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# Sean Selba

Dr. Eicher-Beard
Sced 460
Due Date: 12/10/2013

## Directed Reading lesson: Mathematics

Introduction:
1. Class Description: This is a 10th grade Geometry class. It is a heterogeneous group of 10th
and 11th graders (11th graders are re-taking Geometry as they did not pass in the previous year.
Previous CLOZE results of this textbook from previous units have revealed that 2 students are
reading this textbook at the independent level (both 11th graders), 14 students are reading this
textbook at the instructional level, and 4 students are reading this textbook at the frustration
level.

## 2. Unit Title: Rotations

3. Pertinent Information about Lesson: Previous lessons have dealt with transformations and
reflections. Since a rotation is another form of a transformation, this lesson is developmental.

4. Curriculum Standards:
G.CO.2. Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies
and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that
take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs.
Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those
that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch).
G.CO.4. Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms
of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments.
G.CO.5. Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation,
draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or
geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will
carry a given figure onto another.
There are no literacy standards for mathematics in Common Core. However, a
students ability to explain the process in which they found their answer to a math
problem will denote a deeper understanding. Students who can successfully complete
this task for all mathematics problems will be considered literate.
5. Unit Goal(s) pertinent to this lesson: The unit goal is for students to be able to describe the
use of properties of rotations solve real world problems.

6. Lesson Objectives:
Students will be able to a define a rotation in terms of its angle measure
Students will be able to draw rotations of 2 dimensional shapes using a straightedge,
compass and protractor.
Students will be able to utilize their knowledge of rotations in order to apply it to real
world applications.
7. Assessment:
Objective 1: For the first objective, I will assess students knowledge by giving them
some of the practical questions that the text offers. These questions, listen in guided
practice, will lead me into my demonstration with patty paper. The second assessment
of my first objective will be to have them define angle measure by movement of their
patty paper to a new point on the graph.
Objective 2: For the second objective, I will be having the students using graph paper
to sketch rotations of any 2 dimensional shapes they draw. It will be important that
they know the harder the object they draw, the harder it will be to rotate it. Regardless
though, I encourage the challenge.
Objective 3: For the third objective, I will also be including some of the practice
problems from our reading material to reiterate the topic. In addition though, I will be
assessing them using a Geometer Sketchpad application in which they will be
constructing tessellations of real world images by applying rotations.
8. Macrostructure Thinking Skill(s): Definition and Description
9. Materials: Include everything needed by both you and your students to make the lesson
successful.
Text (given): This material will be used throughout the lesson. It will first be used
as a teaching guide for learning the new material. Then it will be used to assess
students knowledge of the material taught. Since this reading has been provided
for my grade level, the readability has already been cleared.
Patty Paper: Students will use patty paper during their constructions of rotations
because it gives them a dynamic nature. Not only is it easily rotatable, but it is
also see through so you can see the graph as you are rotating. This will give the
students a better idea of what is happening when they rotate something.
Tessellations.GSP: This is a geometer sketchpad application in which students
will use custom tools to create tessellations from rotations. While this doesnt
seem like it has a purpose initially, it needs to be understood that in order to use
the tools, you must select and create the right images first. They will learn these
specific images in the lesson.
Wade, David. (2006). Symmetry-The ordering Principle. United States of
America: Walker & Company.: This first implementation of tradebooks will be
included in my definitions and requirements of rotations along the way. This will
help to guide the students into creating formal definitions. I also believe that the
idea of symmetry is not covered enough in the text. With this book, I can take the

