 2 5 2 = 15 2

4P CQ,
(P C)2 + (CQ)2
x2 + x2
x2 + x2
2x2
x2
x

=
=
=
=
=
=

(P Q)2

(15 2)2
225 2
500
225
15

## We now have enough information to calculate the area of hexagon N M BP QD.

Area N M BP QD = Area ABCD Area 4AM N Area 4P CQ
P C CQ
AM AN

= AB BC
2
2
10 10 15 15
= 20 20

2
2
100 225
= 400

2
2
800 100 225
=

2
2
2
475
=
2
The area of hexagon N M BP QD is

475
cm2 or 237.5 cm2 .
2

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
In the diagram, O is the centre of a circle with points A, B, C, and D on the
circumference. If BOC = 50 and CO = CD, determine the measure of
A

O
50
B

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Problem

A
y

## In the diagram, O is the centre of a circle with points A,

B, C, and D on the circumference. If BOC = 50 and
CO = CD, determine the measure of BAD.

Solution

## As the solution proceeds, the new markings on the

diagram will be explained. Draw radii from O to points
A and D on the circumference. Join B to C.

50
B

w
z

y
x

## Since OB and OC are radii, OB = OC and 4OBC

is isosceles. Therefore, OBC = OCB = x . But
in a triangle the angles sum to 180 . It follows that
x + x + 50 = 180 . Then 2x = 130 and x = 65.

x w

In 4OCD, OC = OD since they are both radii. But we are given that OC = CD. Therefore,
OC = CD = OD and 4OCD is equilateral. It follows that each angle is 60 . Therefore,
w = 60.
Since OD and OA are radii, OD = OA and 4ODA is isosceles. Therefore,
ODA = OAD = z .
Similarly, since OA and OB are radii, OA = OB and 4OAB is isosceles. Therefore,
OBA = OAB = y .
The figure ABCD is a quadrilateral and we know that the sum of the interior angles of a
BAD + ABC + BCD + CDA

(y + z ) + (y + x ) + (x + w ) + (w + z )
2w + 2x + 2y + 2z
w + x + y + z
(60 ) + (65 ) + y + z
(125 ) + y + z
(y + z)

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

360
360
360
180
180
180
55
55

Dividing by 2
Substituting for w and x

Since BAD = (y + z)

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Triangle, Meet Square
The area of 4ACD is twice the area of square BCDE. AC and AD meet BE
at K and L respectively.
If the side length of the square is 12 cm, determine the area of trapezoid
KCDL.

'

"

&

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
'

## Triangle, Meet Square

Problem
The area of 4ACD is twice the area of square BCDE. AC and
AD meet BE at K and L respectively. If the side length of the
square is 12 cm, determine the area of trapezoid KCDL.
Solution

## To find the area of a trapezoid, multiply the sum of the lengths

of the two parallel sides, KL and CD, by the height, BC, and
divide the product by 2. To solve this problem we need to find
the length of KL. Let x represent the length of KL.

"

&

## Draw AP Q perpendicular to KL and CD. It follows that AP is an altitude of

4AKL and AQ is an altitude of 4ACD.
Area of square BCDE
Area 4ACD
But Area 4ACD
288
288
AQ

=
=
=
=
=
=

12 12 = 144 cm2
2 Area of Square BCDE = 288 cm2
CD AQ 2
12 AQ 2
6(AQ)
48 cm

## Since AQ = 48 and P Q = BC = 12, then AP = AQ P Q = 48 12 = 36 cm.

Area of trapezoid KCDL + Area of 4AKL
(KL + CD) BC 2 + KL AP 2
(x + 12)(12) 2 + x(36) 2
6(x + 12) + 18x
6x + 72 + 18x
24x
x

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Area 4ACD
288
288
288
288
216
9 cm

(KL + CD) P Q
2
(9 + 12)(12)
=
2
= 126 cm2

## Therefore the area of trapezoid KCDL is 126 cm2 .

Notes:
1. In order to find the length of KL, we could establish that
4ACD 4AKL. From this we can use the fact that the ratio of the
altitudes of the two triangles equals the ratio of the corresponding sides in
the two similar triangles. The reader may wish to justify this fact.
AP
AQ
36
48
3
4
x

KL
CD
x
=
12
x
=
12
= 9 cm
=

## 2. Instead of using the formula to determine the area of the trapezoid, we

could find the area by subtracting the area of 4AKL from the area of
4ACD.
Area of trapezoid KCDL = Area 4ACD Area of 4AKL
(KL)(AP )
= 288
2
9 36
= 288
2
= 288 152
= 126 cm2

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Sum to 1000
Did you know that 1000 can be written as the sum of 16 consecutive whole
numbers? That is,
1000 = 55 + 56 + 57 + 58 + 59 + 60 + 61 + 62 + 63 + 64 + 65 + 66 + 67 + 68 + 69 + 70.
The diagram below illustrates a mathematical short form used for writing the
above sum. The notation is called Sigma Notation.

\$%

!!!"!!&%%%
!!"!##
Using at least two numbers, what is the minimum number of consecutive whole
numbers needed to sum to exactly 1000?
In this weeks Problem C and Problem E we explore the ideas in this problem
further.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Sum to 1000
Problem
The number 1000 can be written as the sum of 16 consecutive whole numbers:
1000 = 55 + 56 + 57 + 58 + 59 + 60 + 61 + 62 + 63 + 64 + 65 + 66 + 67 + 68 + 69 + 70.
Using at least two numbers, what is the minimum number of consecutive whole
numbers needed to sum to exactly 1000?
Solution
In this solution we will examine possible cases until we discover the first one
that works.
1. Can 1000 be written using 2 consecutive whole numbers?
Let n, n + 1 represent the two numbers.
n+n+1 =
2n + 1 =
2n =
n =

Then,
1000
1000
999
499.5

Since n is not a whole number, it is not possible to write 1000 using two
consecutive whole numbers.
2. Can 1000 be written using 3 consecutive whole numbers?
Let n, n + 1, n + 2 represent the three numbers. Then,
n + n + 1 + n + 2 = 1000
3n + 3 = 1000
3n = 997
n =
332.3
Since n is not a whole number, it is not possible to write 1000 using three
consecutive whole numbers. (Refer to the note following the solution for
an alternate way to define the three consecutive whole numbers.)
The solution continues on the next page.

## 3. Can 1000 be written using 4 consecutive whole numbers?

Let n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3 represent the four numbers. Then,
n + n + 1 + n + 2 + n + 3 = 1000
4n + 6 = 1000
4n = 994
n = 248.5
Since n is not a whole number, it is not possible to write 1000 using four
consecutive whole numbers.
4. Can 1000 be written using 5 consecutive whole numbers?
Let n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3, n + 4 represent the five
n+n+1+n+2+n+3+n+4
5n + 10
5n
n

numbers. Then,
= 1000
= 1000
= 990
= 198

## Since n is a whole number, it is possible to write 1000 using five

consecutive whole numbers. That is, 1000 = 198 + 199 + 200 + 201 + 202.
Since we have checked all possible numbers of consecutive whole numbers
below five and none of them worked, the minimum number of consecutive
whole numbers required to produce a sum of 1000 is five.
Note:
In the second case, when we checked to see if 1000 could be written as the sum
of three consecutive whole numbers. We could have proceeded as follows:
Let a 1, a, a + 1 represent the three consecutive whole numbers. Then,
a 1 + a + a + 1 = 1000
3a = 1000
a =
333.3
Since a is not a whole number, it is not possible to write 1000 using three
consecutive whole numbers.
This idea is useful when we are finding the sum of an odd number of
consecutive integers. We could also have applied the same idea to the fourth
case by using a 2, a 1, a, a + 1, a + 2 to represent the five consecutive
positive integers.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
An Odd Grid
The first 9 positive odd integers are placed in the following 3 3 grid in such a
way that the sum of each row, column and diagonal is the same. Four of the
numbers are shown and the other five numbers are hidden behind the letters
A, B, C, D, and E.

13

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solutions
An Odd Grid
Problem
The first 9 positive odd integers are placed in the 3 3 grid
shown to the right in such a way that the sum of each row,
column and diagonal is the same. Four of the numbers are
shown and the other five numbers are hidden behind the letters
A, B, C, D, and E. Determine the value of A + E.

13

Solution 1
The numbers to be placed in the table are 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, and 17,
the first 9 positive odd integers. The sum of all the numbers in the table is
1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 + 15 + 17 = 81. It follows that the sum of the three
rows is 81. But each row has the same sum so the sum of each row is
81 3 = 27. We know that each row, column and diagonal has the same sum.
Therefore the sum of each row = the sum of each column = the sum of each
diagonal = 27.
We can now use this information to determine the values in each cell of the
3 3 grid. In the third column we know that B + 13 + 3 = 27 and B = 11
follows.
In the first row we know that A + 1 + B = 27 and B = 11 so A + 1 + 11 = 27.
A = 15 follows.
In the second row we know that 5 + C + 13 = 27 and C = 9 follows.
Then in the second column 1 + C + E = 27 and C = 9 so 1 + 9 + E = 27.
E = 17 follows.
Since we know the values of A and E we can compute the sum
A + E = 15 + 17 = 32.
Therefore, the sum A + E is 32.

## WWW.C E M C .U WAT E R LO O.C A | T h e C E N T R E fo r E D U C AT I O N i n M AT H E M AT I C S a n d CO M P U T I N G

Problem
The first 9 positive odd integers are placed in the 3 3 grid
shown to the right in such a way that the sum of each row,
column and diagonal is the same. Four of the numbers are
shown and the other five numbers are hidden behind the letters
A, B, C, D, and E. Determine the value of A + E.

13

Solution 2
In the second solution we determine the required sum without finding the
row/column/diagonal sum. Since the row sum equals the column sum we know
that the sum of row 1 equals the sum of column 3.
A + 1 + B = B + 13 + 3
A + 1 = 13 + 3
A = 15

## since B is common to both sides

Again, since the row sum equals the column sum we know that the sum of
column 2 equals the sum of row 2.
1 + C + E = 5 + C + 13
1 + E = 5 + 13
E = 17

## Since we know the values of A and E we can compute the sum

A + E = 15 + 17 = 32.
Therefore, the sum A + E is 32.
Solution 3
In solution 3 we find the sum A + E without finding any individual values.
Row 1 + Column 2
A+1+B+1+C +E
A+1+1+E
A+E+2
A+E

=
=
=
=
=

Row 2 + Column 3
5 + 13 + C + B + 13 + 3
5 + 13 + 13 + 3
B + C is common to both sides
34
32

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Give Me Some Volume
The side, front and top faces of a rectangular solid have areas of 2x,
25xy cm2 , respectively.
Determine the volume of the rectangular solid in terms of x and y.

!""!

!
!

!"

y
2

and

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Give Me Some Volume
Problem
The side, front and top faces of a rectangular solid have areas of 2x, y2 and
25xy cm2 , respectively. Determine the volume of the rectangular solid in terms
of x and y.

!""!
#
!
!

!"
\$

Solution
Let the length, height and width of the rectangular solid be a, b, c,
respectively.
To determine the volume we need to find the product abc.
Since the area of the side is 2x, then bc = 2x.
(1)
y
y
Since the area of the front is 2 , then ab = 2 .
(2)
Since the area of the top is 25xy, then ac = 25xy. (3)
If we multiply the left sides and multiply the right sides of each of the
equations (1), (2) and (3), we obtain:
y
(bc)(ab)(ac) = (2x)( )(25xy)
2
2 2 2
2 2
a b c = 25x y
(abc)2 = (5xy)2
Taking the square root,
abc = 5xy, since all quantities are positive.
But abc is the volume. Therefore the volume of the rectangular solid, in terms
of x and y, is 5xy cm3 .

