91 visualizações

Título original: POTWD 12 Combined9 10

Enviado por Rajiv Kabad

- SSLC Maths Eng June 2011
- UG022527 International GCSE in Mathematics Spec a for Web
- term 3 unit 1 number
- revision form 1+2.docx
- Untitled
- AVEVA Software Customisation Reference Manual
- YR11_3U_2010_Final
- Edexcel Specimen Papers Set 2 - Paper 2H Mark Scheme (1)
- 2012-13 Geom UBD 9
- Chapter 13 AutoCAD
- Circle Theorems Chapter
- ISI_BStat_06
- Sketch.slope.fields
- maaatom3
- 4th Year First Term End Exam Reviewer Math
- 6. rounabouts.pdf
- Tome of Awesome - Frank and K
- Maths Form 3 Pp1
- ODB - Math (Geometry).pdf
- Lemoine’s Circles

Você está na página 1de 120

A

problem often appears in multiple strands. The problems are

suitable for most students in Grade 9 or higher.

Problem D

Keep On Rolling

The dice shown below are unusual. A usual six-sided die would have the

numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 on the sides. These dice, however, are unusual

because the numbers on the other three sides are 2, 7 and 9.

Two of these unusual dice, one red and one blue, are rolled and the numbers on

the upper faces are added together. A winning roll occurs when the sum is

either a perfect square or a prime number. (A prime number has only two

factors, 1 and itself.)

Determine the probability that you win on any particular roll.

Problem D and Solution

Keep On Rolling

Problem

A usual six-sided die would have the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 on the sides. The dice in this

problem, however, are unusual because the numbers on the sides are 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9. Two of

these unusual dice, one red and one blue, are rolled and the numbers on the upper faces are

added together. A winning roll occurs when the sum is either a perfect square or a prime

number. (A prime number has only two factors, 1 and itself.) Determine the probability that

you win on any particular roll.

Solution

To solve this problem we will create a chart showing all of the possible rolls and the

corresponding sums.

1

2

Upper Face 3

of Red Die 5

7

9

1 2 3 5 7 9

2 3 4 6 8 10

3 4 5 7 9 11

4 5 6 8 10 12

6 7 8 10 12 14

8 9 10 12 14 16

10 11 12 14 16 18

From the table, we see that there are 36 possible outcomes. We also see that the perfect

squares 4, 9 and 16 appear in the table seven times.

The lowest number in the table is 2 and the highest number in the table is 18. The prime

numbers appearing in the table in this range of numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, and 11. These numbers

appear in the table a total of nine times.

Since a number cannot be both a prime number and a perfect square, we can be certain that

we have not counted a desirable outcome more than once. The total number of prime number

sums and perfect square sums is 7 + 9 = 16.

To determine the probability of a specific outcome, we divide the number of times the specific

outcome occurs by the total number of possible outcomes. The probability of winning on a

particular roll is 16 36 = 49 . You have approximately a 44% chance of winning. A game is

considered fair if you have a 50% chance of winning.

Problem D

Heroes and Villains

On an island, there are two types of inhabitants: Heroes, who always tell the

truth, and Villains, who always lie.

Four of the inhabitants of the island are seated around a circular table. When

asked, Are you a Hero or a Villain?, all four replied, Hero. When asked,

Is the person on your right a Hero or a Villain?, all four replied, Villain.

How many Heroes are there seated at the table? Verify that your solution is

the only possible solution.

Problem D and Solution

Heroes and Villains

Problem

On an island, there are two types of inhabitants: Heroes, who always tell the truth, and

Villains, who always lie. Four of the inhabitants of the island are seated around a circular

table. When asked, Are you a Hero or a Villain?, all four replied, Hero. When asked, Is

the person on your right a Hero or a Villain?, all four replied, Villain. How many Heroes

are there seated at the table? Verify that your solution is the only possible solution.

Solution

There are really five possibilities to check: there could be four Heroes, there could be four

Villains, there could be three Villains and one Hero, there could be three Heroes and one

Villain, or there could be two Villains and two Heroes.

We can eliminate cases as follows:

1. Can two Villains ever sit beside each other?

Since Villains always lie, when the two Villains sitting beside each other

answer the first question Hero, they are in fact lying. However, in

responding to the second question, the Villain with the other Villain on the

right hand side would have to lie and say Hero. But everyone responded

Villain. This is a contradiction and there can therefore never be two

Villains seated beside each other. This conclusion effectively eliminates

the possibility that there are four Villains or three Villains and one Hero.

Since Heroes always tell the truth, when the two Heroes sitting beside each

other answer the first question Hero, they are in fact telling the truth.

However, in responding to the second question, the Hero with the other

Hero on the right hand side would have to tell the truth and say Hero.

But everyone responded Villain. This is a contradiction and there can

therefore never be two Heroes seated beside each other. This conclusion

effectively eliminates the possibility that there are four Heroes or three

Heroes and one Villain.

The only possibility left is that there are two Villains and two Heroes such that

no two Villains or two Heroes can sit next to each other. The diagram illustrates

how they are sitting relative to each other. We can confirm that this is the correct

answer. Since all Villains lie and all Heroes tell the truth, they must all answer

the first question Hero. Since all Villains lie and all Heroes tell the truth, they

must all answer the second question Villain. Therefore, there are two Heroes

and two Villains, and when seated at a circular table they alternate Hero, Villain,

Hero, Villain.

!

!

"

"

!

Problem D

Triangle, Meet Square

The area of 4ACD is twice the area of square BCDE. AC and AD meet BE

at K and L respectively.

If the side length of the square is 12 cm, determine the area of trapezoid

KCDL.

'

"

&

Problem D and Solution

'

Problem

The area of 4ACD is twice the area of square BCDE. AC and

AD meet BE at K and L respectively. If the side length of the

square is 12 cm, determine the area of trapezoid KCDL.

Solution

of the two parallel sides, KL and CD, by the height, BC, and

divide the product by 2. To solve this problem we need to find

the length of KL. Let x represent the length of KL.

"

&

4AKL and AQ is an altitude of 4ACD.

Area of square BCDE

Area 4ACD

But Area 4ACD

288

288

AQ

=

=

=

=

=

=

12 12 = 144 cm2

2 Area of Square BCDE = 288 cm2

CD AQ 2

12 AQ 2

6(AQ)

48 cm

Area of trapezoid KCDL + Area of 4AKL

(KL + CD) BC 2 + KL AP 2

(x + 12)(12) 2 + x(36) 2

6(x + 12) + 18x

6x + 72 + 18x

24x

x

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Area 4ACD

288

288

288

288

216

9 cm

(KL + CD) P Q

2

(9 + 12)(12)

=

2

= 126 cm2

Notes:

1. In order to find the length of KL, we could establish that

4ACD 4AKL. From this we can use the fact that the ratio of the

altitudes of the two triangles equals the ratio of the corresponding sides in

the two similar triangles. The reader may wish to justify this fact.

AP

AQ

36

48

3

4

x

KL

CD

x

=

12

x

=

12

= 9 cm

=

could find the area by subtracting the area of 4AKL from the area of

4ACD.

Area of trapezoid KCDL = Area 4ACD Area of 4AKL

(KL)(AP )

= 288

2

9 36

= 288

2

= 288 152

= 126 cm2

Problem D

Give Me Some Volume

The side, front and top faces of a rectangular solid have areas of 2x,

25xy cm2 , respectively.

Determine the volume of the rectangular solid in terms of x and y.

!""!

!

!

!"

y

2

and

Problem D and Solution

Give Me Some Volume

Problem

The side, front and top faces of a rectangular solid have areas of 2x, y2 and

25xy cm2 , respectively. Determine the volume of the rectangular solid in terms

of x and y.

!""!

#

!

!

!"

$

Solution

Let the length, height and width of the rectangular solid be a, b, c,

respectively.

To determine the volume we need to find the product abc.

Since the area of the side is 2x, then bc = 2x.

(1)

y

y

Since the area of the front is 2 , then ab = 2 .

(2)

Since the area of the top is 25xy, then ac = 25xy. (3)

If we multiply the left sides and multiply the right sides of each of the

equations (1), (2) and (3), we obtain:

y

(bc)(ab)(ac) = (2x)( )(25xy)

2

2 2 2

2 2

a b c = 25x y

(abc)2 = (5xy)2

Taking the square root,

abc = 5xy, since all quantities are positive.

But abc is the volume. Therefore the volume of the rectangular solid, in terms

of x and y, is 5xy cm3 .

Problem D

Can You See It?

A circle with centre O has points A, B and C on its circumference.

OBA = 20 and OCA = 52 .

Determine the measure of BOC and the measure of BAC. What is the

relationship between these two angles?

#

!

%&

'%

"

Problem D and Solution

Can You See It?

Problem

A circle with centre O has points A, B and C on its circumference. OBA = 20 and

OCA = 52 . Determine the measure of BOC and the measure of BAC. What is the

relationship between these two angles?

#

!

%&

'%

"

Solution

Start by constructing radius OA.

OB and OA are both radii of the circle so OB = OA. Then 4OBA is isosceles and

OAB = OBA = 20 . Since the angles in a triangle add to 180 ,

BOA = 180 2 20 = 140 .

OC and OA are both radii of the circle so OC = OA. Then 4OCA is isosceles and

OAC = OCA = 52 . Since the angles in a triangle add to 180 ,

COA = 180 2 52 = 76 .

We will now find the size of BAC and BOC in order to determine the relationship.

BAC =

=

=

BOC =

=

=

=

=

OAC OAB

52 20

32

BOA COA

140 76

64

2 32

2 BAC

This problem illustrates the following result: The angle inscribed at the centre of a circle is

twice the size of the angle inscribed at the circumference by the same chord. The 20 and 52

angles are irrelevant. The second solution generalizes this result.

A circle with centre O has points A, B and C on its circumference. OBA = a and

OCA = b . Determine the measure of BOC and the measure of BAC. What is the

relationship between these two angles?

#

!

&

"

Solution

Start by constructing radius OA.

OB and OA are both radii of the circle so OB = OA. Then 4OBA is isosceles and

OAB = OBA = a . Since the angles in a triangle add to 180 , BOA = (180 2a) .

OC and OA are both radii of the circle so OC = OA. Then 4OCA is isosceles and

OAC = OCA = b . Since the angles in a triangle add to 180 , COA = (180 2b) .

We will now find the size of BAC and BOC in order to determine the relationship.

BAC = OAC OAB

= (b a)

BOC =

=

=

=

=

BOA COA

(180 2a) (180 2b)

(2b 2a)

2 (b a)

2 BAC

In general, the angle inscribed at the centre of a circle is twice the size of the angle inscribed at

the circumference by the same chord. In the following diagram, BOC is inscribed at the

centre of the circle by chord BC and BAC is inscribed at the circumference by the same

chord. Therefore, BOC = 2BAC.

#

&

!

%&

"

Problem D

Not A Mickey Mouse Problem

The shape of the head and ears of a famous mouse is

contained in a rectangle.

The two smaller circles have equal radii. Each of the

three circles is tangent to the other two circles, and

each is also tangent to the sides of the rectangle. The

width of the rectangle is 4 m.

Determine the area of the rectangle not covered by

the head and ears of the famous mouse.

For this problem, the following known results about circles may be useful:

If a line is tangent to a circle, it is perpendicular to the radius drawn to

the point of tangency.

If two circles are tangent to each other at point P , a line segment through

the point of tangency can be drawn connecting the two centres, C1 and C2 .

!"

!#

Problem D and Solution

Not A Mickey Mouse Problem

%

Problem

The shape of the head and ears of a famous mouse is

contained in a rectangle. The two smaller circles have

equal radii. Each of the three circles is tangent to the

other two circles, and each is also tangent to the sides

of the rectangle. The width of the rectangle is 4 m.

Determine the area of the rectangle not covered by the

head and ears of the famous mouse.

Solution

Since the larger circle is tangent to two opposite sides

of the rectangle, its diameter is 4 m, the width of the

rectangle. It follows that the radius of the larger circle

is 2 m.

"

"

"

&

"

'

!

!

$

#

"

#

The two smaller circles have equal radii, are tangent to each other and to

opposite sides of the rectangle. It follows that the diameter of each of the

smaller circles is half the width of the rectangle, namely 2 m. The radius of

each of the smaller circles is 1 m.

Let the centre of the large circle and leftmost small circle be B and E

respectively. Let the two small circles be tangent at C. Let the leftmost small

circle and the larger circle be tangent at F . Position line segment AD so that

it is parallel to the longer side such that A and D are midpoints of the shorter

sides of the rectangle. AD will pass through C and B.

Let the length of the rectangle be d. This is the same as the distance from A to

D on the diagram. We know that AB = 2 m, the radius of the larger circle, and

CD = 1 m, the radius of the smaller circle. We need to find the length of BC.

AD is tangent to the smaller circles at C. Using the first property, we know

that EC AD at C. Using the second property, EF B is a straight line

segment and EB = EF + F B = 1 + 2 = 3 m.

Pythagorean Theorem, BC 2 = EB 2 EC 2 = 32 12 = 8 and BC = 8

follows. Then the length of the rectangle is

d = AB + BC + CD = 2 + 8 + 1 = 3 + 8.

To find the area not covered by the head and ears we need to find the shaded

area. To do this we find the area of the rectangle and subtract the area of the

large circle and the area of the two equal radii smaller circles.

=

=

=

=

Shaded Area

Area of Rectangle Area of Large Circle Area of two smaller circles

4 (3 + 8) 22 2 ( 12 )

12 + 4 8 4 2

12 + 4 8 6

Some

students

have

learned to simplify radicals and know that

8 = 4 2 = 2 2. The shaded

area can then be written

decimal answer 4.5 m2 .

4.5 m2 .

Problem D

The Rhombus Rules!

A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel. A rhombus is a

parallelogram with all four sides having equal length.

ABCD is a rhombus. H is on BC and K is on CD such that

AB = AH = HK = KA. Determine the measure of BAD.

"

Problem D and Solution

The Rhombus Rules

!

Problem

&

rhombus is a parallelogram with all four sides having equal length.

ABCD is a rhombus. H is on BC and K is on CD such that

AB = AH = HK = KA. Determine the measure of BAD.

"

'

Solution

Draw the diagram based on the given information. Since ABCD is a rhombus, we know

AB = BC = CD = DA. Let ABH = x .

Since AH = HK = KA, 4AHK is equilateral and each angle is 60 . In particular,

HAK = 60 .

In 4ABH, AB = AH and the triangle is isosceles. Therefore, AHB = ABH = x . Then

BAH = (180 2x) .

Since ABCD is a rhombus, AB k CD and ABC + BCD = 180 . It follows that

BCD = (180 x) . But in the rhombus BC k AD and BCD + ADC = 180 . It follows

that ADC = 180 (180 x) = x .

