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# UNIT PLAN

I. The Setting
My unit, entitled 3-D shapes and applications, is intended for a 10th grade
geometry class. My class is a heterogeneous mix of 26 students, 16 of which that are
males and 10 that are females. Even though this is a standard level geometry class,
most of the students are already showing honors level potential. The unit will take
approximately 9 days; 7 for lessons, 1 for review and 1 for the exam. Each
instructional lesson is 50 minutes.
II. Overview and Rationale for the Unit Overall, this unit should not only provide students the knowledge to work with three
dimensional shapes, but also be able to apply some of their properties to real life
applications. Being able to work in three dimensions is the main goal of this unit.
Often, as most are one dimensional in life, its hard to progress through and enjoy
the true beauty of all three dimensions. This unit will also be helpful throughout the
remainder of the course because we will be making references to 3-D figures I
regards to proofs. With the visualization out of the way, we can focus our attention
solely on the proofs.
Common Core standards:
G.MG.1. Use geometric shapes, their measures, and their properties to
describe objects (e.g., modeling a tree trunk or a human torso as a cylinder).
G.MG. 2. Apply concepts of density based on area and volume in modeling
situations (e.g., persons per square mile, BTUs per cubic foot).
NCTM standards:
Analyze characteristics and properties of two- and
three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop
analyze properties and determine attributes of two- and three-dimensional
objects;
explore relationships (including congruence and similarity) among classes of
two- and three- dimensional geometric objects, make and test conjectures
about them, and solve problems involving them;
While in mathematics, the common rational for teaching is to prepare them for the next
level of mathematics. In my unit however, I aim to make connections between mathematical
concepts and real life. This unit is especially good for my target audience because it takes a new
look into the world of three dimensions and the perceptions, or lack thereof, a person can have.
Since we all live in a three dimensional world, it is hard not to find a relationship between the

mathematics I present and what they will experience in everyday life. Therefore, my rational for
this unit is to open their eyes to new perspectives of the world they live in.
IV. Content Outline
1. Graphing in three dimensions
2. Properties of 3-D shapes
a. Cubes
b. Prisms
c. Pyramids
d. Cylinders
e. Cones
f. Spheres
3. Finding surface area
4. Finding Volume
5. Cavalieris Principle & Cross sections

(Attatched)

## VII. Assessment procedures

For each objective that I present, I always give multiple means of assessment to
ensure the objectives are met. Some of the common assessments I used in my lesson
plan are as follows:
a) Graphic organizers: Used throughout the unit to make comparisons among
the different 3-D shapes
b) Exploration worksheet: With Common Core taking over the mathematics
curriculum, it is essential to implement more hands-on learning. With these
exploration worksheets, I can assess to see if the students are understanding the
material.
c) Exit tickets: For all of my exit tickets, I not only assess some of the formulas
and applications that I teacher, but I also want to make important references to
activities that led them to the knowledge they obtained that day
d) Homework: Homework is presented every day except the day before the
review in the hopes that students will get to practice the new material they learned

Day 1
Introduction: 2-D shapes in a 3-D world
Day 1 Objectives:
1. Students will be able to utilize their knowledge of 2-D shapes in order to graph
solids in three dimensions
2. Students will be able to explain the third dimension in order to discuss
perceptions of everyday life
Assessments:
1. During the course of the lesson, students will be required to graph 3-D objects in
both two and three dimensions.
2. During the exploration activity, students will be required to practice plotting
coordinates in three dimensions on a worksheet. The plots will resemble 3-D solids
that we will cover in the next couple days.
3. At the end of class, I will provide an exit ticket that will assess the students
knowledge of graphing in three dimensions as well as graphing everyday 3-D
items in two dimensions.
4. For homework, the students will create a question sheet for one of their
classmates to do next class. While it will once again cover graphing in three
dimensions, it will be up to each student to play teacher and also provide an answer
key to their problem set.