kids through real world examples that represent rotations. I will present rotations
of both symmetrical and non-symmetrical nature. This book, according to the fry
scale, is at a 9th grade level. With this being a 10th grade geometry class, it should
be a very useful tool. In addition, the words are easy, there are a lot of useful
picture and most importantly, all the information in the book is based off of
background knowledge I have already given them.
Sutton, Andrew. (2009). Ruler and Compass- Practical Geometric Constructions.
United States of America: Walker & Company. This second inclusion of a
tradebook will be to ensure students can properly sketch rotations. While I will
give them the proper tools and knowledge to succeed throughout the lesson, I
want to ensure they have a tool. In addition, this book will also suffice in meeting
the third objective in that students can make constructions of real world images.
This will also be the guiding factor in my silent reading. This book, along with the
other, is also at a 9th grade level according to fry. Therefore, this book is very
readable for my students and obtains no knowledge that I have not covered thus
far.
DanTheGreatHD. City Car Driving: Audi/BMW Speeding. Video file. Youtube.
Youtube, 13 Jun 2013. 12 Dec 2013. This video will be used in a set of stations
for my motivational activity. Students will be analyzing a person driving and what
the steering wheel does along the way.
Lesson Procedure
1) Readiness
a) Motivation: To introduce the idea of rotations, I will be having groups of kids at three
stations. Each group will be at a single station for 2 minutes. At the first station, students
will watch a clock and take notes on what the second hand is doing. At the second
station, students will be placing a sticker on any point of the seat of the rotating seat. The
sticker will already have a sticker in the center. Once they have done that, they will spin
the seat and make note of what is happening to the sticker. The final station will be the
most fun. The students will watch a virtual driving lesson in which a driver is speeding
out of control. Students will make note of how the steering wheel is acting. Mpore
specifically, I want to know how the driver had to change the steering based on the turn.
Then, we will come together and discuss.
Teacher: Now, let us being our lesson by discussing our findings at the three stations.
Lets start with the clock station. Someone tell me one thing you notice about the way the
second hand moved on the clock?
Expected Student Response: It moved clockwise
Teacher: Very good!! How about the stools?
Expected Student Response: Well, the circle on the outside kept spinning, but the one in
the center never moved
Teacher: Perfect!!! You guys are on the right track! Now how about the driving
simulator? How did the driver react depending upon his turns?
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Expected Student Response: The shaper the turn, the more the driver had to change his
steering
Teacher: What do you mean?
Expected Student Response: I guess I mean that if the steering wheel starts like this
(shows class), the wheel will only have to turn a little if its a small turn. But, if it is a big
turn, he needs to turn the wheel a lot.
Transition: You guys did an excellent job of noticing three important properties of the
next transformation we will be covering; rotations. Each rotation we create will always
have a center of rotation (that we just said will never move), a direction, clockwise or
counter clockwise and.What did the steering wheel show? If I draw two perpendicular
lines on this steering wheel and turn it, what is actually changing? The angle! Today, we
will be looking at some applications of these properties and how they will be applicable
in everyday life.
b) Background of Experience: In order to succeed in my lesson today, students will need a
vast understanding of three major concepts; transformations in general, angle measure
and symmetry. I will describe all three using the clock once again.
Teacher: To understand todays lesson, I need to make sure you guys are ok with some
pretty basic concepts. So let us look back at the clock. Imagine a line drawn from 12-6
and 9-3. Imagine it is 2 oclock. If I change the clock so that it is 10 oclock. What did I
do to the small hand?
Expected Student Response: You moved it
Teacher: Ok, but how?
Expected Student Response: You flipped it?
Teacher: Yes Yes Yes!!! Over which line?
Expected Student Response: The 12-6 line
Teacher: And on a graph we would call that?
Expected Student Response: The Y axis?
Teacher: Yes! So changing 2 to 4 would be?
Expected Student Response: A flip over the 9-3 line? So the X-axis!
Teacher: Great! And what do call that flip? Think transformations