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
No Weigh!
Icon Duit was asked to determine the combined weight of one sphere and one
cube but he did not have a reliable weigh scale. He was, however, given the
following information:
Four spheres and three cubes weigh 37 g.
Three spheres and four cubes weigh 33 g.
Icon was quickly able to determine the combined weight, in grams, of one
sphere and one cube. Your task is to also determine the combined weight of
one sphere and one cube.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solutions
No Weigh!
Problem
Icon Duit was asked to determine the combined weight of one sphere and one cube but he did
not have a reliable weigh scale. He was, however, given the following information: four spheres
and three cubes weigh 37 g and three spheres and four cubes weigh 33 g. Icon was quickly able
to determine the combined weight, in grams, of one sphere and one cube. Your task is to also
determine the combined weight of one sphere and one cube.

Solution 1
The problem is solved quickly if you make the following observation. Since four spheres and
three cubes weigh 37 g and three spheres and four cubes weigh 33 g, then, by combining the
two pieces of information, seven spheres and seven cubes weigh 37 + 33 = 70 g. Dividing by 7,
one sphere and one cube weigh 70 7 = 10 g.

Solution 2
In this solution we will find the weight of one sphere and the weight of one cube. We will then
determine the sum.
Let c represent the weight, in grams, of one cube.
Let s represent the weight, in grams, of one sphere.
From the first piece of information, 4s + 3c = 37.
(1)
From the second piece of information, 3s + 4c = 33. (2)
To get from equation (1) to equation (2), notice that there is one less sphere and one more
cube causing the weight to go down 4 g. Therefore, a sphere weighs 4 g more than a cube and
s = c + 4 follows. We can substitute for s in (1).
4(c + 4) + 3c
4c + 16 + 3c
7c
c

=
=
=
=

37
37
21
3g

Since c = 3 and s = c + 4, s = 7 g. One sphere weighs 7 g and one cube weighs 3 g. The
combined weight of one sphere and one cube is 3 + 7 = 10 g.

## WWW.C E M C .U WAT E R LO O.C A | T h e C E N T R E fo r E D U C AT I O N i n M AT H E M AT I C S a n d CO M P U T I N G

Solution 3
Let c represent the weight, in grams, of one cube.
Let s represent the weight, in grams, of one sphere.
Using the given information, we obtain the following system of equations.
4s + 3c = 37
3s + 4c = 33

(1)
(2)

## We will now use elimination to solve for s and c.

Multiply (1) by 4
Multiply (2) by 3

9s + 12c = 99

7s = 49
s = 7g

## Substituting s = 7 into (1)

4(7) + 3c
28 + 3c
3c
c

=
=
=
=

(3)
(4)

37
37
9
3g

Therefore, one sphere weighs 7 g and one cube weighs 3 g. The combined weight of one sphere
and one cube is 3 + 7 = 10 g.

Solution 4
This is the algebraic version of solution 1.
Let c represent the weight, in grams, of one cube.
Let s represent the weight, in grams, of one sphere.
Using the given information, we obtain the following system of equations.
4s + 3c = 37
3s + 4c = 33

(1)
(2)

Adding (1) and (2), we obtain 7s + 7c = 70. Dividing both sides of the equation by 7, we
obtain s + c = 10. But s is the weight of one sphere and c is the weight of one cube so s + c is
the combined weight of one sphere and one cube.
Therefore, the combined weight of one sphere and one cube is 10 g.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Well Aged
At present, the sum of the ages of a father and his son is 43 years. In n years,
n > 0, the father will be four times the sons age.
Determine the possible ages of the father and son.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Well Aged
Problem
At present, the sum of the ages of a father and his son is 43 years. In n years, n > 0, the father
will be four times the sons age. Determine the possible ages of the father and son.

Solution
Let s represent the present age of the son and f represent the present age of the father.
Since the sum of their present ages is 43, s + f = 43 or f = 43 s.
In n years, the son will be (s + n) years old and the father will be (43 s + n) years old. At
that time the father will be four times older than the son.
43 s + n
43 s + n
43
43 3n
5

= 4(s + n)
= 4s + 4n
= 5s + 3n
= s

## We are looking for integer values of n so that 43 3n is divisible by 5.

433(1)
= 40
= 8. When s = 8, f = 43 s = 43 8 = 35.
5
5
= 433(6)
= 25
= 5. When s = 5, f = 43 s = 43 5 = 38.
6, s = 433n
5
5
5
11, s = 433n
= 433(11)
= 10
= 2. When s = 2, f = 43 s = 43 2 = 41.
5
5
5
433(16)
=
= 5
= 1. Since s < 0, n = 16 does not produce
16, s = 433n
5
5
5

When n = 1, s =
When n =
When n =

433n
5

When n =
age for the son. No higher value of n would produce a value of s > 0.

a valid

No integer values of n other than 1, 6, and 11, between 0 and 16, produce a multiple of 5 when
substituted into 43 3n.
If today the father is 35 and the son is 8, then in 1 year the father will be 36 and the son will
be 9. The father will be four times older than the son since 4 9 = 36.
If today the father is 38 and the son is 5, then in 6 years the father will be 44 and the son will
be 11. The father will be four times older than the son since 4 11 = 44.
If today the father is 41 and the son is 2, then in 11 years the father will be 52 and the son will
be 13. The father will be four times older than the son since 4 13 = 52.
Therefore the possible present ages for the father and son are 35 and 8 or 38 and 5 or 41 and 2.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Troubling Times
Dante B Late has a clock that gains exactly 12 minutes per hour. Just before
leaving for work at 5:30 a.m., Dante set the clock to the correct time.
Dante returned home for lunch and while eating glanced over at the clock.

The clock read 1:30 p.m. At first Dante was concerned, knowing that he should
have left the house at 12:30 p.m. in order to return to work on time. But then
he remembered the clocks peculiar feature.
How much time does Dante have left at home before he needs to leave to

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solutions
Troubling Times
Problem
Dante B Late has a clock that gains exactly 12 minutes per hour. Just before
leaving for work at 5:30 a.m., Dante set the clock to the correct time. Dante
returned home for lunch and while eating glanced over at the clock. The clock
read 1:30 p.m. At first Dante was concerned, knowing that he should have left
the house at 12:30 p.m. in order to return to work on time. But then he
remembered the clocks peculiar feature.
How much time does Dante have left at home before he needs to leave to
Solution 1
Every hour the clock gains 12 minutes or

12
60

1
5

h.

Let x be the actual number of hours that have passed since 5:30 a.m. Then the
number of hours that the clock advances is x + 15 x = 65 x h.
From 5:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m., the clock advances 8 h.
6
x = 8
5
20
x =
3
2
x = 6 h
3
x = 6 h 40 min
The actual time is 6 hours and 40 minutes after 5:30 a.m. This puts the actual
time at 12:10 p.m. and Dante still has 20 minutes left before he must return to
work.

## WWW.C E M C .U WAT E R LO O.C A | T h e C E N T R E fo r E D U C AT I O N i n M AT H E M AT I C S a n d CO M P U T I N G

Solution 2
For every 60 real minutes, the clock advances 60 + 12 = 72 minutes.
From 5:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. the clock advances 8 h or 8 60 = 480 minutes.
Let x be the number of real minutes that
480 minutes.
x
Then
=
480
x
=
480

## pass when the clock has advanced

60
72
5
6
5
x = (480)
6
x = 400 min
x = 6 h 40 min

The real time is 6 hours and 40 minutes after 5:30 a.m. or 12:10 p.m. Dante
still has 20 minutes left before he needs to return to work.
Solution 3
Actual Number
of Hours
1
2
3
4
5

Real
Time
5:30 a.m.
6:30 a.m.
7:30 a.m.
8:30 a.m.
9:30 a.m.
10:30 a.m.

Clock
1 h 12 min
2 h 24 min
3 h 36 min
4 h 48 min
6 h 0 min

Clock
Time
5:30 a.m.
6:42 a.m.
7:54 a.m.
9:06 a.m.
10:18 a.m.
11:30 a.m.

When the clock advances 6 h from 5:30 a.m to 11:30 a.m., 5 real hours have
passed. When the clock advances 2 h from 11:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m., 53 = 1 23 or
1 hour and 40 minutes of real time will pass from 10:30 a.m. actual time.
The actual time is then 12:10 p.m. and Dante can relax. He still has 20

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Lets Make A Deal
An automobile dealer purchased two cars. She then sold the cars, the first at a
profit of 40% and the second at a profit of 60%. Her total profit on the sale of
the two cars was 54%. She received a total of \$88 704 from the sale of the two
cars.
What did the dealer originally pay for each of the two cars?

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solutions
Lets Make A Deal
Problem
An automobile dealer purchased two cars. She then sold the cars, the first at a
profit of 40% and the second at a profit of 60%. Her total profit on the sale of
the two cars was 54%. She received a total of \$88 704 from the sale of the two
cars. What did the dealer originally pay for each of the two cars?
Solution 1
Let a represent what the dealer paid for the first car and b represent what she
paid for the second car.
The profit on the sale of the first car was 40% or 0.4a. The first car was sold
for a + 0.4a = 1.4a. The profit on the sale of the second car was 60% or 0.6b.
The second car was sold for b + 0.6b = 1.6b. The total selling price of the two
cars was \$88 704 so
1.4a + 1.6b = 88 704
Multiplying by 5:
7a + 8b = 443 520
(1)
The dealer bought both cars for a total of (a + b). The profit on the sale of the
two cars was 54% or 0.54(a + b). The two cars sold for
(a + b) + 0.54(a + b) = 1.54(a + b). But the total selling price was \$88 704 so
1.54(a + b) = 88 704
a + b = 88 704 1.54
a + b = 57 600
(2)
Solving the system of equations using elimination:
7a + 8b = 443 520
Multiplying (2) by 7: 7a + 7b = 403 200
Subtracting (3) from (1):
b = 40 320

(1)
(3)

## Since b = 40 320 and a + b = 57 600, then a = 17 280 follows.

The dealer paid \$17 280 for the first car and \$40 320 for the second car.

## WWW.C E M C .U WAT E R LO O.C A | T h e C E N T R E fo r E D U C AT I O N i n M AT H E M AT I C S a n d CO M P U T I N G

Problem
An automobile dealer purchased two cars. She then sold the cars, the first at a
profit of 40% and the second at a profit of 60%. Her total profit on the sale of
the two cars was 54%. She received a total of \$88 704 from the sale of the two
cars. What did the dealer originally pay for each of the two cars?
Solution 2
Let a represent what the dealer paid for the first car and b represent what she
paid for the second car.
The profit on the sale of the first car was 40% or 0.4a. The first car was sold
for a + 0.4a = 1.4a. The profit on the sale of the second car was 60% or 0.6b.
The second car was sold for b + 0.6b = 1.6b. The total selling price of the two
cars was \$88 704 so:
1.4a + 1.6b = 88 704
Multiplying by 5:
7a + 8b = 443 520
(1)
The dealer bought both cars for a total of (a + b). The profit on the sale of the
two cars was 54% or 0.54(a + b). The total profit is the sum of the profit from
the sale of each car so:
0.54(a + b) = 0.4a + 0.6b
0.54a + 0.54b = 0.4a + 0.6b
0.14a = 0.06b
Multiplying by 50:
7a = 3b
(2)
Substituting 3b for 7a in (1), 3b + 8b = 443 520 or 11b = 443 520 and
b = 40 320 follows.
Substituting b = 40 320 in (2), 7a = 120 960 and a = 17 280 follows.
The first car cost \$17 280 and the second car cost \$40 320.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Keep on Tracking
A freight train is 27 minutes late when it makes its usual trip between Town A
and Town B at an average speed of 56 km/h. For another trip between Town
A and Town B, the freight train is 42 minutes late when its average speed is
54 km/h. What is the distance between Town A and Town B?