Activities
1. 3-D shapes in two dimensions: In the first activity, I will have brought in
random household items for the students to observe. Students will be put into
groups of four and each given a single item. While they will not be taking any
measurements in this class period, they will be required to draw a perspective of
one angle of the item. In other words, students will be making a sketch (on graph
paper), from looking at either the back, front, left side or right side of the item.
After each student has chosen an object and drawn a side, we will discuss the
perceptions of items. More specifically, I may question how only 1 angle and one
viewpoint can alter ones perception of a solid. You look up in the sky and see a
four sided 2-D figure. What shape is it? While most may answer rectangle or
square, the reality is that it is most likely a cube or prism. Unfortunately, with our
perception on reality, even though we live in a 3 dimensional world, we tend to see

things in one dimension. Hopefully this activity will open their eyes to a new world
of mathematics.
2. Creating the third dimension: In the second activity, not long after the first,
students will take their graphs of one perception and try and manipulate the graphs
drawn by the other group members to re-create the original 3-D figure. While this
activity will initially seem easy, it is extremely difficult to create a 3-D drawing
from only seeing a few images of the original figure. However, once the students
can visualize this image and re-create it, (the best they can) they will start to notice
something they hadnt before when graphing in two dimensions; depth. In order to
re-create these 3-D objects, there needs to be a third dimension present. I will ask
the students the type of orientation needed to create such an abstract image. This
will lead us into the next activity in regards to plotting points in three dimensions.
3. Graphing in three dimensions: For the final activity, I will be guiding the
students in exploring the nature of three dimensions. To do so, I will be showing
the students how to plot points on a 3-D graph, and then sending them on their own
to find points for the 3-D objects we plotted the activity before. Then using a
regular sheet of graph paper, they will plot the coordinates of the objects and create
an outline for them. This activity will precede the classwork in the hopes that they
build a deeper understanding of graphing in three dimensions.
Key Content Outline:
I. 2-D shapes in a 3-D world
II. The third dimension
III. Graphing in three dimensions
This lesson was intended to open the eyes of my students to the true world of three
dimensions. Even though they have lived in this 3-D world for about 15 years
already, they still have a lot to understand in regards to perception. Hopefully,
especially for future mathematics, my students understand that it isnt always
what it seems.
Resources:
No technology resources
Will need handouts and graph paper

Day 2
Cubes, Prisms and Pyramids
Day 2 Objectives:
1. Students will be able to implement their knowledge of 2-D shapes in order to
graph cubes, prisms and pyramids
2. Students will be able to compare/contrast cubes, prism and solids
3. Students will be able to construct 3-D mobiles for a cube, prism and pyramid in
order to further analyze their properties
Assessments:
1. During the lesson, students will be filling out graphic organizers to compare the
three different types of 3-D solids
2. Classwork practice will be given for graphing cubes, prisms and pyramids in
three dimensions
3. Students will construct mobiles of cubes, prisms and pyramids
4. At the end of class, students will be given an exit ticket that will assess their
knowledge, not only of the continuation of graphing in three dimensions, but more
importantly ,the properties of each that make them distinct from each other.
5. The final assessment will be a homework assignment in which students will
graph particular cubes, prism and pyramids. Once again, major comparison
questions will also be given to ensure maximum understanding of the different 3-D
shapes. Students will also be required to start bringing in models of cubes, prisms
and pyramids from home.
Activities:
1. Graphing cubes, prisms and pyramids: The class session will be split up into 6
sections, each of which covering a 3-D object and either its properties or graphing
strategies. For this particular lesson, the graphic organizer will help to drive the
properties section of this lesson. The graphing portions will be done by an activity
in which student will explore, using properties of 2-D figures, graphing cubes,
prisms and pyramids in three dimensions. A common question I could ask in the
classwork is why the coordinates are what they are. More specifically, a cube for
example, why are the distances between any two points, when graphing in one
dimension, the same. If the students were focused during the lecture, the answer is
simple. Each measurement is the same because one face of a cube is a square. The
same sort of questions could be asked when graphing the prism and pyramid as
well.

## 2. Creation of mobiles: The next activity I would lead my class in is the

construction of 3-D mobiles. In order to do so, my students will need an
understanding of the properties of cubes, prisms and pyramids. With this
knowledge, the students will use paper, scissors and pencils to draw two
dimensional outlines for each three dimensional shape. Then, the students will fold
each side according to the directions and tape them together to create their figure.
This solid will not only be a great tool to remember the properties I future class
periods, but I also intend to you use them in the next lesson when we discover
surface area.
Key Content Outline:
I. Properties of a cube
II. Graphing a cube
III. Properties of a prism
IV. Graphing a prism
V. Properties of a pyramid
VI. Graphing a Pyramid
This lesson is intended to introduce the properties of cubes, prisms, and pyramids
in the hopes of once again having them make connections to the real world. This
lesson is especially crucial because of the applications we will be covering in the
next couple days. It will be extremely hard to find surface area and volume of
solids that students have no understanding of.
Resources:
No technology resources
We will need scissors, tape, paper and handouts

## Day 3: Surface area (Major lesson component)

Class Description

Unit Title

Lesson
Topic

3-D shapes
Surface
and
Area
applications

Type of
Lesson
Developmental
lesson

MD State Curriculum
Standard/ MD Common Core
State Standard
Apply geometric concepts in modeling
situations
1. Use geometric shapes, their measures, and their
properties to describe objects (e.g., modeling a tree
trunk or a human torso as a cylinder).
2. Apply concepts of density based on area and volume
in modeling situations (e.g., persons per square mile,
BTUs per cubic foot).
3. Apply geometric methods to solve design problems
(e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy physical
constraints or minimize cost; working with typographic
grid systems based on ratios).