## Expected Student Response: A reflection?

Teacher: Yes! And the line in which you reflect an image is called?
Expected Student Response: Im not sure
Teacher: Read this passage from David Wades Symmetry and see what you think
Expected Student Response: The line of Symmetry!!!
Teacher: Very good!! Now let us think about some rotations a clock might make. How
about 12-3. What angle could we associate that rotation?
Expected Student Response: 90
Teacher: Good. So how about 6 and 9?Think circles
Expected Student Response: 180 and 270
Teacher: Great!!Now a tricky on. How about 12-2?
Expected Student Response: Maybe 30?
Teacher: No not 30, think 90 degrees. Think about the unit circle. What important angle
is between 0 and 90?
Expected Student Response: 45!!
Teacher: Great job guys!
Transition: Now that we have covered the old stuff, let us get into the material. As always
we will start the class looking at some new vocabulary for our notebooks.
c) Concept Development:
Teacher: So what seems to be the most logical vocabulary word to start with?
Expected Student Response: Rotations!
Teacher: Very Good! Can someone give me their definition of a rotation?
Expected Student Response: Spinning around a point?
Teacher: That is very close!! In fact, a rotation is an isometric geometric transformation
around a point (we will call it o) that projects every point p to its corresponding p.

## Expected Student Response: Could you explain it better?

Teacher: Well we never truly defined an isometry, but worked with them when we did
reflections. Lets start there. What is an isometry?
Expected Student Response: ?
Teacher: When we reflected shapes across axes, what changed about the shape of the
new image?
Expected Student Response: Nothing?
Teacher: Exactly!! So what is an isometry?
Expected Student Response: When the shape doesnt change?
Teacher: Yes, the technical definition is preserving shape and size. Now apply that to the
definition of rotations. If I have two points p and o, o being the center an p being some
point, and I construct a segment between the two, if I rotate the point p 90 degrees
then.
Expected Student Response: It will be the same distance from the center as point p
Teacher: Yes!! Now lets get to some more definitions. What is the center of rotation?
Expected Student Response: The stationary point that creates the angle that rotates the
point?
Teacher: And the angle is?
Expected Student Response: The number of degrees you turn to get your pre-image to
become your image
Teacher: Wow, that was an impressive definition. Lets define one more word to make
sure we are ready though. What does orientation mean?
Expected Student Response: Doesnt it have to do with the direction?
Teacher: Yes it does. So in terms of rotations, how many directions do we have?
Expected Student Response: 2, clockwise and counterclockwise
Teacher: So when we make rotations, we orient them either?
Expected Student Response: Clockwise or counterclockwise

## Teacher: Very Good!

Transition: Now that you have the proper vocabulary knowledge, lets delve into our
reading material for the day. But again, as always we must first understand why we are
reading this.
d) Purpose-for-Reading: Students are going to be reading to be informed. Students will be
reading about the basic definitions of rotations and then understanding how to construct
rotations by hand. Students will be using a step-by-step fill in the blank chart in order to
record this data. With the proceeding activity, it will be essential that students know
exactly how to draw these rotations step-by-step. This reading will also introduce the idea
of symmetry in rotations, but will be covered deeper in the constructions themselves. It is
important to make note that, when reading any mathematics book, there are going to be
many text features that may stray you away from the information you need. Read all the
material, but ensure you are focusing on what you want. However, once you find that
information, you may also need to re-read the material to ensure full understanding.
2) Silent Reading: Students will be silently reading the first two pages of the textbook and a
brief segment from Andrew Suttons Ruler and Compass. Students will also need to complete
the Lesson investigation portion after they read the steps. These segments, along with the
step-by-step organizer, will help the students to complete hands on drawing of rotations later
in the lesson. Students are encouraged, with extra time, to look at some application problems
as well.
3) Discussion: In order to have a successful class discussion of the main points of the reading, it
will be important to first allow the students to get in groups and ensure that they accurately
written the steps and completed the lesson investigation. These groups will have 5 minutes
only to discuss.
Teacher: Ok class lets bring it back together to discuss. Did you guys find these reading
easy or hard?
Expected Student Response: Easy!
Teacher: Great! Then we can discuss the main points of it right?
Expected Student Response: Yes!
Teacher: So for your silent reading, your main focus was to understand the steps to drawing
a rotation of any 2-D figure right?
Expected Student Response: Yes!
Teacher: Who can give me those steps?