!"#\$%&

!"#\$%'

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solutions
Keep on Tracking
Problem
A freight train is 27 minutes late when it makes its usual trip between Town A
and Town B at an average speed of 56 km/h. For another trip between Town
A and Town B, the freight train is 42 minutes late when its average speed is
54 km/h. What is the distance between Town A and Town B?
Solution 1
Let t represent the time, in hours, taken by the train when it was 27 minutes
late. Then, t + 14 represents the time, in hours, taken by the train when it was
15 minutes or one-quarter hour later.
The following chart displays the information. The distance column of the chart
is completed by multiplying the average speed by the time.
Distance

Speed

Time

Faster Train

56t

56

Slower Train

54(t + 14 )

54

t+

1
4

## Since the distance between Town A and Town B remains constant,

1
56t = 54(t + )
4
27
56t = 54t +
2
27
2t =
2
27
t =
4
The distance between Town A and Town B is 56t = 56

27
4

= 378 km.

## WWW.C E M C .U WAT E R LO O.C A | T h e C E N T R E fo r E D U C AT I O N i n M AT H E M AT I C S a n d CO M P U T I N G

Solution 2
Let d represent the distance, in km, between Town A and Town B.
The following chart displays the information. The time column of the chart is
completed by dividing the distance by the average speed.
Speed
56

Time

Faster Train

Distance
d

Slower Train

54

d
54

d
56

Since the difference in times between the slower train and the faster train is
15 minutes or 14 hour,
d
1
d

=
54 56
4
1
56d 54d
=
(54)(56)
4
1
2d =
(54)(56)
4
2d = 756
d = 378
The distance between Town A and Town B is 378 km.
Solution 3
This solution looks at the problem quite differently from the first two solutions.
If the faster train first travels 27 minutes, it would then complete the rest of
the trip in the usual amount of time. During the 27 minutes, the faster train
1512
would travel 27
60 56 = 60 = 25.2 km.
If the slower train first travels 42 minutes, it would then complete the rest of
the trip in the usual amount of time. During the 42 minutes, the slower train
2268
would travel 42
60 54 = 60 = 37.8 km.
The slower train is 37.8 25.2 = 12.6 km ahead of the faster train at the point
when the usual time to complete the trip remains. The faster train gains
2 km/h on the slower train. It will take the faster train 12.6
2 = 6.3 h to catch up
and thereby complete the trip. In 6.3 h, the faster train travels
6.3 56 = 352.8 km. But it had already travelled 25.2 km. Therefore the total
distance from Town A to Town B is 25.2 + 352.8 = 378 km.
The distance between Town A and Town B is 378 km.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Not A Mickey Mouse Problem
The shape of the head and ears of a famous mouse is
contained in a rectangle.
The two smaller circles have equal radii. Each of the
three circles is tangent to the other two circles, and
each is also tangent to the sides of the rectangle. The
width of the rectangle is 4 m.
Determine the area of the rectangle not covered by
the head and ears of the famous mouse.

For this problem, the following known results about circles may be useful:
If a line is tangent to a circle, it is perpendicular to the radius drawn to
the point of tangency.

If two circles are tangent to each other at point P , a line segment through
the point of tangency can be drawn connecting the two centres, C1 and C2 .

!"

!#

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Not A Mickey Mouse Problem
%

Problem
The shape of the head and ears of a famous mouse is
contained in a rectangle. The two smaller circles have
equal radii. Each of the three circles is tangent to the
other two circles, and each is also tangent to the sides
of the rectangle. The width of the rectangle is 4 m.
Determine the area of the rectangle not covered by the
head and ears of the famous mouse.
Solution
Since the larger circle is tangent to two opposite sides
of the rectangle, its diameter is 4 m, the width of the
rectangle. It follows that the radius of the larger circle
is 2 m.

"
"

"

&

"
'

!
!

\$
#

"
#

The two smaller circles have equal radii, are tangent to each other and to
opposite sides of the rectangle. It follows that the diameter of each of the
smaller circles is half the width of the rectangle, namely 2 m. The radius of
each of the smaller circles is 1 m.
Let the centre of the large circle and leftmost small circle be B and E
respectively. Let the two small circles be tangent at C. Let the leftmost small
circle and the larger circle be tangent at F . Position line segment AD so that
it is parallel to the longer side such that A and D are midpoints of the shorter
sides of the rectangle. AD will pass through C and B.
Let the length of the rectangle be d. This is the same as the distance from A to
D on the diagram. We know that AB = 2 m, the radius of the larger circle, and
CD = 1 m, the radius of the smaller circle. We need to find the length of BC.
AD is tangent to the smaller circles at C. Using the first property, we know
that EC AD at C. Using the second property, EF B is a straight line
segment and EB = EF + F B = 1 + 2 = 3 m.

## Combining the information, 4ECB is right angled at C. Using the

Pythagorean Theorem, BC 2 = EB 2 EC 2 = 32 12 = 8 and BC = 8
follows. Then the length of the rectangle is

d = AB + BC + CD = 2 + 8 + 1 = 3 + 8.
To find the area not covered by the head and ears we need to find the shaded
area. To do this we find the area of the rectangle and subtract the area of the
large circle and the area of the two equal radii smaller circles.

=
=
=
=

Area of Rectangle Area of Large Circle Area of two smaller circles

4 (3 + 8) 22 2 ( 12 )

12 + 4 8 4 2

12 + 4 8 6

Some
students
have

learned to simplify radicals and know that
8 = 4 2 = 2 2. The shaded
area can then be written

4.5 m2 .

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Santa fills the elf-shoes of the good elves with candy and other good things.
However, the elf-shoes of the naughty elves generally receive some coal as well.
Three of Santas elves, the triplets, Zeta, Eta and Theta, have been very
naughty this year. Santa is giving them a total of ten lumps of coal between
them in their elf-shoes. Each of them must get at least one lump of coal.

ZETA

ETA

THETA

In how many different ways can Santa distribute the coal to Zeta, Eta and
Theta?

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Problem
Santa fills the elf-shoes of the good elves with candy and other good things.
However, the elf-shoes of the naughty elves generally receive some coal as
well. Three of Santas elves, the triplets, Zeta, Eta and Theta, have been
very naughty this year. Santa is giving them a total of ten lumps of coal
between them in their elf-shoes. Each of them must get at least one lump of
coal. In how many different ways can Santa distribute the coal to Zeta, Eta
and Theta?

Solution
We could completely list all of the possibilities but that would not be practical if there were
more lumps of coal. We know that there are 10 lumps of coal and that each elf must receive at
least one. We will consider a few cases to see if there is a pattern.
1. Zeta receives one lump of coal. Then Eta and Theta receive a total of 10 1 = 9 lumps
between them. This can be done in 8 possible ways:
{(1, 8), (2, 7), (3, 6), (4, 5), (5, 4), (6, 3), (7, 2), (8, 1)}.
2. Zeta receives two lumps of coal. Then Eta and Theta receive a total of 10 2 = 8 lumps
between them. This can be done in 7 possible ways:
{(1, 7), (2, 6), (3, 5), (4, 4), (5, 3), (6, 2), (7, 1)}.
3. Zeta receives three lumps of coal. Then Eta and Theta receive a total of 10 3 = 7
lumps between them. This can be done in 6 possible ways:
{(1, 6), (2, 5), (3, 4), (4, 3), (5, 2), (6, 1)}.
We could continue but the pattern is established. We will summarize in the following table.
# of lumps
for Zeta
1
2
3
..
.

# of lumps
remaining
9
8
7
..
.

## # of ways to distribute the remaining

lumps between Eta and Theta
8
7
6
..
.

7
8

3
2

2
1

The total number of ways Santa can distribute 10 lumps of coal between the three naughty
elves so that each receives at least one lump is 8 + 7 + 6 + + 3 + 2 + 1 = 36 ways. This sum
can be computed by adding the positive integers from 1 to 8. However, it is also known that
the sum of the first n positive integers can be calculated using the formula n(n+1)
. In this case
2
8(9)
n = 8 so the sum is 2 = 36.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
A Power Filled Problem
53 is a power with base 5 and exponent 3.
53 means 5 5 5 and equals 125 when expressed as an integer.
When 8670 52013 is expressed as an integer, how many digits are in the
product?

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
A Power Filled Problem
Problem
53 is a power with base 5 and exponent 3. 53 means 5 5 5 and equals 125
when expressed as an integer.
When 8670 52013 is expressed as an integer, how many digits are in the
product?
Solution
An immediate temptation might be to reach for a calculator. In this case, basic
calculator technology will let you down. We will look at the problem using our
knowledge of powers and corresponding power laws.
8670 52013 =
=
=
=
=
=


(23 )670 52013
23670 52013
22010 52013
22010 52010 53
(2 5)2010 125
102010 125

But 102010 is the number 1 followed by 2010 zeroes. When we multiply this
number by 125, we obtain the number 125 followed by 2010 zeroes. Therefore,
8670 52013 has 2010 + 3 = 2013 digits.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
The Rhombus Rules!
A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel. A rhombus is a
parallelogram with all four sides having equal length.
ABCD is a rhombus. H is on BC and K is on CD such that
AB = AH = HK = KA. Determine the measure of BAD.

"

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
The Rhombus Rules
!

Problem
&

## A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel. A

rhombus is a parallelogram with all four sides having equal length.
ABCD is a rhombus. H is on BC and K is on CD such that
AB = AH = HK = KA. Determine the measure of BAD.
"

'

Solution
Draw the diagram based on the given information. Since ABCD is a rhombus, we know
AB = BC = CD = DA. Let ABH = x .
Since AH = HK = KA, 4AHK is equilateral and each angle is 60 . In particular,
HAK = 60 .
In 4ABH, AB = AH and the triangle is isosceles. Therefore, AHB = ABH = x . Then
BAH = (180 2x) .
Since ABCD is a rhombus, AB k CD and ABC + BCD = 180 . It follows that
BCD = (180 x) . But in the rhombus BC k AD and BCD + ADC = 180 . It follows
that ADC = 180 (180 x) = x .
In 4AKD, KA = AD and the triangle is isosceles. Therefore, AKD = ADK = x . Then
DAK = (180 2x) .
All of this new information is shown on the second diagram.

## (180 2x) + 60 + (180 2x)

(420 4x)
240

=
=
=
=

180 ABC
(180 x)
(!"#\$%'&
(180 x)

(3x)

x = 80
(180 x) = 100
But BAD = (180 x) .

"

(!"#\$%'&

)#

'
)#

'

'

)#
%

(!"#\$'&

'

&

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
A prime number is any number that has exactly two positive integer factors, 1
and the number itself. A composite number has more than two positive integer
factors. The number 1 is neither prime nor composite.
Goldbach0 s conjecture states that every even integer greater than 2 can be
expressed as the sum of two primes. This conjecture is one of the oldest
unsolved number theory problems in mathematics. The conjecture has been
shown to be true for all even integers up to 4 1018 . You could verify this
conjecture for all even two-digit numbers but we wont ask you to do it today.
However, Goldbachs conjecture will be useful in solving our problem.
How many two-digit numbers cannot be written as the sum of two primes?

!!!

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

11
21
31
41
51
61
71
81
91

12
22
32
42
52
62
72
82
92

13
23
33
43
53
63
73
83
93

14
24
34
44
54
64
74
84
94

15
25
35
45
55
65
75
85
95

16
26
36
46
56
66
76
86
96

17
27
37
47
57
67
77
87
97

18
28
38
48
58
68
78
88
98

19
29
39
49
59
69
79
89
99

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Problem
A prime number is any number that has exactly two positive integer factors, 1 and the number
itself. A composite number has more than two positive integer factors. The number 1 is neither
prime nor composite. Goldbach0 s conjecture states that every even integer greater than 2 can
be expressed as the sum of two primes. This conjecture is one of the oldest unsolved number
theory problems in mathematics. The conjecture has been shown to be true for all even integers
up to 4 1018 . You could verify this conjecture for all even two-digit numbers but we wont
ask you to do it today. However, Goldbachs conjecture will be useful in solving our problem.
How many two-digit numbers cannot be written as the sum of two primes?

