Você está na página 1de 101

Planilha1

Gram
A lngua japonesa tem uma morfologia aglutinativa a
Typologically, sua caracterstica mais proeminente cria
proeminente; certamente, comum para que as senten
uma lngua do SOV, com os verbos confinados rgida po
contanto que a ordem de dependente-cabea for mantid
precedem o substantivo modificado, o advrbio preced
substantivo possudo, e assim por diante. Assim, o japon
est r
Para a simplicidade, este artigo apresenta exemplos
princpios gramaticais gerais
Classificaes 1 Textual
2 substantivos, pronomes, e outros deictics
3 palavras conjugveis
3.1 Formulrios da haste
3.2 Verbos
3.3 Adjetivos
3.4 O verbo copulativo ( a Dinamarca)
3.5 Mudanas eufnicas (onbin do )
Outras 4 palavras do independente
4.1 Advrbios
4.2 Junes e interjections
5 palavras subordinadas
5.1 Partculas
5.1.1 Tpico, tema, e assunto: (wa) e (GA)
Wa temtico de 5.1.1.1
Wa Contrastive de 5.1.1.2
5.1.1.3 GA exaustivo
5.1.1.4 GA objetivo
5.1.2 Objetos, locatives, instrumentals: (o), (ni), (de), (e)
5.1.3 quantidades e extenses: (a), (mo), (ka), (ya), (kara), (feito)
5.1.4 Coordenao: (a), (ni), (yo)
5.1.5 Final: (ka), (ne), (yo) e relativo
5.1.6 Partculas compostas
5.2 Verbos auxiliares

Pgina 1

Planilha1

Classificaes Textual
O texto (bunsh do ) compor das sentenas (bolo do
), que por sua vez sas das frases (bunsetsu do ),
que sido seus componentes coerentes mais menores.
Como o coreano chins e clssico, escrito o japons no
delimita tipicamente palavras com espaos; sua
natureza aglutinativa mais adicional faz o conceito de
uma palavra um pouco diferente das palavras em
ingls. As divises de palavra so informado por
sugestes semnticas e por um conhecimento da
estrutura de frase. As frases tm uma nica palavra do
significado-rolamento, seguida por uma corda dos
sufixos, de verbos auxiliares e de partculas para
modificar seu significado e para designar seu papel
gramatical. No seguinte exemplo, o bunsetsu indicado
por barras verticais:
| | | .
taiyou GA | No. do higashi | ni de sora | noboru
O sol levanta-se no cu oriental.
Alguns eruditos romanize sentenas japonesas
introduzindo espaos somente nos limites da frase (isto
, do noboru do sorani do higashino taiyouga), de fato
tratando uma frase inteira como o equivalente de uma
palavra inglesa. Tradicional, entretanto, um conceito
mais bsico da palavra (tango do ) d forma aos
tomos das sentenas. As frases desiguais das palavras
no precisam de ter o significado intrnseco,
conseqentemente admitindo partculas e verbos
auxiliares. Deve-se anotar que esta classificao da
estrutura textual no japons moderno descritiva;
alguns verbos auxiliares clssicos como - o te
grammaticalized como conjugaes ou trminos de
verbo em palavras japonesas, nao individuais
modernas.
| | | | | | .
Pgina
watashi | wa | mainichi | gakk
| e2 | aruite | iku
Dirio eu ando escola.
A estrutura deste artigo espelhar a seguinte
classificao das palavras. H duas categorias largas -

Planilha1
arroz
dinheiro

meshi do
kane do

corpo

karada do

palavras

kotoba do

Os substantivos japoneses no-esto curvando, no tm


nenhum gnero, e no tomam nenhum artigo. Assim o
(neko) poderia ser traduzido no ingls como o gato, um
gato, o gato, gatos, alguns gatos, ou os gatos,
dependendo do contexto. Um pequeno nmero de
substantivos tm os plurais dados forma pelo reduplication
(acompanhado possivelmente do rendaku): assim hito
pessoa e hitobito pessoa do , embora estes sejam
tipicamente coletivos um pouco do que plurais verdadeiros.
Adicionalmente, no discurso respeitoso, o o do prefixo
usado frequentemente com substantivos nativos, como o
prefixo vai com substantivos Sino-Japanese. Alguns
substantivos comuns tm formulrios respeitosos
impredizveis; alguns exemplos esto na tabela adjacente.
O uso dos pronomes no japons raro, limitado a quando o
referrent no pode ser deduzido do contexto. Por exemplo,
o (ikimashita do ni do nihon) diz que
apenas foi a Japo. O assunto pressupor do contexto: se
o tpico a primeira pessoa, a seguir significa que eu fui a
Japo, para uma terceira pessoa, ele fui a Japo, a
altofalantes etc. do japons tendo a usar nomes em vez dos
pronomes no discurso. Por exemplo:
do do .
wa de Kinoshita-san, ne do desu do takai do SE GA.
(endereando o Sr. Kinoshita) voc consideravelmente
alto, no voc?
O japons tem muitos substantivos que podem ser usados
como pronomes pessoais; veja [1] para uma lista longa.
Alguns comuns so dadas na seguinte tabela.
pessoa
primeiramente
em segundo
terceiro

plancie, informal
(boku, macho), (minrio, macho, muito informais)
(atashi, fmea)
(kimi, usu. usado por machos)
(kare, macho)
(kanojo, fmea)

Pgina 3

Planilha1
Embora os substantivos japoneses no curvem para o nmero, h uns formulrios
plurais para indicar o nmero semntico: (watashi-tachi) para ns,
(anata-tachi) para voc (plural), (bokura) para ns (informe. macho).
Interessante, um pseudopronoun raro, (mercadorias, mim) tem um plural
reduplicative muito mais comum (wareware, ns). Entretanto, o (- tachi) e o (- ra)
so por muito os sufixos pluralizing os mais comuns -- embora o (- tachi) no seja
estritamente um sufixo pluralizing: por exemplo, o (Tar-tachi) no significa
algum nmero de povos Tar nomeado mas significa preferivelmente Tar e seus
amigos, ou Tar e aqueles povos que so com ele. O dos sufixos (- SU) e (- zu),
derivado do sufixo plural ingls - [e] s, usado igualmente ocasionalmente para indicar o
plural, embora este no seja mesmo japons remotamente padro.
Considerando que em ingls h muitos pronomes reflexivos (ele mesmo, ela mesma,
prprios, eles mesmos, etc.), no japons h um nico do pronome reflexivo (jibun).
Os usos do pronome reflexivo nas duas lnguas so muito diferentes. As seguintes
tradues literais incorretas demonstram as diferenas (*=impossible?? =ambiguous):
Ingls

* .
kurikaesu do wo do jibun do wa do *R
.
Jibun do ni de Jon GA Biru nenhum ha
John falou a Bill sobre si mesmo (o =J
??
?? Kitaishite iru do wo do koto do suru
um ou outro John espera que Mary to

A histria repete-se.

?? John falou a Bill sobre si mesmo.

o *John espera que Mary tomar bom dsi mesmo.


Se a sentena tem mais do que uma gramatical ou assunto
semntico, a seguir o alvo o assunto da ao principal;
assim no seguinte da sentena (jibun) refere inequvoca
Mary (mesmo que John o assunto gramatical) porque a
ao principal de leitura Mary.
.
Jibun do ni de Jon GA Mer nenhum yomaseta de uchi de
hon wo.
John fz Mary ler livros em sua casa.
Na prtica a ao principal no sempre discernvel, neste
caso tais sentenas so ambguas. O uso do jibun em
sentenas complexas segue rguas non-trivial.
demonstratives
kokore
sore
este
esse
kono
sono
(de) isto
(de) isso
konna
sonna
como isto
como isso
koko
soko
aqui
l
kochira
sochira
esta maneira
essa maneira
k
s
desse modo
nessa maneira
koitsu
soitsu
este companheiro
esse companheiro

Pgina 4

assim

Planilha1

* formao irregular
Demonstratives ocorre na srie do ko-, assim,
e. A srie do ko- refere coisas mais perto do
altofalante do que o hearer, assim a srie para
coisas mais perto do hearer, e as um-sries para
as coisas distantes ao altofalante e ao hearer.
Com fazem, os demonstratives transformam no
formulrio correspondente da pergunta.
Demonstratives de usado igualmente para
povos, por exemplo
.
Desu de Hayashi-san do wa de Kochira.
Este Sr. Hayashi.
O limite de Demonstratives, e precede
conseqentemente, substantivos; assim
(hon do kono) para de o livro this/my, e
(hon do sono) para que/seu livro.
Quando os demonstratives esto usados para
referir as coisas nao visveis ao altofalante ou
ao hearer, ou aos conceitos (abstratos),
cumprem um papel anafrico relacionado mas
diferente. A srie anafrica usada assim para
referir geralmente a experincia que no
compartilhada entre o altofalante e o ouvinte,
porque um partido no tem nenhuma
informao sobre ele. Para a informao
compartilhada o anafrico uma srie usado.
A: do do .
A: Senjitsu, kimashita do itte do ni de Sapporo.
A: Eu visitei Sapporo recentemente.
B: do (*
).
B: Ne do desu do tokoro do mo ii do itte do
itsu do wa de Asoko (*Soko).
B: Yeah, aquele um grande lugar para visitar
sempre que voc vai.
Soko em vez do asoko implicaria que B no
tem nenhum conhecimento de Sapporo, que
incompatvel com o descanso da sentena.
: . . .
Sat: Tanaka ao tte do shinda do kin do iu hito
GA
Sato: Eu ouvi-me que um homem chamou
Tanaka morreu ontem
: do do ?
Mori: hont de E'?
Mori: Oh, realmente?
: do
do do do do (* )?
Sat: Dakara, sono (*ano) hito, Mori-san
nenhum mukashi kke de nenhum nakatta do ja

Pgina 5

Planilha1
gato

TPICO

grupo
exemplo

1
do (tsuka.)

Formulrio
atribuvel
(rentaikei do
)
(.u)

do (ka.)