Judges Prior Knowledge (How do you know students are ready to learn the
content in this lesson?)
I will be discussing two major ideas in this lesson; manipulation of 3-D
shapes and surface area. To understand the manipulation of 3-D shapes, the
students will need a vast knowledge of the creation of 3-D shapes using 2-D
shapes. This requirement is fulfilled in my introduction lesson to this unit
on day 1 (This lesson is about day 4 or 5). I will also be including a
segment in the drill. To teach the second idea, surface area, students will
need to have had previous instruction on the area of 2-D shapes. This type of
material is usually covered all throughout elementary and middle school. Just
in case though, I have included a review in my drill as well.

Lesson Objective(s):
Objective 1 SWBAT utilize their knowledge of area to discover
surface area of three different 3-D shapes
Objective 2 SWBAT participate in a hands on activity to find
the surface area of common household items
Assessment(s):
Assessment for Objective 1 Drill and Opening worksheet

## Is this a formative or summative assessment? Formative

Would you characterize this assessment as a traditional or
Why did you select this assessment strategy to measure student
learning? It is a review of things they should be confident
Assessment for Objective 2 Activity completion/ worksheet
Is this a formative or summative assessment? Formative
Would you characterize this assessment as a traditional or
performance assessment? Performance
Why did you select this assessment strategy to measure student
learning? The activity allows for student discovery of
mathematical relationships.
Materials Needed for Lesson
Object from home ( previously instructed)
Models of 3-D shapes (previously constructed)
Calculator
Ruler

## Incorporation of Technology (if appropriate)

*If you are using a website, type in the website citation.
Calculator: To assist the student in calculations

Lesson Development
Teacher

Students

Time

Drill/Motivational
Activity

Worksheet

8 minutes

Transition

Activity 1

Key Questions

What assumption
the area of a two
dimensional figure
more than one two
dimensional shape?
What seems to be
the main
difference between
a cube and prism?
How does this
affect the way we
find the surface
area of each?

So everyone seemed
to notice that the
last figure on the
drill was actually a
cube. Correct? So
even though I was
of a 2-D figure, you
were actually
finding the area of
a cube. We call the
area of a 3-D shape,
surface area
Lecture: Comparing
the area of 2-D
constructions with
3-D shapes
(Worksheet)
Anticipated
Responses?
It is the sum of
each two dimensional
figure

## The prism is bigger

so the surface area
is bigger. Since all
the sides of the
cube are the same
the surface area is
6bh. For a prism,
the equation would
be
lw+lw+wh+wh+lh+lh.
Correction: The
prism may appear to
be bigger in most
cases but not
always. Coincidently

10 minutes

What is unique
surface area of a
pyramid

Transition

## though, the surface

area of a prism will
be bigger than that
of a cube most of
the time. But, do
not confuse visual
representation with
mathematical
concepts. In
students to see and
be able to recognize
the equation for the
surface area of a
prism: 2(lw+lh+hw)
It requires finding
the area of
triangles and
squares.
Make note: the sides
of the squares will
be the same as the
bases of each
triangle in the
pyramid.

Activity 2

## Now that we know

how to find the
surface area of
cubes, pyramids and
prisms, lets go
Key Questions
materials from home
Did the formulas for
surface area differ for and get into the
groups I have
each object? (i.e was
assigned on the
the way you found
board. Hopefully
surface area for a
everyone in the
shoebox the same way
group has a
you found the surface
different example of
area of a soda box?)
each of the 3-D
figures we worked
Did you find any areas
which were close to the with today. While
you are doing that,
area of maybe a
I will pass around
different 3-D figure?

25 minutes

means?

rulers

Transition

## Finding the Surface

area of household
items
Anticipated
Responses?
found were
different, but the
way in which we
found them was the
same.