Solution
We will actually determine how many two-digit numbers can be written as the sum of two
primes and then subtract that result from the total number of two-digit numbers.
There are 90 two-digit numbers, 45 are even and 45 are odd. From Goldbachs conjecture we
already know that all 45 even two-digit numbers can be written as the sum of two prime
numbers.
How many of the odd two-digit numbers can be written as the sum of two primes.
To start, it would be helpful to list all primes under 100:
2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29
43 47 53 59 61 67 71 73 79

31
83

37
89

41
97

As you can see there are 25 prime numbers less than 100.
(For those of you wanting to find an interesting way to generate these primes, you might
consider doing an online search of The Sieve of Eratosthenes. Wikipedia has a neat
demonstration of how this process works.)
In order to generate an odd number as the sum of two numbers, one of the numbers must be
even and the other must be odd. Since 2 is the only even prime number it must be one of the
two numbers used in the sum that generates the odd two-digit number. If q is the other prime
number and q is odd, then 11 2 + q 99 which simplifies to 9 q 97. From our list of
prime numbers above, there are 21 prime numbers that satisfy this condition. Therefore, 21
odd two-digit numbers and 45 even two-digit numbers can be written as the sum of two primes.
That is, 21 + 45 = 66 two-digit numbers can be written as the sum of two prime numbers.
Therefore, 90 66 = 24 two-digit numbers cannot be written as the sum of two prime numbers.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Heroes and Villains
On an island, there are two types of inhabitants: Heroes, who always tell the
truth, and Villains, who always lie.
Four of the inhabitants of the island are seated around a circular table. When
asked, Are you a Hero or a Villain?, all four replied, Hero. When asked,
Is the person on your right a Hero or a Villain?, all four replied, Villain.
How many Heroes are there seated at the table? Verify that your solution is
the only possible solution.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Heroes and Villains
Problem
On an island, there are two types of inhabitants: Heroes, who always tell the truth, and
Villains, who always lie. Four of the inhabitants of the island are seated around a circular
table. When asked, Are you a Hero or a Villain?, all four replied, Hero. When asked, Is
the person on your right a Hero or a Villain?, all four replied, Villain. How many Heroes
are there seated at the table? Verify that your solution is the only possible solution.

Solution
There are really five possibilities to check: there could be four Heroes, there could be four
Villains, there could be three Villains and one Hero, there could be three Heroes and one
Villain, or there could be two Villains and two Heroes.
We can eliminate cases as follows:
1. Can two Villains ever sit beside each other?
Since Villains always lie, when the two Villains sitting beside each other
answer the first question Hero, they are in fact lying. However, in
responding to the second question, the Villain with the other Villain on the
right hand side would have to lie and say Hero. But everyone responded
Villain. This is a contradiction and there can therefore never be two
Villains seated beside each other. This conclusion effectively eliminates
the possibility that there are four Villains or three Villains and one Hero.

## 2. Can two Heroes ever sit beside each other?

Since Heroes always tell the truth, when the two Heroes sitting beside each
other answer the first question Hero, they are in fact telling the truth.
However, in responding to the second question, the Hero with the other
Hero on the right hand side would have to tell the truth and say Hero.
But everyone responded Villain. This is a contradiction and there can
therefore never be two Heroes seated beside each other. This conclusion
effectively eliminates the possibility that there are four Heroes or three
Heroes and one Villain.

The only possibility left is that there are two Villains and two Heroes such that
no two Villains or two Heroes can sit next to each other. The diagram illustrates
how they are sitting relative to each other. We can confirm that this is the correct
answer. Since all Villains lie and all Heroes tell the truth, they must all answer
the first question Hero. Since all Villains lie and all Heroes tell the truth, they
must all answer the second question Villain. Therefore, there are two Heroes
and two Villains, and when seated at a circular table they alternate Hero, Villain,
Hero, Villain.

!
!
"

"
!

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Phone Fan Out

Some businesses, government offices, schools and hospitals have a phone fan
out system that is used to quickly distribute important information to all of its
employees.
A certain school, with a total of 100 employees, wishes to create a phone fan
out system to be used in the event of an emergency school closure. The
principal contacts three other employees, each of whom contacts three others,
and so on, until all of the employees of the school have been contacted.
Determine the maximum number of people who do not need to make a call in
this system.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solutions
Phone Fan Out
Problem
Some businesses, government offices, schools and hospitals have a phone fan out system that is
used to quickly distribute important information to all of its employees. A certain school, with
a total of 100 employees, wishes to create a phone fan out system to be used in the event of an
emergency school closure. The principal contacts three other employees, each of whom contacts
three others, and so on, until all of the employees of the school have been contacted.
Determine the maximum number of people who do not need to make a call in this system.

Solution 1
Once the principal makes the initial phone call, four people (the principal and three others)
have the information. There are 100 4 = 96 others to contact.
The next three people make three calls each or a total of 9 calls. Now 13 people have the
information and 87 people still need to be contacted.
The next 9 people make 3 calls each or a total of 27 calls. Now 40 people have the information
and 60 people still need to be contacted.
In order to reach the final 60 people, only 60 3 = 20 more people need to make calls. The
total number of people required to make calls is 1 + 3 + 9 + 20 = 33.
Therefore, 100 33 = 67 is the maximum number of people who do not need to make calls.
A system like this is actually still very efficient at getting information to a large number of
people, each of whom makes a small number of calls. Close to one third of the people in the
organization need to call. About two-thirds of the people in the organization do not need to
make calls.

## WWW.C E M C .U WAT E R LO O.C A | T h e C E N T R E fo r E D U C AT I O N i n M AT H E M AT I C S a n d CO M P U T I N G

Problem
Some businesses, government offices, schools and hospitals have a phone fan out system that is
used to quickly distribute important information to all of its employees. A certain school, with
a total of 100 employees, wishes to create a phone fan out system to be used in the event of an
emergency school closure. The principal contacts three other employees, each of whom contacts
three others, and so on, until all of the employees of the school have been contacted.
Determine the maximum number of people who do not need to make a call in this system.

Solution 2
This solution is similar to the first solution at the beginning. The change comes after the
group of 27 have been called.
Once the principal makes the initial phone call, four people (the principal and three others)
have the information. There are 100 4 = 96 others to contact.
The next three people make three calls each or a total of 9 calls. Now 13 people have the
information and 87 people still need to be contacted.
The next 9 people make 3 calls each or a total of 27 calls. Now 40 people have the information
and 60 people still need to be contacted.
If the next 27 people make 3 calls each or a total of 81 calls, this is 81 60 = 21 calls too many.
There are 21 3 = 7 of the 27 people that do not need to make a call. Thus, only 27 7 = 20
people need to make a call. This gives a total of 1 + 3 + 9 + 20 = 33 people required to make
calls and 100 33 = 67 people who do not need to make calls.
A system like this is actually still very efficient at getting information to a large number of
people, each of whom makes a small number of calls. Close to one third of the people in the
organization need to call. About two-thirds of the people in the organization do not need to
make calls.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Cut, Cut, Cut!
A rope of length 200 cm is cut into four pieces. Three of the pieces are used to
form identical equilateral triangles with integer side lengths. The fourth piece
is used to form a square with integer side lengths. Determine all possible side
lengths for the triangle and square.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Cut, Cut, Cut!
Problem
A rope of length 200 cm is cut into four pieces. Three of the pieces are used to form identical
equilateral triangles with integer side lengths. The fourth piece is used to form a square with
integer side lengths. Determine all possible side lengths for the triangle and square.

Solution
Let x represent the integer side length of the equilateral triangles and let y represent the
integer side length of the square.
!

"

The perimeter of each figure is the length of the piece of rope used to form it. For each
triangle, the length of rope is 3x and for the square the length of rope is 4y. The total rope
used is 3(3x) + 4y = 9x + 4y. But the length of the rope is 200 cm. Therefore,
9x + 4y = 200
9x = 200 4y
4(50 y)
x =
9
Since both x and y are integers, 4(50 y) must be a multiple of 9. But 4 is not divisible by 9,
so 50 y must be divisible by 9. There are five multiples of 9 between 0 and 50, namely 9, 18,
27, 36, and 45. So 50 y = {9, 18, 27, 36, 45} and it follows that y = {41, 32, 23, 14, 5}. The
corresponding values of x are computed in the chart below.
y

4y

200 4y

41
32
23
14
5

164
128
92
56
20

36
72
108
144
180

x=

200 4y
9
4
8
12
16
20

When the side length of the square is 41 cm, the side length of the triangle is 4 cm; when the
side length of the square is 32 cm, the side length of the triangle is 8 cm; when the side length
of the square is 23 cm, the side length of the triangle is 12 cm; when the side length of the
square is 14 cm, the side length of the triangle is 16 cm; and when the side length of the square
is 5 cm, the side length of the triangle is 20 cm.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Its Been A Slice
M ON is a sector of a circle with centre O, radius n and M ON =

"


360
.
n

#
'()

\$%%%%%%%%&
*

!
!

Determine all positive integers n for which the sector M ON has perimeter
greater than 20 and less than 30.
Did you know that the ratio of the length of an arc to the circumference is the
same as the ratio of the sector angle to 360 ? The same ratio holds when
comparing sector area to the total area of a circle.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Its Been A Slice
Problem

M ON is a sector of a circle with centre O, radius n and M ON = 360
. Determine all
n
positive integers n for which the sector M ON has perimeter greater than 20 and less than 30.

Solution
As the sector angle gets larger, so does the length of the arc if the radius remains the same. In

## decreases. It is difficult to see

this problem, as the radius n increases, the sector angle 360
n
what happens to the length of the arc.
Since the ratio of the arc length to the circumference of the circle is the same as the ratio of
the sector angle to 360 ,
Sector Angle
Arc Length =
circumference
360
360
n

d
360
1
=
2n,
n
= 2
=

since d = 2r = 2n

As the radius increases, the sector angle decreases and the arc length M N remains constant,
2 units.
Perimeter = M O + ON + arc length M N
= n + n + 2
= 2n + 2
We want all integer values of n such that:
20 < 2n + 2 and 2n + 2 < 30
10 < n + and n + < 15
10 < n and n < 15
We want all integer values of n such that n > 10 =
6.9 and n < 15 =11.9.

The only
integer values of n that satisfy these conditions are n = 7, n = 8, n = 9, n = 10, and n = 11.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Building Up
A sequence of six numbers is built up in the following manner:
1. The first number is 4.
2. The last number is 486.
3. Each number after the second equals the product of the previous two
numbers.
Determine the remaining four numbers in the sequence.

#
"
!

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Building Up
Problem
A sequence of six numbers is built up in the following manner: the first
number is 4, the last number is 486 and each number after the second equals
the product of the previous two numbers. Determine the remaining four
numbers in the sequence.
Solution

!"#

## Let a represent the second number.

Since the third number is the product of the previous two numbers, the third
number is 4a.
Since the fourth number is the product of the previous two numbers, the fourth
number is a(4a) = 4a2 .
Since the fifth number is the product of the previous two numbers, the fifth
number is (4a)(4a2 ) = 16a3 .
Since the sixth number is the product of the previous two numbers, the sixth
number is (4a2 )(16a3 ) = 64a5 . But the sixth number in the sequence is 486.
64a5 = 486
486
a5 =
64
243
a5 =
32
3
a =
2

 5
3
243
since
=
2
32

## We can determine the remaining numbers in the sequence by substituting into

the expressions above or by simply using the rule to generate the remaining
numbers. The third number is 4 32 = 6, the fourth number is 23 6 = 9, and
the fifth number is 6 9 = 54. As a check we can calculate the sixth number,
9 54 = 486, as required.
The remaining four numbers in the sequence are 32 , 6, 9, and 54.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Inside the Box
P QRS is a rectangle. A and B are points on QR such that QA = AB = BR.
C is the midpoint of P Q. The area of 4ACS is 10 cm2 . Determine the area of
rectangle P QRS.