In 4AKD, KA = AD and the triangle is isosceles. Therefore, AKD = ADK = x . Then

DAK = (180 2x) .

All of this new information is shown on the second diagram.

BAD

(420 4x)

240

=

=

=

=

180 ABC

(180 x)

(!"#$%'&

(180 x)

(3x)

x = 80

(180 x) = 100

But BAD = (180 x) .

BAD = 100 .

"

(!"#$%'&

)#

'

)#

'

'

)#

%

(!"#$'&

'

&

Problem D

Cut, Cut, Cut!

A rope of length 200 cm is cut into four pieces. Three of the pieces are used to

form identical equilateral triangles with integer side lengths. The fourth piece

is used to form a square with integer side lengths. Determine all possible side

lengths for the triangle and square.

Problem D and Solution

Cut, Cut, Cut!

Problem

A rope of length 200 cm is cut into four pieces. Three of the pieces are used to form identical

equilateral triangles with integer side lengths. The fourth piece is used to form a square with

integer side lengths. Determine all possible side lengths for the triangle and square.

Solution

Let x represent the integer side length of the equilateral triangles and let y represent the

integer side length of the square.

!

"

The perimeter of each figure is the length of the piece of rope used to form it. For each

triangle, the length of rope is 3x and for the square the length of rope is 4y. The total rope

used is 3(3x) + 4y = 9x + 4y. But the length of the rope is 200 cm. Therefore,

9x + 4y = 200

9x = 200 4y

4(50 y)

x =

9

Since both x and y are integers, 4(50 y) must be a multiple of 9. But 4 is not divisible by 9,

so 50 y must be divisible by 9. There are five multiples of 9 between 0 and 50, namely 9, 18,

27, 36, and 45. So 50 y = {9, 18, 27, 36, 45} and it follows that y = {41, 32, 23, 14, 5}. The

corresponding values of x are computed in the chart below.

y

4y

200 4y

41

32

23

14

5

164

128

92

56

20

36

72

108

144

180

x=

200 4y

9

4

8

12

16

20

When the side length of the square is 41 cm, the side length of the triangle is 4 cm; when the

side length of the square is 32 cm, the side length of the triangle is 8 cm; when the side length

of the square is 23 cm, the side length of the triangle is 12 cm; when the side length of the

square is 14 cm, the side length of the triangle is 16 cm; and when the side length of the square

is 5 cm, the side length of the triangle is 20 cm.

Problem D

Its Been A Slice

M ON is a sector of a circle with centre O, radius n and M ON =

"

360

.

n

#

'()

$%%%%%%%%&

*

!

!

Determine all positive integers n for which the sector M ON has perimeter

greater than 20 and less than 30.

Did you know that the ratio of the length of an arc to the circumference is the

same as the ratio of the sector angle to 360 ? The same ratio holds when

comparing sector area to the total area of a circle.

Problem D and Solution

Its Been A Slice

Problem

M ON is a sector of a circle with centre O, radius n and M ON = 360

. Determine all

n

positive integers n for which the sector M ON has perimeter greater than 20 and less than 30.

Solution

As the sector angle gets larger, so does the length of the arc if the radius remains the same. In

this problem, as the radius n increases, the sector angle 360

n

what happens to the length of the arc.

Since the ratio of the arc length to the circumference of the circle is the same as the ratio of

the sector angle to 360 ,

Sector Angle

Arc Length =

circumference

360

360

n

d

360

1

=

2n,

n

= 2

=

since d = 2r = 2n

As the radius increases, the sector angle decreases and the arc length M N remains constant,

2 units.

Perimeter = M O + ON + arc length M N

= n + n + 2

= 2n + 2

We want all integer values of n such that:

20 < 2n + 2 and 2n + 2 < 30

10 < n + and n + < 15

10 < n and n < 15

We want all integer values of n such that n > 10 =

6.9 and n < 15 =11.9.

The only

integer values of n that satisfy these conditions are n = 7, n = 8, n = 9, n = 10, and n = 11.

Problem D

Inside the Box

P QRS is a rectangle. A and B are points on QR such that QA = AB = BR.

C is the midpoint of P Q. The area of 4ACS is 10 cm2 . Determine the area of

rectangle P QRS.

'

"

&

Problem D and Solution

Inside the Box

Problem

P QRS is a rectangle. A and B are points on QR such that QA = AB = BR. C is the

midpoint of P Q. The area of 4ACS is 10 cm2 . Determine the area of rectangle P QRS.

Solution

Let QA = AB = BR = x. Then P S = QR = 3x and AR = 2x.

Since C is the midpoint of P Q, P C = CQ = y. Then SR = P Q = 2y.

!

'

!"#$%&

"

&

We will formulate an equation connecting the areas of the four inside shapes to the entire

rectangle.

Area P QRS = Area 4P CS + Area 4SRA + Area 4AQC + Area 4ACS

SR AR

QA CQ

PC PS

+

+

+ 10

P Q QR =

2

2

2

y 3x

2y 2x

xy

(2y) (3x) =

+

+

+ 10

2

2

2

3xy

xy

6xy

=

+

2xy

+

+ 10

2

2

Multiply by 2: 12xy = 3xy + 4xy + xy + 20

4xy = 20

xy = 5

The area of rectangle P QRS is 6xy = 6(5) = 30 cm2 .

Problem D

Know How to Fold Em

A square piece of paper ABCD has side length 20 cm. The

page is grey on one side and white on the other. Point M

is the midpoint of side AB and point N is the midpoint of

side AD. (Refer to the top diagram.)

Point A is folded along M N so that A touches the paper.

(Refer to the second diagram.)

Point C is then folded over a line P Q parallel to M N

so that C lies on M N . (Refer to the third and bottom

diagram.)

What is the area of hexagon N M BP QD?

A square is a four sided figure with sides of equal length and

corner angles each measuring 90 . Here are some known

properties of the diagonals of squares:

the diagonals are equal length; and

the diagonals right bisect each other; and

the diagonals bisect the corner angles.

Problem D and Solution

Know How to Fold Em

Problem

A square piece of paper ABCD has side length 20 cm. The page is

grey on one side and white on the other. Point M is the midpoint of

side AB and point N is the midpoint of side AD. The paper is folded

along M N so that A touches the paper. Point C is then folded over a

line P Q parallel to M N so that C lies on M N . What is the area of

hexagon N M BP QD?

Solution

If we are able to find the area of 4AM N and 4P CQ, we can subtract these areas from the

total area to find the area of hexagon N M BP QD. To find the area of 4P CQ, we must find

the length of P C and CQ.

Since M and N are midpoints of AB and AD respectively, AM = 21 (AB) = 10 and

AN = 12 (AD) = 10. Therefore AM = AN = 10 and 4AM N is an isosceles right triangle. It

follows that AN M = AM N = 45 . Since P Q is parallel to M N , P Q also meets the sides of

the square at a 45 angle. It follows that 4P CQ is also an isosceles right triangle with

P C = CQ and CP Q = CQP = 45 .

After the first fold, let A touch the paper at A0 . 4M A0 N is a reflection

of 4M AN in the line M N . It follows that AM N = A0 M N = 45

and AN M = A0 N M = 45 . Then AM A0 = AN A0 = 90 . Since

all four sides of AM A0 N are equal in length and all four corners are

90 , AM A0 N is a square.

Since M AA0 = M AC = 45 , the diagonal AA of square AM A0 N

lies along the diagonal AC of square ABCD. (In fact, A0 lies at the

intersection of the two diagonals of ABCD, the centre of the square.)

The length of the diagonal of square AM A0 N can be found using the Pythagorean Theorem.

p

Some students may not be familiar with simplifying radicals:

Let O be the intersection of the two diagonals of square AM A0 N . It is also the intersection of

M N and AC. (We will show later that this is in fact

of contact of C with the paper

the point

is reflected in the line segment P Q, a square, P CQC 0 , is created with

C 0 being the image of C. We will not present the argument here

because it is very similar to the argument presented for AM A0 N .

Since P CC 0 = P CA = 45 , CC 0 lies along the diagonal CA. Also,

C 0 is the intersection of CA with M N . This means that C 0 and O are

the same point.

The length of the diagonal of square ABCD can be calculated using the Pythagorean Theorem.

p

The length of CC 0 equals the length of AC subtract the length of OA.

CC 0 = 20 2 5 2 = 15 2

4P CQ,

(P C)2 + (CQ)2

x2 + x2

x2 + x2

2x2

x2

x

=

=

=

=

=

=

(P Q)2

(15 2)2

225 2

500

225

15

Area N M BP QD = Area ABCD Area 4AM N Area 4P CQ

P C CQ

AM AN

= AB BC

2

2

10 10 15 15

= 20 20

2

2

100 225

= 400

2

2

800 100 225

=

2

2

2

475

=

2

The area of hexagon N M BP QD is

475

cm2 or 237.5 cm2 .

2

Problem D

Whats Your Angle?

In the diagram, O is the centre of a circle with points A, B, C, and D on the

circumference. If BOC = 50 and CO = CD, determine the measure of

BAD.

A

O

50

B

Problem D and Solution

Whats Your Angle?

Problem

A

y

B, C, and D on the circumference. If BOC = 50 and

CO = CD, determine the measure of BAD.

Solution

diagram will be explained. Draw radii from O to points

A and D on the circumference. Join B to C.

50

B

w

z

y

x

is isosceles. Therefore, OBC = OCB = x . But

in a triangle the angles sum to 180 . It follows that

x + x + 50 = 180 . Then 2x = 130 and x = 65.

x w

In 4OCD, OC = OD since they are both radii. But we are given that OC = CD. Therefore,

OC = CD = OD and 4OCD is equilateral. It follows that each angle is 60 . Therefore,

w = 60.

Since OD and OA are radii, OD = OA and 4ODA is isosceles. Therefore,

ODA = OAD = z .

Similarly, since OA and OB are radii, OA = OB and 4OAB is isosceles. Therefore,

OBA = OAB = y .

The figure ABCD is a quadrilateral and we know that the sum of the interior angles of a

quadrilateral is 360 . Then,

BAD + ABC + BCD + CDA

(y + z ) + (y + x ) + (x + w ) + (w + z )

2w + 2x + 2y + 2z

w + x + y + z

(60 ) + (65 ) + y + z

(125 ) + y + z

(y + z)

BAD

BAD = 55 .

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

360

360

360

180

180

180

55

55

Dividing by 2

Substituting for w and x

Since BAD = (y + z)

Problem D

Triangle, Meet Square

The area of 4ACD is twice the area of square BCDE. AC and AD meet BE

at K and L respectively.

If the side length of the square is 12 cm, determine the area of trapezoid

KCDL.

'

"

&

Problem D and Solution

'

Problem

The area of 4ACD is twice the area of square BCDE. AC and

AD meet BE at K and L respectively. If the side length of the

square is 12 cm, determine the area of trapezoid KCDL.

Solution

of the two parallel sides, KL and CD, by the height, BC, and

divide the product by 2. To solve this problem we need to find

the length of KL. Let x represent the length of KL.

"

&

4AKL and AQ is an altitude of 4ACD.

Area of square BCDE

Area 4ACD

But Area 4ACD

288

288

AQ

=

=

=

=

=

=

12 12 = 144 cm2

2 Area of Square BCDE = 288 cm2

CD AQ 2

12 AQ 2

6(AQ)

48 cm

Area of trapezoid KCDL + Area of 4AKL

(KL + CD) BC 2 + KL AP 2

(x + 12)(12) 2 + x(36) 2

6(x + 12) + 18x

6x + 72 + 18x

24x

x

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Area 4ACD

288

288

288

288

216

9 cm

(KL + CD) P Q

2

(9 + 12)(12)

=

2

= 126 cm2

Notes:

1. In order to find the length of KL, we could establish that

4ACD 4AKL. From this we can use the fact that the ratio of the

altitudes of the two triangles equals the ratio of the corresponding sides in

the two similar triangles. The reader may wish to justify this fact.

AP

AQ

36

48

3

4

x

KL

CD

x

=

12

x

=

12

= 9 cm

=

could find the area by subtracting the area of 4AKL from the area of

4ACD.

Area of trapezoid KCDL = Area 4ACD Area of 4AKL

(KL)(AP )

= 288

2

9 36

= 288

2

= 288 152

= 126 cm2

Problem D

Sum to 1000

Did you know that 1000 can be written as the sum of 16 consecutive whole

numbers? That is,

1000 = 55 + 56 + 57 + 58 + 59 + 60 + 61 + 62 + 63 + 64 + 65 + 66 + 67 + 68 + 69 + 70.

The diagram below illustrates a mathematical short form used for writing the

above sum. The notation is called Sigma Notation.

$%

!!!"!!&%%%

!!"!##

Using at least two numbers, what is the minimum number of consecutive whole

numbers needed to sum to exactly 1000?

In this weeks Problem C and Problem E we explore the ideas in this problem

further.

Problem D and Solution

Sum to 1000

Problem

The number 1000 can be written as the sum of 16 consecutive whole numbers:

1000 = 55 + 56 + 57 + 58 + 59 + 60 + 61 + 62 + 63 + 64 + 65 + 66 + 67 + 68 + 69 + 70.

Using at least two numbers, what is the minimum number of consecutive whole

numbers needed to sum to exactly 1000?

Solution

In this solution we will examine possible cases until we discover the first one

that works.

1. Can 1000 be written using 2 consecutive whole numbers?

Let n, n + 1 represent the two numbers.

n+n+1 =

2n + 1 =

2n =

n =

Then,

1000

1000

999

499.5

Since n is not a whole number, it is not possible to write 1000 using two

consecutive whole numbers.

2. Can 1000 be written using 3 consecutive whole numbers?

Let n, n + 1, n + 2 represent the three numbers. Then,

n + n + 1 + n + 2 = 1000

3n + 3 = 1000

3n = 997

n =

332.3

Since n is not a whole number, it is not possible to write 1000 using three

consecutive whole numbers. (Refer to the note following the solution for

an alternate way to define the three consecutive whole numbers.)

The solution continues on the next page.

Let n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3 represent the four numbers. Then,

n + n + 1 + n + 2 + n + 3 = 1000

4n + 6 = 1000

4n = 994

n = 248.5

Since n is not a whole number, it is not possible to write 1000 using four

consecutive whole numbers.

4. Can 1000 be written using 5 consecutive whole numbers?

Let n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3, n + 4 represent the five

n+n+1+n+2+n+3+n+4

5n + 10

5n

n

numbers. Then,

= 1000

= 1000

= 990

= 198

consecutive whole numbers. That is, 1000 = 198 + 199 + 200 + 201 + 202.

Since we have checked all possible numbers of consecutive whole numbers

below five and none of them worked, the minimum number of consecutive

whole numbers required to produce a sum of 1000 is five.