(.ku)

Formulrio
terminal
(shuushikei do
)
mesmos que o formulrio atribuvel
Formulrio
continuativo
(ren'youkei do
)
(.i)
Formulrio

(.ki)

do
Imperfective
(mizenkei do
)
(.wa) 1

(.ka)

Formulrio
hipottico
(kateikei do
)
(.e)

(.ke)

Formulrio
imperativo
(meireikei do
)
(.e)

(.ke)

o trmino inesperado
devido ao verbo que
conjugam clssica como - ha,
trao phonemic que se move
- o ha - ao wa, e
pronunciao de reunio da
reforma finalmente moderna
da soletrao com soletrao.
O acima so somente os
formulrios da haste dos
verbos; a este deve adicionar
vrios trminos de verbo a
fim come o verbo
inteiramente conjugado. A
seguinte tabela alista as
conjugaes as mais comuns.
Nos casos onde o formulrio
diferente baseado no grupo
da conjugao do verbo, as
setas apontam rgua
correta da formao.
grupo 1
(kaku)

rgua da formao
plancie
polido
nonpast

do do
kaki.masu

cont. + (masu)

Pgina 6

Planilha1
informal
perto
informal
negativo
nonpast
informal
negativo
perto

cont. + (Ta)

do do
kai.ta*

imperf. + (nai)

do do
kaka.nai

imperf.
+ (nakatta)

do do
kaka.nakatta

kai.te*
do do
kake.ba

a* de kai.tar
do do
kak.*

- formulrio do te (gerundive) cont. + (- te)


conditional1

hyp. + (vagabundos)

provisional1

cont. + (tara)
imperf. + (u)

volitional

imperf. + (- y)

do do
kaka.reru

imperf. + (reru)
passivo

imperf. + (- rareru)

do do
kaka.seru

imperf. + (seru)
causal

imperf. + (- saseru)

do do
kake.ru

hyp. + (ru)
potencial
imperf.
+ (- rareru)
adjetivais conjugam
regularmente.
formulrios da haste para adjetivos
Form1 atribuvel
(rentaikei do )
Terminal form1
(shuushikei do )
Formulrio continuativo
(ren'youkei do )
Formulrio do Imperfective
(mizenkei do )
Formulrio hipottico
(kateikei do )
Form2 imperativo
(meireikei do )

do do (yasu.)
(.i)
(.i)
(.ku)
(.karo)
(.kere)
(.kare)

Pgina 7

Planilha1

Os formulrios atribuveis e terminais eram


anteriormente o (.ki) e o (.shi),
respectivamente; no japons moderno estes
so usados produtiva para razes estilsticas
somente, embora muitas frases ajustadas
tais como o (nanashi, annimos) e o
(yoshi, escrito s vezes yosh', o
interjection positivo geral) se derivem deles.
O formulrio imperativo extremamente
raro no japons moderno, restringido para
ajustar testes padres como o
(hayakare do osokare, mais cedo ou mais
tarde), onde so tratados como locues
adverbiais! impossvel para um
formulrio imperativo estar em uma posio
do predicado.
Como verbos, ns podemos enumerar
algumas conjugaes comuns dos adjetivos.
Tambm, ii especial-no so encaixotados,
porque todas as conjugaes so idnticas ao
yoi.
adjetivos puros
(yasui)
plancie
polido
nonpast
informal
perto
informal
negativo
nonpast
informal
negativo
perto
polido
negativo
no perto
polido
negativo
perto
- formulrio do te

termo. + do verbo copulativo (desu)


cont. + (atta)
(u + um colapso)

cont. + (do ) ((wa) nai) 1

cont. + (do ) (nakatta (do wa)) 1

inf. neg. no-aps + do verbo copulativo (desu) 1

inf. neg. aps + do verbo copulativo (desu) 1


cont. + (te)

conditional2

hyp. + (vagabundos)

provisional2

inf. aps + (ra)

volitional3

imperf. + (u)

adverbial

cont.

grau (- ness)

raiz + (sa)

Pgina 8

Planilha1

anote que estes so apenas formulrios do puro do adjetivo (nai)


veja a nota em formulrios hipotticos abaixo.
desde que a maioria de adjetivos descrevem circunstncias no-volitional, o formulrio volitional interpretado como poss
alguns casos raros semi-volitional: (yokar, APROVAO (iluminada: deixais lhe seja bom)) em resposta a um rel
Os adjetivos so governados demasiado por rguas eufnicas em determinados casos, como notvel na seo nela abaixo. Para
substantivos adjetivais, veja igualmente a seo abaixo no do verbo copulativo (a Dinamarca).
O verbo copulativo ( a Dinamarca)
O verbo copulativo a Dinamarca comporta-se muito como um verbo ou um adjetivo nos termos da conjuga
formulrios da haste do verbo copulativo
Formulrio atribuvel
(rentaikei do )
Formulrio terminal
(shuushikei do )
Formulrio continuativo
(ren'youkei do )
Formulrio do Imperfective
(mizenkei do )
Formulrio hipottico
(kateikei do )
Formulrio imperativo
(meireikei do )

do discurso informal o ja preferrable a de wa, ou a


nica possibilidade.
conjugaes do verbo copulativo
nonpast

informal
polido
respeitoso
informal
polido
respeitoso
informal
polido
polido
informal
polido
polido
informal
polido
respeitoso
informal
polido
respeitoso
informal

perto
negativo
nonpast
negativo
perto

condicional

provisional
volitional
polido
respeitoso

(desh)
(de gozaimash)
informal
polido
respeitoso

adverbial e
- formulrios do te

Mudanas eufnicas (onbin do ) soletrando mudanas


arcaico
+ (a + u)
+ (a + fu)

Pgina 9

Planilha1
+ (i + u)
+ (i + fu)
+ (u + fu)
+ (e + u)
+ (e + fu)
+ (o + fu)
+ (o + wo)
medial ou final (ha)
medial ou final (ol!), (ele), (ho)
algum (wi), (ns), (wo)
* usu. no refletido na soletrao
A pronunciao moderna um resultado de uma longa histria da trao phonemic que
possa ser seguida de volta aos registros escritos do dcimo terceiro sculo, e possivelmente
mais cedo. Entretanto, era somente em 1946 que o Ministrio da Educao japons
modificou uso existente do kana para se conformar ao dialecto padro (kytsgo do
). Todos os textos mais adiantados usaram a ortografia arcaica, referida agora como o
uso histrico do kana. A tabela adjacente uma lista quase exaustiva destes mudanas da
soletrao. Como mencionado acima, as conjugaes de alguns verbos e os adjetivos
diferem das rguas prescritas da formao por causa das mudanas eufnicas. Quase
todas estas mudanas eufnicas so elas mesmas regulares. Para verbos todas as excees
esto no trmino do formulrio continuativo do grupo 1when que o seguinte auxiliar tem
um Ta-som, isto , (Ta), (te), (tari), etc.
trmino continuativo

, ou

, ou

o , com o seguinte som do exprim

o , com o seguinte som do exprim

H outra uma mudana irregular: iku do (para ir), para que h um formulrio
continuativo excepcional: iki do + itte do do do te do , iki do +
CIMT do do Ta, etc.
O formulrio continuativo de adjetivos apropriados, quando seguido por formulrios
polidos tais como o (gozaimasu, para ser) ou o (zonjimasu, para
saber), submete-se a uma transformao.
trmino continuativo

[no ] +
, possivelmente igualmente combina

Os verbos respeitosos tais como o (kudasaru, para come), o (nasaru, para


fazer), o (gozaru, para ser), o (irassharu, a be/come/go), o
(ossharu, para dizer), etc. comportam-se como verbos do grupo 1, exceto nos formulrios
continuativos e imperativos.
continuativo

mudado ao

imperativo

mudado ao

Pgina 10

Planilha1
No discurso, as combinaes comuns de conjugao e de verbos auxiliares so contratadas
em uma maneira razoavelmente regular.
contraes colloquial
formulrio cheio
- /-
- chau/-jau
grupo 1
- /-
- cha/-ja
-
- teru
grupo 2b
-
- toku
grupo 1
-
- teku
grupo 1
-
- nno

-
- shimau do te
-
- wa do te
-
- te iru
-
- oku do te
-
- iku do te
-
- No. do ru

Pgina 11

oshiete do wo do koto
Diga-me amavelmente que
tudo que voc sabe a
respeito desse caso.
(partcula + verbo no cont.)

Planilha1

.
mainichi do wa do koto de
suru ue de taisetsu na do
gakush do wo do
gaikokugo nenhum
doryoku GA mono wo iu a
iu koto de aru
Em estudar uma lngua
estrangeira, o esforo
dirio d a maioria de
recompensas. (substantivo
+ partcula)

do do
.
ryshin do wa do ani
nenhum ni do yoso do
shinpai o, shimatta do
yamete do wo do daigaku
Ignorando preocupaes
dos meus pais, meu irmo
deixou cair fora da
faculdade. (partcula +
substantivo + partcula)
Verbos auxiliares
Todo o anexo dos verbos
auxiliares a um formulrio
e a um conjugado verbais
ou adjetivais da haste como
verbos, mas difere dos
verbos normais em no ter
nenhum significado
independente. No japons
moderno h duas classes
distintas de verbos
auxiliares:
Auxiliares puros (jodshi

Pgina 12

Planilha1
(masu)

(rareru) 1
(ru)

2b

(saseru) 2
(seru)

2b

1 (rareru) encurtado
frequentemente ao (reru, grp. 2); assim
(tabereru, para poder comer) em
vez do (taberareru).
o 2 (saseru) encurtado s vezes ao
(sasu, grp. 1), mas este uso um tanto
literrios.
Muito do sabor aglutinativo de hastes
japonesas dos auxiliares do ajudante,
entretanto. A seguinte tabela contem uma
seleo pequena de uma loja abundante de
tais verbos auxiliares.
alguns verbos auxiliares do ajudante
auxiliar

grupo

(aru, para ser (inanimate))

1
2a

(iru, para ser (anime))

2a

(iku, para ir)


(kuru, para vir)

1
ka

(hajimeru, para comear)

2b

(dasu, para se emitir)


(miru, para ver)
(o naosu, para corrigir/cura)

1
1
1

(agaru, para se levantar)

(eru/uru, para poder)

2b/1

(o kakaru, pendurar/prendedor/obtem)

(kiru, para cortar)

(kesu, para apagar)


(komu, para entrar em
profundamente/mergulho)

1
1
Pgina 13

Planilha1
(sageru, para abaixar)

2b

(sugiru, para exceder)


(tsukeru, para unir)

2a
2b

(tsuzukeru, para continuar)


(tsu, mostrar/linha/ligao)

2b
1

(nukeru, verter/derramamento/deserto) 2b
(nokosu, para sair atrs)

(nokoru, para ser saido atrs)


(o wakeru, se
dividir/separao/classific)

1
2b

(wasureru, para esquecer)

2b

Pgina 14

Planilha1

Gramtica japonesa
ia aglutinativa altamente regular do verbo, com elementos produ
eminente criao do tpico: O japons nem tpico-proeminen
ra que as sentenas tenham tpicos e assuntos distintos. Gramati
ados rgida posio sentena-final. A ordem da palavra est ra
abea for mantida entre todos os componentes: o adjetivo ou a cl
advrbio precedem o verbo modificado, o substantivo do genitiv
. Assim, o japons uma lngua deramificao; para contrastar,
est ramificando.
senta exemplos no estilo informal e non-literary liso. O leitor dev
amaticais gerais de politeness e de respeito na mente.
ndices

Pgina 15

Planilha1

Pgina 16

Planilha1

meshi do
ane do

arada do

otoba do

plancie, informal
macho, muito informais)

polido
(watashi)
(anata), (sochira)
(ano hito)

Pgina 17

Planilha1

Japons

.
urikaesu do wo do jibun do wa do *Rekishi.
.
ibun do ni de Jon GA Biru nenhum hanashita do wo do koto.
ohn falou a Bill sobre si mesmo (o =John)
?? .
? Kitaishite iru do wo do koto do suru do ni do daiji do wo do jibun de Mer GA do wa de Jon.
m ou outro John espera que Mary tomar bom dele, ou John espera que Mary tomar bom dsi mesma.

assim

a
seja
esse ali
ano
(de) que ali
anna
como isso ali
asoko *
ali
achira
essa maneira ali
*
nisso maneira (outro)
aitsu
que o outro companheiro

Pgina 18

Planilha1

Pgina 19

Planilha1
peixes

OBJETO
2b
do (tabe.)