'

"

&

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Inside the Box
Problem
P QRS is a rectangle. A and B are points on QR such that QA = AB = BR. C is the
midpoint of P Q. The area of 4ACS is 10 cm2 . Determine the area of rectangle P QRS.

Solution
Let QA = AB = BR = x. Then P S = QR = 3x and AR = 2x.
Since C is the midpoint of P Q, P C = CQ = y. Then SR = P Q = 2y.
!

'

!"#\$%&

"

&

We will formulate an equation connecting the areas of the four inside shapes to the entire
rectangle.
Area P QRS = Area 4P CS + Area 4SRA + Area 4AQC + Area 4ACS
SR AR
QA CQ
PC PS
+
+
+ 10
P Q QR =
2
2
2
y 3x
2y 2x
xy
(2y) (3x) =
+
+
+ 10
2
2
2
3xy
xy
6xy
=
+
2xy
+
+ 10
2
2
Multiply by 2: 12xy = 3xy + 4xy + xy + 20
4xy = 20
xy = 5
The area of rectangle P QRS is 6xy = 6(5) = 30 cm2 .

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Digit Calculator
The digit sum of a number is found by, first, summing its digits. If the sum is
greater than 9, then the digits of the sum are added. This process is repeated
until a single digit number is obtained.
The digit sum of 602 is 8 since 6 + 0 + 2 = 8, and 8 is a single digit number.
The digit sum of 897 is 6. However, it takes two steps to reach this sum. First,
8 + 9 + 7 = 24, which is not a single digit number. Second, 2 + 4 = 6, which is
a single digit number and the process stops after the two steps.
a) How many three-digit numbers have a digit sum of 5 that is reached in
one step?
b) How many three-digit numbers have a digit sum of 5 that is reached in
two steps?
c) How many three-digit numbers have a digit sum of 5 that is reached in
three steps?
8+9+7=

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Digit Calculator
Problem
The digit sum of a number is found by, first, summing its digits. If the sum is greater than 9,
then the digits of the sum are added. This process is repeated until a single digit number is
obtained. The digit sum of 602 is 8 since 6 + 0 + 2 = 8, and 8 is a single digit number. The
digit sum of 897 is 6. However, it takes two steps to reach this sum. First, 8 + 9 + 7 = 24,
which is not a single digit number. Second, 2 + 4 = 6, which is a single digit number and the
process stops after the two steps.
a) How many three-digit numbers have a digit sum of 5 that is reached in one step?
b) How many three-digit numbers have a digit sum of 5 that is reached in two steps?
c) How many three-digit numbers have a digit sum of 5 that is reached in three steps?

Solution
a) A digit sum of 5 that is reached in one step:
Since the digit sum is 5, then no digit in the three-digit number can be higher than 5. It
is straight forward to generate a list of all of the possible numbers.
104
203
302
401
500

113
212
311
410

122
221
320

131
230

140

## There are 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 15 three-digit numbers with a digit sum of 5 that can

reached in exactly one step.
b) A digit sum of 5 that is reached in two steps:
The maximum sum of the digits of a three-digit number is 9 + 9 + 9 = 27. In order to
reach a digit sum of 5 in two steps, the initial sum must be a two digit number less than
28 whose digits sum to 5. There are only 2 two-digit numbers that satisfy this condition,
namely 14 and 23.

## WWW.C E M C .U WAT E R LO O.C A | T h e C E N T R E fo r E D U C AT I O N i n M AT H E M AT I C S a n d CO M P U T I N G

If the sum of the digits of the three-digit number is 14, we can systematically generate
the possible numbers. For example, if the first digit is 1, then the other two digits add to
13. This can be done with the digits 49, 58, 67, 76, 85, and 94. The 5 three-digit
numbers with first digit 1 are shown in the first row of the following table. The
remaining rows are generated in a similar manner.
149
239
329
419
509
608
707
806
905

158
248
338
428
518
617
716
815
914

167
257
347
437
527
626
725
824
923

176
266
356
446
536
635
734
833
932

185
275
365
455
545
644
743
842
941

194
284
374
464
554
653
752
851
950

293
383
473
563
662
761
860

392
482
572
671
770

491
581
680

590

## There are 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 + 9 + 8 + 7 + 6 = 70 three-digit numbers with a digit sum of

5 that can reached in exactly two steps with the initial sum of 14.
If the sum of the digits of the three-digit number is 23, we can systematically generate
the possible numbers. If the final two digits of the three-digit number are 9 and 9, the
first digit must be a 5. Therefore, no three-digit number less than 599 has digits that
sum to 23. (For example if one of the digits is 4, then the sum of the other two digits
must be 19 and this is impossible using two single digits.) The table is generated in a
similar way to the one shown above.
599
689
779
869
959

698
788
878
968

797
887
977

896
986

995

## There are 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15 three-digit numbers with a digit sum of 5 that can

reached in exactly two steps with the initial sum of 23.
In total, there are 70 + 15 = 85 three-digit numbers with a digit sum of 5 that can be
reached in exactly two steps.
c) A digit sum of 5 that is reached in three steps:
The maximum sum of the digits of a three-digit number is 27. The only number from 10
to 27 whose digits add to a two-digit number is 19. Its digit sum would then be 1, not 5.
No three-digit number exists that has a digit sum of 5 reached in exactly 3 steps.
In total there are 15 + 70 + 15 = 90 three-digit numbers with a digit sum of 5, 15 of them reach
the digit sum in 1 step and the remaining 85 reach the digit sum of 5 in 2 steps.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Know How to Fold Em
A square piece of paper ABCD has side length 20 cm. The
page is grey on one side and white on the other. Point M
is the midpoint of side AB and point N is the midpoint of
side AD. (Refer to the top diagram.)
Point A is folded along M N so that A touches the paper.
(Refer to the second diagram.)
Point C is then folded over a line P Q parallel to M N
so that C lies on M N . (Refer to the third and bottom
diagram.)
What is the area of hexagon N M BP QD?
A square is a four sided figure with sides of equal length and
corner angles each measuring 90 . Here are some known
properties of the diagonals of squares:
the diagonals are equal length; and
the diagonals right bisect each other; and
the diagonals bisect the corner angles.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Know How to Fold Em
Problem
A square piece of paper ABCD has side length 20 cm. The page is
grey on one side and white on the other. Point M is the midpoint of
side AB and point N is the midpoint of side AD. The paper is folded
along M N so that A touches the paper. Point C is then folded over a
line P Q parallel to M N so that C lies on M N . What is the area of
hexagon N M BP QD?

Solution
If we are able to find the area of 4AM N and 4P CQ, we can subtract these areas from the
total area to find the area of hexagon N M BP QD. To find the area of 4P CQ, we must find
the length of P C and CQ.
Since M and N are midpoints of AB and AD respectively, AM = 21 (AB) = 10 and
AN = 12 (AD) = 10. Therefore AM = AN = 10 and 4AM N is an isosceles right triangle. It
follows that AN M = AM N = 45 . Since P Q is parallel to M N , P Q also meets the sides of
the square at a 45 angle. It follows that 4P CQ is also an isosceles right triangle with
P C = CQ and CP Q = CQP = 45 .
After the first fold, let A touch the paper at A0 . 4M A0 N is a reflection
of 4M AN in the line M N . It follows that AM N = A0 M N = 45
and AN M = A0 N M = 45 . Then AM A0 = AN A0 = 90 . Since
all four sides of AM A0 N are equal in length and all four corners are
90 , AM A0 N is a square.
Since M AA0 = M AC = 45 , the diagonal AA of square AM A0 N
lies along the diagonal AC of square ABCD. (In fact, A0 lies at the
intersection of the two diagonals of ABCD, the centre of the square.)
The length of the diagonal of square AM A0 N can be found using the Pythagorean Theorem.
p

## AA0 = (AM )2 + (M A0 )2 = 102 + 102 = 200 = 10 2

Some students may not be familiar with simplifying radicals:

## 200 = 100 2 = 100 2 = 10 2

Let O be the intersection of the two diagonals of square AM A0 N . It is also the intersection of
M N and AC. (We will show later that this is in fact
of contact of C with the paper
the point

## We know that 4P CQ is a right isosceles triangle. When the triangle

is reflected in the line segment P Q, a square, P CQC 0 , is created with
C 0 being the image of C. We will not present the argument here
because it is very similar to the argument presented for AM A0 N .
Since P CC 0 = P CA = 45 , CC 0 lies along the diagonal CA. Also,
C 0 is the intersection of CA with M N . This means that C 0 and O are
the same point.
The length of the diagonal of square ABCD can be calculated using the Pythagorean Theorem.
p

## AC = (AB)2 + (BC)2 = 202 + 202 = 800 = 20 2

The length of CC 0 equals the length of AC subtract the length of OA.

CC 0 = 20 2 5 2 = 15 2

4P CQ,
(P C)2 + (CQ)2
x2 + x2
x2 + x2
2x2
x2
x

=
=
=
=
=
=

(P Q)2

(15 2)2
225 2
500
225
15

## We now have enough information to calculate the area of hexagon N M BP QD.

Area N M BP QD = Area ABCD Area 4AM N Area 4P CQ
P C CQ
AM AN

= AB BC
2
2
10 10 15 15
= 20 20

2
2
100 225
= 400

2
2
800 100 225
=

2
2
2
475
=
2
The area of hexagon N M BP QD is

475
cm2 or 237.5 cm2 .
2

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
On a Roll
Each of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 occurs, one to a face, on the faces of a
cube. Three people, Amy, Ben and Cal, are seated around a table. The cube is
placed on the table so that from their different seat locations, each one can see
the top and two adjacent faces. When Amy adds the three numbers that she
can see, her total is 9. When Ben adds the three numbers that he can see, his
total is 14. When Cal adds the three numbers that he can see, his total is 15.
Determine the number on the bottom face of the cube.

Note that the three faces that are visible on the above cube (die) add to 11.
The picture is for illustration only. Do not assume anything from the above
diagram.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
On a Roll
Problem
Each of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 occurs, one to a face, on the faces of a cube. Three people,
Amy, Ben and Cal, are seated around a table. The cube is placed on the table so that from
their different seat locations, each one can see the top and two adjacent faces. When Amy adds
the three numbers that she can see, her total is 9. When Ben adds the three numbers that he
can see, his total is 14. When Cal adds the three numbers that he can see, his total is 15.
Determine the number on the bottom face of the cube.

Solution

There are actually four different views of the cube. It turns out that we can find all of the
information using three of them. We will use the first three diagrams above.
Let a be the number on the top and b, c, d, e be the numbers on the side faces. We then are
able to form three equations:
a+b+c = 9
a + c + d = 14
a + d + e = 15

(1)
(2)
(3)

Comparing equation (1) and equation (2), b has been replaced by d and the sum has increased
by 5. Therefore, b and d differ by 5 and b < d. The only numbers from the set 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
that differ by 5 are 1 and 6. Therefore, b = 1 and d = 6.
Comparing equation (2) and equation (3), c has been replaced by e and the sum has increased
by 1. Therefore, c and e differ by 1 and c < e. Since b = 1 and d = 6, there are only three
possible combinations for c and e, namely c = 2 and e = 3, or c = 3 and e = 4, or c = 4 and
e = 5.
We will check each of these possibilities. First, if c = 2, e = 3, b = 1 and d = 6, we can
substitute the appropriate values in (1) giving a + 1 + 2 = 9 or a = 6. This is not possible since
d would also equal 6. We can rule this case out.