Note:

In the second case, when we checked to see if 1000 could be written as the sum

of three consecutive whole numbers. We could have proceeded as follows:

Let a 1, a, a + 1 represent the three consecutive whole numbers. Then,

a 1 + a + a + 1 = 1000

3a = 1000

a =

333.3

Since a is not a whole number, it is not possible to write 1000 using three

consecutive whole numbers.

This idea is useful when we are finding the sum of an odd number of

consecutive integers. We could also have applied the same idea to the fourth

case by using a 2, a 1, a, a + 1, a + 2 to represent the five consecutive

positive integers.

Problem D

An Odd Grid

The first 9 positive odd integers are placed in the following 3 3 grid in such a

way that the sum of each row, column and diagonal is the same. Four of the

numbers are shown and the other five numbers are hidden behind the letters

A, B, C, D, and E.

13

Problem D and Solutions

An Odd Grid

Problem

The first 9 positive odd integers are placed in the 3 3 grid

shown to the right in such a way that the sum of each row,

column and diagonal is the same. Four of the numbers are

shown and the other five numbers are hidden behind the letters

A, B, C, D, and E. Determine the value of A + E.

13

Solution 1

The numbers to be placed in the table are 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, and 17,

the first 9 positive odd integers. The sum of all the numbers in the table is

1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 + 15 + 17 = 81. It follows that the sum of the three

rows is 81. But each row has the same sum so the sum of each row is

81 3 = 27. We know that each row, column and diagonal has the same sum.

Therefore the sum of each row = the sum of each column = the sum of each

diagonal = 27.

We can now use this information to determine the values in each cell of the

3 3 grid. In the third column we know that B + 13 + 3 = 27 and B = 11

follows.

In the first row we know that A + 1 + B = 27 and B = 11 so A + 1 + 11 = 27.

A = 15 follows.

In the second row we know that 5 + C + 13 = 27 and C = 9 follows.

Then in the second column 1 + C + E = 27 and C = 9 so 1 + 9 + E = 27.

E = 17 follows.

Since we know the values of A and E we can compute the sum

A + E = 15 + 17 = 32.

Therefore, the sum A + E is 32.

Problem

The first 9 positive odd integers are placed in the 3 3 grid

shown to the right in such a way that the sum of each row,

column and diagonal is the same. Four of the numbers are

shown and the other five numbers are hidden behind the letters

A, B, C, D, and E. Determine the value of A + E.

13

Solution 2

In the second solution we determine the required sum without finding the

row/column/diagonal sum. Since the row sum equals the column sum we know

that the sum of row 1 equals the sum of column 3.

A + 1 + B = B + 13 + 3

A + 1 = 13 + 3

A = 15

Again, since the row sum equals the column sum we know that the sum of

column 2 equals the sum of row 2.

1 + C + E = 5 + C + 13

1 + E = 5 + 13

E = 17

A + E = 15 + 17 = 32.

Therefore, the sum A + E is 32.

Solution 3

In solution 3 we find the sum A + E without finding any individual values.

Row 1 + Column 2

A+1+B+1+C +E

A+1+1+E

A+E+2

A+E

=

=

=

=

=

Row 2 + Column 3

5 + 13 + C + B + 13 + 3

5 + 13 + 13 + 3

B + C is common to both sides

34

32

Problem D

Give Me Some Volume

The side, front and top faces of a rectangular solid have areas of 2x,

25xy cm2 , respectively.

Determine the volume of the rectangular solid in terms of x and y.

!""!

!

!

!"

y

2

and

Problem D and Solution

Give Me Some Volume

Problem

The side, front and top faces of a rectangular solid have areas of 2x, y2 and

25xy cm2 , respectively. Determine the volume of the rectangular solid in terms

of x and y.

!""!

#

!

!

!"

$

Solution

Let the length, height and width of the rectangular solid be a, b, c,

respectively.

To determine the volume we need to find the product abc.

Since the area of the side is 2x, then bc = 2x.

(1)

y

y

Since the area of the front is 2 , then ab = 2 .

(2)

Since the area of the top is 25xy, then ac = 25xy. (3)

If we multiply the left sides and multiply the right sides of each of the

equations (1), (2) and (3), we obtain:

y

(bc)(ab)(ac) = (2x)( )(25xy)

2

2 2 2

2 2

a b c = 25x y

(abc)2 = (5xy)2

Taking the square root,

abc = 5xy, since all quantities are positive.

But abc is the volume. Therefore the volume of the rectangular solid, in terms

of x and y, is 5xy cm3 .

Problem D

No Weigh!

Icon Duit was asked to determine the combined weight of one sphere and one

cube but he did not have a reliable weigh scale. He was, however, given the

following information:

Four spheres and three cubes weigh 37 g.

Three spheres and four cubes weigh 33 g.

Icon was quickly able to determine the combined weight, in grams, of one

sphere and one cube. Your task is to also determine the combined weight of

one sphere and one cube.

Problem D and Solutions

No Weigh!

Problem

Icon Duit was asked to determine the combined weight of one sphere and one cube but he did

not have a reliable weigh scale. He was, however, given the following information: four spheres

and three cubes weigh 37 g and three spheres and four cubes weigh 33 g. Icon was quickly able

to determine the combined weight, in grams, of one sphere and one cube. Your task is to also

determine the combined weight of one sphere and one cube.

Solution 1

The problem is solved quickly if you make the following observation. Since four spheres and

three cubes weigh 37 g and three spheres and four cubes weigh 33 g, then, by combining the

two pieces of information, seven spheres and seven cubes weigh 37 + 33 = 70 g. Dividing by 7,

one sphere and one cube weigh 70 7 = 10 g.

Solution 2

In this solution we will find the weight of one sphere and the weight of one cube. We will then

determine the sum.

Let c represent the weight, in grams, of one cube.

Let s represent the weight, in grams, of one sphere.

From the first piece of information, 4s + 3c = 37.

(1)

From the second piece of information, 3s + 4c = 33. (2)

To get from equation (1) to equation (2), notice that there is one less sphere and one more

cube causing the weight to go down 4 g. Therefore, a sphere weighs 4 g more than a cube and

s = c + 4 follows. We can substitute for s in (1).

4(c + 4) + 3c

4c + 16 + 3c

7c

c

=

=

=

=

37

37

21

3g

Since c = 3 and s = c + 4, s = 7 g. One sphere weighs 7 g and one cube weighs 3 g. The

combined weight of one sphere and one cube is 3 + 7 = 10 g.

Solution 3

Let c represent the weight, in grams, of one cube.

Let s represent the weight, in grams, of one sphere.

Using the given information, we obtain the following system of equations.

4s + 3c = 37

3s + 4c = 33

(1)

(2)

Multiply (1) by 4

Multiply (2) by 3

9s + 12c = 99

7s = 49

s = 7g

4(7) + 3c

28 + 3c

3c

c

=

=

=

=

(3)

(4)

37

37

9

3g

Therefore, one sphere weighs 7 g and one cube weighs 3 g. The combined weight of one sphere

and one cube is 3 + 7 = 10 g.

Solution 4

This is the algebraic version of solution 1.

Let c represent the weight, in grams, of one cube.

Let s represent the weight, in grams, of one sphere.

Using the given information, we obtain the following system of equations.

4s + 3c = 37

3s + 4c = 33

(1)

(2)

Adding (1) and (2), we obtain 7s + 7c = 70. Dividing both sides of the equation by 7, we

obtain s + c = 10. But s is the weight of one sphere and c is the weight of one cube so s + c is

the combined weight of one sphere and one cube.

Therefore, the combined weight of one sphere and one cube is 10 g.

Problem D

Well Aged

At present, the sum of the ages of a father and his son is 43 years. In n years,

n > 0, the father will be four times the sons age.

Determine the possible ages of the father and son.

Problem D and Solution

Well Aged

Problem

At present, the sum of the ages of a father and his son is 43 years. In n years, n > 0, the father

will be four times the sons age. Determine the possible ages of the father and son.

Solution

Let s represent the present age of the son and f represent the present age of the father.

Since the sum of their present ages is 43, s + f = 43 or f = 43 s.

In n years, the son will be (s + n) years old and the father will be (43 s + n) years old. At

that time the father will be four times older than the son.

43 s + n

43 s + n

43

43 3n

5

= 4(s + n)

= 4s + 4n

= 5s + 3n

= s

433(1)

= 40

= 8. When s = 8, f = 43 s = 43 8 = 35.

5

5

= 433(6)

= 25

= 5. When s = 5, f = 43 s = 43 5 = 38.

6, s = 433n

5

5

5

11, s = 433n

= 433(11)

= 10

= 2. When s = 2, f = 43 s = 43 2 = 41.

5

5

5

433(16)

=

= 5

= 1. Since s < 0, n = 16 does not produce

16, s = 433n

5

5

5

When n = 1, s =

When n =

When n =

433n

5

When n =

age for the son. No higher value of n would produce a value of s > 0.

a valid

No integer values of n other than 1, 6, and 11, between 0 and 16, produce a multiple of 5 when

substituted into 43 3n.

If today the father is 35 and the son is 8, then in 1 year the father will be 36 and the son will

be 9. The father will be four times older than the son since 4 9 = 36.

If today the father is 38 and the son is 5, then in 6 years the father will be 44 and the son will

be 11. The father will be four times older than the son since 4 11 = 44.

If today the father is 41 and the son is 2, then in 11 years the father will be 52 and the son will

be 13. The father will be four times older than the son since 4 13 = 52.

Therefore the possible present ages for the father and son are 35 and 8 or 38 and 5 or 41 and 2.

Problem D

Troubling Times

Dante B Late has a clock that gains exactly 12 minutes per hour. Just before

leaving for work at 5:30 a.m., Dante set the clock to the correct time.

Dante returned home for lunch and while eating glanced over at the clock.

The clock read 1:30 p.m. At first Dante was concerned, knowing that he should

have left the house at 12:30 p.m. in order to return to work on time. But then

he remembered the clocks peculiar feature.

How much time does Dante have left at home before he needs to leave to

return to work?

Problem D and Solutions

Troubling Times

Problem

Dante B Late has a clock that gains exactly 12 minutes per hour. Just before

leaving for work at 5:30 a.m., Dante set the clock to the correct time. Dante

returned home for lunch and while eating glanced over at the clock. The clock

read 1:30 p.m. At first Dante was concerned, knowing that he should have left

the house at 12:30 p.m. in order to return to work on time. But then he

remembered the clocks peculiar feature.

How much time does Dante have left at home before he needs to leave to

return to work?

Solution 1

Every hour the clock gains 12 minutes or

12

60

1

5

h.

Let x be the actual number of hours that have passed since 5:30 a.m. Then the

number of hours that the clock advances is x + 15 x = 65 x h.

From 5:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m., the clock advances 8 h.

6

x = 8

5

20

x =

3

2

x = 6 h

3

x = 6 h 40 min

The actual time is 6 hours and 40 minutes after 5:30 a.m. This puts the actual

time at 12:10 p.m. and Dante still has 20 minutes left before he must return to

work.

Solution 2

For every 60 real minutes, the clock advances 60 + 12 = 72 minutes.

From 5:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. the clock advances 8 h or 8 60 = 480 minutes.

Let x be the number of real minutes that

480 minutes.

x

Then

=

480

x

=

480

60

72

5

6

5

x = (480)

6

x = 400 min

x = 6 h 40 min

The real time is 6 hours and 40 minutes after 5:30 a.m. or 12:10 p.m. Dante

still has 20 minutes left before he needs to return to work.

Solution 3

Actual Number

of Hours

1

2

3

4

5

Real

Time

5:30 a.m.

6:30 a.m.

7:30 a.m.

8:30 a.m.

9:30 a.m.

10:30 a.m.

Clock

Advances

1 h 12 min

2 h 24 min

3 h 36 min

4 h 48 min

6 h 0 min

Clock

Time

5:30 a.m.

6:42 a.m.

7:54 a.m.

9:06 a.m.

10:18 a.m.

11:30 a.m.

When the clock advances 6 h from 5:30 a.m to 11:30 a.m., 5 real hours have

passed. When the clock advances 2 h from 11:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m., 53 = 1 23 or

1 hour and 40 minutes of real time will pass from 10:30 a.m. actual time.

The actual time is then 12:10 p.m. and Dante can relax. He still has 20

minutes before he must return to work.

Problem D

Lets Make A Deal

An automobile dealer purchased two cars. She then sold the cars, the first at a

profit of 40% and the second at a profit of 60%. Her total profit on the sale of

the two cars was 54%. She received a total of $88 704 from the sale of the two

cars.

What did the dealer originally pay for each of the two cars?

Problem D and Solutions

Lets Make A Deal

Problem

An automobile dealer purchased two cars. She then sold the cars, the first at a

profit of 40% and the second at a profit of 60%. Her total profit on the sale of

the two cars was 54%. She received a total of $88 704 from the sale of the two

cars. What did the dealer originally pay for each of the two cars?

Solution 1

Let a represent what the dealer paid for the first car and b represent what she

paid for the second car.

The profit on the sale of the first car was 40% or 0.4a. The first car was sold

for a + 0.4a = 1.4a. The profit on the sale of the second car was 60% or 0.6b.

The second car was sold for b + 0.6b = 1.6b. The total selling price of the two

cars was $88 704 so

1.4a + 1.6b = 88 704

Multiplying by 5:

7a + 8b = 443 520

(1)

The dealer bought both cars for a total of (a + b). The profit on the sale of the

two cars was 54% or 0.54(a + b). The two cars sold for

(a + b) + 0.54(a + b) = 1.54(a + b). But the total selling price was $88 704 so

1.54(a + b) = 88 704

a + b = 88 704 1.54

a + b = 57 600

(2)

Solving the system of equations using elimination:

7a + 8b = 443 520

Multiplying (2) by 7: 7a + 7b = 403 200

Subtracting (3) from (1):

b = 40 320

(1)

(3)

The dealer paid $17 280 for the first car and $40 320 for the second car.

Problem

An automobile dealer purchased two cars. She then sold the cars, the first at a

profit of 40% and the second at a profit of 60%. Her total profit on the sale of

the two cars was 54%. She received a total of $88 704 from the sale of the two

cars. What did the dealer originally pay for each of the two cars?

Solution 2

Let a represent what the dealer paid for the first car and b represent what she

paid for the second car.

The profit on the sale of the first car was 40% or 0.4a. The first car was sold

for a + 0.4a = 1.4a. The profit on the sale of the second car was 60% or 0.6b.

The second car was sold for b + 0.6b = 1.6b. The total selling price of the two

cars was $88 704 so:

1.4a + 1.6b = 88 704

Multiplying by 5:

7a + 8b = 443 520

(1)

The dealer bought both cars for a total of (a + b). The profit on the sale of the

two cars was 54% or 0.54(a + b). The total profit is the sum of the profit from

the sale of each car so:

0.54(a + b) = 0.4a + 0.6b

0.54a + 0.54b = 0.4a + 0.6b

0.14a = 0.06b

Multiplying by 50:

7a = 3b

(2)

Substituting 3b for 7a in (1), 3b + 8b = 443 520 or 11b = 443 520 and

b = 40 320 follows.