2a
do (MI.)

sa

(.ru)

(.ru)

(suru)

(.)

(.)

(shi)

(.)

(.)

(shi)
(SE)
(sa)

(.re)

(.re)

(certo)

(.ro)
(.yo)

(.ro)
(.yo)

(shiro)
(seyo)
(sei)

grupo 1
(kaku)

grupo 2a
(miru)
do do
mi.masu

grupo 2b
(taberu)
do do
tabe.masu

Pgina 20

Planilha1

do do
mi.ta

do do
tabe.ta

do do
mi.nai

do do
tabe.nai

do do
mi.nakatta

do do
tabe.nakatta

mi.te
do do
mire.ba

mi.tar a

tabe.te
do do
tabere.ba

tabe.tar a

do do
mi.y

do do
tabe.y

do do
mi.rareru

do do
tabe.rareru

do do
mi.saseru

do do
tabe.saseru

do do
mi.rareru
adjetivos puros

do do
tabe.rareru

do do (yasu.)

do do (I.)
(.i)
(.i)
(yo.ku) *
(yo.karo) *
(yo.kere) *
(yo.kare)

Pgina 21

su) 1

Planilha1

adjetivos puros
(yasui)

desu do yasui

yasuk.atta

da raiz + do verbo copulativo (desu)


cont. + (atta)
(e + um colapso)

do ()
nai do yasuku (wa)

cont. + (do ) ((wa) nai)

do ()
nakatta do yasuku (wa)

cont. + (do ) (nakatta (do wa))

desu do yasukunai

inf. cont + (do ) ((o wa) arimasen)


inf. cont + (do ) ((o wa) arimasen

desu do yasukunakatta

yasuku.te

yasukere.ba

yasukatta.ra

inf. neg. aps + (desu) do nakatta 1


cont.
hyp. (+ (vagabundos))
inf. aps + (ra)
imperf. + (u)
= raiz + (dar)

(yasukar)

yasuku.

yasu-sa

raiz + (ni)
raiz + sa

Pgina 22

Planilha1

o do adjetivo (nai)
abaixo.
tional interpretado como possvel, se aprecivel. Em
he seja bom)) em resposta a um relatrio ou a um pedido.
notvel na seo nela abaixo. Para os negativos polidos de
verbo copulativo (a Dinamarca).
a)
um adjetivo nos termos da conjugao.
tivo
(de aru)
(a Dinamarca, informais)
(desu, polidos)
(de gozaimasu, respeitosos)
(de)
(de wa)
(nara)

informal
polido
respeitoso
informal
polido
respeitoso
informal
polido
polido
informal
polido
polido
informal
polido
respeitoso
informal
polido
respeitoso
informal

impossvel
(a Dinamarca)
(desu)
(de gozaimasu)
cont. + (atta)
(datta)
(desita)
(de gozaimashita)
cont. + (nai do wa)
cont. + (o wa arimasen)
cont. + (o wa gozaimasen)
cont. + (nakatta)
cont. + (o wa arimasen o deshita)
cont. + (o wa gozaimasen o deshita)
hyp. + (vagabundos)
cont. + (areba)
(nara)
mesmos que condicionais
(dar)

)
informal
polido
respeitoso

cont.
cont. + (arimashite)
cont. + (gozaimashite)

do mudanas

()

Pgina 23

Planilha1
(y) *
()
(y)
()
(wa)
(i), (e), (o)
(atravs dos wi, ns, wo, vemos abaixo)
(i), (e), (o)

mudanas a

, com o seguinte som do exprimiu

, com o seguinte som do exprimiu

descrio

, possivelmente igualmente combinando com a slaba precedente de acordo com a carta da reforma da soletrao

mudana

mudado ao

mudado ao

Pgina 24

Planilha1

colloquial

/-
chau/-jau
rupo 1
/-
cha/-ja

teru
rupo 2b

toku
rupo 1

teku
rupo 1

nno

Pgina 25

Planilha1

Pgina 26

Planilha1
1 continuativo

faz V polido

cont. do grp. 2
hyp. do grp. 1

faz V a passivo/a polido/potencial

cont. do grp. 2
imperf. do grp. 1

faz V causal

diplomatas a
- formulrio do te
1 somente para o transporte.
- formulrio do te
para o transporte.
- formulrio do te
para intrans.

modificao do significado
indica a modificao do estado
aspecto progressivo
indica a modificao do estado

1 - formulrio do te
- formulrio do te
continuativo
no-punctual
continuativo
punctual & subj. deve ser plural

vai em V-ing
incio, comeo a V

1 continuativo
1 - formulrio do te
1 continuativo

comece a V
tentativa a V
faa V outra vez, corrigindo erros

1 continuativo
continuativo
somente para verbos do grupo 1
continuativo
1 somente para intrans., non-volit.

faa de V completamente/V acontece para cima

1 continuativo
1 continuativo

faa V completamente
cancelamento por V
negue com V

1 continuativo

V profundamente em, V em

V comea, comea a V

indica o potencial
aproximadamente a V, quase V

Pgina 27

Planilha1
continuativo

V para baixo

continuativo
continuativo

overdo V
tornado habituado a V

continuativo
1 continuativo
continuativo
somente para intrans.

sustento em V
revestimento V-ing

1 continuativo
continuativo
1 para intrans. somente

fazendo V, deixe o sth atrs

V atravs

seja saido atrs, fazendo V

continuativo

a maneira apropriada ao V.

continuativo

para esquecer a V

Pgina 28

Planilha1

elementos produtivos e fixos.


pico-proeminente, nem assuntostintos. Gramatical, o japons
a palavra est razoavelmente livre
o adjetivo ou a clusula relativa
antivo do genitive precedem o
para contrastar, o ingls direito-

liso. O leitor deve manter os


ente.

Pgina 29

Planilha1

Pgina 30

Planilha1
ir-han
o-kane do
o-karada do
onmi do
o-kotoba do
mikotonori do

do

respeitoso
(watakushi)
(o-taku)

Pgina 31

Planilha1

razo
o alvo do jibun deve ser animado

o jibun refere inequvoca o assunto.

o jibun pode estar em uma sentena diferente ou em uma clusula dependente, mas seu alvo ambguo

faa
dore
qual?
dono
(de) que?
donna
como? que sorte?
doko
onde?
dochira
que maneira?
d
em que maneira?
doitsu
que companheiro?

Pgina 32

Planilha1

Pgina 33

Planilha1
come
sa

ka

(suru)

(kuru)

(shi)

(ki)

(shi)
(SE)
(sa)

(ko)

(certo)

(kure)

(shiro)
(seyo)
(sei)

(koi)

2b
aberu)

sa-grupo
(suru)

ka-grupo
(kuru)

do do
shi.masu

do do
ki.masu

Pgina 34

Planilha1
do do
shi.ta

do do
ki.ta

do do
shi.nai

do do
ko.nai

do do
shi.nakatta

do do
ko.nakatta

si.te
do do
sure.ba

si.tar a

ki.te
do do
kure.ba

ki.tar a

do do
shi.y
do do
sa.reru

do do
ko.y

do do
ko.rareru

do do
sa.seru

do do
ko.saseru

dekiru2

do do
ko.rareru
substantivos adjetivais
- (shizuka-)

o (I.)
(- na)
(- a Dinamarca)
(- de)
(- daro)
(- nara)
(- nare)

Pgina 35

verbo copulativo (desu)


ta)

Planilha1

substantivos adjetivais
(shizuka)

desu do shizuka

shizuka d.atta

) ((wa) nai)

do ()
nai do de do shizuka (wa)

(do ) (nakatta (do wa))

do ()
nakatta do de do shizuka (wa)

(do ) ((o wa) arimasen)

(do ) ((o wa) arimasen o deshita)

(desu) do nakatta 1

undos))

ar)

shizuka de wa arimasen

shizuka de wa arimasen o deshita

desu do nakatta de shizuka de wa

shizuka de
()
shizuka nara (vagabundos)

shizuka datta.ra
(dar do shizuka)

ni do shizuka

shizuka-sa

Pgina 36

Planilha1

hita)
o deshita)

moderno

Pgina 37

Planilha1

exemplo
* katte do do do *kaite do
* utte do do do *uchite do
* shitte do do do *shirite do
* asonde do do do *asobite do
* sunde do do do *sumite do
* shinde do do do *shinite do
* kaite do do do *kakite do
* oyoide do do do *oyogite do

exemplos
* gozaimasu do sam do do do gozaimasu do *samuku do
* gozaimasu do ohay do do do gozaimasu do ohayaku do
* gozaimasu do suzushuu do do do gozaimasu do *suzushiku do

exemplos
* gozaimasu do do do *gozarimasu do
* irasshaimase do do do *irassharimase do
* kudasai do do do *kudasare do
* nasai do do do *nasare do

Pgina 38

Planilha1

exemplo
do do (o shimau do makete, perde) (makechau)
do do (o shimau do shinde, morre) (shinjau)
do do (ikenai, obrigao do wa do tabete para no comer) (ikenai do tabecha)

do do (o nete iru, est dormindo) (neteru)

do do (o oku do shite, o far assim) (shitoku)

(o ike do dete, sai!) do (deteke)


(No. do iru do shite do nani, o que so voc que faz?) do (shitenno do nani)

Pgina 39

Planilha1

Pgina 40

Planilha1

polido/potencial

modificao do significado

o do estado

vo

o do estado

mea a V

, corrigindo erros

pletamente/V acontece para cima

te a V, quase V

mente
or V

e em, V em

do do (kaku, para escrever) (kakimasu)


do do (miru, para ver) (mirareru, para poder ver)
do do (fueru, aos increae) (fuerareru, para ter a
habilidade de aumentar)
do do (nomu, beber/andorinha) (nomeru, para poder beber)
do do (kangaeru, para pensar) (kangaesaseru, para causar
pensar)
do do (omoishiru, para realizar) (o omoishiraseru,
para causar a realize/to ensina uma lio)

exemplo
do do (aku, para abrir) (o aite-aru, aberto e est ainda
aberto)
do do (neru, para dormir) (o nete-iru, est dormindo)
do do (shimaru, (intransitivo) para se fechar) (o
shimatte-iru, fechado)
do do (aruku, para andar) (aruite-iku, passeio do sustento)
do do (naru, tornado) (natte-kuru, comeo se tornando)
do do (kaku, para escrever) (caqui-hajimeru, comeo a
escrever)
do do (tsuku, para chegar) (o tsuki-hajimeru, tem tudo
comeado chegar)
do do (kagayaku, para brilhar) (kagayaki-dasu, para comear
brilhar)
do do (o suru, faz) (shite-mitai, tentativa a fazer)
do do (kaku, para escrever) (caqui-naosu, reescrita)
do do (tatsu, para estar) (tachi-agaru, de p)
do do (dekiru, para sair) (o deki-agaru, seja terminado)
do do (aru, para ser) (o arieru, possvel)
do do (o oboreru, se afoga) (obore-kakaru, para se
afogar aproximadamente)
do do (taberu, para comer) (tabe-kiru, para o comer todo)
do do (momu, para friccionar) (momi-kesu, para friccionar
para fora, para extinguir)
do do (hanasu, para falar) (hanashi-komu, para ser profundo
na conversao)
Pgina 41

do a V

ng

o sth atrs

azendo V

ada ao V.