Summary/Closure/Revisit
Objective
No, none of the
values were even
close. I dont know
what that would mean
Safety Valve
though.
mean that if you
opened up the 3-D
shapes, you would
find that the sum of
the areas would be
the same.
gentlemen that wraps
up our lesson on the
surface area of
Pyramids, cubes and
prisms. Can anyone
tell me what 3-D
shapes I missed?
Cones, Cylinders and
Spheres What two
dimensional shapes
do they utilize?

5-7 minutes

Circles. So next
time, we will look
at those shapes in
particular and do a
similar activity
with more objects
from home.
Exit ticket

## Start to discuss and

discover cylinders
and cones
Reflection on assessment Assume that after you have taught
this lesson and assessed student learning you find that students
did not meet the objective(s). How would you plan future
instruction on this lessons content and skills to ensure
student mastery and application?
Unfortunately, in regards to Common core standards, the 3-D
shapes unit is very limited for time and in some cases gets
thrown all into one week. If I find that students arent meeting
my objectives, over the course of two weeks, I would probably
make less time for discovery learning and more time for lecture
based work. I do not like lecture at all, and in most cases it
is ineffective, but with the vast number of activities I have
planned, the only way students shouldnt be accomplishing my
objectives is if they stray too far away from the main objective
when exploring or by the time they finish the activity, the
objective is unclear. Regardless though, more lecture seems to
be the best solution here.

Day 4
Volume

Day 4 Objectives:
1. Students will be able to interpret the theoretical volume in order to calculate the
volume of cubes, pyramids and prisms.
2. Students will be able to participate in a hands on activity in order to calculate
the volume of household items that represent cubes, prisms and pyramids
Assessments:
1. Fill in the blank lecture notes will handed out at the beginning of class
2. Before the exploration, students will also be given a worksheet to practice
finding the volume of cubes, prisms and pyramids.
3. During the exploration, students will need to fill out a chart that will showcase
their knowledge of volume by application.
4. For an exit ticket, students will be required to calculate the volume of cubes,
prisms and pyramids. However, the questions will be based on real world
applications. For example, a question might read you want to fill your shoebox up
with water to act as a fishbowl. Unfortunately though, your fish requires living in a
bowl with volume 24inches3. Too much water is ok, but too little will kill him. If
the dimensions of the shoebox are 2inches x 5 inches x 4inches, what can we
conclude about the lifespan of the fish? Should he die anytime soon?
5. For homework, students will be finding more household items and finding the
volume of them as well.
Activities:
1. Volume of household items: For this lesson, due to the length of it, there will
only be one exploration activity. In this activity, students will be splitting up into
groups and measuring the dimensions of common household items that represent
cubes, prisms and pyramids. With these dimensions, students will calculate the
volume of each item and discuss their findings with a partner. Two of each kind of
solid should be measured to compare the results. Even though this activity seems
to be very short and simple, many questions arise when discussing the volume of
any three dimensional object. The first of which is based similarity and
proportionality within solids. For example, a good question might ask that prism
can clearly hold more volume than the others. What dimensions make this
possible? Why do you think this is? Also, I may ask the relationship in volumes if
the sides were all proportional. In other words, if one prism had dimensions

4x10x8 and the other had 2x5x4, how would one volume compare to the other?
Finally, in my explanation section, I want to make sure that I express the great deal
of ease for finding the volume of these shapes in particular. Similar to the way
surface area can be hard, volume can easily be just as hard when dealing with more
complex solids.
Key Content Outline:
I. What is volume? (Units included)
II. What is the volume of cube?
III. What is the volume of a rectangular prism?
IV. What is the volume of a pyramid?
This lesson is intended to once again give a deeper meaning to an easy concept in
three dimensions. Even though volume has most likely been seen in a more applied
nature to real world applications, I doubt they had the same understanding of
volume going into todays lesson. This lesson will also prove to be helpful when
we discuss the volume of cones, cylinders and spheres as well. With less time
having to cover the idea of volume, we can take more time for exploration and
application
Resources:
We will need handouts, household items, rulers and charts

Day 5
Cones and Cylinders

Day 5 Objectives:
1. Students will be able to relate the applications of circles in order to construct
cylinders and cones
2. Students will be able to interpret the height of a cone and cylinder as a
quadrilateral in order to further understand their surface area
3. Students will participate in a hands on activity in order to calculate the surface
area and volume of common household items that represent cones and cylinders
Assessments:
1. Students will first be provided a graphic organizer that will be used to
distinguish between cones and cylinders
2. Students will also be given a classwork assignment in which they will graph
cones and cylinders in three dimensions as well as calculate their volume and
surface area
3. Students will also be given a chart, similar to the ones used for cubes, prisms
and pyramids. This will be used as a guide for finding the surface area and volume
of common household items that represent cones and cylinders
4. An exit ticket will also be given that will assess students knowledge of graphing
cones and cylinders in three dimensions. In addition, it will look to apply the
formulas discovered in the exploration.
5. Finally, a homework assignment will be given that will include application
problems of finding both the surface area and volume of cubes, prisms, pyramids,
cones and cylinders.