Substituting b = 40 320 in (2), 7a = 120 960 and a = 17 280 follows.

The first car cost $17 280 and the second car cost $40 320.

Problem D

Keep on Tracking

A freight train is 27 minutes late when it makes its usual trip between Town A

and Town B at an average speed of 56 km/h. For another trip between Town

A and Town B, the freight train is 42 minutes late when its average speed is

54 km/h. What is the distance between Town A and Town B?

!"#$%&

!"#$%'

Problem D and Solutions

Keep on Tracking

Problem

A freight train is 27 minutes late when it makes its usual trip between Town A

and Town B at an average speed of 56 km/h. For another trip between Town

A and Town B, the freight train is 42 minutes late when its average speed is

54 km/h. What is the distance between Town A and Town B?

Solution 1

Let t represent the time, in hours, taken by the train when it was 27 minutes

late. Then, t + 14 represents the time, in hours, taken by the train when it was

15 minutes or one-quarter hour later.

The following chart displays the information. The distance column of the chart

is completed by multiplying the average speed by the time.

Distance

Speed

Time

Faster Train

56t

56

Slower Train

54(t + 14 )

54

t+

1

4

1

56t = 54(t + )

4

27

56t = 54t +

2

27

2t =

2

27

t =

4

The distance between Town A and Town B is 56t = 56

27

4

= 378 km.

Solution 2

Let d represent the distance, in km, between Town A and Town B.

The following chart displays the information. The time column of the chart is

completed by dividing the distance by the average speed.

Speed

56

Time

Faster Train

Distance

d

Slower Train

54

d

54

d

56

Since the difference in times between the slower train and the faster train is

15 minutes or 14 hour,

d

1

d

=

54 56

4

1

56d 54d

=

(54)(56)

4

1

2d =

(54)(56)

4

2d = 756

d = 378

The distance between Town A and Town B is 378 km.

Solution 3

This solution looks at the problem quite differently from the first two solutions.

If the faster train first travels 27 minutes, it would then complete the rest of

the trip in the usual amount of time. During the 27 minutes, the faster train

1512

would travel 27

60 56 = 60 = 25.2 km.

If the slower train first travels 42 minutes, it would then complete the rest of

the trip in the usual amount of time. During the 42 minutes, the slower train

2268

would travel 42

60 54 = 60 = 37.8 km.

The slower train is 37.8 25.2 = 12.6 km ahead of the faster train at the point

when the usual time to complete the trip remains. The faster train gains

2 km/h on the slower train. It will take the faster train 12.6

2 = 6.3 h to catch up

and thereby complete the trip. In 6.3 h, the faster train travels

6.3 56 = 352.8 km. But it had already travelled 25.2 km. Therefore the total

distance from Town A to Town B is 25.2 + 352.8 = 378 km.

The distance between Town A and Town B is 378 km.

Problem D

Not A Mickey Mouse Problem

The shape of the head and ears of a famous mouse is

contained in a rectangle.

The two smaller circles have equal radii. Each of the

three circles is tangent to the other two circles, and

each is also tangent to the sides of the rectangle. The

width of the rectangle is 4 m.

Determine the area of the rectangle not covered by

the head and ears of the famous mouse.

For this problem, the following known results about circles may be useful:

If a line is tangent to a circle, it is perpendicular to the radius drawn to

the point of tangency.

If two circles are tangent to each other at point P , a line segment through

the point of tangency can be drawn connecting the two centres, C1 and C2 .

!"

!#

Problem D and Solution

Not A Mickey Mouse Problem

%

Problem

The shape of the head and ears of a famous mouse is

contained in a rectangle. The two smaller circles have

equal radii. Each of the three circles is tangent to the

other two circles, and each is also tangent to the sides

of the rectangle. The width of the rectangle is 4 m.

Determine the area of the rectangle not covered by the

head and ears of the famous mouse.

Solution

Since the larger circle is tangent to two opposite sides

of the rectangle, its diameter is 4 m, the width of the

rectangle. It follows that the radius of the larger circle

is 2 m.

"

"

"

&

"

'

!

!

$

#

"

#

The two smaller circles have equal radii, are tangent to each other and to

opposite sides of the rectangle. It follows that the diameter of each of the

smaller circles is half the width of the rectangle, namely 2 m. The radius of

each of the smaller circles is 1 m.

Let the centre of the large circle and leftmost small circle be B and E

respectively. Let the two small circles be tangent at C. Let the leftmost small

circle and the larger circle be tangent at F . Position line segment AD so that

it is parallel to the longer side such that A and D are midpoints of the shorter

sides of the rectangle. AD will pass through C and B.

Let the length of the rectangle be d. This is the same as the distance from A to

D on the diagram. We know that AB = 2 m, the radius of the larger circle, and

CD = 1 m, the radius of the smaller circle. We need to find the length of BC.

AD is tangent to the smaller circles at C. Using the first property, we know

that EC AD at C. Using the second property, EF B is a straight line

segment and EB = EF + F B = 1 + 2 = 3 m.

Pythagorean Theorem, BC 2 = EB 2 EC 2 = 32 12 = 8 and BC = 8

follows. Then the length of the rectangle is

d = AB + BC + CD = 2 + 8 + 1 = 3 + 8.

To find the area not covered by the head and ears we need to find the shaded

area. To do this we find the area of the rectangle and subtract the area of the

large circle and the area of the two equal radii smaller circles.

=

=

=

=

Shaded Area

Area of Rectangle Area of Large Circle Area of two smaller circles

4 (3 + 8) 22 2 ( 12 )

12 + 4 8 4 2

12 + 4 8 6

Some

students

have

learned to simplify radicals and know that

8 = 4 2 = 2 2. The shaded

area can then be written

decimal answer 4.5 m2 .

4.5 m2 .

Problem D

Take Your Lumps

Santa fills the elf-shoes of the good elves with candy and other good things.

However, the elf-shoes of the naughty elves generally receive some coal as well.

Three of Santas elves, the triplets, Zeta, Eta and Theta, have been very

naughty this year. Santa is giving them a total of ten lumps of coal between

them in their elf-shoes. Each of them must get at least one lump of coal.

ZETA

ETA

THETA

In how many different ways can Santa distribute the coal to Zeta, Eta and

Theta?

Problem D and Solution

Take Your Lumps

Problem

Santa fills the elf-shoes of the good elves with candy and other good things.

However, the elf-shoes of the naughty elves generally receive some coal as

well. Three of Santas elves, the triplets, Zeta, Eta and Theta, have been

very naughty this year. Santa is giving them a total of ten lumps of coal

between them in their elf-shoes. Each of them must get at least one lump of

coal. In how many different ways can Santa distribute the coal to Zeta, Eta

and Theta?

Solution

We could completely list all of the possibilities but that would not be practical if there were

more lumps of coal. We know that there are 10 lumps of coal and that each elf must receive at

least one. We will consider a few cases to see if there is a pattern.

1. Zeta receives one lump of coal. Then Eta and Theta receive a total of 10 1 = 9 lumps

between them. This can be done in 8 possible ways:

{(1, 8), (2, 7), (3, 6), (4, 5), (5, 4), (6, 3), (7, 2), (8, 1)}.

2. Zeta receives two lumps of coal. Then Eta and Theta receive a total of 10 2 = 8 lumps

between them. This can be done in 7 possible ways:

{(1, 7), (2, 6), (3, 5), (4, 4), (5, 3), (6, 2), (7, 1)}.

3. Zeta receives three lumps of coal. Then Eta and Theta receive a total of 10 3 = 7

lumps between them. This can be done in 6 possible ways:

{(1, 6), (2, 5), (3, 4), (4, 3), (5, 2), (6, 1)}.

We could continue but the pattern is established. We will summarize in the following table.

# of lumps

for Zeta

1

2

3

..

.

# of lumps

remaining

9

8

7

..

.

lumps between Eta and Theta

8

7

6

..

.

7

8

3

2

2

1

The total number of ways Santa can distribute 10 lumps of coal between the three naughty

elves so that each receives at least one lump is 8 + 7 + 6 + + 3 + 2 + 1 = 36 ways. This sum

can be computed by adding the positive integers from 1 to 8. However, it is also known that

the sum of the first n positive integers can be calculated using the formula n(n+1)

. In this case

2

8(9)

n = 8 so the sum is 2 = 36.

Problem D

A Power Filled Problem

53 is a power with base 5 and exponent 3.

53 means 5 5 5 and equals 125 when expressed as an integer.

When 8670 52013 is expressed as an integer, how many digits are in the

product?

Problem D and Solution

A Power Filled Problem

Problem

53 is a power with base 5 and exponent 3. 53 means 5 5 5 and equals 125

when expressed as an integer.

When 8670 52013 is expressed as an integer, how many digits are in the

product?

Solution

An immediate temptation might be to reach for a calculator. In this case, basic

calculator technology will let you down. We will look at the problem using our

knowledge of powers and corresponding power laws.

8670 52013 =

=

=

=

=

=

(23 )670 52013

23670 52013

22010 52013

22010 52010 53

(2 5)2010 125

102010 125

But 102010 is the number 1 followed by 2010 zeroes. When we multiply this

number by 125, we obtain the number 125 followed by 2010 zeroes. Therefore,

8670 52013 has 2010 + 3 = 2013 digits.

Problem D

The Rhombus Rules!

A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel. A rhombus is a

parallelogram with all four sides having equal length.

ABCD is a rhombus. H is on BC and K is on CD such that

AB = AH = HK = KA. Determine the measure of BAD.

"

Problem D and Solution

The Rhombus Rules

!

Problem

&

rhombus is a parallelogram with all four sides having equal length.

ABCD is a rhombus. H is on BC and K is on CD such that

AB = AH = HK = KA. Determine the measure of BAD.

"

'

Solution

Draw the diagram based on the given information. Since ABCD is a rhombus, we know

AB = BC = CD = DA. Let ABH = x .

Since AH = HK = KA, 4AHK is equilateral and each angle is 60 . In particular,

HAK = 60 .

In 4ABH, AB = AH and the triangle is isosceles. Therefore, AHB = ABH = x . Then

BAH = (180 2x) .

Since ABCD is a rhombus, AB k CD and ABC + BCD = 180 . It follows that

BCD = (180 x) . But in the rhombus BC k AD and BCD + ADC = 180 . It follows

that ADC = 180 (180 x) = x .

In 4AKD, KA = AD and the triangle is isosceles. Therefore, AKD = ADK = x . Then

DAK = (180 2x) .

All of this new information is shown on the second diagram.

BAD

(420 4x)

240

=

=

=

=

180 ABC

(180 x)

(!"#$%'&

(180 x)

(3x)

x = 80

(180 x) = 100

But BAD = (180 x) .

BAD = 100 .

"

(!"#$%'&

)#

'

)#

'

'

)#

%

(!"#$'&

'

&

Problem D

Thinking About Primes

A prime number is any number that has exactly two positive integer factors, 1

and the number itself. A composite number has more than two positive integer

factors. The number 1 is neither prime nor composite.

Goldbach0 s conjecture states that every even integer greater than 2 can be

expressed as the sum of two primes. This conjecture is one of the oldest

unsolved number theory problems in mathematics. The conjecture has been

shown to be true for all even integers up to 4 1018 . You could verify this

conjecture for all even two-digit numbers but we wont ask you to do it today.

However, Goldbachs conjecture will be useful in solving our problem.

How many two-digit numbers cannot be written as the sum of two primes?

!!!

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

11

21

31

41

51

61

71

81

91

12

22

32

42

52

62

72

82

92

13

23

33

43

53

63

73

83

93

14

24

34

44

54

64

74

84

94

15

25

35

45

55

65

75

85

95

16

26

36

46

56

66

76

86

96

17

27

37

47

57

67

77

87

97

18

28

38

48

58

68

78

88

98

19

29

39

49

59

69

79

89

99

Problem D and Solution

Thinking About Primes

Problem

A prime number is any number that has exactly two positive integer factors, 1 and the number

itself. A composite number has more than two positive integer factors. The number 1 is neither

prime nor composite. Goldbach0 s conjecture states that every even integer greater than 2 can

be expressed as the sum of two primes. This conjecture is one of the oldest unsolved number

theory problems in mathematics. The conjecture has been shown to be true for all even integers

up to 4 1018 . You could verify this conjecture for all even two-digit numbers but we wont

ask you to do it today. However, Goldbachs conjecture will be useful in solving our problem.

How many two-digit numbers cannot be written as the sum of two primes?

Solution

We will actually determine how many two-digit numbers can be written as the sum of two

primes and then subtract that result from the total number of two-digit numbers.

There are 90 two-digit numbers, 45 are even and 45 are odd. From Goldbachs conjecture we

already know that all 45 even two-digit numbers can be written as the sum of two prime

numbers.

How many of the odd two-digit numbers can be written as the sum of two primes.

To start, it would be helpful to list all primes under 100:

2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29

43 47 53 59 61 67 71 73 79

31

83

37

89

41

97

As you can see there are 25 prime numbers less than 100.

(For those of you wanting to find an interesting way to generate these primes, you might

consider doing an online search of The Sieve of Eratosthenes. Wikipedia has a neat

demonstration of how this process works.)

In order to generate an odd number as the sum of two numbers, one of the numbers must be

even and the other must be odd. Since 2 is the only even prime number it must be one of the

two numbers used in the sum that generates the odd two-digit number. If q is the other prime

number and q is odd, then 11 2 + q 99 which simplifies to 9 q 97. From our list of

prime numbers above, there are 21 prime numbers that satisfy this condition. Therefore, 21

odd two-digit numbers and 45 even two-digit numbers can be written as the sum of two primes.

That is, 21 + 45 = 66 two-digit numbers can be written as the sum of two prime numbers.

Therefore, 90 66 = 24 two-digit numbers cannot be written as the sum of two prime numbers.

Problem D

Heroes and Villains

On an island, there are two types of inhabitants: Heroes, who always tell the

truth, and Villains, who always lie.

Four of the inhabitants of the island are seated around a circular table. When

asked, Are you a Hero or a Villain?, all four replied, Hero. When asked,

Is the person on your right a Hero or a Villain?, all four replied, Villain.

How many Heroes are there seated at the table? Verify that your solution is

the only possible solution.

Problem D and Solution

Heroes and Villains

Problem

On an island, there are two types of inhabitants: Heroes, who always tell the truth, and

Villains, who always lie. Four of the inhabitants of the island are seated around a circular

table. When asked, Are you a Hero or a Villain?, all four replied, Hero. When asked, Is

the person on your right a Hero or a Villain?, all four replied, Villain. How many Heroes

are there seated at the table? Verify that your solution is the only possible solution.