Planilha1
do do (hiku, para puxar) (hiki-sageru, para puxar para
baixo)
do do (iu, para dizer) (ii-sugiru, para dizer demasiado, para
o exagerar)
do do (iku, para ir) (o iki-tsukeru, seja usado (indo))
(furu, para cair (por exemplo chuva)) do (furi-tsuzukeru,
para se manter cair)
do do (yomu, para ler) (yomi-tsu, para terminar ler)
do do (hashiru, para funcionar) (hashiri-nukeru, para
funcionar completamente (swh))
do do (omou, para pensar) (omoi-nokosu, para lamentar
(iluminado: para ter o sth deixado para pensar aproximadamente))
do do (ikiru, vivos) (iki-nokoru, para sobreviver
(iluminado: para para ser saido vivo))
do do (tsukau, uso) (tsukai-wakeru, para indicar a maneira
apropriada de se usar)
do do (kiku, para pedir) (kiki-wasureru, para esquecer
pedir)

Pgina 42

Planilha1

Pgina 43

Planilha1

Pgina 44

Planilha1

Pgina 45

Planilha1

bguo

Pgina 46

Planilha1

Pgina 47

Planilha1

Pgina 48

Planilha1

Pgina 49

Planilha1

Pgina 50

Planilha1

Pgina 51

Planilha1

Pgina 52

Planilha1

r) (ikenai do tabecha)

o nani)

Pgina 53

Planilha1

Pgina 54

Planilha1

imasu)
u, para poder ver)
fuerareru, para ter a

nomeru, para poder beber)


ar) (kangaesaseru, para causar

a realizar) (o omoishiraseru,

-aru, aberto e est ainda

e-iru, est dormindo)


ivo) para se fechar) (o

ite-iku, passeio do sustento)


uru, comeo se tornando)
caqui-hajimeru, comeo a

tsuki-hajimeru, tem tudo

kagayaki-dasu, para comear

i, tentativa a fazer)
aqui-naosu, reescrita)

hi-agaru, de p)
o deki-agaru, seja terminado)

possvel)
) (obore-kakaru, para se

abe-kiru, para o comer todo)


(momi-kesu, para friccionar

ashi-komu, para ser profundo

Pgina 55

Planilha1

-sageru, para puxar para

ru, para dizer demasiado, para

eru, seja usado (indo))


do (furi-tsuzukeru,

su, para terminar ler)


r) (hashiri-nukeru, para

oi-nokosu, para lamentar


oximadamente))
ru, para sobreviver

akeru, para indicar a maneira

-wasureru, para esquecer

Pgina 56

Planilha2

Japanese Grammar

The Japanese language has a highly regular agglutinative verb morphology, with both productive and fixed elements. Typologically, its
Grammatically, Japanese is an SOV language, with verbs rigidly constrained to the sentence-final position. The word order is fairly free
genitive nominal precedes the possessed nominal, and so forth. Thus, Japanese is a left-branching language; to contrast, English is righ
For simplicity, this article presents examples in plain informal and non-literary style. The reader must keep the general grammatical pri
1 Textual classifications
2 Nouns, pronouns, and other deictics
3 Conjugable words
3.1 Stem forms
3.2 Verbs
3.3 Adjectives
3.4 The copula ( da)
3.5 Euphonic changes ( onbin)
4 Other independent words
4.1 Adverbs
4.2 Conjunctions and interjections
5 Ancillary words
5.1 Particles
5.1.1 Topic, theme, and subject: (wa) and (ga)
5.1.1.1 Thematic wa
5.1.1.2 Contrastive wa
5.1.1.3 Exhaustive ga
5.1.1.4 Objective ga
5.1.2 Objects, locatives, instrumentals: (o), (ni), (de), (e)
5.1.3 Quantity and extents: (to), (mo), (ka), (ya), (kara), (made)
5.1.4 Coordinating: (to), (ni), (yo)
5.1.5 Final: (ka), (ne), (yo) and related
5.1.6 Compound particles
5.2 Auxiliary verbs

Textual classifications

Text ( bunsh) is composed of sentences ( bun), which are in turn composed of phrases ( bunsetsu), which are its smallest c
rather different from words in English. Word divisions are informed by semantic cues and a knowledge of phrase structure. Phrases ha
bunsetsu are indicated by vertical bars:

taiyou ga | higashi no | sora ni | noboru


The sun rises in the eastern sky.
Some scholars romanize Japanese sentences by inserting spaces only at phrase boundaries (i.e., "taiyouga higashino sorani noboru"), in
phrases need not have intrinsic meaning, therefore admitting particles and auxiliary verbs. It must be noted that this classification of tex
words.

watashi | wa | mainichi | gakk | e | aruite | iku


Every day I walk to school.
The structure of this article will mirror the following classification of words. There are two broad categories independent words (
containing verbs ( doushi), pure adjectives ( keiyshi, also known as i-type adjective), and adjectival nouns ( kei
conjunctions ( setsuzokushi), and interjections ( kandshi). Of ancillary words there are only two classes: grammatical p

Nouns, pronouns, and other deictics


respectful forms of nouns
meaning
rice
money

meshi
kane

Pgina 57

Planilha2
body

karada

word(s)
kotoba
Japanese nouns are non-inflecting, have no gender, and take no articles. Thus (neko) could be translated into English as "cat", "a cat
"person" and hitobito "people", although these are typically collective rather than true plurals. Additionally, in respectful speech, t
table.
The use of pronouns in Japanese is rare, limited to when the referrent cannot be deduced from the context. For example,
Japan", etc. Speakers of Japanese tend to use names instead of pronouns in speech. For example:

Kinoshita-san wa, se ga takai desu ne.


(addressing Mr. Kinoshita) "You're pretty tall, aren't you?"
Japanese has many nouns that can be used as personal pronouns; see [1] for a long list. Some common ones are given in the following

person

plain, informal
(boku, male), (ore, male, very informal)
(atashi, female)
(kimi, usu. used by males)
(kare, male)
(kanojo, female)

first
second
third

Although Japanese nouns do not inflect for number, there are "plural" forms to indicate semantic number: (watashi-tachi) for "w
reduplicative plural (wareware, "we"). However, (-tachi) and (-ra) are by far the most common pluralizing suffixes -- althou
"Tar and those people who are with him". The suffixes (-su) and (-zu), derived from the English plural suffix -[e]s, are also occa
Whereas in English there are many reflexive pronouns (himself, herself, itself, themselves, etc.), in Japanese there is a single reflexive
=ambiguous):

English
History repeats itself.
??John talked to Bill about himself.

*John expects that Mary will take good care of himself.

*
*Rekishi wa jibun wo kurikaesu.

Jon ga Biru ni jibun no koto wo hanas


John talked to Bill about himself (=Joh
??
??Jon wa Mer ga jibun wo daiji ni sur
either "John expects that Mary will tak

If the sentence has more than one grammatical or semantic subject, then the target is the subject of the main action; thus in the followi

Jon ga Mer ni jibun no uchi de hon wo yomaseta.


John made Mary read book(s) in her house.
In practice the main action is not always discernible, in which case such sentences are ambiguous. The use of jibun in complex sentenc
demonstratives
kosokore
sore
this one
that one
kono
sono
(of) this
(of) that
konna
sonna
like this
like that

Pgina 58

Planilha2

koko
soko
here
there
kochira
sochira
this way
that way
k
s
in this manner
in that manner
koitsu
soitsu
this fellow
that fellow
* irregular formation
Demonstratives occur in the ko-, so-, and a- series. The ko- series refers to things closer to the speaker than the hearer, the so- series for
are also used for people, for example

Kochira wa Hayashi-san desu.


This is Mr. Hayashi.
Demonstratives limit, and therefore precede, nouns; thus (kono hon) for "this/my book", and (sono hon) for "that/your b
When demonstratives are used to refer to things not visible to the speaker or the hearer, or to (abstract) concepts, they fulfill a related b
about it. For shared information the anaphoric a- series is used.
A
A: Senjitsu, Sapporo ni itte kimashita.
A: I visited Sapporo recently.

B(*)
B: Asoko (*Soko) wa itsu itte mo ii tokoro desu ne.
B: Yeah, that's a great place to visit whenever you go.
Soko instead of asoko would imply that B has no knowledge of Sapporo, which is inconsistent with the rest of the sentence.

Sat : Tanaka to iu hito ga kin shinda tte...


Sato: I heard that a man called Tanaka died yesterday...
?
Mori: E', hont?
Mori: Oh, really?
(*)
Sat : Dakara, sono (*ano) hito, Mori-san no mukashi no rinjin ja nakatta 'kke?
Sato: It's why I asked... wasn't he an old neighbour of yours?
Again, ano is inappropriate here because Sato doesn't (didn't) know Tanaka personally.
The ko- series demonstratives don't have clear anaphoric uses. They can be used in situations where the a- series sound too disconnecte
(*)?
Ittai nan desu ka, kore (*are) wa?
What on earth is this?

Conjugable words
Stem forms

Prior to discussing the conjugable words, a brief note about stem forms. Conjugative suffixes and auxiliary verbs are attached to the ste
Terminal form ( shuushikei)
is used at the ends of clauses in predicate positions. This form is also variously known as plain form ( kihonkei) or dictionary fo
Attributive form ( rentaikei)
in modern Japanese is practically identical to the terminal form (but see Adjectives, below), but differs in use: it is prefixed to nominals
Continuative form ( ren'ykei)
is used in a linking role. This is the most productive stem form, taking on a variety of endings and auxiliaries, and can even occur indep
Imperfective form ( mizenkei)
is used for plain negative (of verbs), causative and passive constructions. The most common use of this form is with the -nai auxiliary t
Hypothetical form ( kateikei)
Pgina 59

Planilha2
is used for conditional and subjunctive forms, using the -ba or -domo ending.
Imperative form ( meireikei)
is used to turn verbs into commands. Adjectives do not have an imperative stem form.
The application of conjugative suffixes to stem forms follow certain euphonic principles ( onbin), which is discussed below.

Verbs
Verbs in Japanese are rigidly constrained to the ends of clauses in what is known as the predicate position.

neko
wa
cat
TOPIC
(The) cat eats fish.