Activities:
1. Constructing a Cylinder: For my first activity, I will have students analyze the
properties of a cylinder by manipulating a roll of paper towels. This will be a very
innovative activity because it represents the true height of a cylinder. One of the
biggest discrepancies in geometry classes is the idea that no one seems to know
where the formula for surface area of a cylinder comes from. With the paper
towels, I can literally unravel a single towel and show it to my class. I will ask
them first what new shape I have created by opening up the cylinder. Next, I will
ask them what the base and the height are for the new quadrilateral I created.
While the height is simply h, the base can be represented by a variation of a circle.

## More specifically, the base is represented by circumference of the circle at the

base. This will help lead us into the surface area exploration. Unfortunately, the
same type of manipulation cannot occur for the cone.
2. Surface area/ volume: The surface area and volume activity will be the exact
same activity we had done 2 days earlier, except now the students are measuring
cylinders and cones. Some of the items we will have are ice cream cones, cone
cups, funnels, tops of soda bottles, soup cans, soda cans, cylindrical boxes, coffee
cans and cups. Since the formulas have already been given, the actual process of
finding all the surface areas and volumes wont be difficult, but it will provide the
students with practice and more real life application.
Key Content Outline:
I. Properties of a circle in relation to three dimensions
II. Properties of a Cylinder
III. Properties of a Cone
IV. Surface area of a Cylinder
V. Surface area of a Cone
VI. Volume of a Cylinder
VII. Volume of a Cone
This lesson is intended to provide another dimension to our students knowledge of
three dimensional shapes. While cubes and pyramids were harder to find in real
life applications, cylinders and cones are found almost anywhere. Now with this
knowledge, we can cover the last three dimensional shape that utilizes a circle; a
sphere. This lesson provided some excellent strategies that will be taken over
when we talk about spheres as well.
Resources:
No technology resources
We will need handouts, a paper towel roll, household items, rulers and charts

## Day 6: Spheres (Major lesson component)

Class Description
This is a 10th grade Geometry class. It is simulated by 8
students, 4 of which are male and the other four, female. Though
the classroom is quite large and the number of students is quite
small in comparison, I will have them sitting in groups of four
in the front of the classroom. Each table will have 2 males and
2 females. Since Jessie and Lydia are my higher level students
(in mathematics), I will put them at separate tables.
Unit Title

Lesson
Topic

3-D shapes
Spheres
and
applications

Type of
Lesson
Developmental
Lesson

MD State Curriculum
Standard/ MD Common Core
State Standard
Apply geometric concepts in modeling
situations
1. Use geometric shapes, their measures, and their
properties to describe objects (e.g., modeling a tree
trunk or a human torso as a cylinder).
2. Apply concepts of density based on area and volume
in modeling situations (e.g., persons per square mile,
BTUs per cubic foot).

## Judges Prior Knowledge (How do you know students are ready to

learn the content in this lesson?)
In order to understand the significance of finding the surface
area and volume of a sphere, students must have a vast
understanding of how to find the volume and surface area of
cubes, pyramids and rectangular prisms. With time constraints, I
have elected to only review cubes and rectangular prisms.
Pyramids take a little longer to compute. Also, even though this
will be reviewed in lessons before this one, a mastery of
working with 2-D shapes and finding their area is crucial to
understanding the shift into 3- dimensions.

Lesson Objective(s):
Objective 1 Students will be able to analyze the major
characteristics of a sphere in order calculate its volume in
real world applications.
Objective 2 Students will manipulate an orange in order to

## develop the surface area of a sphere.

Assessment(s):
Assessment for Objective 1 PowerPoint Question
The distance from the center of Spalding NBA basketball to any
point on the ball itself is 3inches. How much air should go
into the basketball to fill it up?
Is this a formative or summative assessment? Formative
Would you characterize this assessment as a traditional or
performance assessment? Performance Assessment
Why did you select this assessment strategy to measure student
learning? It is a direct way to test the knowledge the students
were just given with a real world application.
Assessment for Objective 2 Orange discovery worksheet
Is this a formative or summative assessment? Formative
Would you characterize this assessment as a traditional or
performance assessment? Performance Assessment
Why did you select this assessment strategy to measure student
learning? This hands on activity requires a step by step process
of discovering the surface area of a sphere. The worksheet
chronologically takes the students through the thought process
they should have when completing this activity. It will be a
great way to make sure they are on track.