Solution

There are really five possibilities to check: there could be four Heroes, there could be four

Villains, there could be three Villains and one Hero, there could be three Heroes and one

Villain, or there could be two Villains and two Heroes.

We can eliminate cases as follows:

1. Can two Villains ever sit beside each other?

Since Villains always lie, when the two Villains sitting beside each other

answer the first question Hero, they are in fact lying. However, in

responding to the second question, the Villain with the other Villain on the

right hand side would have to lie and say Hero. But everyone responded

Villain. This is a contradiction and there can therefore never be two

Villains seated beside each other. This conclusion effectively eliminates

the possibility that there are four Villains or three Villains and one Hero.

Since Heroes always tell the truth, when the two Heroes sitting beside each

other answer the first question Hero, they are in fact telling the truth.

However, in responding to the second question, the Hero with the other

Hero on the right hand side would have to tell the truth and say Hero.

But everyone responded Villain. This is a contradiction and there can

therefore never be two Heroes seated beside each other. This conclusion

effectively eliminates the possibility that there are four Heroes or three

Heroes and one Villain.

The only possibility left is that there are two Villains and two Heroes such that

no two Villains or two Heroes can sit next to each other. The diagram illustrates

how they are sitting relative to each other. We can confirm that this is the correct

answer. Since all Villains lie and all Heroes tell the truth, they must all answer

the first question Hero. Since all Villains lie and all Heroes tell the truth, they

must all answer the second question Villain. Therefore, there are two Heroes

and two Villains, and when seated at a circular table they alternate Hero, Villain,

Hero, Villain.

!

!

"

"

!

Problem D

Phone Fan Out

Some businesses, government offices, schools and hospitals have a phone fan

out system that is used to quickly distribute important information to all of its

employees.

A certain school, with a total of 100 employees, wishes to create a phone fan

out system to be used in the event of an emergency school closure. The

principal contacts three other employees, each of whom contacts three others,

and so on, until all of the employees of the school have been contacted.

Determine the maximum number of people who do not need to make a call in

this system.

Problem D and Solutions

Phone Fan Out

Problem

Some businesses, government offices, schools and hospitals have a phone fan out system that is

used to quickly distribute important information to all of its employees. A certain school, with

a total of 100 employees, wishes to create a phone fan out system to be used in the event of an

emergency school closure. The principal contacts three other employees, each of whom contacts

three others, and so on, until all of the employees of the school have been contacted.

Determine the maximum number of people who do not need to make a call in this system.

Solution 1

Once the principal makes the initial phone call, four people (the principal and three others)

have the information. There are 100 4 = 96 others to contact.

The next three people make three calls each or a total of 9 calls. Now 13 people have the

information and 87 people still need to be contacted.

The next 9 people make 3 calls each or a total of 27 calls. Now 40 people have the information

and 60 people still need to be contacted.

In order to reach the final 60 people, only 60 3 = 20 more people need to make calls. The

total number of people required to make calls is 1 + 3 + 9 + 20 = 33.

Therefore, 100 33 = 67 is the maximum number of people who do not need to make calls.

A system like this is actually still very efficient at getting information to a large number of

people, each of whom makes a small number of calls. Close to one third of the people in the

organization need to call. About two-thirds of the people in the organization do not need to

make calls.

Problem

Some businesses, government offices, schools and hospitals have a phone fan out system that is

used to quickly distribute important information to all of its employees. A certain school, with

a total of 100 employees, wishes to create a phone fan out system to be used in the event of an

emergency school closure. The principal contacts three other employees, each of whom contacts

three others, and so on, until all of the employees of the school have been contacted.

Determine the maximum number of people who do not need to make a call in this system.

Solution 2

This solution is similar to the first solution at the beginning. The change comes after the

group of 27 have been called.

Once the principal makes the initial phone call, four people (the principal and three others)

have the information. There are 100 4 = 96 others to contact.

The next three people make three calls each or a total of 9 calls. Now 13 people have the

information and 87 people still need to be contacted.

The next 9 people make 3 calls each or a total of 27 calls. Now 40 people have the information

and 60 people still need to be contacted.

If the next 27 people make 3 calls each or a total of 81 calls, this is 81 60 = 21 calls too many.

There are 21 3 = 7 of the 27 people that do not need to make a call. Thus, only 27 7 = 20

people need to make a call. This gives a total of 1 + 3 + 9 + 20 = 33 people required to make

calls and 100 33 = 67 people who do not need to make calls.

A system like this is actually still very efficient at getting information to a large number of

people, each of whom makes a small number of calls. Close to one third of the people in the

organization need to call. About two-thirds of the people in the organization do not need to

make calls.

Problem D

Cut, Cut, Cut!

A rope of length 200 cm is cut into four pieces. Three of the pieces are used to

form identical equilateral triangles with integer side lengths. The fourth piece

is used to form a square with integer side lengths. Determine all possible side

lengths for the triangle and square.

Problem D and Solution

Cut, Cut, Cut!

Problem

A rope of length 200 cm is cut into four pieces. Three of the pieces are used to form identical

equilateral triangles with integer side lengths. The fourth piece is used to form a square with

integer side lengths. Determine all possible side lengths for the triangle and square.

Solution

Let x represent the integer side length of the equilateral triangles and let y represent the

integer side length of the square.

!

"

The perimeter of each figure is the length of the piece of rope used to form it. For each

triangle, the length of rope is 3x and for the square the length of rope is 4y. The total rope

used is 3(3x) + 4y = 9x + 4y. But the length of the rope is 200 cm. Therefore,

9x + 4y = 200

9x = 200 4y

4(50 y)

x =

9

Since both x and y are integers, 4(50 y) must be a multiple of 9. But 4 is not divisible by 9,

so 50 y must be divisible by 9. There are five multiples of 9 between 0 and 50, namely 9, 18,

27, 36, and 45. So 50 y = {9, 18, 27, 36, 45} and it follows that y = {41, 32, 23, 14, 5}. The

corresponding values of x are computed in the chart below.

y

4y

200 4y

41

32

23

14

5

164

128

92

56

20

36

72

108

144

180

x=

200 4y

9

4

8

12

16

20

When the side length of the square is 41 cm, the side length of the triangle is 4 cm; when the

side length of the square is 32 cm, the side length of the triangle is 8 cm; when the side length

of the square is 23 cm, the side length of the triangle is 12 cm; when the side length of the

square is 14 cm, the side length of the triangle is 16 cm; and when the side length of the square

is 5 cm, the side length of the triangle is 20 cm.

Problem D

Its Been A Slice

M ON is a sector of a circle with centre O, radius n and M ON =

"

360

.

n

#

'()

$%%%%%%%%&

*

!

!

Determine all positive integers n for which the sector M ON has perimeter

greater than 20 and less than 30.

Did you know that the ratio of the length of an arc to the circumference is the

same as the ratio of the sector angle to 360 ? The same ratio holds when

comparing sector area to the total area of a circle.

Problem D and Solution

Its Been A Slice

Problem

M ON is a sector of a circle with centre O, radius n and M ON = 360

. Determine all

n

positive integers n for which the sector M ON has perimeter greater than 20 and less than 30.

Solution

As the sector angle gets larger, so does the length of the arc if the radius remains the same. In

this problem, as the radius n increases, the sector angle 360

n

what happens to the length of the arc.

Since the ratio of the arc length to the circumference of the circle is the same as the ratio of

the sector angle to 360 ,

Sector Angle

Arc Length =

circumference

360

360

n

d

360

1

=

2n,

n

= 2

=

since d = 2r = 2n

As the radius increases, the sector angle decreases and the arc length M N remains constant,

2 units.

Perimeter = M O + ON + arc length M N

= n + n + 2

= 2n + 2

We want all integer values of n such that:

20 < 2n + 2 and 2n + 2 < 30

10 < n + and n + < 15

10 < n and n < 15

We want all integer values of n such that n > 10 =

6.9 and n < 15 =11.9.

The only

integer values of n that satisfy these conditions are n = 7, n = 8, n = 9, n = 10, and n = 11.

Problem D

Building Up

A sequence of six numbers is built up in the following manner:

1. The first number is 4.

2. The last number is 486.

3. Each number after the second equals the product of the previous two

numbers.

Determine the remaining four numbers in the sequence.

#

"

!

Problem D and Solution

Building Up

Problem

A sequence of six numbers is built up in the following manner: the first

number is 4, the last number is 486 and each number after the second equals

the product of the previous two numbers. Determine the remaining four

numbers in the sequence.

Solution

!"#

Since the third number is the product of the previous two numbers, the third

number is 4a.

Since the fourth number is the product of the previous two numbers, the fourth

number is a(4a) = 4a2 .

Since the fifth number is the product of the previous two numbers, the fifth

number is (4a)(4a2 ) = 16a3 .

Since the sixth number is the product of the previous two numbers, the sixth

number is (4a2 )(16a3 ) = 64a5 . But the sixth number in the sequence is 486.

64a5 = 486

486

a5 =

64

243

a5 =

32

3

a =

2

5

3

243

since

=

2

32

the expressions above or by simply using the rule to generate the remaining

numbers. The third number is 4 32 = 6, the fourth number is 23 6 = 9, and

the fifth number is 6 9 = 54. As a check we can calculate the sixth number,

9 54 = 486, as required.

The remaining four numbers in the sequence are 32 , 6, 9, and 54.

Problem D

Inside the Box

P QRS is a rectangle. A and B are points on QR such that QA = AB = BR.

C is the midpoint of P Q. The area of 4ACS is 10 cm2 . Determine the area of

rectangle P QRS.

'

"

&

Problem D and Solution

Inside the Box

Problem

P QRS is a rectangle. A and B are points on QR such that QA = AB = BR. C is the

midpoint of P Q. The area of 4ACS is 10 cm2 . Determine the area of rectangle P QRS.

Solution

Let QA = AB = BR = x. Then P S = QR = 3x and AR = 2x.

Since C is the midpoint of P Q, P C = CQ = y. Then SR = P Q = 2y.

!

'

!"#$%&

"

&

We will formulate an equation connecting the areas of the four inside shapes to the entire

rectangle.

Area P QRS = Area 4P CS + Area 4SRA + Area 4AQC + Area 4ACS

SR AR

QA CQ

PC PS

+

+

+ 10

P Q QR =

2

2

2

y 3x

2y 2x

xy

(2y) (3x) =

+

+

+ 10

2

2

2

3xy

xy

6xy

=

+

2xy

+

+ 10

2

2

Multiply by 2: 12xy = 3xy + 4xy + xy + 20

4xy = 20

xy = 5

The area of rectangle P QRS is 6xy = 6(5) = 30 cm2 .

Problem D

Digit Calculator

The digit sum of a number is found by, first, summing its digits. If the sum is

greater than 9, then the digits of the sum are added. This process is repeated

until a single digit number is obtained.

The digit sum of 602 is 8 since 6 + 0 + 2 = 8, and 8 is a single digit number.

The digit sum of 897 is 6. However, it takes two steps to reach this sum. First,

8 + 9 + 7 = 24, which is not a single digit number. Second, 2 + 4 = 6, which is

a single digit number and the process stops after the two steps.

a) How many three-digit numbers have a digit sum of 5 that is reached in

one step?

b) How many three-digit numbers have a digit sum of 5 that is reached in

two steps?

c) How many three-digit numbers have a digit sum of 5 that is reached in

three steps?

8+9+7=

Problem D and Solution

Digit Calculator

Problem

The digit sum of a number is found by, first, summing its digits. If the sum is greater than 9,

then the digits of the sum are added. This process is repeated until a single digit number is

obtained. The digit sum of 602 is 8 since 6 + 0 + 2 = 8, and 8 is a single digit number. The

digit sum of 897 is 6. However, it takes two steps to reach this sum. First, 8 + 9 + 7 = 24,

which is not a single digit number. Second, 2 + 4 = 6, which is a single digit number and the

process stops after the two steps.

a) How many three-digit numbers have a digit sum of 5 that is reached in one step?

b) How many three-digit numbers have a digit sum of 5 that is reached in two steps?

c) How many three-digit numbers have a digit sum of 5 that is reached in three steps?

Solution

a) A digit sum of 5 that is reached in one step:

Since the digit sum is 5, then no digit in the three-digit number can be higher than 5. It

is straight forward to generate a list of all of the possible numbers.

104

203

302

401

500

113

212

311

410

122

221

320

131

230

140

reached in exactly one step.

b) A digit sum of 5 that is reached in two steps:

The maximum sum of the digits of a three-digit number is 9 + 9 + 9 = 27. In order to

reach a digit sum of 5 in two steps, the initial sum must be a two digit number less than

28 whose digits sum to 5. There are only 2 two-digit numbers that satisfy this condition,

namely 14 and 23.

If the sum of the digits of the three-digit number is 14, we can systematically generate

the possible numbers. For example, if the first digit is 1, then the other two digits add to

13. This can be done with the digits 49, 58, 67, 76, 85, and 94. The 5 three-digit

numbers with first digit 1 are shown in the first row of the following table. The

remaining rows are generated in a similar manner.

149

239

329

419

509

608

707

806

905

158

248

338

428

518

617

716

815

914

167

257

347

437

527

626

725

824

923

176

266

356

446

536

635

734

833

932

185

275

365

455

545

644

743

842

941

194

284

374

464

554

653

752

851

950

293

383

473

563

662

761

860

392

482

572

671

770

491

581

680

590

5 that can reached in exactly two steps with the initial sum of 14.

If the sum of the digits of the three-digit number is 23, we can systematically generate

the possible numbers. If the final two digits of the three-digit number are 9 and 9, the

first digit must be a 5. Therefore, no three-digit number less than 599 has digits that

sum to 23. (For example if one of the digits is 4, then the sum of the other two digits

must be 19 and this is impossible using two single digits.) The table is generated in a

similar way to the one shown above.

599

689

779

869

959

698

788

878

968

797

887

977

896

986

995

reached in exactly two steps with the initial sum of 23.

In total, there are 70 + 15 = 85 three-digit numbers with a digit sum of 5 that can be

reached in exactly two steps.

c) A digit sum of 5 that is reached in three steps:

The maximum sum of the digits of a three-digit number is 27. The only number from 10

to 27 whose digits add to a two-digit number is 19. Its digit sum would then be 1, not 5.

No three-digit number exists that has a digit sum of 5 reached in exactly 3 steps.

In total there are 15 + 70 + 15 = 90 three-digit numbers with a digit sum of 5, 15 of them reach

the digit sum in 1 step and the remaining 85 reach the digit sum of 5 in 2 steps.

Problem D

Know How to Fold Em

A square piece of paper ABCD has side length 20 cm. The

page is grey on one side and white on the other. Point M

is the midpoint of side AB and point N is the midpoint of

side AD. (Refer to the top diagram.)