The subject and objects of the verb are indicated by means of particles (see the section on it below), and the grammatical functions of t
intransitive, then it might have no objects either, in which case the entire sentence consists of a single verb. For this reason, it is often c
difference between present and future tenses is not indicated by means of conjugation. Usually there is no ambiguity because few verbs
means of the continuative conjugation known as the gerundive or -te form, and the auxiliary verb iru; to illustrate, (miru, to see)
Verbs can be semantically classified based on certain conjugations.
Stative verbs
indicate existential properties, such as to be ( iru), can do ( dekiru), need ( iru), etc. These verbs generally don't have a
Continual verbs
conjugate with the auxiliary -iru to indicate the progressive aspect. Examples: to eat ( taberu), to drink ( nomu), to think (
Punctual verbs
conjugate with -iru to indicate a repeated action, or a continuing state after some action. Example: (shiru, to know)
Non-volitional verb
indicate uncontrollable action or emotion. These verbs generally have no volitional, imperative or potential conjugation. Examples:
Movement verbs
indicate motion. Examples: (aruku, to walk), (kaeru, to return). In the continuative form (see below) they take the particle ni
There are other possible classes, and a large amount of overlap between the classes. Lexically, however, nearly every verb in Japanese i
Group 2a ( kami ichidan, lit: upper first group)
verbs with terminal stem form rhyming with -iru. Examples: (miru, to see), (kiru, to wear).
Group 2b ( shimo ichidan, lit: lower first group)
verbs with terminal stem form rhyming with -eru. Examples: (taberu, to eat), (kureru, to give).
Group 1 ( godan, lit: fifth group)
verbs with terminal form rhyming with -u. This description has a slight ambiguity -- certain verbs like (kaeru, to return) are group
with -u in modern Japanese.
Historical note: classical Japanese had upper and lower first and second groups and a fourth group ( kami/shimo ichidan,
classical verbs is not predictable from a knowledge of modern Japanese alone.
Of the irregular classes, there are two:
sa-group ( SA-hen, an abbreviation of SA-gyou henkaku katsuy or SA-row irregular conjugation)
which has only one member, (suru, to do).
ka-group ( KA-hen, an abbreviation of KA-gyou henkaku katsuy)
which also has one member, (kuru, to come).
Classical japanese had one further irregular class, the na-group, which contained (shinu, to die) and a handful of other now rare v
The following table illustrates the stem forms of the above conjugation groups, with the root indicated with dots. For example, to find t
are multiple possibilities, they are listed in the order of increasing rarity.

group/
example
Attributive
form
(
rentaikei) (.u)

1
(tsuka.)

(ka.)

(.ku)
Pgina 60

Planilha2
Terminal
form
(
shuushikei) same as attributive form
Continuative
form
(
ren'youkei) (.i)

(.ki)

Imperfective
form
(
mizenkei) (.wa)1

(.ka)

Hypothetical
form
(
kateikei) (.e)

(.ke)

Imperative
form
(
meireikei) (.e)
(.ke)
the unexpected ending is due to the verb classically conjugating as -ha, phonemic drift moving -ha to -wa, and finally modern spelling

The above are only the stem forms of the verbs; to these one must add various verb endings in order to get the fully conjugated verb. Th

group 1
(kaku)

formation rule
plain
polite
nonpast
informal
past
informal
negative
nonpast
informal
negative
past

cont. + (ta)

kaki.masu

kai.ta*

imperf. + (nai)

kaka.nai

cont. + (masu)

imperf.
+ (nakatta)

-te form (gerundive)

cont. + (-te)

conditional1

hyp. + (ba)

provisional1

cont. + (tara)

kaka.nakatta

kai.te*

kake.ba

kai.tara*

kak.*

imperf. + (u)
volitional

imperf. + (-y)

kaka.reru

imperf. + (reru)
passive

causative

imperf. + (-rareru)
imperf. + (seru)

kaka.seru

imperf. + (-saseru)

Pgina 61

Planilha2

kake.ru

hyp. + (ru)
potential
imperf. + (-rareru)
Note that this is an entirely different verb; (suru) has no potential form.

The polite ending -masu conjugates as a group 1 verb. The passive and potential endings -reru and -rareru, and the causative endings -s

boku wa ane ni natt o tabesaserareta.


I was made to eat natto by my (elder) sister.
As should be expected, the vast majority of lexically legal combinations of conjugative endings are not semantically meaningful.

Adjectives

Japanese has two main classes of adjectives.


Pure adjectives ( keiyshi, aka. i-type adjective)
these are very similar to verbs, having roots and conjugating stem forms.
Adjectival nouns ( keiydshi, aka na-type adjective)
these are grammatical nouns (though not necessarily legally possible as nouns) that are affixed with -na or -no to form the adjective.
All pure adjectives except for (ii, good) have regular conjugations, and ii is irregular only in the fact that it is a corruption of the re

stem forms for adjectives


Attributive form1
( rentaikei)
Terminal form1
( shuushikei)
Continuative form
( ren'youkei)
Imperfective form
( mizenkei)
Hypothetical form
( kateikei)
Imperative form2
( meireikei)

(yasu.)
(.i)
(.i)
(.ku)
(.karo)
(.kere)
(.kare)

The attributive and terminal forms were formerly (.ki) and (.shi), respectively; in modern Japanese these are used productive
The imperative form is extremely rare in modern Japanese, restricted to set patterns like (osokare hayakare, sooner or la
Like verbs, we can enumerate some common conjugations of adjectives. Also, ii isn't special-cased, because all conjugations are identic

pure adjectives
(yasui)
plain
polite
nonpast
informal
past
informal
negative
nonpast

term. + copula (desu)


cont. + (atta)
(u + a collapse)

cont. + () ((wa) nai)1

Pgina 62

Planilha2
informal
negative
past
polite
negative
non past

cont. + () ((wa) nakatta)1

inf. neg. non-past + copula (desu)1

polite
negative
past

inf. neg. past + copula (desu)1

-te form

cont. + (te)

conditional2

hyp. + (ba)

provisional2

inf. past + (ra)

volitional3

imperf. + (u)

adverbial

cont.

degree (-ness)
root + (sa)
note that these are just forms of the pure adjective (nai)
see the note on hypothetical forms below.
since most adjectives describe non-volitional conditions, the volitional form is interpreted as "it is possible", if sensible. In some rare ca
Adjectives too are governed by euphonic rules in certain cases, as noted in the section on it below. For the polite negatives of adjectival

The copula ( da)


The copula da behaves very much like a verb or an adjective in terms of conjugation.
stem forms of the copula
Attributive form
( rentaikei)
Terminal form
( shuushikei)
Continuative form
( ren'youkei)
Imperfective form
( mizenkei)
Hypothetical form
( kateikei)
Imperative form
( meireikei)
Note that there are no potential, causative, or passive forms of the copula, just as with adjectives. The following are some examples.

JON wa gakusei da
John is a student.

ashita mo hare nara, PIKUNIKU shiy


If tomorrow is clear too, let's have a picnic.
In continuative conjugations, (de wa) is often contracted in speech to (ja); for some kinds of informal speech ja is preferrable
informal
polite
conjugations of the copula
nonpast
Pgina 63

conjugations of the copula


nonpast

Planilha2
respectful
informal
polite
respectful
informal
polite
polite
informal
polite
polite
informal
polite
respectful
informal
polite
respectful
informal

past
negative
nonpast
negative
past

conditional

provisional
volitional
polite
respectful

(desh)
(de gozaimash)
informal
polite
respectful

adverbial and
-te forms

Euphonic changes ( onbin) spelling changes


archaic
(a + u)
(a + fu)
(i + u)
(i + fu)
(u + fu)
(e + u)
(e + fu)
(o + fu)
(o + wo)
medial or final (ha)

medial or final (hi), (he), (ho)


any (wi), (we), (wo)
* usu. not reflected in spelling
Modern pronunciation is a result of a long history of phonemic drift that can be traced back to written records of the thirteenth century,
texts used the archaic orthography, now referred to as historical kana usage. The adjoining table is a nearly exhaustive list of these spell
changes are themselves regular. For verbs the exceptions are all in the ending of the continuative form of group 1when the following au

continuative ending

, or

, or

, with the following sound voiced


Pgina 64

Planilha2

, with the following sound voiced

There is one other irregular change: iku (to go), for which there is an exceptional continuative form: iki + te itt
The continuative form of proper adjectives, when followed by polite forms such as (gozaimasu, to be) or (zonjima

continuative ending
[not ] +

, possibly also combining with the pr

Respectful verbs such as (kudasaru, to get), (nasaru, to do), (gozaru, to be), (irassharu, to be/come

continuative

changed to

imperative

changed to

In speech, common combinations of conjugation and auxiliary verbs are contracted in a fairly regular manner.

colloquial contractions
full form
-/-
-chau/-jau
group 1
-/-
-cha/-ja
-
-teru
group 2b
-
-toku
group 1
-
-teku
group 1
-
-nno

-
-te shimau
-
-te wa
-
-te iru
-
-te oku
-
-te iku
-
-ru no

Other independent words


Adverbs

Adverbs in Japanese are not as tightly integrated into the morphology as in many other languages. Indeed, adverbs are not an independe
(yowaku, weakly, adv). The primary distinguishing characteristic of adverbs is that they cannot occur in a predicate position, just as it i
Verbal adverbs
are verbs in the continuative form with the particle ni. Eg. (miru, to see) (mi ni, for the purpose of seeing), used for instan
Adjectival adverbs
are adjectives in the continuative form, as mentioned above.
Nominal adverbs
Pgina 65

Planilha2

are grammatical nouns that function as adverbs. Examples: (amari, a little/not a lot), (d, how), (ichiban, most highly)
Sound Symbolism
are words that mimic sounds or concepts. Examples: (kirakira, sparklingly), (pokkuri, suddenly), (surusuru,
Often, especially for sound symbolism, the particle to ("as if") is used.

Conjunctions and interjections


These parts of speech are much as in English.
Examples of conjunctions: (sshite, and then), (mata, and then/again), etc.
Examples of interjections: (hai, yes/OK/uh), (h, wow!), (e, no/no way), (oi, hey!), etc.

Ancillary words
Particles

Particles in Japanese are postpositionalthey immediately follow the modified component. A full listing of particles would be beyond
It should be noted that the pronunciation of some hiragana characters is altered when used as particles, namely (ha -> wa), (he ->
Topic, theme, and subject: (wa) and (ga)

The distinction between the so-called topic ( wa) and subject ( ga) particles is not straightforward, and in fact has been the theme o
Interested readers are referred to two major scholarly surveys of Japanese linguistics in English, (Shibatani 1990) and (Kuno 1973). To
subject may coincide depending on context.
As a first approximation, the difference between wa and ga is a matter of focus: wa gives focus to the action of the sentence, i.e., the ve
particles.
Thematic wa
The use of wa to introduce a new theme of discourse is directly linked to the notion of grammatical theme. Opinions differ on the struc
restrict the scope and depth of themes, and later themes may cause earlier themes to expire. In these sorts of sentences, the steadfast tra
lack of a best strategy, many teachers of Japanese drill the "speaking of X" pattern into their students without sufficient warning.