Expected Student Response: Well the first thing you need is a shape and a point that we call
our center of rotation
Teacher: Very good, now what?
Expected Student Response: Now we need a degree measure
Teacher: Alright, how about 60. What do I do with that 60?
Expected Student Response: You put your protractor on the point, make an arc and measure
out 60 degrees
Teacher: Im not sure I followed that. How did I measure out 60 degrees when I dont know
what Im measuring 60 degrees from?
Expected Student Response: You need one point on your figure and your center of rotation
Teacher: Ohhhhh ok. Just making sure. Now that I have rotated one point of my figure, how
do I get the other two?
Expected Student Response: The same thing! You just pick a new point, make an arc, count
out 60 degrees and rotate
Teacher: That is a very good observation. But now I just have a figure and three points. Is
that right?
Expected Student Response: No! You have to draw in the connecting lines
Teacher: Very good! So if I were to ask you to come up with three overall steps to
constructing these rotational figures, what would they be?
Expected Student Response: 1. You need a figure and a point 2. Rotate each point the
appropriate angle and direction 3. Connect the points with lines to get the new image
Teacher: Excellent job!
Transition: So you guys believe that rotating 2-D figures is pretty easy right? That is good
because now I want you to rotate 3-D shapes. Knowing our properties we have to work with
though, we dont want to rotate the 3-D figure itself, we want to rotate its faces. Once we have,
the 3-D will fill back into place. Take the time now to re-read your text and fill out a new
organizer that will hopefully lead you to understand rotating 3-D figures
4) Re-reading: In the re-reading of this material, the students will have a new focus in
concurrence with our overall unit goal. Our unit goal for transformations is to apply them to
real world applications. This means that we need to apply rotations to real world applications.
Unfortunately, living in a 3-D world, it is very hard to find 2-D applications to connect with

the students. The best way to highlight this goal is to make connections to 3-D objects. This
would include rotating and reflecting pieces of 3-D objects to create new ones. The students
should focus on the section of symmetry and the applications at the bottom which start to
introduce the idea of transformations of 3-D shapes. They will once again have an organizer
and an additional piece of reading that will guide them along the way. The organize aims to
make connections between 2-D shapes and the 3-D shapes they create. It is much easier to
rotate a square than it is to rotate an entire cube. The organizer will also have them complete
the exploration/extension section.
Teacher: So after reading it a second time, did anyone learn anything new?
Expected Student Response: I learned that clocks are the best way to explain rotations
Teacher: (laughs) That is a very good observation. But lets think of our reading goal. How can
we rotate 3-D shapes effectively?
Expected Student Response: Through the rotations of the faces
Teacher: Good. But Im looking for something a little more specific. How do we do this? Think
to the extension problems at the end.
Expected Student Response: We need to rotate each face separately. Once we rotate each one,
we can start to visualize the 3-D figure
Teacher: Very good. Where is the center of any 3-D shape? Inside or outside?
Expected Student Response: Inside!!
Teacher: Very good, that means that if we were to rotate all of the 3-D figure, that is the point
we would rotate around. How about the lines of symmetry? How many do 3-D shapes have?
Expected Student Response: two?
Teacher: Nope not two.
Expected Student Response: Three?
Teacher: Yes! Why three?
Expected Student Response: Because there are three dimensions
Teacher: Excellent!! Thats exactly what I wanted to hear!! Anything else?
Expected Student Response: Once we understood how symmetry worked better, thanks to the
segment from the new book, answering the last problems were easy!!
Teacher: Fantastic