Point A is folded along M N so that A touches the paper.

(Refer to the second diagram.)

Point C is then folded over a line P Q parallel to M N

so that C lies on M N . (Refer to the third and bottom

diagram.)

What is the area of hexagon N M BP QD?

A square is a four sided figure with sides of equal length and

corner angles each measuring 90 . Here are some known

properties of the diagonals of squares:

the diagonals are equal length; and

the diagonals right bisect each other; and

the diagonals bisect the corner angles.

Problem D and Solution

Know How to Fold Em

Problem

A square piece of paper ABCD has side length 20 cm. The page is

grey on one side and white on the other. Point M is the midpoint of

side AB and point N is the midpoint of side AD. The paper is folded

along M N so that A touches the paper. Point C is then folded over a

line P Q parallel to M N so that C lies on M N . What is the area of

hexagon N M BP QD?

Solution

If we are able to find the area of 4AM N and 4P CQ, we can subtract these areas from the

total area to find the area of hexagon N M BP QD. To find the area of 4P CQ, we must find

the length of P C and CQ.

Since M and N are midpoints of AB and AD respectively, AM = 21 (AB) = 10 and

AN = 12 (AD) = 10. Therefore AM = AN = 10 and 4AM N is an isosceles right triangle. It

follows that AN M = AM N = 45 . Since P Q is parallel to M N , P Q also meets the sides of

the square at a 45 angle. It follows that 4P CQ is also an isosceles right triangle with

P C = CQ and CP Q = CQP = 45 .

After the first fold, let A touch the paper at A0 . 4M A0 N is a reflection

of 4M AN in the line M N . It follows that AM N = A0 M N = 45

and AN M = A0 N M = 45 . Then AM A0 = AN A0 = 90 . Since

all four sides of AM A0 N are equal in length and all four corners are

90 , AM A0 N is a square.

Since M AA0 = M AC = 45 , the diagonal AA of square AM A0 N

lies along the diagonal AC of square ABCD. (In fact, A0 lies at the

intersection of the two diagonals of ABCD, the centre of the square.)

The length of the diagonal of square AM A0 N can be found using the Pythagorean Theorem.

p

Some students may not be familiar with simplifying radicals:

Let O be the intersection of the two diagonals of square AM A0 N . It is also the intersection of

M N and AC. (We will show later that this is in fact

of contact of C with the paper

the point

is reflected in the line segment P Q, a square, P CQC 0 , is created with

C 0 being the image of C. We will not present the argument here

because it is very similar to the argument presented for AM A0 N .

Since P CC 0 = P CA = 45 , CC 0 lies along the diagonal CA. Also,

C 0 is the intersection of CA with M N . This means that C 0 and O are

the same point.

The length of the diagonal of square ABCD can be calculated using the Pythagorean Theorem.

p

The length of CC 0 equals the length of AC subtract the length of OA.

CC 0 = 20 2 5 2 = 15 2

4P CQ,

(P C)2 + (CQ)2

x2 + x2

x2 + x2

2x2

x2

x

=

=

=

=

=

=

(P Q)2

(15 2)2

225 2

500

225

15

Area N M BP QD = Area ABCD Area 4AM N Area 4P CQ

P C CQ

AM AN

= AB BC

2

2

10 10 15 15

= 20 20

2

2

100 225

= 400

2

2

800 100 225

=

2

2

2

475

=

2

The area of hexagon N M BP QD is

475

cm2 or 237.5 cm2 .

2

Problem D

On a Roll

Each of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 occurs, one to a face, on the faces of a

cube. Three people, Amy, Ben and Cal, are seated around a table. The cube is

placed on the table so that from their different seat locations, each one can see

the top and two adjacent faces. When Amy adds the three numbers that she

can see, her total is 9. When Ben adds the three numbers that he can see, his

total is 14. When Cal adds the three numbers that he can see, his total is 15.

Determine the number on the bottom face of the cube.

Note that the three faces that are visible on the above cube (die) add to 11.

The picture is for illustration only. Do not assume anything from the above

diagram.

Problem D and Solution

On a Roll

Problem

Each of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 occurs, one to a face, on the faces of a cube. Three people,

Amy, Ben and Cal, are seated around a table. The cube is placed on the table so that from

their different seat locations, each one can see the top and two adjacent faces. When Amy adds

the three numbers that she can see, her total is 9. When Ben adds the three numbers that he

can see, his total is 14. When Cal adds the three numbers that he can see, his total is 15.

Determine the number on the bottom face of the cube.

Solution

There are actually four different views of the cube. It turns out that we can find all of the

information using three of them. We will use the first three diagrams above.

Let a be the number on the top and b, c, d, e be the numbers on the side faces. We then are

able to form three equations:

a+b+c = 9

a + c + d = 14

a + d + e = 15

(1)

(2)

(3)

Comparing equation (1) and equation (2), b has been replaced by d and the sum has increased

by 5. Therefore, b and d differ by 5 and b < d. The only numbers from the set 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

that differ by 5 are 1 and 6. Therefore, b = 1 and d = 6.

Comparing equation (2) and equation (3), c has been replaced by e and the sum has increased

by 1. Therefore, c and e differ by 1 and c < e. Since b = 1 and d = 6, there are only three

possible combinations for c and e, namely c = 2 and e = 3, or c = 3 and e = 4, or c = 4 and

e = 5.

We will check each of these possibilities. First, if c = 2, e = 3, b = 1 and d = 6, we can

substitute the appropriate values in (1) giving a + 1 + 2 = 9 or a = 6. This is not possible since

d would also equal 6. We can rule this case out.

a + 1 + 3 = 9 or a = 5. This is a possible solution. In (2), a + c + d = 5 + 3 + 6 = 14 as

required. And in (3), a + d + e = 5 + 6 + 4 = 15 as required. The only number not used is 2 so

the number on the bottom face is 2. But is this the only solution?

Finally, if c = 4, e = 5, b = 1 and d = 6, we can substitute the appropriate values in (1) giving

a + 1 + 4 = 9 or a = 4. This is not possible since c would also equal 4. We can rule this case

out.

Since we have examined all possible cases, the only possible number on the bottom (unseen)

face is 2.

Note: It is also possible to play with the numbers to solve this problem. The method presented

above could be used in a similar way with any of list of six different numbers. Playing with

the numbers might not be as easy.

Instead of arguing the difference between equations to obtain the relationship between b and

d, and c and e, we could have used elimination.

a+b+c = 9

a + c + d = 14

a + d + e = 15

(1)

(2)

(3)

For example, equation (1) subtract equation (2) gives b d = 5 which can be written

d b = 5. This is the same as saying the difference between b and d is 5.

Similarly, equation (2) subtract equation (3) gives c e = 1 which can be written e c = 1.

This is the same as saying that the difference between c and e is 1.

Problem D

Getting Even

Four distinct integers are to be chosen from the integers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7.

How many different selections are possible so the sum of the four integers is

even?

CHOOSE FOUR

Even Sum

Odd Sum

Problem D and Solution

Getting Even

Problem

Four distinct integers are to be chosen from the integers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. How many

different selections are possible so the sum of the four integers is even?

Solution

We could look at every possible selection of four distinct numbers from the list, determine the

sum of each selection and then count the number of selections for which the sum is even. There

are 35 different selections to examine. A justification of this number is provided on the second

page of this solution. This would not be an efficient approach!

We will make two simple observations. First, when even numbers are added together the sum

is always even. And second, in order to produce an even sum using odd numbers, an even

number of odd numbers is required in the sum. We will use these observations to break the

problem into cases in which the sum is even. There are three cases to consider.

1.

Since there are only three even numbers, namely 2, 4, and 6, it is not possible to select

only even numbers. Therefore, there are no selections in which there are no odd numbers.

2.

There are four choices for the first odd number. For each of these four choices, there are

three choices for the second number producing 4 3 = 12 choices for two odd numbers.

However, each choice is counted twice. For example, 1 could be selected first and 3 could

be chosen second or 3 could be selected first and 1 could be chosen second. Therefore,

there are only 12 2 = 6 selections of two odd numbers. They are

{1, 3}, {1, 5}, {1, 7}, {3, 5}, {3, 7}, and {5, 7} For each of the 6 possible selections of

two distinct odd numbers, we need to select two even numbers from the three even

numbers in the list. We could use a similar argument to the selection of the two odd

numbers or simply list the (three) possibilities: {2, 4}, {2, 6}, and {4, 6}. Therefore, there

are 6 3 = 18 selections of four distinct numbers in which exactly two of the numbers

are odd.

3.

Since there are only four odd numbers in the list to choose from, there is only one way to

select four distinct odd numbers from the list.

We have considered every possible case in which the selection produces an even sum.

Therefore, there are 0 + 18 + 1 = 19 selections of four distinct numbers from the list such that

the sum is even.

Why are there 35 ways to select four different numbers from the list?

In the solution on the previous page we counted the selections in which the sum was even.

There were 19 possibilities. The remaining selections must produce an odd sum. There are two

possibilities: either there is 1 odd number and 3 even numbers, or there are 3 odd numbers and

1 even number.

If there is 1 odd number and 3 even numbers, there are only four possible selections, namely,

{1, 2, 4, 6}, {3, 2, 4, 6}, {5, 2, 4, 6}, and {7, 2, 4, 6}. Once the odd number is selected, the 3 even

numbers, {2, 4, 6}, must be selected.

If there are 3 odd numbers and 1 even number, there are twelve possible selections. The 3 odd

numbers can be selected in four ways, namely, {1, 3, 5}, {1, 3, 7}, {1, 5, 7}, and {3, 5, 7}. For

each of these 4 selections of three odd numbers, the even number can be selected in 3 ways

producing 4 3 = 12 possible selections of four distinct numbers in which three of the numbers

are odd and the other is even.

We have considered all possible ways in which four distinct numbers can be selected from the

list. The total number of selections is 19 + 4 + 12 = 35.

We can arrive at this number in a different way.

There are 7 choices for the first number. For each of these choices for the first number, there

are 6 choices for the second number, or 7 6 = 42 choices for the first two numbers. For each

of these 42 choices for the first two numbers, there are 5 choices for the third number, or

42 5 = 210 choices for the first three numbers. For each of these 210 choices of the first three

numbers, there are 4 choices for the final number, or 210 4 = 840 selections of the four

numbers. This is considerably higher than the 35 choices shown above!

Our 840 selections assume that the order of selection is important. Each selection has been

counted 840 35 = 24 times. To justify this, we will look at the number of ways a specific four

number selection can be arranged. Without loss of generality, we will consider the selection

{1, 2, 3, 4}. The 1 could be placed in four spots. For each of these four placements of the 1, the

2 could be placed in three spots producing 4 3 = 12 ways of placing the 1 and 2. For each of

these twelve placements of the 1 and 2, the 3 could be placed in two spots producing

12 2 = 24 ways of placing the 1, 2 and 3. Once the numbers 1, 2, and 3 are placed, the 4

must be placed in the remaining spot. There are 24 ways of arranging the four numbers. We

have to divide 840 by 24 since we have counted each selection 24 times.

Therefore, there are 840 24 = 35 ways to select four different numbers from the list of seven

numbers.

Problem D

The Count Up Is On

The positive integers are written consecutively in groups of five so that the first

row contains the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; the second row contains the numbers

6, 7, 8, 9, 10; the third row contains the numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, 15; etc.

The row sum of a row is the sum of the numbers in the row. For example, the

row sum of row 1 is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15.

Determine the numbers in the row that has a row sum closest to 1 000.

1

6

11

..

2

7

12

..

3

8

13

..

4

9

14

..

5

10

15

..

Problem D and Solutions

The Count Up Is On

Problem

The positive integers are written consecutively in groups of five so

that the first row contains the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; the second

row contains the numbers 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; the third row contains the

numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, 15; etc. The row sum of a row is the sum

of the numbers in the row. For example, the row sum of row 1 is

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15. Determine the numbers in the row that has

a row sum closest to 1 000.

1

2

3 4 5

6

7

8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15

..

..

..

..

..

.

.

.

.

.

Solution 1

Observe that the last number in any row is a multiple of 5. If n is the row number, then the

last number in the nth row is 5n. Since the last number in row n is 5n, the four preceding

numbers in the row are 5n 1, 5n 2, 5n 3, and 5n 4.

The sum of the numbers in the nth row is

(5n 4) + (5n 3) + (5n 2) + (5n 1) + 5n

which simplifies to 25n 10. We want to find the integer value of n so that 25n 10 is as close

to 1 000 as possible.

25n 10 = 1 000

25n = 1 010

n = 40.4

The closest integer to 40.4 is 40. Therefore, n = 40 and the row sum is

25n 10 = 25(40) 10 = 990. The fifth number in the 40th row is 5 40 = 200. The five

numbers in the 40th row are 196, 197, 198, 199, and 200. The next row contains the numbers

201, 202, 203, 204, and 205, and the row sum is 1 015. This row sum is farther from 1 000 than

the previous row sum of 990 is.

Therefore, the row with the sum closest to 1 000 contains the numbers 196, 197, 198, 199, and

200.

The second solution approaches the problem by establishing a linear relationship.

Problem

The positive integers are written consecutively in groups of five so

that the first row contains the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; the second

row contains the numbers 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; the third row contains the

numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, 15; etc. The row sum of a row is the sum

of the numbers in the row. For example, the row sum of row 1 is

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15. Determine the numbers in the row that has

a row sum closest to 1 000.

1

2

3 4 5

6

7

8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15

..

..

..

..

..

.

.

.

.

.

Solution 2

Let x represent the row number and y represent the sum of the numbers in the row. Observe

that the fifth number in any row is a multiple of 5. In fact, the fifth number in any row is 5

times the row number or 5x. The following table of values represents the information.

Row Number

x

1

2

3

Row Sum

y

15

40

65

It appears that the y values increase by 25 as the x values increase by 1. If this is true, the

sum of the fourth row should be 65 + 25 = 90. We can verify this by adding

16 + 17 + 18 + 19 + 20, the numbers in the fourth row. The sum is indeed 90.

As the values of x increase by 1, the values of y increase by 25. The relation is linear. The

25

y

=

= 25. Substituting x = 1, y = 15, m = 25 into

slope is

x

1

y = mx + b

15 = 25(1) + b

10 = b

The equation of the line which passes through the points in the relation is y = 25x 10. Note

that x and y are positive integers. We want to find the value of x, the row number, so that the

value of y, the row sum, is as close to 1 000 as possible.

25x 10 = 1 000

25x = 1 010

x = 40.4

We want the integer value for x that is closest to 40.4. Therefore, x = 40 and the row sum is

y = 25(40) 10 = 990. The fifth number in the 40th row is 5 40 = 200. The five numbers in

the 40th row are 196, 197, 198, 199, and 200. The sum of the numbers in this row is 990. The

next row contains the numbers 201, 202, 203, 204, and 205, and the row sum is 1 015. This row

sum is farther from 1 000 than the previous row sum of 990 is.