## Materials Needed for Lesson

Oranges
PowerPoint slides
Napkins

No IEP students in this particular lesson
Incorporation of Technology (if appropriate)
*If you are using a website, type in the website citation.
PowerPoint slides as a guide

Teacher
Key Questions
So a football is a
sphere right? Can
anyone give me some
examples of spheres?
Drill/Motivational
Activity

Key Questions
What makes a cube
different from a
rectangular prism? Why
is its surface area and
volume so easy to find?

## Does anyone know why

the surface area is
squared and the volume
is cubed? Shouldnt
they both be cubed
since we are in 3dimennsions?
Transition

Lesson Development
Students
Anticipated
Responses?
No!! Balls:
soccerball,
tennisball,
baseball etc.

Time
5 minutes

## See Drill sheet

Anticipated
Responses?
Since a cube is
the volume and
surface area are
calculated from
only one
measurement. A
rectangular prism
can have up to
three different
sets of dimensions
to work with.
No, surface area is
squared because
only two things are
multiplied at a
time. Volume is
cubed because it is
based on
multiplication of

10 minutes

three dimensions.
Activity 1

Key Questions

So now that
everyone seems to
feel comfortable
working with the
easier 3-D shapes,
lets move into a
more complex figure
in spheres.

## What do we call r, the

distance from the
center of the sphere to Lecture:
any point on the
Information on
sphere?
spheres
How many faces does a
sphere have?

Anticipated
Responses?

## Can anyone show me a

Are there any others?

None!!
Does anyone know or
remember the volume of
a sphere?

## Students can draw

any line from the
center of the
sphere to any point
Why do you think we use on the sphere
pi and r in our
itself. Therefore
equation for volume?
there are infinite
lines that students
can give me.
No.
Teacher response:
Assessment 1: The
The volume of a
distance from the
sphere, while
center of Spalding NBA
difficult and very
basketball to any point arbitrary is 4/3
on the ball itself is
r3.
3inches. How much air
should go into the
Because its based
on a circle.
up?
Teacher response:

Thats good to
Surface area is measure note. The volume
in squares. Why again?
has a lot to do
with the
accumulation of
circles. When we
get to surface
area, we will talk
Transition
that.
36. There should
be no difficulty
seeing as though it
is simply a direct
implementation of
the equation.

Activity 2

Key Questions
What is the area of
each great circle you
created?

Because we are
multiplying two
things at a time.
Even though it is
in 3-dimmensions,
it is based on the
number of items
being multiplies.

## The surface area

of a sphere is not
only difficult
How many great circles
because it does not
did you fill with your
orange peel?
patterns as the
other shapes, but
What is the surface
in most cases,
area of a sphere being
students will
represented by in this
forget the equation
activity?
for surface area
more often than
So, if you were able to that of volume.
fill four great
Hopefully this next
circles, each of which
activity will spark
having area r2, then
you interest and
give you a
the surface area of a
memorable

10 minutes

sphere?

experience.

Transition
Discovering the
surface area of a
sphere
Anticipated
Responses?

Key Questions

r2

## Before todays lesson,

did you have any idea
what the surface area
of a sphere is?

## When you leave class

though, would you be
able to explain to
someone what the
surface area of a
sphere means to you?

## The surface area of

a sphere is being
represented by the
number of filled
circles.
4r2

Summary/Closure/Revisit So to wrap up
Objective
todays lesson lets
importance of
visualization and
why it helps to
understand topics
Anticipated
Responses?
Safety Valve

No, in fact, I
dont even remember
The volume has
always been

embedded in my
brain. However,
with todays
activity, I not
only feel confident
using the equation,
I feel equally as
comfortable
explaining it to
someone else.
See Exit Ticket w/
In todays lesson,
we completed both
objectives relating
to the surface area
and volume of a
sphere. The
important
information to take
away is the usage
of the formulas and
some basic
spheres. These will
come back to haunt
you later, so do
not forget the
formulas!
With a 25 minute
lesson, yet alone a
math lesson, it is
really hard to plan
for a safety valve.
However, with a bit
of extra time, I
could provide more
real world examples
to drive the
concept home for
the students.
Reflection on assessment Assume that after you have taught
this lesson and assessed student learning you find that students