JON wa gakusei de aru


(On the topic of John), John is a student.
The warning against rote translation cannot be overemphasized. A common linguistic joke is the sentence (boku wa unagi da
intended humor. This is because the sentence should be literally read, "As for me, it is an eel," with "it" referring to the speaker's order.
to other languages; for example, a Japanese with a shaky grasp of English might say "I am an eel" in a restaurant in an attempt to order
Contrastive wa
Related to the role of wa in introducing themes is its use in contrasting the current topic and its aspects from other possible topics and t

ame wa futte imasu ga...


It is raining, but...
Because of its contrastive nature, the topic cannot be undefined.
*
*dareka wa hon o yonde iru
*Someone is reading the book.
In this situation ga is forced.

In practice, the distinction between thematic and contrastive wa is not that useful. Suffice it to say that there can be at most one themati

boku ga shitte iru hito wa daremo konakatta


(1) Of all the people I know, none came.
(2) (People came but), there wasn't any of the people I know.

The first interpretation is the thematic wa, treating "the people I know" (boku ga shitte iru hito) as the theme of the predicate "none cam
B, ..., Z, and of them I know P, Q and R, then the sentence says that P, Q and R did not come. The sentence says nothing about A', B', ...
Exhaustive ga
Unlike wa, the subject particle ga nominates its referrent as the sole satisfier of the predicate. This distinction is famously illustrated by

JON wa gakusei desu


Pgina 66

Planilha2
John is a student. (There may be other students among the people we're talking about.)

JON ga gakusei desu


(Of all the people we are talking about), it is John who is the student.
Objective ga
For stative transitive verbs, ga instead of o is typically used to mark the object, although it is sometimes acceptable to use o.

JON wa FURANSU-go ga dekiru


John knows French
Objects, locatives, instrumentals: (o), (ni), (de), (e)
The direct object of non-stative transitive verbs is indicated by the object particle (o).

JON wa aoi SE-TA- o kite iru


John is wearing a blue sweater.
This particle can also have a instrumental use for motion verbs.

MERI- ga hosoi michi o aruite ita


Mary was walking along a narrow road.
English allows a similar concept ("walk the road"), though it is usually literary. The general instrumental particle is (de), which can b

niku wa NAIFU de kiru koto


Meat must be cut with a knife.
This particle also has other uses: "at" (temporary location):

machikado de sensei ni atta


(I) met my teacher at the street corner.
"In":

umi de oyogu no wa muzukashii


Swimming in the sea is hard.
"With" or "in (the span of)":

geki wa shujink no shi de owaru


The play ends with the protagonist's death.

ore wa nibyou de katsu


I'll win in two seconds.
The general locative particle is (ni).

tky ni ikimash
Let's go to Tokyo
In this function it is interchangable with (e). However, ni has additional uses: "at (prolonged)":
99
watashi wa GUROSUTA- tri 99 ban ni sunde imasu
I live at 99 Gloucester road
"On":

kri wa mizu ni uku


Ice floats on water.
Pgina 67

Planilha2
"In (some year)", "at (some point in time)":

haru no ygure ni...


On a spring eve...
Quantity and extents: (to), (mo), (ka), (ya), (kara), (made)
To conjoin nouns, (to) is used.

BAGU ni wa kykasho san-satsu to mangahon go-satsu irete imasu


I have three textbooks and five comic books in the bag.
The additive particle (mo) can be used to conjoin larger nominals and clauses.

YO-HAN wa DOITSU-jin da. BURIGE-TA mo DOITSU-jin da


Johan is a German. Brigette is a German too.

kare wa eiga SUTA- de ari, seijika de mo aru


He is a movie star and also a politician.
For an incomplete list of conjuncts, (ya) is used.

BORISU ya AIBAN wo yobe


Call Boris, Ivan, etc.
When only one of the conjuncts is necessary, the disjunctive particle (ka) is used.

SUSHI ka SASHIMI ka, nanika wo chmon shite ne


Order sushi or sashimi or something.
Quantities are listed between (kara, from) and (made, to).
9296
92 do kara 96 do made no netsu wa shinpai suru mono de wa nai
A temperature between 92 F and 96 F is not worrisome.
This pair can also be used to indicate time or space.
811
asa hachi-ji kara jichi-ji made jugy ga aru n da
You see, I have classes between 8 a.m. and 11 a.m.
Because kara indicates starting point or origin, it has a related use as "because":

SUMISU-san wa gin na hito desu kara, itsumo tanomarete iru kamoshirenai


Mr. Smith, I think it's because you're so assertive that you're always asked to do everything.
The particle kara and a related particle yori are used to indicate lowest extents: prices, business hours, etc.
7
wareware wa shichi-ji yori eigy shite orimasu
We are open for business from 7 onwards.
Yori is also used in the sense of "than".
!
omae wa n-chan yori urusai n da
You are louder/more talkative than my sister!
Coordinating: (to), (ni), (yo)
The particle (to) is used to set off quotations.

"koroshite... koroshite" to ano ko wa itte'ta no


The girl was saying, "Kill... kill."

Pgina 68

Planilha2

neko wa NYA- NYA- to naku


The cat says: meaow, meaow.
It is also used to indicate a manner of similarity, "as if" or "like".

kare wa "aishite'ru yo" to itte, pokkuri to shinda


He said "I love you," and dropped dead.
In a related conditional use, it functions like "after", or "upon".

ame ga agaru to, kodomo-tachi wa mou gakush o wasurete, taiy ni omote wo mukeru mizu-tamari no ywaku o shitagau
Rain stops and then: children, forgetting their lessons, give in to the temptation of sun-faced puddles.
Finally it is used with verbs like to meet (with) ( au) or to speak (with) ( hanasu).
1942
JON ga MERI- to hajimete atta no wa, 1942 nen no haru no ygure datta
John met Mary for the first time on a dusky spring afternoon in 1942.
This last use is also a function of the particle (ni), but to indicates reciprocation which ni does not.

JON ga MERI- to ren'ai shite iru


John and Mary are in love.

JON ga MERI- ni ren'ai shite iru


John loves Mary (but Mary might not love John back).
Finally, the particle (yo) is used in a hortative or vocative sense.

kawaii musume yo, kao o shikamete watashi wo miruna


O my beloved daughter, don't frown at me so!
Final: (ka), (ne), (yo) and related
The sentence-final particle (ka) turns a declarative sentence into a question.
?
sochira wa AMERIKA-jin desh ka?
Are you perchance an American?
The particle (ne) softens a declarative sentence, similar to English "you know?", "eh?" or "I tell you!".

kare ni denwa shinakatta no ne


You didn't call him up, did you?

chikajika RONDON ni hikkosareru sou desu ne.


I hear you're moving to London soon. Is that true?
A final (yo) is used for emphasis.

uso tsuite nai yo!


I'm not lying!
The particles (ze) and (zo) are sometimes used similarly, particularly by boys in movie dialogue.

Compound particles

Compound particles are formed with at least one particle together with other words including, other particles. The commonly seen form
particle + verb (term. or cont. or -te form)
particle + noun + particle
noun + particle
Other structures are rarer, though of course possible. A few examples:
Pgina 69

Planilha2

sono ken ni kan-shite shitte-iru kagiri no koto wo oshiete moraitai


Kindly tell me everything you know concerning that case. (particle + verb in cont.)

gaikokugo wo gakush suru ue de taisetsu na koto wa mainichi no doryoku ga mono wo iu to iu koto de aru
In studying a foreign language, daily effort gives the most rewards. (noun + particle)

ani wa ryshin no shinpai o yoso ni, daigaku wo yamete shimatta


Ignoring my parents' worries, my brother dropped out of college. (particle + noun + particle)

Auxiliary verbs

All auxiliary verbs attach to a verbal or adjectival stem form and conjugate as verbs, but they differ from normal verbs in having no ind
Pure auxiliaries ( jodshi)
are usually just called verb endings or conjugated forms. These auxiliaries cannot possibly function as an independent verb.
Helper auxiliaries ( hododshi)
are normal verbs that lose their independent meaning when used as auxiliaries.
In classical Japanese which was more purely agglutinating than modern Japanese, the category of auxiliary verb included every possibl
productive. The most classic example is the classical auxiliary (-tari) whose forms (-ta), (-te), etc. are now no longer viewed

some pure auxiliary verbs


auxiliary
(masu)

group
1

(rareru)1
(ru)

2b

(saseru)2

(seru)
2b
1 (rareru) is often shortened to (reru, grp. 2); thus (tabereru, to be able to eat) instead of (taberareru).
2 (saseru) is sometimes shortened to (sasu, grp. 1), but this usage is somewhat literary.
Much of the agglutinative flavour of Japanese stems from helper auxiliaries, however. The following table contains a small selection of

some helper auxiliary verbs


auxiliary

group

(aru, to be (inanimate))

1
2a

(iru, to be (animate))

2a

(iku, to go)
(kuru, to come)

1
ka
Pgina 70

Planilha2

(hajimeru, to begin)

2b

(dasu, to emit)

(miru, to see)

(naosu, to correct/heal)

(agaru, to rise)

(eru/uru, to be able)

2b/1

(kakaru, to hang/catch/obtain)

(kiru, to cut)

(kesu, to erase)

(komu, to enter deeply/plunge)

(sageru, to lower)

2b

(sugiru, to exceed)

2a

(tsukeru, to attach)

2b

(tsuzukeru, to continue)

2b

(tsu, to show/thread/lead)
(nukeru, to shed/spill/desert)

1
2b

(nokosu, to leave behind)

(nokoru, to be left behind)

(wakeru, to divide/split/classify)

2b

(wasureru, to forget)

2b

Pgina 71

Planilha2

and fixed elements. Typologically, its most prominent feature is topic creation: Japanese is neither topic-prominent, nor subject-prominent; indeed, it i
position. The word order is fairly free as long as the order of dependent-head is maintained among all constituents: the adjective or relative clause pre
language; to contrast, English is right-branching.
must keep the general grammatical principles of politeness and respect in mind.
Contents

bunsetsu), which are its smallest coherent components. Like Chinese and classical Korean, written Japanese does not typically demarcate words w
edge of phrase structure. Phrases have a single meaning-bearing word, followed by a string of suffixes, auxiliary verbs and particles to modify its me

aiyouga higashino sorani noboru"), in effect treating an entire phrase as the equivalent of an English word. Traditionally, however, a more basic concep
be noted that this classification of textual structure in modern Japanese is descriptive; some classical auxiliary verbs such as -te are grammaticalized a

categories independent words ( jiritsugo) having internal meaning, and ancillary words ( fuzokugo) which are meaning modifiers. In
, and adjectival nouns ( keiydshi, also known as na-type adjective); and a non-conjugable ( mukatsuygo) class containing noun
e are only two classes: grammatical particles ( joshi) and auxiliary verbs ( jodshi).

plain

meshi
kane

Pgina 72

Planilha2

karada

kotoba
ranslated into English as "cat", "a cat", "the cat", "cats", "some cats", or "the cats", depending on context. A small number of nouns have plurals forme
. Additionally, in respectful speech, the prefix o- is often used with native nouns, as is the prefix go- with Sino-Japanese nouns. Some common nouns

context. For example, (nihon ni ikimashita) says just "went to Japan". The subject is inferred from context: if the topic is the first p

mon ones are given in the following table.