Therefore, the row with the sum closest to 1 000 contains the numbers 196, 197, 198, 199, and

200.

Problem D

A Lot of Dough

Bakers Dozen Doughnut Shop doughnuts are sold only in boxes of 7, 13, or

25. To buy 14 doughnuts you must order two boxes of 7, but you cannot buy

exactly 15 doughnuts since no combination of boxes contains 15 doughnuts.

What is the maximum number of doughnuts that cannot be ordered using

combinations of the three different size boxes from Bakers Dozen Doughnut

Shop?

7 - pak

Problem D and Solution

A Lot of Dough

Problem

Bakers Dozen Doughnut Shop doughnuts are sold only in boxes of 7, 13, or 25. To buy 14

doughnuts you must order two boxes of 7, but you cannot buy exactly 15 doughnuts since no

combination of boxes contains 15 doughnuts. What is the maximum number of doughnuts that

cannot be ordered using combinations of the three different size boxes from Bakers Dozen

Doughnut Shop?

Solution

We can fill any order size which is a multiple of 7. Therefore, we can fill orders for

{7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, } doughnuts.

We can fill any order size which is a multiple of 13. Therefore, we can fill orders for

{13, 26, 39, 52, } doughnuts.

We can fill any order size which is a multiple of 25. Therefore, we can fill orders for

{25, 50, } doughnuts.

Using the multiples above and combinations of the three different size boxes, we can fill orders

of the following sizes:

7, 13, 14, 20 (7 + 13), 21, 25, 26, 27 (14 + 13), 28, 32 (7 + 25), 33 (7 + 26),

34 (21 + 13), 35, 38 (13 + 25), 39, 40 (14 + 26), 41 (28 + 13), 42,

45 (7 + 13 + 25), 46 (21 + 25), 47 (21 + 26), 48 (35 + 13), 49, 50, and 51 (26 + 25)

The missing numbers from the above list correspond to the order sizes that cannot be filled.

The largest order that we are unable to fill in the above list appears to be 44. But we must

justify that this is the maximum order size which cannot be filled. To do this, we note that

orders of sizes 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50 and 51 can all be filled. This corresponds to 7 consecutive

order sizes. If we add a 7 - pak to each of these order sizes, we can fill the next seven

consecutive order sizes. That is, we can fill orders of 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57 and 58. If we add a

7 - pak to each of these orders, we can fill the next seven consecutive order sizes. In fact, every

order size of 45 or more doughnuts can be filled. Since an order of size 44 doughnuts cannot be

filled, this is the maximum size order which cannot be filled.

It turns out that there are only 28 order sizes that Bakers Dozen Doughnut Shop cannot fill

using the three different size boxes of doughnuts. If the shop were to add a box containing 3

doughnuts, how many orders would be impossible to fill?

Problem D

Do Not Jump to Conclusions

The numbers in the following table may appear to follow a very predictable

pattern. It could be very easy to make an incorrect assumption about the

values of each of the five cells whose values are hidden by the letters

a, b, c, d, and e.

Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4

Row 1

51

52

54

Row 2

56

57

Row 3

59

61

The sum of the numbers in each of the three rows is the same. The sum of the

numbers in each of the four columns is the same. However, the sum of the rows

does not equal the sum of the columns.

Determine the missing values in the table.

Problem D and Solution

Do Not Jump to Conclusions

Problem

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Row 1

51

52

54

Row 2

56

57

Row 3

59

61

The sum of the numbers in each of the three rows is the same. The sum of the

numbers in each of the four columns is the same. However, the sum of the rows

does not equal the sum of the columns. Determine the missing values in the

table.

Solution

Each of the first three columns has two known values and one unknown value.

We also know that the sum of each column is the same.

Sum of Column 2 = Sum of Column 1

and

52 + 56 + d = 51 + b + 59

d + 108 = b + 110

d = b+2

a + 57 + 61 = 51 + b + 59

a + 118 = b + 110

a = b8

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Row 1

51

52

b8

54

Row 2

56

57

Row 3

59

b+2

61

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Row 1

51

52

b8

54

Row 2

56

57

Row 3

59

b+2

61

We also know that the sum of the numbers in each row is the same.

Sum of Row 2

b + 56 + 57 + c

b + c + 113

c

=

=

=

=

Sum of Row 1

51 + 52 + (b 8) + 54

b + 149

36

We can determine the value of e by equating the sum of row 3 and row 1.

Sum of Row 3

59 + (b + 2) + 61 + e

b + e + 122

e

=

=

=

=

Sum of Row 1

51 + 52 + (b 8) + 54

b + 149

27

Since we know c = 36 and e = 27, we can determine the column sum using the

fourth column. The column sum is 54 + c + e = 54 + 36 + 27 = 117. We can

use the column sum with the first column to determine the value of b. Then

51 + b + 59 = 117 and b = 7 follows. We know that d = b + 2 so d = 9. Also,

we know that a = b 8 so a = 1.

The missing values in the table are a = 1, b = 7, c = 36, d = 9 , and e = 27.

The completed table follows. We can use it to verify that each row sums to 156

and each column sums to 117.

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

Row Sum

Row 1

51

52

54

156

Row 2

56

57

36

156

Row 3

59

61

27

156

Column Sum

117

117

117

117

Problem D

No Weigh!

Icon Duit was asked to determine the combined weight of one sphere and one

cube but he did not have a reliable weigh scale. He was, however, given the

following information:

Four spheres and three cubes weigh 37 g.

Three spheres and four cubes weigh 33 g.

Icon was quickly able to determine the combined weight, in grams, of one

sphere and one cube. Your task is to also determine the combined weight of

one sphere and one cube.

Problem D and Solutions

No Weigh!

Problem

Icon Duit was asked to determine the combined weight of one sphere and one cube but he did

not have a reliable weigh scale. He was, however, given the following information: four spheres

and three cubes weigh 37 g and three spheres and four cubes weigh 33 g. Icon was quickly able

to determine the combined weight, in grams, of one sphere and one cube. Your task is to also

determine the combined weight of one sphere and one cube.

Solution 1

The problem is solved quickly if you make the following observation. Since four spheres and

three cubes weigh 37 g and three spheres and four cubes weigh 33 g, then, by combining the

two pieces of information, seven spheres and seven cubes weigh 37 + 33 = 70 g. Dividing by 7,

one sphere and one cube weigh 70 7 = 10 g.

Solution 2

In this solution we will find the weight of one sphere and the weight of one cube. We will then

determine the sum.

Let c represent the weight, in grams, of one cube.

Let s represent the weight, in grams, of one sphere.

From the first piece of information, 4s + 3c = 37.

(1)

From the second piece of information, 3s + 4c = 33. (2)

To get from equation (1) to equation (2), notice that there is one less sphere and one more

cube causing the weight to go down 4 g. Therefore, a sphere weighs 4 g more than a cube and

s = c + 4 follows. We can substitute for s in (1).

4(c + 4) + 3c

4c + 16 + 3c

7c

c

=

=

=

=

37

37

21

3g

Since c = 3 and s = c + 4, s = 7 g. One sphere weighs 7 g and one cube weighs 3 g. The

combined weight of one sphere and one cube is 3 + 7 = 10 g.

Solution 3

Let c represent the weight, in grams, of one cube.

Let s represent the weight, in grams, of one sphere.

Using the given information, we obtain the following system of equations.

4s + 3c = 37

3s + 4c = 33

(1)

(2)

Multiply (1) by 4

Multiply (2) by 3

9s + 12c = 99

7s = 49

s = 7g

4(7) + 3c

28 + 3c

3c

c

=

=

=

=

(3)

(4)

37

37

9

3g

Therefore, one sphere weighs 7 g and one cube weighs 3 g. The combined weight of one sphere

and one cube is 3 + 7 = 10 g.

Solution 4

This is the algebraic version of solution 1.

Let c represent the weight, in grams, of one cube.

Let s represent the weight, in grams, of one sphere.

Using the given information, we obtain the following system of equations.

4s + 3c = 37

3s + 4c = 33

(1)

(2)

Adding (1) and (2), we obtain 7s + 7c = 70. Dividing both sides of the equation by 7, we

obtain s + c = 10. But s is the weight of one sphere and c is the weight of one cube so s + c is

the combined weight of one sphere and one cube.

Therefore, the combined weight of one sphere and one cube is 10 g.

Problem D

Troubling Times

Dante B Late has a clock that gains exactly 12 minutes per hour. Just before

leaving for work at 5:30 a.m., Dante set the clock to the correct time.

Dante returned home for lunch and while eating glanced over at the clock.

The clock read 1:30 p.m. At first Dante was concerned, knowing that he should

have left the house at 12:30 p.m. in order to return to work on time. But then

he remembered the clocks peculiar feature.

How much time does Dante have left at home before he needs to leave to

return to work?

Problem D and Solutions

Troubling Times

Problem

Dante B Late has a clock that gains exactly 12 minutes per hour. Just before

leaving for work at 5:30 a.m., Dante set the clock to the correct time. Dante

returned home for lunch and while eating glanced over at the clock. The clock

read 1:30 p.m. At first Dante was concerned, knowing that he should have left

the house at 12:30 p.m. in order to return to work on time. But then he

remembered the clocks peculiar feature.

How much time does Dante have left at home before he needs to leave to

return to work?

Solution 1

Every hour the clock gains 12 minutes or

12

60

1

5

h.

Let x be the actual number of hours that have passed since 5:30 a.m. Then the

number of hours that the clock advances is x + 15 x = 65 x h.

From 5:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m., the clock advances 8 h.

6

x = 8

5

20

x =

3

2

x = 6 h

3

x = 6 h 40 min

The actual time is 6 hours and 40 minutes after 5:30 a.m. This puts the actual

time at 12:10 p.m. and Dante still has 20 minutes left before he must return to

work.

Solution 2

For every 60 real minutes, the clock advances 60 + 12 = 72 minutes.

From 5:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. the clock advances 8 h or 8 60 = 480 minutes.

Let x be the number of real minutes that

480 minutes.

x

Then

=

480

x

=

480

60

72

5

6

5

x = (480)

6

x = 400 min

x = 6 h 40 min

The real time is 6 hours and 40 minutes after 5:30 a.m. or 12:10 p.m. Dante

still has 20 minutes left before he needs to return to work.

Solution 3

Actual Number

of Hours

1

2

3

4

5

Real

Time

5:30 a.m.

6:30 a.m.

7:30 a.m.

8:30 a.m.

9:30 a.m.

10:30 a.m.

Clock

Advances

1 h 12 min

2 h 24 min

3 h 36 min

4 h 48 min

6 h 0 min

Clock

Time

5:30 a.m.

6:42 a.m.

7:54 a.m.

9:06 a.m.

10:18 a.m.

11:30 a.m.

When the clock advances 6 h from 5:30 a.m to 11:30 a.m., 5 real hours have

passed. When the clock advances 2 h from 11:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m., 53 = 1 23 or

1 hour and 40 minutes of real time will pass from 10:30 a.m. actual time.

The actual time is then 12:10 p.m. and Dante can relax. He still has 20

minutes before he must return to work.

Problem D

Lets Make A Deal

An automobile dealer purchased two cars. She then sold the cars, the first at a

profit of 40% and the second at a profit of 60%. Her total profit on the sale of

the two cars was 54%. She received a total of $88 704 from the sale of the two

cars.

What did the dealer originally pay for each of the two cars?

Problem D and Solutions

Lets Make A Deal

Problem

An automobile dealer purchased two cars. She then sold the cars, the first at a

profit of 40% and the second at a profit of 60%. Her total profit on the sale of

the two cars was 54%. She received a total of $88 704 from the sale of the two

cars. What did the dealer originally pay for each of the two cars?

Solution 1

Let a represent what the dealer paid for the first car and b represent what she

paid for the second car.

The profit on the sale of the first car was 40% or 0.4a. The first car was sold

for a + 0.4a = 1.4a. The profit on the sale of the second car was 60% or 0.6b.

The second car was sold for b + 0.6b = 1.6b. The total selling price of the two

cars was $88 704 so

1.4a + 1.6b = 88 704

Multiplying by 5:

7a + 8b = 443 520

(1)

The dealer bought both cars for a total of (a + b). The profit on the sale of the

two cars was 54% or 0.54(a + b). The two cars sold for

(a + b) + 0.54(a + b) = 1.54(a + b). But the total selling price was $88 704 so

1.54(a + b) = 88 704

a + b = 88 704 1.54

a + b = 57 600

(2)

Solving the system of equations using elimination:

7a + 8b = 443 520

Multiplying (2) by 7: 7a + 7b = 403 200

Subtracting (3) from (1):

b = 40 320

(1)

(3)

The dealer paid $17 280 for the first car and $40 320 for the second car.

Problem

An automobile dealer purchased two cars. She then sold the cars, the first at a

profit of 40% and the second at a profit of 60%. Her total profit on the sale of

the two cars was 54%. She received a total of $88 704 from the sale of the two

cars. What did the dealer originally pay for each of the two cars?

Solution 2

Let a represent what the dealer paid for the first car and b represent what she

paid for the second car.

The profit on the sale of the first car was 40% or 0.4a. The first car was sold

for a + 0.4a = 1.4a. The profit on the sale of the second car was 60% or 0.6b.

The second car was sold for b + 0.6b = 1.6b. The total selling price of the two

cars was $88 704 so:

1.4a + 1.6b = 88 704

Multiplying by 5:

7a + 8b = 443 520

(1)

The dealer bought both cars for a total of (a + b). The profit on the sale of the

two cars was 54% or 0.54(a + b). The total profit is the sum of the profit from

the sale of each car so:

0.54(a + b) = 0.4a + 0.6b

0.54a + 0.54b = 0.4a + 0.6b

0.14a = 0.06b

Multiplying by 50:

7a = 3b

(2)

Substituting 3b for 7a in (1), 3b + 8b = 443 520 or 11b = 443 520 and

b = 40 320 follows.

Substituting b = 40 320 in (2), 7a = 120 960 and a = 17 280 follows.

The first car cost $17 280 and the second car cost $40 320.

Problem D

Keep on Tracking

A freight train is 27 minutes late when it makes its usual trip between Town A

and Town B at an average speed of 56 km/h. For another trip between Town

A and Town B, the freight train is 42 minutes late when its average speed is

54 km/h. What is the distance between Town A and Town B?

!"#$%&

!"#$%'

Problem D and Solutions

Keep on Tracking

Problem

A freight train is 27 minutes late when it makes its usual trip between Town A

and Town B at an average speed of 56 km/h. For another trip between Town

A and Town B, the freight train is 42 minutes late when its average speed is

54 km/h. What is the distance between Town A and Town B?