## Next, if c = 3, e = 4, b = 1 and d = 6, we can substitute the appropriate values in (1) giving

a + 1 + 3 = 9 or a = 5. This is a possible solution. In (2), a + c + d = 5 + 3 + 6 = 14 as
required. And in (3), a + d + e = 5 + 6 + 4 = 15 as required. The only number not used is 2 so
the number on the bottom face is 2. But is this the only solution?
Finally, if c = 4, e = 5, b = 1 and d = 6, we can substitute the appropriate values in (1) giving
a + 1 + 4 = 9 or a = 4. This is not possible since c would also equal 4. We can rule this case
out.
Since we have examined all possible cases, the only possible number on the bottom (unseen)
face is 2.

Note: It is also possible to play with the numbers to solve this problem. The method presented
above could be used in a similar way with any of list of six different numbers. Playing with
the numbers might not be as easy.
Instead of arguing the difference between equations to obtain the relationship between b and
d, and c and e, we could have used elimination.
a+b+c = 9
a + c + d = 14
a + d + e = 15

(1)
(2)
(3)

For example, equation (1) subtract equation (2) gives b d = 5 which can be written
d b = 5. This is the same as saying the difference between b and d is 5.
Similarly, equation (2) subtract equation (3) gives c e = 1 which can be written e c = 1.
This is the same as saying that the difference between c and e is 1.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Getting Even
Four distinct integers are to be chosen from the integers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7.
How many different selections are possible so the sum of the four integers is
even?

CHOOSE FOUR

Even Sum
Odd Sum

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Getting Even
Problem
Four distinct integers are to be chosen from the integers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. How many
different selections are possible so the sum of the four integers is even?

Solution
We could look at every possible selection of four distinct numbers from the list, determine the
sum of each selection and then count the number of selections for which the sum is even. There
are 35 different selections to examine. A justification of this number is provided on the second
page of this solution. This would not be an efficient approach!
We will make two simple observations. First, when even numbers are added together the sum
is always even. And second, in order to produce an even sum using odd numbers, an even
number of odd numbers is required in the sum. We will use these observations to break the
problem into cases in which the sum is even. There are three cases to consider.
1.

## No Odd Numbers are Selected

Since there are only three even numbers, namely 2, 4, and 6, it is not possible to select
only even numbers. Therefore, there are no selections in which there are no odd numbers.

2.

## Exactly Two Odd Numbers are Selected

There are four choices for the first odd number. For each of these four choices, there are
three choices for the second number producing 4 3 = 12 choices for two odd numbers.
However, each choice is counted twice. For example, 1 could be selected first and 3 could
be chosen second or 3 could be selected first and 1 could be chosen second. Therefore,
there are only 12 2 = 6 selections of two odd numbers. They are
{1, 3}, {1, 5}, {1, 7}, {3, 5}, {3, 7}, and {5, 7} For each of the 6 possible selections of
two distinct odd numbers, we need to select two even numbers from the three even
numbers in the list. We could use a similar argument to the selection of the two odd
numbers or simply list the (three) possibilities: {2, 4}, {2, 6}, and {4, 6}. Therefore, there
are 6 3 = 18 selections of four distinct numbers in which exactly two of the numbers
are odd.

3.

## Exactly Four Odd Numbers are Selected

Since there are only four odd numbers in the list to choose from, there is only one way to
select four distinct odd numbers from the list.

We have considered every possible case in which the selection produces an even sum.
Therefore, there are 0 + 18 + 1 = 19 selections of four distinct numbers from the list such that
the sum is even.

## WWW.C E M C .U WAT E R LO O.C A | T h e C E N T R E fo r E D U C AT I O N i n M AT H E M AT I C S a n d CO M P U T I N G

Why are there 35 ways to select four different numbers from the list?
In the solution on the previous page we counted the selections in which the sum was even.
There were 19 possibilities. The remaining selections must produce an odd sum. There are two
possibilities: either there is 1 odd number and 3 even numbers, or there are 3 odd numbers and
1 even number.
If there is 1 odd number and 3 even numbers, there are only four possible selections, namely,
{1, 2, 4, 6}, {3, 2, 4, 6}, {5, 2, 4, 6}, and {7, 2, 4, 6}. Once the odd number is selected, the 3 even
numbers, {2, 4, 6}, must be selected.
If there are 3 odd numbers and 1 even number, there are twelve possible selections. The 3 odd
numbers can be selected in four ways, namely, {1, 3, 5}, {1, 3, 7}, {1, 5, 7}, and {3, 5, 7}. For
each of these 4 selections of three odd numbers, the even number can be selected in 3 ways
producing 4 3 = 12 possible selections of four distinct numbers in which three of the numbers
are odd and the other is even.
We have considered all possible ways in which four distinct numbers can be selected from the
list. The total number of selections is 19 + 4 + 12 = 35.
We can arrive at this number in a different way.
There are 7 choices for the first number. For each of these choices for the first number, there
are 6 choices for the second number, or 7 6 = 42 choices for the first two numbers. For each
of these 42 choices for the first two numbers, there are 5 choices for the third number, or
42 5 = 210 choices for the first three numbers. For each of these 210 choices of the first three
numbers, there are 4 choices for the final number, or 210 4 = 840 selections of the four
numbers. This is considerably higher than the 35 choices shown above!
Our 840 selections assume that the order of selection is important. Each selection has been
counted 840 35 = 24 times. To justify this, we will look at the number of ways a specific four
number selection can be arranged. Without loss of generality, we will consider the selection
{1, 2, 3, 4}. The 1 could be placed in four spots. For each of these four placements of the 1, the
2 could be placed in three spots producing 4 3 = 12 ways of placing the 1 and 2. For each of
these twelve placements of the 1 and 2, the 3 could be placed in two spots producing
12 2 = 24 ways of placing the 1, 2 and 3. Once the numbers 1, 2, and 3 are placed, the 4
must be placed in the remaining spot. There are 24 ways of arranging the four numbers. We
have to divide 840 by 24 since we have counted each selection 24 times.
Therefore, there are 840 24 = 35 ways to select four different numbers from the list of seven
numbers.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
The Count Up Is On
The positive integers are written consecutively in groups of five so that the first
row contains the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; the second row contains the numbers
6, 7, 8, 9, 10; the third row contains the numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, 15; etc.
The row sum of a row is the sum of the numbers in the row. For example, the
row sum of row 1 is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15.
Determine the numbers in the row that has a row sum closest to 1 000.

1
6
11
..

2
7
12
..

3
8
13
..

4
9
14
..

5
10
15
..

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solutions
The Count Up Is On
Problem
The positive integers are written consecutively in groups of five so
that the first row contains the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; the second
row contains the numbers 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; the third row contains the
numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, 15; etc. The row sum of a row is the sum
of the numbers in the row. For example, the row sum of row 1 is
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15. Determine the numbers in the row that has
a row sum closest to 1 000.

1
2
3 4 5
6
7
8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15
..
..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
.

Solution 1
Observe that the last number in any row is a multiple of 5. If n is the row number, then the
last number in the nth row is 5n. Since the last number in row n is 5n, the four preceding
numbers in the row are 5n 1, 5n 2, 5n 3, and 5n 4.
The sum of the numbers in the nth row is
(5n 4) + (5n 3) + (5n 2) + (5n 1) + 5n
which simplifies to 25n 10. We want to find the integer value of n so that 25n 10 is as close
to 1 000 as possible.
25n 10 = 1 000
25n = 1 010
n = 40.4
The closest integer to 40.4 is 40. Therefore, n = 40 and the row sum is
25n 10 = 25(40) 10 = 990. The fifth number in the 40th row is 5 40 = 200. The five
numbers in the 40th row are 196, 197, 198, 199, and 200. The next row contains the numbers
201, 202, 203, 204, and 205, and the row sum is 1 015. This row sum is farther from 1 000 than
the previous row sum of 990 is.
Therefore, the row with the sum closest to 1 000 contains the numbers 196, 197, 198, 199, and
200.
The second solution approaches the problem by establishing a linear relationship.

## WWW.C E M C .U WAT E R LO O.C A | T h e C E N T R E fo r E D U C AT I O N i n M AT H E M AT I C S a n d CO M P U T I N G

Problem
The positive integers are written consecutively in groups of five so
that the first row contains the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; the second
row contains the numbers 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; the third row contains the
numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, 15; etc. The row sum of a row is the sum
of the numbers in the row. For example, the row sum of row 1 is
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15. Determine the numbers in the row that has
a row sum closest to 1 000.

1
2
3 4 5
6
7
8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15
..
..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
.

Solution 2
Let x represent the row number and y represent the sum of the numbers in the row. Observe
that the fifth number in any row is a multiple of 5. In fact, the fifth number in any row is 5
times the row number or 5x. The following table of values represents the information.
Row Number
x
1
2
3

Row Sum
y
15
40
65

It appears that the y values increase by 25 as the x values increase by 1. If this is true, the
sum of the fourth row should be 65 + 25 = 90. We can verify this by adding
16 + 17 + 18 + 19 + 20, the numbers in the fourth row. The sum is indeed 90.
As the values of x increase by 1, the values of y increase by 25. The relation is linear. The
25
y
=
= 25. Substituting x = 1, y = 15, m = 25 into
slope is
x
1
y = mx + b
15 = 25(1) + b
10 = b
The equation of the line which passes through the points in the relation is y = 25x 10. Note
that x and y are positive integers. We want to find the value of x, the row number, so that the
value of y, the row sum, is as close to 1 000 as possible.
25x 10 = 1 000
25x = 1 010
x = 40.4
We want the integer value for x that is closest to 40.4. Therefore, x = 40 and the row sum is
y = 25(40) 10 = 990. The fifth number in the 40th row is 5 40 = 200. The five numbers in
the 40th row are 196, 197, 198, 199, and 200. The sum of the numbers in this row is 990. The
next row contains the numbers 201, 202, 203, 204, and 205, and the row sum is 1 015. This row
sum is farther from 1 000 than the previous row sum of 990 is.
Therefore, the row with the sum closest to 1 000 contains the numbers 196, 197, 198, 199, and
200.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
A Lot of Dough
Bakers Dozen Doughnut Shop doughnuts are sold only in boxes of 7, 13, or
25. To buy 14 doughnuts you must order two boxes of 7, but you cannot buy
exactly 15 doughnuts since no combination of boxes contains 15 doughnuts.
What is the maximum number of doughnuts that cannot be ordered using
combinations of the three different size boxes from Bakers Dozen Doughnut
Shop?

7 - pak

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
A Lot of Dough
Problem
Bakers Dozen Doughnut Shop doughnuts are sold only in boxes of 7, 13, or 25. To buy 14
doughnuts you must order two boxes of 7, but you cannot buy exactly 15 doughnuts since no
combination of boxes contains 15 doughnuts. What is the maximum number of doughnuts that
cannot be ordered using combinations of the three different size boxes from Bakers Dozen
Doughnut Shop?