plain, informal
ery informal)

polite
(watashi)
(anata), (sochira)
(ano hito)

number: (watashi-tachi) for "we", (anata-tachi) for "you (plural)", (bokura) for "we (inform. male)". Interestingly, one uncom
common pluralizing suffixes -- although (-tachi) is not strictly a pluralizing suffix: for example, (Tar-tachi) does not mean "some number
glish plural suffix -[e]s, are also occasionally used to indicate the plural, although this is not even remotely standard Japanese.
n Japanese there is a single reflexive pronoun (jibun). The uses of the reflexive pronoun in the two languages are very different. The following in

Japanese

Rekishi wa jibun wo kurikaesu.

on ga Biru ni jibun no koto wo hanashita.


ohn talked to Bill about himself (=John)
??
?Jon wa Mer ga jibun wo daiji ni suru koto wo kitaishite iru.
ither "John expects that Mary will take good care of him", or "John expects that Mary will take good care of herself."

of the main action; thus in the following sentence (jibun) refers unambiguously to Mary (even though John is the grammatical subject) because t

The use of jibun in complex sentences follows non-trivial rules.


so-

aare
that one over there
ano
(of) that over there
anna
like that over there

Pgina 73

Planilha2
asoko *
over there
achira
that way over there
*
in that (other) manner
aitsu
that other fellow

aker than the hearer, the so- series for things closer to the hearer, and the a-series for things distant to both the speaker and the hearer. With do-, demon

nd (sono hon) for "that/your book".


ract) concepts, they fulfill a related but different anaphoric role. The anaphoric so- series is used to refer to experience that is not shared between the s

h the rest of the sentence.

re the a- series sound too disconnected:

auxiliary verbs are attached to the stem forms of the affixee. In modern Japanese there are the following six stem forms.

m ( kihonkei) or dictionary form ( jishokei).

ffers in use: it is prefixed to nominals and is used to define or classify the noun. In this function, the root of this stem form is called a prenominal adje
auxiliaries, and can even occur independently in a sense similar to the -te ending. This form is also used to negate adjectives.

f this form is with the -nai auxiliary that turns verbs into their negative (predicate) form. (See Verbs below.)

Pgina 74

Planilha2

bin), which is discussed below.

position.
sakana
fish

o
OBJECT

), and the grammatical functions of the verbprimarily tense and voiceare indicated by means of conjugation. When the subject and the dissertativ
ngle verb. For this reason, it is often claimed that verbs (or more accurately, predicates) are the most important parts of speech in Japanese. Verbs have
re is no ambiguity because few verbs can operate in both uses. Voice and aspect are also indicated by means of conjugation, and possibly agglutinating
iru; to illustrate, (miru, to see) (mite-iru, is seeing).

c. These verbs generally don't have a continuative conjugation with -iru because they are semantically continuative already.

u), to drink ( nomu), to think ( kangaeru). To illustrate the conjugation, (taberu, to eat) (tabete-iru, is eating).
(shiru, to know) (shitte iru, am knowing); (utsu, to hit) (utte iru, is hitting (repeatedly)).
potential conjugation. Examples: (konomu, to like, emotive), (mieru, to be visible, non-emotive).

(see below) they take the particle ni to indicate a purpose.


wever, nearly every verb in Japanese is a member of exactly one of the following three regular conjugation groups.

ar).

u, to give).

like (kaeru, to return) are group 1 instead of group 2. (See Miscellaneous section, below.) In modern Japanese the endings -yu and -fu are imposs

( kami/shimo ichidan, kami/shimo nidan, and yodan), and nothing like the modern godan group. Since verbs have mi

regular conjugation)

ie) and a handful of other now rare verbs, but these verbs are regular group 1 verbs in modern Japanese.
ated with dots. For example, to find the hypothetical form of the group 1 verb (kaku), look in the second row to find its root, ka, then in the hypo

2a
(mi.)

(.ru)

2b
(tabe.)

(.ru)
Pgina 75

sa

(suru)

Planilha2

(.)

(.)

(shi)

(.)

(.)

(shi)
(se)
(sa)

(.re)

(.re)

(sure)

(.ro)
(.ro)
(.yo)
(.yo)
a to -wa, and finally modern spelling reform reuniting pronunciation with spelling.

(shiro)
(seyo)
(sei)

er to get the fully conjugated verb. The following table lists the most common conjugations. In cases where the form is different based on the conjuga

group 1
(kaku)

group 2a
(miru)

group 2b
(taberu)

mi.masu

mi.ta

tabe.masu

tabe.ta

mi.nai

tabe.nai

mi.nakatta

mi.te

mire.ba

mi.tara

tabe.nakatta

tabe.te

tabere.ba

tabe.tara

mi.y

tabe.y

mi.rareru

tabe.rareru

mi.saseru

tabe.saseru
Pgina 76

Planilha2

mi.rareru

tabe.rareru

d -rareru, and the causative endings -seru and -saseru all conjugate as group 2b verbs. Multiple verbal endings can therefore agglutinate. For example,

e not semantically meaningful.

h -na or -no to form the adjective.


the fact that it is a corruption of the regular adjective (yoi) which manifests itself in the conjugations. All adjectival nouns conjugate regularly.

pure adjectives
(yasu.)

(i.)
(.i)
(.i)
(yo.ku)*
(yo.karo)*
(yo.kere)*
(yo.kare)

n Japanese these are used productively for stylistic reasons only, although many set phrases such as (nanashi, anonymous) and (yoshi, som
(osokare hayakare, sooner or later), where they are treated as adverbial phrases! It is impossible for an imperative form to be in a predicate posit
d, because all conjugations are identical to yoi.

pure adjectives
(yasui)

yasui desu

yasuk.atta

root + copula (desu)


cont. + (atta)
(e + a collapse)

()
yasuku(wa)nai

cont. + () ((wa) nai)

Pgina 77

Planilha2
()
yasuku(wa)nakatta

cont. + () ((wa) nakatta)

yasukunai desu

inf. cont + () ((wa) arimasen)

inf. cont + () ((wa) arimasen deshi

yasukunakatta desu

yasuku.te

yasukere.ba

yasukatta.ra

inf. neg. past + (nakatta desu)1


cont.
hyp. (+ (ba))
inf. past + (ra)
imperf. + (u)
= root + (dar)

(yasukar)

yasuku.

yasu-sa

root + (ni)
root + sa

possible", if sensible. In some rare cases it is semi-volitional: (yokar, OK (lit: let it be good)) in response to a report or request.
For the polite negatives of adjectival nouns, see also the section below on the copula (da).

(de aru)
(da, informal)
(desu, polite)
(de gozaimasu, respectful)
(de)
(de wa)
(nara)
impossible

The following are some examples.

ds of informal speech ja is preferrable to de wa, or is the only possibility.


informal
(da)
polite
(desu)
Pgina 78

Planilha2
respectful
informal
polite
respectful
informal
polite
polite
informal
polite
polite
informal
polite
respectful
informal
polite
respectful
informal

(de gozaimasu)
cont. + (atta)
(datta)
(desita)
(de gozaimashita)
cont. + (wa nai)
cont. + (wa arimasen)
cont. + (wa gozaimasen)
cont. + (nakatta)
cont. + (wa arimasen deshita)
cont. + (wa gozaimasen deshita)
hyp. + (ba)
cont. + (areba)
(nara)
same as conditional
(dar)

)
informal
polite
respectful

cont.
cont. + (arimashite)
cont. + (gozaimashite)

modern
()
(y)*
()
(y)
()
(wa)
(i), (e), (o)
(via wi, we, wo, see below)
(i), (e), (o)

tten records of the thirteenth century, and possibly earlier. However, it was only in 1946 that the Japanese ministry of education modified existing kan
a nearly exhaustive list of these spelling changes. As mentioned above, conjugations of some verbs and adjectives differ from the prescribed formatio
orm of group 1when the following auxiliary has a ta-sound, i.e., (ta), (te), (tari), etc.

changes to

, with the following sound voiced


Pgina 79

Planilha2

, with the following sound voiced

ve form: iki + te itte, iki + ta itta, etc.


ozaimasu, to be) or (zonjimasu, to know), undergo a transformation.

description

, possibly also combining with the previous syllable according to the spelling reform chart

), (irassharu, to be/come/go), (ossharu, to say), etc. behave like group 1 verbs, except in the continuative and imperative form

change

changed to

changed to

ular manner.

colloquial

/-
chau/-jau
roup 1
/-
cha/-ja

eru
roup 2b

oku
roup 1

eku
roup 1

nno

Indeed, adverbs are not an independent class of words, but rather a role played by other words. For example, every adjective in the continuative form
cur in a predicate position, just as it is in English. The following classification of adverbs is not intended to be authoritative or exhaustive.

he purpose of seeing), used for instance as: (mi ni iku, go to see (sth.)).

Pgina 80

Planilha2

d, how), (ichiban, most highly), etc.

kkuri, suddenly), (surusuru, smoothly (sliding)), etc.

oi, hey!), etc.

listing of particles would be beyond the scope of this article, so only a few prominent particles are listed here.
cles, namely (ha -> wa), (he -> e), and (wo -> o). The altered pronounciation is usually used in rmaji.

ward, and in fact has been the theme of many doctoral dissertations and scholarly disputes. The reader is warned to take the material in this section, mo
Shibatani 1990) and (Kuno 1973). To simplify matters, the referrents of wa and ga will be called the topic and subject respectively, with the understand

the action of the sentence, i.e., the verb or adjective, whereas ga gives focus to the subject of the action. However, this description is too abstract; a m

al theme. Opinions differ on the structure of discourse theme, though it seems fairly uncontroversial to imagine a first-in-first-out hierarchy of themes
se sorts of sentences, the steadfast translation into English uses constructs like "speaking of X" or "on the topic of X", though such translations tend to
nts without sufficient warning.

entence (boku wa unagi da), which according to the pattern should be translated as "(Speaking of me), I am an eel." Yet, in a restaurant this
h "it" referring to the speaker's order. We can clearly see that the topic of the sentence is not its subject! (As a side note, the separation of grammatical
in a restaurant in an attempt to order eel.)

pects from other possible topics and their aspects. The suggestive pattern is "X, but ..." or "as for X, ...".

that there can be at most one thematic wa in a sentence, and it has to be the first wa if one exists, and the remaining was are contrastive. For complete

the theme of the predicate "none came" (dare mo konakatta). That is, if I know A, B, ..., Z, then none of the people who came were A, B, ..., Z. The se
sentence says nothing about A', B', ..., Z', all of whom I know, but none of whom were likely to come. The sentence is ambiguous up to this difference
distinction is famously illustrated by the following pair of sentences.

Pgina 81

Planilha2

etimes acceptable to use o.

mental particle is (de), which can be translated as "using".

Pgina 82

Planilha2

urs, etc.