did not meet the objective(s). How would you plan future
instruction on this lessons content and skills to ensure
student mastery and application?
If I were to be informed, through assessment, that my lesson did
not coincide with the objectives, regardless of my time frame, I
need to find more time to discuss it. Seeing as though my unit
is 8 days with the initial assumption of 7, I may have that
extra day to go a little deeper in class. I would however need
to address this idea ASAP because once this unit is over, it
will be very hard to come back to it. We absolutely cannot skip
it because of its importance. Also, if I wanted to keep the
orange activity, because it worked so well, I can possibly cut
down on some lecture and give the students more hands on
opportunity. That is essentially what Common Core wants in the
long run anyway. To ensure students have mastered this concept,
I will make sure that surface area and volume are hit the
hardest.

Day 7
Cavalieris Principle

Day 7 Objectives:
1. Students will be able to manipulate 3-D figures in order to interpret the cross
sections that they create.
2. Students will be able to interpret cross sections in order to calculate the volume
of 3-D shapes using Cavalieris principle
Assessments:
1. To introduce the idea of cross sections, I will be leading the students in an
activity. A worksheet will be provided to guide the students in their findings.
2. A practice classwork will also be given for cross sections to ensure students can
find cross sections of all 3-D shapes we have discussed thus far (cubes, prisms,
3. Another exploration worksheet will be given in their discovery of Cavalieris
principle. Even though the activity will cover only spheres, the students will use
these worksheets to make predictions of the effects on other 3-D solids.
4. After the lesson, I will provide an exit ticket that will assess students
knowledge of cross sections and ensure they are able to apply Cavalieris principle
to any 3-D solid.
5. For homework, the students will begin studying for their review the next class.
In their studying, they will look over the material taught today and hopefully
practice it.

Activities:
1. Cross sections: Before the activity starts, students already have a basic idea of
what cross sections are. Unfortunately though, it is very hard to visualize a cross
section of a 3-D solid without actually cutting that solid open yourself. My activity
aims to fill this gap in my students understanding. Using Play-Doh, I will have my
students mold a cone and a cylinder (to the best of their abilities). Using a piece of
floss, they will cut their Play-Doh as directed. Their first attempt will be to cut
each solid horizontally, thus creating similar solids. What the students should
notice is that not only are you creating a smaller version of the original solid, but
you are also creating 2-D faces from where you cut. These should be circles. This
idea should also take students back to one of our original lessons where we
manipulated three dimensional shapes to graph in two dimensions. Afterwards, I

will have the students put their 3-D solids back together ( easy with Play-Doh) and
try cutting from a different angle. It will be essential to note that this cut will not be
parallel to the base. With this cut, students will also note that the 2-D shape they
have now created is an ellipse, not a circle. The students will continue this process
for cubes, prisms and pyramids as well. Then we will look at spheres. For spheres,
which differ from all other 3-D solids, its cross sections are always a circle. This
will also be an important idea for the lesson.
2. Cavalieris principle: The sphere will prove to be a great last example for cross
sections. As most classes do, I will be introducing Cavalieris principle through the
manipulation of spheres. One of the greatest proofs in 3-D geometry involves the
discovery of the volume of a sphere. In this activity, that will be very similar to the
last, students will again be finding cross sections, but comparing it to cross sections
of other 3-D shapes. Cavalieris principle is as follows: If two solids of equal
height are cut by a horizontal parallel equidistant from each of the bases, those
objects will have the same volume. With that said students can simply make two
solids with Ply-Doh, cut both of them equidistant from the bases using floss and
then measure the volume of each new solid. They will be the same.

## Key Content Outline:

I. Cross sections
- Horizontal
- Diagonal
II. Cavalieris principle
This lesson is intended to relate the students to something they have most likely
played with before; Play-Doh. In one instance, they are doing something fun and
exciting, but they are also doing mathematics. This material is necessary for the
study session and exam.
Resources:
No technology resources
We will need Play-Do, handouts and floss