Solution 1

Let t represent the time, in hours, taken by the train when it was 27 minutes

late. Then, t + 14 represents the time, in hours, taken by the train when it was

15 minutes or one-quarter hour later.

The following chart displays the information. The distance column of the chart

is completed by multiplying the average speed by the time.

Distance

Speed

Time

Faster Train

56t

56

Slower Train

54(t + 14 )

54

t+

1

4

1

56t = 54(t + )

4

27

56t = 54t +

2

27

2t =

2

27

t =

4

The distance between Town A and Town B is 56t = 56

27

4

= 378 km.

Solution 2

Let d represent the distance, in km, between Town A and Town B.

The following chart displays the information. The time column of the chart is

completed by dividing the distance by the average speed.

Speed

56

Time

Faster Train

Distance

d

Slower Train

54

d

54

d

56

Since the difference in times between the slower train and the faster train is

15 minutes or 14 hour,

d

1

d

=

54 56

4

1

56d 54d

=

(54)(56)

4

1

2d =

(54)(56)

4

2d = 756

d = 378

The distance between Town A and Town B is 378 km.

Solution 3

This solution looks at the problem quite differently from the first two solutions.

If the faster train first travels 27 minutes, it would then complete the rest of

the trip in the usual amount of time. During the 27 minutes, the faster train

1512

would travel 27

60 56 = 60 = 25.2 km.

If the slower train first travels 42 minutes, it would then complete the rest of

the trip in the usual amount of time. During the 42 minutes, the slower train

2268

would travel 42

60 54 = 60 = 37.8 km.

The slower train is 37.8 25.2 = 12.6 km ahead of the faster train at the point

when the usual time to complete the trip remains. The faster train gains

2 km/h on the slower train. It will take the faster train 12.6

2 = 6.3 h to catch up

and thereby complete the trip. In 6.3 h, the faster train travels

6.3 56 = 352.8 km. But it had already travelled 25.2 km. Therefore the total

distance from Town A to Town B is 25.2 + 352.8 = 378 km.

The distance between Town A and Town B is 378 km.

Problem D

On a Roll

Each of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 occurs, one to a face, on the faces of a

cube. Three people, Amy, Ben and Cal, are seated around a table. The cube is

placed on the table so that from their different seat locations, each one can see

the top and two adjacent faces. When Amy adds the three numbers that she

can see, her total is 9. When Ben adds the three numbers that he can see, his

total is 14. When Cal adds the three numbers that he can see, his total is 15.

Determine the number on the bottom face of the cube.

Note that the three faces that are visible on the above cube (die) add to 11.

The picture is for illustration only. Do not assume anything from the above

diagram.

Problem D and Solution

On a Roll

Problem

Each of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 occurs, one to a face, on the faces of a cube. Three people,

Amy, Ben and Cal, are seated around a table. The cube is placed on the table so that from

their different seat locations, each one can see the top and two adjacent faces. When Amy adds

the three numbers that she can see, her total is 9. When Ben adds the three numbers that he

can see, his total is 14. When Cal adds the three numbers that he can see, his total is 15.

Determine the number on the bottom face of the cube.

Solution

There are actually four different views of the cube. It turns out that we can find all of the

information using three of them. We will use the first three diagrams above.

Let a be the number on the top and b, c, d, e be the numbers on the side faces. We then are

able to form three equations:

a+b+c = 9

a + c + d = 14

a + d + e = 15

(1)

(2)

(3)

Comparing equation (1) and equation (2), b has been replaced by d and the sum has increased

by 5. Therefore, b and d differ by 5 and b < d. The only numbers from the set 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

that differ by 5 are 1 and 6. Therefore, b = 1 and d = 6.

Comparing equation (2) and equation (3), c has been replaced by e and the sum has increased

by 1. Therefore, c and e differ by 1 and c < e. Since b = 1 and d = 6, there are only three

possible combinations for c and e, namely c = 2 and e = 3, or c = 3 and e = 4, or c = 4 and

e = 5.

We will check each of these possibilities. First, if c = 2, e = 3, b = 1 and d = 6, we can

substitute the appropriate values in (1) giving a + 1 + 2 = 9 or a = 6. This is not possible since

d would also equal 6. We can rule this case out.

a + 1 + 3 = 9 or a = 5. This is a possible solution. In (2), a + c + d = 5 + 3 + 6 = 14 as

required. And in (3), a + d + e = 5 + 6 + 4 = 15 as required. The only number not used is 2 so

the number on the bottom face is 2. But is this the only solution?

Finally, if c = 4, e = 5, b = 1 and d = 6, we can substitute the appropriate values in (1) giving

a + 1 + 4 = 9 or a = 4. This is not possible since c would also equal 4. We can rule this case

out.

Since we have examined all possible cases, the only possible number on the bottom (unseen)

face is 2.

Note: It is also possible to play with the numbers to solve this problem. The method presented

above could be used in a similar way with any of list of six different numbers. Playing with

the numbers might not be as easy.

Instead of arguing the difference between equations to obtain the relationship between b and

d, and c and e, we could have used elimination.

a+b+c = 9

a + c + d = 14

a + d + e = 15

(1)

(2)

(3)

For example, equation (1) subtract equation (2) gives b d = 5 which can be written

d b = 5. This is the same as saying the difference between b and d is 5.

Similarly, equation (2) subtract equation (3) gives c e = 1 which can be written e c = 1.

This is the same as saying that the difference between c and e is 1.

Problem D

The Count Up Is On

The positive integers are written consecutively in groups of five so that the first

row contains the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; the second row contains the numbers

6, 7, 8, 9, 10; the third row contains the numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, 15; etc.

The row sum of a row is the sum of the numbers in the row. For example, the

row sum of row 1 is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15.

Determine the numbers in the row that has a row sum closest to 1 000.

1

6

11

..

2

7

12

..

3

8

13

..

4

9

14

..

5

10

15

..

Problem D and Solutions

The Count Up Is On

Problem

The positive integers are written consecutively in groups of five so

that the first row contains the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; the second

row contains the numbers 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; the third row contains the

numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, 15; etc. The row sum of a row is the sum

of the numbers in the row. For example, the row sum of row 1 is

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15. Determine the numbers in the row that has

a row sum closest to 1 000.

1

2

3 4 5

6

7

8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15

..

..

..

..

..

.

.

.

.

.

Solution 1

Observe that the last number in any row is a multiple of 5. If n is the row number, then the

last number in the nth row is 5n. Since the last number in row n is 5n, the four preceding

numbers in the row are 5n 1, 5n 2, 5n 3, and 5n 4.

The sum of the numbers in the nth row is

(5n 4) + (5n 3) + (5n 2) + (5n 1) + 5n

which simplifies to 25n 10. We want to find the integer value of n so that 25n 10 is as close

to 1 000 as possible.

25n 10 = 1 000

25n = 1 010

n = 40.4

The closest integer to 40.4 is 40. Therefore, n = 40 and the row sum is

25n 10 = 25(40) 10 = 990. The fifth number in the 40th row is 5 40 = 200. The five

numbers in the 40th row are 196, 197, 198, 199, and 200. The next row contains the numbers

201, 202, 203, 204, and 205, and the row sum is 1 015. This row sum is farther from 1 000 than

the previous row sum of 990 is.

Therefore, the row with the sum closest to 1 000 contains the numbers 196, 197, 198, 199, and

200.

The second solution approaches the problem by establishing a linear relationship.

Problem

The positive integers are written consecutively in groups of five so

that the first row contains the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; the second

row contains the numbers 6, 7, 8, 9, 10; the third row contains the

numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, 15; etc. The row sum of a row is the sum

of the numbers in the row. For example, the row sum of row 1 is

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15. Determine the numbers in the row that has

a row sum closest to 1 000.

1

2

3 4 5

6

7

8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15

..

..

..

..

..

.

.

.

.

.

Solution 2

Let x represent the row number and y represent the sum of the numbers in the row. Observe

that the fifth number in any row is a multiple of 5. In fact, the fifth number in any row is 5

times the row number or 5x. The following table of values represents the information.

Row Number

x

1

2

3

Row Sum

y

15

40

65

It appears that the y values increase by 25 as the x values increase by 1. If this is true, the

sum of the fourth row should be 65 + 25 = 90. We can verify this by adding

16 + 17 + 18 + 19 + 20, the numbers in the fourth row. The sum is indeed 90.

As the values of x increase by 1, the values of y increase by 25. The relation is linear. The

25

y

=

= 25. Substituting x = 1, y = 15, m = 25 into

slope is

x

1

y = mx + b

15 = 25(1) + b

10 = b

The equation of the line which passes through the points in the relation is y = 25x 10. Note

that x and y are positive integers. We want to find the value of x, the row number, so that the

value of y, the row sum, is as close to 1 000 as possible.

25x 10 = 1 000

25x = 1 010

x = 40.4

We want the integer value for x that is closest to 40.4. Therefore, x = 40 and the row sum is

y = 25(40) 10 = 990. The fifth number in the 40th row is 5 40 = 200. The five numbers in

the 40th row are 196, 197, 198, 199, and 200. The sum of the numbers in this row is 990. The

next row contains the numbers 201, 202, 203, 204, and 205, and the row sum is 1 015. This row

sum is farther from 1 000 than the previous row sum of 990 is.

Therefore, the row with the sum closest to 1 000 contains the numbers 196, 197, 198, 199, and

200.

- SSLC Maths Eng June 2011Enviado porPrasad C M
- UG022527 International GCSE in Mathematics Spec a for WebEnviado porJohn Hopkins
- term 3 unit 1 numberEnviado porapi-263675842
- revision form 1+2.docxEnviado porNadzirah Zaim
- UntitledEnviado porAjay Kumar
- AVEVA Software Customisation Reference ManualEnviado porvb_pol@yahoo
- YR11_3U_2010_FinalEnviado porsajith_senanayake_1
- Edexcel Specimen Papers Set 2 - Paper 2H Mark Scheme (1)Enviado porRebecca
- 2012-13 Geom UBD 9Enviado porRogelio Pontejo
- Chapter 13 AutoCADEnviado porSathi Mech
- Circle Theorems ChapterEnviado porRaghuCheenepalle
- ISI_BStat_06Enviado porapi-26401608
- Sketch.slope.fieldsEnviado porJayson Alva
- maaatom3Enviado porGarvil Singhal
- 4th Year First Term End Exam Reviewer MathEnviado porFranco Luis C. Mapua
- 6. rounabouts.pdfEnviado porGrato Jr Singco
- Tome of Awesome - Frank and KEnviado porAlex Baldwin
- Maths Form 3 Pp1Enviado porEdwin Hazard Oyaro
- ODB - Math (Geometry).pdfEnviado pormannyang
- Lemoine’s CirclesEnviado porAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- V5Fundamentals_Ver1Enviado porstardust_xox
- Nmii 02 Outlaw ScenariosEnviado porJames Hanlon
- SAT May 2006 = online course 007Enviado porJan Defr
- s74Enviado porngvmrv
- Geometry Short CourseEnviado porGaurav Kedia
- Q.I.M.S_ Institute. _ Weightage for Bitsat 2015Enviado porQims Quest
- instruction sheets math gamesEnviado porapi-272101745
- III-sem_CADEnviado porSanjeev Kumar
- Geometry Bee 2008Enviado porJocelyn Li
- s74Enviado porngvmrv

- Essentials 2018 Final Feb2018Enviado porRajiv Kabad
- NFO Note -Reliance Dual Advantage Fixed Tenure Fund XI - Plan AEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- AP Unit9 Worksheet AnswersEnviado porAAVANI
- 1_1_3_5_1Enviado porrahul
- CardiacEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- Morp. of PlantsEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- SAT OrganicEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- 15-0649_Form_QEWS_Standard+Pediatric+Observation+Chart_1+to+4yrsEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- 15-0649_Form_QEWS_Standard+Pediatric+Observation+Chart_1+to+4yrsEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- CBSE Class 9 Social Science Question BankEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- logicgatesEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- PracticalsEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- Cardiac CycleEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- 15-0648_Form_QEWS_Standard+Pediatric+Observation+Chart_5+to+11yrsEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- Chem RecordEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- Problem of the Week 3Enviado porRajiv Kabad
- Idi AminEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- presept01sEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- ColeridgeEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- 31-2-2 SCIENCEEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- wajo11qaEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- Problem of the Week 3- Extra ChallengeEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- 05-06_2012_Enviado porMiguel LLontop Serquén
- Keep 204Enviado porSCReddy
- ComputerEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- POTWB-13-DP-05-PEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- Holiday HWEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- POTWD-13-MT-02-SEnviado porRajiv Kabad
- 31-1-1 SCIENCEEnviado porRajiv Kabad

- RMO-Solutions-2016.pdfEnviado porRahul Jain
- Relative Advantage ChartEnviado porCassie Koch
- Bahan Listening GuruEnviado porvinapohan
- Jan 2015Enviado porsweetestreds
- Chapter 5 -CurvesEnviado porHamid Yousif
- trigonometry-part-1.pptEnviado porMaria Mae
- Right triangle definitions.docEnviado porArki Tekture
- stlugEnviado poriagomou
- 219803358-Geometry-Problems.docxEnviado porJeremie Diamante Gadayan
- Purple Comet 2014 HS - 8p - 2014HSProblemsEnviado porVicente Torres
- Mathematical MysteriesEnviado porAnonymous pcWQzGjkAd
- CBSE X Assignment.mathematicsEnviado porkaushik247
- Teach Yourself Trigonometry-AbbottEnviado porbookreader1968
- IIT JEE 2009 Paper-1 Questions and SolutionsEnviado porResonance Kota
- ARML Competition 2012Enviado porBHAAJI0001
- From Euclidean Geometry to Transformation GeometryEnviado porjoeyboho
- small houseEnviado porSailesh Bond
- NewGCSEMathsFoundationEdexcelLinearHomeworkBook2AnswersEnviado porlaceyalex
- Equation of Line_VectorsEnviado porSudibyo Gunawan
- white boardEnviado porapi-347831140
- Worksheet 1.1 - 1.6Enviado porAnonymous F4fqQEGC1V
- HOLIDAY HOMEWORK OF CLASS 9.pdfEnviado poraditya kumar
- Pyth Thm WorkbookEnviado porkareemyas7120
- General Aptitude FormulaesEnviado porAjeet Kumar
- November 2003 GCSE Paper 5Enviado porytryity
- Davis Steering Steering Gear MechanismEnviado porVidhu Kampurath P
- Notes on Harmonic Pencils Imotc 2013Enviado porShivamGupta
- hemh103Enviado porNarendra Jadhav
- Ainley Stephen._(1977) Mathematical PuzzlesEnviado porOscar Reynaga Alarcón
- 5c5c0d5cb5Enviado porRajiv Kabad