Solution
We can fill any order size which is a multiple of 7. Therefore, we can fill orders for
{7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, } doughnuts.
We can fill any order size which is a multiple of 13. Therefore, we can fill orders for
{13, 26, 39, 52, } doughnuts.
We can fill any order size which is a multiple of 25. Therefore, we can fill orders for
{25, 50, } doughnuts.
Using the multiples above and combinations of the three different size boxes, we can fill orders
of the following sizes:
7, 13, 14, 20 (7 + 13), 21, 25, 26, 27 (14 + 13), 28, 32 (7 + 25), 33 (7 + 26),
34 (21 + 13), 35, 38 (13 + 25), 39, 40 (14 + 26), 41 (28 + 13), 42,
45 (7 + 13 + 25), 46 (21 + 25), 47 (21 + 26), 48 (35 + 13), 49, 50, and 51 (26 + 25)
The missing numbers from the above list correspond to the order sizes that cannot be filled.
The largest order that we are unable to fill in the above list appears to be 44. But we must
justify that this is the maximum order size which cannot be filled. To do this, we note that
orders of sizes 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50 and 51 can all be filled. This corresponds to 7 consecutive
order sizes. If we add a 7 - pak to each of these order sizes, we can fill the next seven
consecutive order sizes. That is, we can fill orders of 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57 and 58. If we add a
7 - pak to each of these orders, we can fill the next seven consecutive order sizes. In fact, every
order size of 45 or more doughnuts can be filled. Since an order of size 44 doughnuts cannot be
filled, this is the maximum size order which cannot be filled.
It turns out that there are only 28 order sizes that Bakers Dozen Doughnut Shop cannot fill
using the three different size boxes of doughnuts. If the shop were to add a box containing 3
doughnuts, how many orders would be impossible to fill?

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
The numbers in the following table may appear to follow a very predictable
pattern. It could be very easy to make an incorrect assumption about the
values of each of the five cells whose values are hidden by the letters
a, b, c, d, and e.
Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4
Row 1

51

52

54

Row 2

56

57

Row 3

59

61

The sum of the numbers in each of the three rows is the same. The sum of the
numbers in each of the four columns is the same. However, the sum of the rows
does not equal the sum of the columns.
Determine the missing values in the table.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
Problem

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Row 1

51

52

54

Row 2

56

57

Row 3

59

61

The sum of the numbers in each of the three rows is the same. The sum of the
numbers in each of the four columns is the same. However, the sum of the rows
does not equal the sum of the columns. Determine the missing values in the
table.
Solution
Each of the first three columns has two known values and one unknown value.
We also know that the sum of each column is the same.
Sum of Column 2 = Sum of Column 1

and

52 + 56 + d = 51 + b + 59
d + 108 = b + 110
d = b+2

## Sum of Column 3 = Sum of Column 1

a + 57 + 61 = 51 + b + 59
a + 118 = b + 110
a = b8

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Row 1

51

52

b8

54

Row 2

56

57

Row 3

59

b+2

61

## WWW.C E M C .U WAT E R LO O.C A | T h e C E N T R E fo r E D U C AT I O N i n M AT H E M AT I C S a n d CO M P U T I N G

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Row 1

51

52

b8

54

Row 2

56

57

Row 3

59

b+2

61

We also know that the sum of the numbers in each row is the same.
Sum of Row 2
b + 56 + 57 + c
b + c + 113
c

=
=
=
=

Sum of Row 1
51 + 52 + (b 8) + 54
b + 149
36

We can determine the value of e by equating the sum of row 3 and row 1.
Sum of Row 3
59 + (b + 2) + 61 + e
b + e + 122
e

=
=
=
=

Sum of Row 1
51 + 52 + (b 8) + 54
b + 149
27

Since we know c = 36 and e = 27, we can determine the column sum using the
fourth column. The column sum is 54 + c + e = 54 + 36 + 27 = 117. We can
use the column sum with the first column to determine the value of b. Then
51 + b + 59 = 117 and b = 7 follows. We know that d = b + 2 so d = 9. Also,
we know that a = b 8 so a = 1.
The missing values in the table are a = 1, b = 7, c = 36, d = 9 , and e = 27.
The completed table follows. We can use it to verify that each row sums to 156
and each column sums to 117.
Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Row Sum

Row 1

51

52

54

156

Row 2

56

57

36

156

Row 3

59

61

27

156

Column Sum

117

117

117

117

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
No Weigh!
Icon Duit was asked to determine the combined weight of one sphere and one
cube but he did not have a reliable weigh scale. He was, however, given the
following information:
Four spheres and three cubes weigh 37 g.
Three spheres and four cubes weigh 33 g.
Icon was quickly able to determine the combined weight, in grams, of one
sphere and one cube. Your task is to also determine the combined weight of
one sphere and one cube.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solutions
No Weigh!
Problem
Icon Duit was asked to determine the combined weight of one sphere and one cube but he did
not have a reliable weigh scale. He was, however, given the following information: four spheres
and three cubes weigh 37 g and three spheres and four cubes weigh 33 g. Icon was quickly able
to determine the combined weight, in grams, of one sphere and one cube. Your task is to also
determine the combined weight of one sphere and one cube.

Solution 1
The problem is solved quickly if you make the following observation. Since four spheres and
three cubes weigh 37 g and three spheres and four cubes weigh 33 g, then, by combining the
two pieces of information, seven spheres and seven cubes weigh 37 + 33 = 70 g. Dividing by 7,
one sphere and one cube weigh 70 7 = 10 g.

Solution 2
In this solution we will find the weight of one sphere and the weight of one cube. We will then
determine the sum.
Let c represent the weight, in grams, of one cube.
Let s represent the weight, in grams, of one sphere.
From the first piece of information, 4s + 3c = 37.
(1)
From the second piece of information, 3s + 4c = 33. (2)
To get from equation (1) to equation (2), notice that there is one less sphere and one more
cube causing the weight to go down 4 g. Therefore, a sphere weighs 4 g more than a cube and
s = c + 4 follows. We can substitute for s in (1).
4(c + 4) + 3c
4c + 16 + 3c
7c
c

=
=
=
=

37
37
21
3g

Since c = 3 and s = c + 4, s = 7 g. One sphere weighs 7 g and one cube weighs 3 g. The
combined weight of one sphere and one cube is 3 + 7 = 10 g.

## WWW.C E M C .U WAT E R LO O.C A | T h e C E N T R E fo r E D U C AT I O N i n M AT H E M AT I C S a n d CO M P U T I N G

Solution 3
Let c represent the weight, in grams, of one cube.
Let s represent the weight, in grams, of one sphere.
Using the given information, we obtain the following system of equations.
4s + 3c = 37
3s + 4c = 33

(1)
(2)

## We will now use elimination to solve for s and c.

Multiply (1) by 4
Multiply (2) by 3

9s + 12c = 99

7s = 49
s = 7g

## Substituting s = 7 into (1)

4(7) + 3c
28 + 3c
3c
c

=
=
=
=

(3)
(4)

37
37
9
3g

Therefore, one sphere weighs 7 g and one cube weighs 3 g. The combined weight of one sphere
and one cube is 3 + 7 = 10 g.

Solution 4
This is the algebraic version of solution 1.
Let c represent the weight, in grams, of one cube.
Let s represent the weight, in grams, of one sphere.
Using the given information, we obtain the following system of equations.
4s + 3c = 37
3s + 4c = 33

(1)
(2)

Adding (1) and (2), we obtain 7s + 7c = 70. Dividing both sides of the equation by 7, we
obtain s + c = 10. But s is the weight of one sphere and c is the weight of one cube so s + c is
the combined weight of one sphere and one cube.
Therefore, the combined weight of one sphere and one cube is 10 g.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Troubling Times
Dante B Late has a clock that gains exactly 12 minutes per hour. Just before
leaving for work at 5:30 a.m., Dante set the clock to the correct time.
Dante returned home for lunch and while eating glanced over at the clock.

The clock read 1:30 p.m. At first Dante was concerned, knowing that he should
have left the house at 12:30 p.m. in order to return to work on time. But then
he remembered the clocks peculiar feature.
How much time does Dante have left at home before he needs to leave to

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solutions
Troubling Times
Problem
Dante B Late has a clock that gains exactly 12 minutes per hour. Just before
leaving for work at 5:30 a.m., Dante set the clock to the correct time. Dante
returned home for lunch and while eating glanced over at the clock. The clock
read 1:30 p.m. At first Dante was concerned, knowing that he should have left
the house at 12:30 p.m. in order to return to work on time. But then he
remembered the clocks peculiar feature.
How much time does Dante have left at home before he needs to leave to
Solution 1
Every hour the clock gains 12 minutes or

12
60

1
5

h.

Let x be the actual number of hours that have passed since 5:30 a.m. Then the
number of hours that the clock advances is x + 15 x = 65 x h.
From 5:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m., the clock advances 8 h.
6
x = 8
5
20
x =
3
2
x = 6 h
3
x = 6 h 40 min
The actual time is 6 hours and 40 minutes after 5:30 a.m. This puts the actual
time at 12:10 p.m. and Dante still has 20 minutes left before he must return to
work.

## WWW.C E M C .U WAT E R LO O.C A | T h e C E N T R E fo r E D U C AT I O N i n M AT H E M AT I C S a n d CO M P U T I N G

Solution 2
For every 60 real minutes, the clock advances 60 + 12 = 72 minutes.
From 5:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. the clock advances 8 h or 8 60 = 480 minutes.
Let x be the number of real minutes that
480 minutes.
x
Then
=
480
x
=
480

## pass when the clock has advanced

60
72
5
6
5
x = (480)
6
x = 400 min
x = 6 h 40 min

The real time is 6 hours and 40 minutes after 5:30 a.m. or 12:10 p.m. Dante
still has 20 minutes left before he needs to return to work.
Solution 3
Actual Number
of Hours
1
2
3
4
5

Real
Time
5:30 a.m.
6:30 a.m.
7:30 a.m.
8:30 a.m.
9:30 a.m.
10:30 a.m.

Clock
1 h 12 min
2 h 24 min
3 h 36 min
4 h 48 min
6 h 0 min

Clock
Time
5:30 a.m.
6:42 a.m.
7:54 a.m.
9:06 a.m.
10:18 a.m.
11:30 a.m.

When the clock advances 6 h from 5:30 a.m to 11:30 a.m., 5 real hours have
passed. When the clock advances 2 h from 11:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m., 53 = 1 23 or
1 hour and 40 minutes of real time will pass from 10:30 a.m. actual time.
The actual time is then 12:10 p.m. and Dante can relax. He still has 20

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Lets Make A Deal
An automobile dealer purchased two cars. She then sold the cars, the first at a
profit of 40% and the second at a profit of 60%. Her total profit on the sale of
the two cars was 54%. She received a total of \$88 704 from the sale of the two
cars.
What did the dealer originally pay for each of the two cars?

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solutions
Lets Make A Deal
Problem
An automobile dealer purchased two cars. She then sold the cars, the first at a
profit of 40% and the second at a profit of 60%. Her total profit on the sale of
the two cars was 54%. She received a total of \$88 704 from the sale of the two
cars. What did the dealer originally pay for each of the two cars?
Solution 1
Let a represent what the dealer paid for the first car and b represent what she
paid for the second car.
The profit on the sale of the first car was 40% or 0.4a. The first car was sold
for a + 0.4a = 1.4a. The profit on the sale of the second car was 60% or 0.6b.
The second car was sold for b + 0.6b = 1.6b. The total selling price of the two
cars was \$88 704 so
1.4a + 1.6b = 88 704
Multiplying by 5:
7a + 8b = 443 520
(1)
The dealer bought both cars for a total of (a + b). The profit on the sale of the
two cars was 54% or 0.54(a + b). The two cars sold for
(a + b) + 0.54(a + b) = 1.54(a + b). But the total selling price was \$88 704 so
1.54(a + b) = 88 704
a + b = 88 704 1.54
a + b = 57 600
(2)
Solving the system of equations using elimination:
7a + 8b = 443 520
Multiplying (2) by 7: 7a + 7b = 403 200
Subtracting (3) from (1):
b = 40 320

(1)
(3)

## Since b = 40 320 and a + b = 57 600, then a = 17 280 follows.

The dealer paid \$17 280 for the first car and \$40 320 for the second car.