Pgina 83

Planilha2

ari no ywaku o shitagau


les.

not.

l you!".

gue.

er particles. The commonly seen forms are:

Pgina 84

Planilha2

oto de aru

er from normal verbs in having no independent meaning. In modern Japanese there are two distinct classes of auxiliary verbs:

n as an independent verb.

auxiliary verb included every possible verb ending after the stem form, and most of these endings were themselves active participants in composition.
(-te), etc. are now no longer viewed as verbal endings, i.e., they can take no further affixes.

attaches to

meaning modification

1 continuative

makes V polite

cont. of grp. 2
hyp. of grp. 1

makes V passive/polite/potential

cont. of grp. 2

imperf. of grp. 1
t) instead of (taberareru).
.
ing table contains a small selection of an abundant store of such auxiliary verbs.

makes V causative

attaches to

meaning modification

-te form
1 only for trans.
-te form
for trans.
-te form
for intrans.

indicates state modification


progressive aspect
indicates state modification

1 -te form

"goes on V-ing"

-te form

inception, "start to V"


Pgina 85

Planilha2
continuative
non-punctual
continuative
punctual & subj. must be plural

"V begins", "begin to V"

1 continuative

"start to V"

1 -te form

"try to V"

1 continuative

"do V again, correcting mistakes"

1 continuative
continuative
only for group 1 verbs
continuative
1 only for intrans., non-volit.

"do V thoroughly" / "V happens upwards"

1 continuative
1 continuative

"do V completely"
"cancel by V"
"deny with V"

1 continuative

"V deep in", "V into"

indicates potential
"about to V", "almost V"

continuative

"V down"

continuative

"overdo V"

continuative

"become accustomed to V"

continuative

"keep on V"

1 continuative
continuative
only for intrans.

"finish V-ing"

1 continuative
continuative
1 for intrans. only

by doing V, leave sth behind

"V through"

be left behind, doing V

continuative

the proper way to V.

continuative

to forget to V

Pgina 86

Planilha2

nt, nor subject-prominent; indeed, it is common for sentences to have distinct topics and subjects.
ts: the adjective or relative clause precedes the modified noun, the adverb precedes the modified verb, the

does not typically demarcate words with spaces; its agglutinative nature further makes the concept of a word
y verbs and particles to modify its meaning and designate its grammatical role. In the following example,

ionally, however, a more basic concept of word ( tango) forms the atoms of sentences. Words unlike
erbs such as -te are grammaticalized as conjugations or verb endings in modern Japanese, not individual

ugo) which are meaning modifiers. Independent words divide into a conjugable ( katsuygo) class
mukatsuygo) class containing nouns ( meishi), pronouns ( daimeishi), adverbs ( fukushi),

respectful
go-han
o-kane

Pgina 87

Planilha2

o-karada
onmi
o-kotoba
mikotonori
l number of nouns have plurals formed by reduplication (possibly accompanied by rendaku): thus hito
apanese nouns. Some common nouns have unpredictable respectful forms; a few examples are in the adjoining

from context: if the topic is the first person, then it means "I went to Japan", for a third person, "he/she went to

te

respectful
(watakushi)
(o-taku)

orm. male)". Interestingly, one uncommon pseudopronoun, (ware, "I") has a much more common
-tachi) does not mean "some number of people named Tar" but instead means "Tar and his friends," or
dard Japanese.
es are very different. The following incorrect literal translations demonstrate the differences (*=impossible, ??

reason
the target of jibun must be animate
jibun refers unambiguously to the subject.

jibun can be in a different sentence or dependent clause, but its target is ambiguous

is the grammatical subject) because the main action is "Mary's reading".

dodore
which one?
dono
(of) what?
donna
how? what sort of?

Pgina 88

Planilha2
doko
where?
dochira
which way?
d
in what manner?
doitsu
which fellow?

eaker and the hearer. With do-, demonstratives turn into the corresponding question form. Demonstratives of

ience that is not shared between the speaker and the listener, generally because one party has no information

forms.

tem form is called a prenominal adjective ( rentaishi).

e adjectives.

Pgina 89

Planilha2

taberu
eats

. When the subject and the dissertative topic coincide, the subject is often omitted; if the verb happens to be
rts of speech in Japanese. Verbs have two tenses indicated by conjugation past and nonpast. The semantic
onjugation, and possibly agglutinating auxiliary verbs. For example, the continuative aspect is formed by

ve already.

(tabete-iru, is eating).

ng (repeatedly)).

s.

ese the endings -yu and -fu are impossible, though they were common in classical Japanese; they are spelled

rn godan group. Since verbs have migrated across groups in the history of the language, conjugation of

w to find its root, ka, then in the hypothetical row to get the ending ke, giving the stem form kake. When there

(suru)

sa

ka

(kuru)
Pgina 90

Planilha2

(shi)

(ki)

(shi)
(se)
(sa)

(ko)

(sure)

(kure)

(shiro)
(seyo)
(sei)

(koi)

orm is different based on the conjugation group of the verb, arrows point to the correct formation rule.

2b
aberu)

sa-group
(suru)

ka-group
(kuru)

shi.masu

shi.ta

ki.masu

ki.ta

shi.nai

ko.nai

shi.nakatta

si.te

sure.ba

si.tara

ko.nakatta

ki.te

kure.ba

ki.tara

shi.y

sa.reru

ko.y

sa.seru

ko.rareru

ko.saseru
Pgina 91

Planilha2

dekiru2

ko.rareru

n therefore agglutinate. For example, a common formation is the causative-passive ending, -sase-rareru.

djectival nouns conjugate regularly.

adjectival nouns
- (shizuka-)

(i.)
(-na)
(-da)
(-de)
(-daro)
(-nara)
(-nare)

ashi, anonymous) and (yoshi, sometimes written yosh', general positive interjection) derive from them.
erative form to be in a predicate position.

(desu)
ta)

((wa) nai)

adjectival nouns
(shizuka)

shizuka desu

shizuka d.atta
()
shizuka de (wa) nai

Pgina 92

((wa) nakatta)

((wa) arimasen)

((wa) arimasen deshita)

(nakatta desu)1

dar)

Planilha2
()
shizuka de (wa) nakatta

shizuka de wa arimasen

shizuka de wa arimasen deshita

shizuka de wa nakatta desu

shizuka de
()
shizuka nara(ba)

shizuka datta.ra
(shizuka dar)

shizuka ni

shizuka-sa

nse to a report or request.

Pgina 93

Planilha2

)
eshita)

modern

y of education modified existing kana usage to conform to the standard dialect ( kytsgo). All earlier
es differ from the prescribed formation rules because of euphonic changes. Nearly all of these euphonic

example
* *kaite katte
* *uchite utte
* *shirite shitte
* *asobite asonde
* *sumite sunde
* *shinite shinde
Pgina 94

Planilha2
* *kakite kaite
* *oyogite oyoide

examples
* *samuku gozaimasu sam gozaimasu
* ohayaku gozaimasu ohay gozaimasu
* *suzushiku gozaimasu suzushuu gozaimasu

the continuative and imperative forms.

examples
* *gozarimasu gozaimasu
* *irassharimase irasshaimase
* *kudasare kudasai
* *nasare nasai

example
(makete shimau, lose) (makechau)
(shinde shimau, die) (shinjau)
(tabete wa ikenai, must not eat) (tabecha ikenai)

(nete iru, is sleeping) (neteru)

(shite oku, will do it so) (shitoku)

(dete ike, get out!) (deteke)


(nani shite iru no, what are you doing?) (nani shitenno)

ry adjective in the continuative form can be used as an adverb; thus, (yowai, weak, adj)
thoritative or exhaustive.

Pgina 95

Planilha2

o take the material in this section, more than any other part of this article, as a poor and approximate guide.
bject respectively, with the understanding that if one or the other is absent, then the grammatical topic and

r, this description is too abstract; a more useful description must proceed by ennumerating uses of these

first-in-first-out hierarchy of themes that is threaded through the discourse. Of course, human limitations
f X", though such translations tend to be bulky as they fail to use the thematic mechanisms of English. For

I am an eel." Yet, in a restaurant this sentence can reasonably be used to say "I'd like an order of eel", with no
e note, the separation of grammatical topic and subject is sometimes transported by native Japanese speakers

ing was are contrastive. For completeness, the following sentence (due to Kuno) illustrates the difference.

ple who came were A, B, ..., Z. The second interpretation is the contrastive wa. If the likely attendees were A,
nce is ambiguous up to this difference. (In practice the first interpretation is the likely one.)

Pgina 96

Planilha2

Pgina 97

Planilha2

Pgina 98

Planilha2

Pgina 99

Planilha2

iliary verbs:

es active participants in composition. In modern Japanese, however, some auxiliaries have stopped being

meaning modification

polite/potential

odification

odification

o V"

meaning modification

example
(kaku, to write) (kakimasu)
(miru, to see) (mirareru, to
be able to see)
(fueru, to increae)
(fuerareru, to have the ability to increase)
(nomu, to drink/swallow)
(nomeru, to be able to drink)
(kangaeru, to think)
(kangaesaseru, to cause to think)
(omoishiru, to realize)
(omoishiraseru, to cause to realize/to
teach a lesson)

example
(aku, to open) (aite-aru,
opened and is still open)
(neru, to sleep) (nete-iru, is
sleeping)
(shimaru, (intransitive) to close)
(shimatte-iru, is closed)
(aruku, to walk) (aruite-iku,
keep walking)
(naru, become) (natte-kuru,
start becoming)
Pgina 100

Planilha2

n to V"

ecting mistakes"

" / "V happens upwards"

most V"

"

nto"

med to V"

sth behind

ing V
V.

(kaku, to write) (kakihajimeru, start to write)


(tsuku, to arrive) (tsukihajimeru, have all started to arrive)
(kagayaku, to shine)
(kagayaki-dasu, to start shining)
(suru, do) (shite-mitai, try
to do)
(kaku, to write) (kakinaosu, rewrite)
(tatsu, to stand) (tachiagaru, stand up)
(dekiru, to come out)
(deki-agaru, be completed)
(aru, to be) (arieru, is
possible)
(oboreru, drown)
(obore-kakaru, about to drown)
(taberu, to eat) (tabe-kiru,
to eat it all)
(momu, to rub) (momi-kesu,
to rub out, to extinguish)
(hanasu, to speak) (hanashikomu, to be deep in conversation)
(hiku, to pull) (hiki-sageru,
to pull down)
(iu, to say) (ii-sugiru, to
say too much, to overstate)
(iku, to go) (iki-tsukeru, be
used to (going))
(furu, to fall (eg. rain))
(furi-tsuzukeru, to keep falling)
(yomu, to read) (yomi-tsu,
to finish reading)
(hashiru, to run) (hashirinukeru, to run through (swh))
(omou, to think) (omoinokosu, to regret (lit: to have sth left to think
about))
(ikiru, live) (iki-nokoru, to
survive (lit: to be left alive))
(tsukau, use) (tsukaiwakeru, to indicate the proper way to use)
(kiku, to ask) (kikiwasureru, to forget to ask)

Pgina 101