Transition: With the lesson coming to a close, I thought it might be fun to do some more rotation
drawings (moans). This time however, we will be rotating using tools. This means that it will
take us half the time, you can create a lot cooler shapes, and you should definitely have a lot
more fun doing it!
5) Follow-up: As a follow up, I would have students work with drawing rotations using patty
paper first. This manipulative takes students away from the difficulty of actual rotations and
allows them to simply rotate shapes and points with ease. Then, I will move them into
sketchpad where they will apply their skills of rotations to construct tessellations. This
application will take the students into real world connections and allow for a fun activity that
also tests their knowledge of constructing rotations.
6) Summary: My favorite activity in mathematics to have students show me what they know is
writing a letter to a sick student. In reading, this would be considered a RAFT activity. The
students would take the roll of me, the teacher. They are instructed to describe the main
points of the lesson, important definitions and the applications for future use. This letter will
also need to include pictures and any other element that will assist the student in
understanding the material the best way possible. I believe that those who understand it can
explain it. Therefore, this will be my exit ticket.
7) Differentiation: For this lesson, instruction was adapted based upon the students
understanding of the material. There was ample time where I was able to see exactly what
my students understood simply by looking at their organizers. Most importantly though, I
have adapted instruction by it simply being based upon the readings themselves. My
instruction was only to ensure that they understood what they read and got the main points
from the lesson.

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Notes:
Rotations

## Steps for Constructing rotations:

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Lesson Investigation activity:

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Constructing

Symmetry

## Graphic Organizer #2: Re-reading

For each 3-D shape given, express is 2-D sides
Cube
Rectangular Prism
Pyramid
Sphere
Cone
Cylinder
Below, use the laws of symmetry and 3-D connections to rotate a cube 90 degrees clockwise

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## Directed Reading Lesson Rubric

Proficient/Comprehensive = 3 points
Satisfactory = 2 points (minimal level)
Basic/Incomplete = 1 points
Poor/Unsatisfactory = 0 points
Demonstrated
Evidence of:
Pre-Assessment
of Learners and
Differentiation

Development

3
Evidence demonstrates use of: Prior assessment data and/or description of learner skills and
school community, identification of learners instructional needs, possibly taking into
account specific learners background, history, and interests.
Evidence demonstrates use of: Adaption of the lesson to support students needs.
Evidence demonstrates use of: Selection of content, identification of objectives (skills &
processes), item definition/layout, development of assessments.

Motivation

Evidence demonstrates use of: Focused attention on the lesson topic; help in connecting the
topic to students lives, attempt to capture student interest.

Background of
Experience and
Concept
Development

## Evidence demonstrates use of: Appropriate tapping and development, if appropriate;

including your eliciting questions and expected, student, convergent responses

Purpose-forReading and
Silent Reading

Discussion
Re-reading
Follow-up
(Extra Credit)
Summary
Materials
English Usage

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Evidence demonstrates use of: Appropriate selection and teaching of vocabulary via a
contextualized strategy (e.g., concrete representation, guided imagery, concept attainment,
or sentence context clue). At least two vocabulary words have been primed to reveal the preservice teachers ability to use this inductive Vocabulary Priming Process; the eliciting
questions and expected student definitions have been included.
Evidence demonstrates use of: Appropriate generic purpose-for-reading, thought pattern and
topic; appropriate selection of the purpose-for-reading question based on macrostructure
analysis to identify the key thinking pattern(s); use of an appropriately designed graphic
organizer (match to the thinking pattern). The expected student responses have been typed in
italics on the graphic organizer and any words chosen for the vocabulary priming have been
identified.
Evidence demonstrates use of: A statement that students will read silently in class or at
home in order to answer the purpose-for-reading question and use of one appropriate duringreading metacognitive strategy if not already done in the purpose-for-reading section.
Evidence demonstrates use of: Discussion of the purpose-for-reading (e.g. possible student
responses)
Evidence demonstrates use of: effort to extend meaning in the form of new purpose for
reading, higher-order thinking questions, etc.
Evidence demonstrates use of: Optional and/or additional activity that enriches or reinforces
the lesson (2 pts. extra credit) Must have demonstrated excellent English usage to receive
these points.
Evidence demonstrates use of: summary of student learning (e.g. exit ticket)
Evidence demonstrates inclusion of everything you and the students need to make this
lesson successful as per the requirements of this assignment..
Demonstrated use of excellent grammar, punctuation, spelling, and proofreading.
Total Score

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