Day 8
Review

Day 8 Objectives:
1. Students will be able to utilize their knowledge of 3-D shapes and applications
in order to compete in a game of Jeopardy.
Assessments:
1. A game of Jeopardy will be given to assess students knowledge of cubes,
prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones and spheres and their respective applications
(I.e surface area, volume, dimension in graphing, Cavalieris principle, etc.)
Activities
1. Students will compete in a game of Jeopardy in class. As in the common known
game show Jeopardy, questions will be given for different point values. The five
categories that will be questioned are 2-D shapes in a 3-D world, Cylinders,
cones and spheres, Cubes, prism and pyramids, Surface Area, and Volume.
In regards to the point system, each category will be broken up into point values of
200,400,600,800 and 1000 respectively. The question topics will be as follows
2-D shapes Cylinders,
Cubes,
Surface area Volume
in a 3-D
cones and
prisms and
world
spheres
pyramids
200
Cube in 2-D Properties
Properties
Surface area Def. of
of a cone
of a
of a sphere
Cavalieris
pyramid
principle
400
Looking at
Represents A jack in
Shortcut to
Volume of a
2-D images funnel
the box is
finding the
rectangle
and deciding
an example surface area and cube
which 3-D
of this
of a pyramid
images they
represent
600
Explain the Properties
Properties
Application Cavalieris
third
of a cylinder of a prism
to prisms
principle
dimension
was
originally
proven for a

800

1000

Graph a
rectangular
prism with
1x2x3 as the
dimensions
Graph a
sphere with

Cross
Cross
section is an section of
oval
cubes and
rectangles

Application
to cylinders

Cross
section is a
circle
regardless
of how you
cut it

Application
to cones

Cross
section of a
pyramid

sphere
Application
for cones

If the height
of a cone is
4 inches and
the height of
a cylinder is
4 inches, if I
create a
parallel, 3
inches from
the base, and
I know the
volume of
the cylinder
is 12, what
is the
volume of
the cone?

## Key Content Outline:

1. Cubes, Cylinders, Cones, Pyramids, Prisms and Spheres
2. Surface area
3. Volume
4. 2-D and 3-D graphing
5. Cavaliers principle
The intent of this lesson was to prepare my students for the exam next class. In
addition though, it served as a fun and innovative way to help them remember all
the material.
Resources:

## We will need the interactive PowerPoint that utilizes Jeopardy

Day 9
Exam

Day 8 Objectives:
1. Students will be able to apply their knowledge of 3-D shapes and their
applications in order to complete an exam
Assessments:
1. Students will be given their unit exam today. A few sample questions from each
topic are as follows. There are also many forms of questions on todays exam.
They include multiple choice, fill in the blank, calculation, matching, graphing and
short responses
2-D objects in a 3-D world
-(Fill in the blank)If I were to look at a cube from any angle, what two
dimensional shape should I see?
-(Graphing)Graph a rectangular prism on the grid provided. Its dimensions are
2x3x4.
- (Multiple choice) Which 3-D solids can you manipulate so that at least one side
is a circle?
a. Sphere
b. Cone
c. Cylinder
d. a and b
e. a,b and c
Cubes, Pyramids, Prisms, Cones, Spheres and Cylinders
-(Multiple choice) Which 3-D solid could also be another?
a. Rectangular prism
b. Cube
c. Cone
d. Sphere
e. None of the above
- (Short response)What makes pyramids different than both cubes and prisms,
even though we put them all in the same category?
- (Matching)Match the following to its appropriate 2-D shape( there can be more
than one for each)

1.Prism
2.Cube
3.Sphere
4. Cylinder
5.Cone
6. Pyramid

a. Square
b. Rectange
c. Circle
d. Triangle

Surface area
-(Short response)Surface area for cones, cylinders and sphere include a pi. Why?
- (Fill in the blank)Based on the orange activity, we discovered that our orange
peel filled _______ circles. The area of each circle was ______.This meant that our
surface area was going to be ___________
- (calculation)Find the surface area of a rectangular prism with dimensions 4x8x3
Volume
- (Calculation) The volume of a standard MLB baseball is about 32/ 3 inches3.
Using the formula for the volume of a sphere, what is the radius of a standard MLB
baseball?
- (Multiple choice) Whos theorem says that if we have two three dimensional
solids that have the same height, and we draw two parallels equidistant from the
bases, they will have the same volume?
a. Pythagoras
b. Euclid
c. Cavalieri
d. Einstein
- (Fill in the blank) How much water can I put in a box if my boxes dimensions
are 5x8x10_______
Activities
1. Students will take an exam that will cover 3-D shapes, surface area, volume,
graphing and Cavalieris principle.
Key Content Outline:
1. Cubes, Cylinders, Cones, Pyramids, Prisms and Spheres
2. Surface area
3. Volume
4. 2-D and 3-D graphing
5. Cavaliers principle

The intent of this lesson is to test the knowledge of my students in their ability to
apply formulas of 3-D solids to real world applications
Resources:
No technology resources
We only need the test itself