## WWW.C E M C .U WAT E R LO O.C A | T h e C E N T R E fo r E D U C AT I O N i n M AT H E M AT I C S a n d CO M P U T I N G

Problem
An automobile dealer purchased two cars. She then sold the cars, the first at a
profit of 40% and the second at a profit of 60%. Her total profit on the sale of
the two cars was 54%. She received a total of \$88 704 from the sale of the two
cars. What did the dealer originally pay for each of the two cars?
Solution 2
Let a represent what the dealer paid for the first car and b represent what she
paid for the second car.
The profit on the sale of the first car was 40% or 0.4a. The first car was sold
for a + 0.4a = 1.4a. The profit on the sale of the second car was 60% or 0.6b.
The second car was sold for b + 0.6b = 1.6b. The total selling price of the two
cars was \$88 704 so:
1.4a + 1.6b = 88 704
Multiplying by 5:
7a + 8b = 443 520
(1)
The dealer bought both cars for a total of (a + b). The profit on the sale of the
two cars was 54% or 0.54(a + b). The total profit is the sum of the profit from
the sale of each car so:
0.54(a + b) = 0.4a + 0.6b
0.54a + 0.54b = 0.4a + 0.6b
0.14a = 0.06b
Multiplying by 50:
7a = 3b
(2)
Substituting 3b for 7a in (1), 3b + 8b = 443 520 or 11b = 443 520 and
b = 40 320 follows.
Substituting b = 40 320 in (2), 7a = 120 960 and a = 17 280 follows.
The first car cost \$17 280 and the second car cost \$40 320.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
Keep on Tracking
A freight train is 27 minutes late when it makes its usual trip between Town A
and Town B at an average speed of 56 km/h. For another trip between Town
A and Town B, the freight train is 42 minutes late when its average speed is
54 km/h. What is the distance between Town A and Town B?

!"#\$%&

!"#\$%'

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solutions
Keep on Tracking
Problem
A freight train is 27 minutes late when it makes its usual trip between Town A
and Town B at an average speed of 56 km/h. For another trip between Town
A and Town B, the freight train is 42 minutes late when its average speed is
54 km/h. What is the distance between Town A and Town B?
Solution 1
Let t represent the time, in hours, taken by the train when it was 27 minutes
late. Then, t + 14 represents the time, in hours, taken by the train when it was
15 minutes or one-quarter hour later.
The following chart displays the information. The distance column of the chart
is completed by multiplying the average speed by the time.
Distance

Speed

Time

Faster Train

56t

56

Slower Train

54(t + 14 )

54

t+

1
4

## Since the distance between Town A and Town B remains constant,

1
56t = 54(t + )
4
27
56t = 54t +
2
27
2t =
2
27
t =
4
The distance between Town A and Town B is 56t = 56

27
4

= 378 km.

## WWW.C E M C .U WAT E R LO O.C A | T h e C E N T R E fo r E D U C AT I O N i n M AT H E M AT I C S a n d CO M P U T I N G

Solution 2
Let d represent the distance, in km, between Town A and Town B.
The following chart displays the information. The time column of the chart is
completed by dividing the distance by the average speed.
Speed
56

Time

Faster Train

Distance
d

Slower Train

54

d
54

d
56

Since the difference in times between the slower train and the faster train is
15 minutes or 14 hour,
d
1
d

=
54 56
4
1
56d 54d
=
(54)(56)
4
1
2d =
(54)(56)
4
2d = 756
d = 378
The distance between Town A and Town B is 378 km.
Solution 3
This solution looks at the problem quite differently from the first two solutions.
If the faster train first travels 27 minutes, it would then complete the rest of
the trip in the usual amount of time. During the 27 minutes, the faster train
1512
would travel 27
60 56 = 60 = 25.2 km.
If the slower train first travels 42 minutes, it would then complete the rest of
the trip in the usual amount of time. During the 42 minutes, the slower train
2268
would travel 42
60 54 = 60 = 37.8 km.
The slower train is 37.8 25.2 = 12.6 km ahead of the faster train at the point
when the usual time to complete the trip remains. The faster train gains
2 km/h on the slower train. It will take the faster train 12.6
2 = 6.3 h to catch up
and thereby complete the trip. In 6.3 h, the faster train travels
6.3 56 = 352.8 km. But it had already travelled 25.2 km. Therefore the total
distance from Town A to Town B is 25.2 + 352.8 = 378 km.
The distance between Town A and Town B is 378 km.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
On a Roll
Each of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 occurs, one to a face, on the faces of a
cube. Three people, Amy, Ben and Cal, are seated around a table. The cube is
placed on the table so that from their different seat locations, each one can see
the top and two adjacent faces. When Amy adds the three numbers that she
can see, her total is 9. When Ben adds the three numbers that he can see, his
total is 14. When Cal adds the three numbers that he can see, his total is 15.
Determine the number on the bottom face of the cube.

Note that the three faces that are visible on the above cube (die) add to 11.
The picture is for illustration only. Do not assume anything from the above
diagram.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solution
On a Roll
Problem
Each of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 occurs, one to a face, on the faces of a cube. Three people,
Amy, Ben and Cal, are seated around a table. The cube is placed on the table so that from
their different seat locations, each one can see the top and two adjacent faces. When Amy adds
the three numbers that she can see, her total is 9. When Ben adds the three numbers that he
can see, his total is 14. When Cal adds the three numbers that he can see, his total is 15.
Determine the number on the bottom face of the cube.

Solution

There are actually four different views of the cube. It turns out that we can find all of the
information using three of them. We will use the first three diagrams above.
Let a be the number on the top and b, c, d, e be the numbers on the side faces. We then are
able to form three equations:
a+b+c = 9
a + c + d = 14
a + d + e = 15

(1)
(2)
(3)

Comparing equation (1) and equation (2), b has been replaced by d and the sum has increased
by 5. Therefore, b and d differ by 5 and b < d. The only numbers from the set 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
that differ by 5 are 1 and 6. Therefore, b = 1 and d = 6.
Comparing equation (2) and equation (3), c has been replaced by e and the sum has increased
by 1. Therefore, c and e differ by 1 and c < e. Since b = 1 and d = 6, there are only three
possible combinations for c and e, namely c = 2 and e = 3, or c = 3 and e = 4, or c = 4 and
e = 5.
We will check each of these possibilities. First, if c = 2, e = 3, b = 1 and d = 6, we can
substitute the appropriate values in (1) giving a + 1 + 2 = 9 or a = 6. This is not possible since
d would also equal 6. We can rule this case out.

## Next, if c = 3, e = 4, b = 1 and d = 6, we can substitute the appropriate values in (1) giving

a + 1 + 3 = 9 or a = 5. This is a possible solution. In (2), a + c + d = 5 + 3 + 6 = 14 as
required. And in (3), a + d + e = 5 + 6 + 4 = 15 as required. The only number not used is 2 so
the number on the bottom face is 2. But is this the only solution?
Finally, if c = 4, e = 5, b = 1 and d = 6, we can substitute the appropriate values in (1) giving
a + 1 + 4 = 9 or a = 4. This is not possible since c would also equal 4. We can rule this case
out.
Since we have examined all possible cases, the only possible number on the bottom (unseen)
face is 2.

Note: It is also possible to play with the numbers to solve this problem. The method presented
above could be used in a similar way with any of list of six different numbers. Playing with
the numbers might not be as easy.
Instead of arguing the difference between equations to obtain the relationship between b and
d, and c and e, we could have used elimination.
a+b+c = 9
a + c + d = 14
a + d + e = 15

(1)
(2)
(3)

For example, equation (1) subtract equation (2) gives b d = 5 which can be written
d b = 5. This is the same as saying the difference between b and d is 5.
Similarly, equation (2) subtract equation (3) gives c e = 1 which can be written e c = 1.
This is the same as saying that the difference between c and e is 1.

## Problem of the Week

Problem D
The Count Up Is On
The positive integers are written consecutively in groups of five so that the first
row contains the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; the second row contains the numbers
6, 7, 8, 9, 10; the third row contains the numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, 15; etc.
The row sum of a row is the sum of the numbers in the row. For example, the
row sum of row 1 is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15.
Determine the numbers in the row that has a row sum closest to 1 000.

1
6
11
..

2
7
12
..

3
8
13
..

4
9
14
..

5
10
15
..

## Problem of the Week

Problem D and Solutions
The Count Up Is On
Problem
The positive integers are written consecutively in groups of five so
that the first row contains the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; the second
row contains the numbers 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; the third row contains the
numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, 15; etc. The row sum of a row is the sum
of the numbers in the row. For example, the row sum of row 1 is
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15. Determine the numbers in the row that has
a row sum closest to 1 000.

1
2
3 4 5
6
7
8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15
..
..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
.

Solution 1
Observe that the last number in any row is a multiple of 5. If n is the row number, then the
last number in the nth row is 5n. Since the last number in row n is 5n, the four preceding
numbers in the row are 5n 1, 5n 2, 5n 3, and 5n 4.
The sum of the numbers in the nth row is
(5n 4) + (5n 3) + (5n 2) + (5n 1) + 5n
which simplifies to 25n 10. We want to find the integer value of n so that 25n 10 is as close
to 1 000 as possible.
25n 10 = 1 000
25n = 1 010
n = 40.4
The closest integer to 40.4 is 40. Therefore, n = 40 and the row sum is
25n 10 = 25(40) 10 = 990. The fifth number in the 40th row is 5 40 = 200. The five
numbers in the 40th row are 196, 197, 198, 199, and 200. The next row contains the numbers
201, 202, 203, 204, and 205, and the row sum is 1 015. This row sum is farther from 1 000 than
the previous row sum of 990 is.
Therefore, the row with the sum closest to 1 000 contains the numbers 196, 197, 198, 199, and
200.
The second solution approaches the problem by establishing a linear relationship.

## WWW.C E M C .U WAT E R LO O.C A | T h e C E N T R E fo r E D U C AT I O N i n M AT H E M AT I C S a n d CO M P U T I N G

Problem
The positive integers are written consecutively in groups of five so
that the first row contains the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; the second
row contains the numbers 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; the third row contains the
numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, 15; etc. The row sum of a row is the sum
of the numbers in the row. For example, the row sum of row 1 is
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15. Determine the numbers in the row that has
a row sum closest to 1 000.

1
2
3 4 5
6
7
8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15
..
..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
.

Solution 2
Let x represent the row number and y represent the sum of the numbers in the row. Observe
that the fifth number in any row is a multiple of 5. In fact, the fifth number in any row is 5
times the row number or 5x. The following table of values represents the information.
Row Number
x
1
2
3

Row Sum
y
15
40
65

It appears that the y values increase by 25 as the x values increase by 1. If this is true, the
sum of the fourth row should be 65 + 25 = 90. We can verify this by adding
16 + 17 + 18 + 19 + 20, the numbers in the fourth row. The sum is indeed 90.
As the values of x increase by 1, the values of y increase by 25. The relation is linear. The
25
y
=
= 25. Substituting x = 1, y = 15, m = 25 into
slope is
x
1
y = mx + b
15 = 25(1) + b
10 = b
The equation of the line which passes through the points in the relation is y = 25x 10. Note
that x and y are positive integers. We want to find the value of x, the row number, so that the
value of y, the row sum, is as close to 1 000 as possible.
25x 10 = 1 000
25x = 1 010
x = 40.4
We want the integer value for x that is closest to 40.4. Therefore, x = 40 and the row sum is
y = 25(40) 10 = 990. The fifth number in the 40th row is 5 40 = 200. The five numbers in
the 40th row are 196, 197, 198, 199, and 200. The sum of the numbers in this row is 990. The
next row contains the numbers 201, 202, 203, 204, and 205, and the row sum is 1 015. This row
sum is farther from 1 000 than the previous row sum of 990 is.
Therefore, the row with the sum closest to 1 000 contains the numbers 196, 197, 198, 199, and
200.