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ABSTRACT

In most organizations, security tools are still far below acceptable levels of sophistication
since near-primitive tools are still being used to safeguard lives and property. This paper
presents a prototyped computer controlled security gate system. The system will be
interfaced for control purposes to the computer through the digital computers parallel
port. The developed system consists of improvised electromechanically controlled
barricades, a digital camera-based remote surveillance system, an interface circuit, and
control software written in Borland Delphi 6 Programming Language. This simple but
yet power security system tagged automatic computer controlled gate with camera
if properly designed, will go a long way to improving our security systems.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Automatic Computer Controlled Gate with Camera (ACCGC) is the systematic usage of a
stored program digital computer to control Industrial and domestic processes. This
programmable form of automation involves the integration of a digital computer and
associated chips, like programmable logic chips (PLC), and other analog and digital
integrated circuits to design the products, plan the production, and control operations
needed in manufacturing the products. Merits accruable to this type of implementation
include better working conditions for the workers, since there is less direct physical
participation in the production process or possible area of application, increased
productivity, and flexibility to deal with any changes, including waste reduction and
improved quality control. Some possible demerits include acceleration in the rates of
unemployment due to reduction in labor force, high initial costs, and increased
dependence on maintenance. The digital programmability, flexibility, and processing
power offered by digital computers make them applicable in numerous applications
especially as intelligent controllers in different domestic and industrial applications.
Security gate automation is a process designed to extend the capacity of machines to
perform certain tasks formerly done by humans, and to control sequences of operations
with minimal human intervention. Various technologies used in this way range from the

more obvious closed circuit television cameras (CCTV), tape recorders, listening (audio)
devices, and devices designed to record computer key strokes.
This paper presents a computer controlled gate with camera system that will allow
security personnel to monitor, control, and organize the security operations in conjunction
with electromechanical devices and a control program based on a set of specified security
considerations in public places for reasons of protection, safety, and detection of crime.
Security personnel will be able to remotely detect the presence of automobile at the gate
and carry out the visual check of the automobiles front or back boot and plate number
using appropriately placed moveable digital camera(s). The security personnel can then
decide to either open or close improvised electromechanical-based entrance path of the
security gatepost, through the system interface unit directly from the PC.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE
In 1956 Robert Adler developed "Zenith Space Command", a wireless controller. It was
mechanical and used ultrasound to change the channel and volume. When the user pushed
a button on the controller, it clicked and struck a bar, hence the term "clicker". Each bar
emitted a different frequency and circuits in the television detected this noise. The
invention of the transistor made possible cheaper electronic controllers that contained a
piezoelectric crystal that was fed by an oscillating electric current at a frequency near or
above the upper threshold of human hearing, though still audible to dogs. The receiver
contained a microphone attached to a circuit that was tuned to the same frequency. Some
problems with this method were that the receiver could be triggered accidentally by
naturally occurring noises, and some people, especially young women, could hear the
piercing ultrasonic signals. There was even a noted incident in which a toy xylophone
changed the channels on these types of TVs since some of the overtones from the
xylophone matched the controller's ultrasonic frequency.
The impetus for a more complex type of television controller control came in the late
1970s with the development of the Ceefax teletext service by the BBC. Most commercial
controller controls at that time had a limited number of functions, sometimes as few as
three: next channel, previous channel, and volume/off. This type of control did not meet
the needs of teletext sets where pages were identified with three-digit numbers. A

controller to select teletext pages would need buttons for each number from zero to nine,
as well as other control functions, such as switching from text to picture, and the normal
television controls of volume, station, brightness, colour intensity and so on. Early teletext
sets used wired controller controls to select pages but the continuous use of the controller
control required for teletext quickly indicated the need for a wireless device. So BBC
engineers began talks with one or two television manufacturers which led to early
prototypes in around 1977-78 that could control a much larger number of functions. ITT
was one of the companies and later gave its name to the ITT protocol of infrared
communication.
In the 1950s controllers were extra upgrades options to TV sets. As previously mentioned,
Zenith was ready to change the lives of "lazy" people for good. The initial purpose to the
TV controller was to turn off the TV set from afar, and to change the channels or mute
commercials. People were told that the controller could turn off the TV while they were
still laying in their La-Z-Boy and thus could drift off to sleep without interruption. A
common complaint was that people tripped on the cable that was attached to the first
controllers. It was not until 1955 that Zenith created the Flash-matic or their first
wireless controller. While it helped keep the flow of traffic without tripping people along
the way, the Flash-matic was not flawless.
Today, this controller is made to control almost all electrical/electronic devices including
the electric gate. Going through the review above, the controls were fully without a

computer serving as the master controller. Here, in this seminar, a different approach is
presented with a view to upgrade the remote control feature of wireless controls.
SCOPE
The basics of a computer controlled automatic gate with camera system and a CCTV
system are almost similar. This system contains several cameras connected to a computer.
The cameras captured images at very intervals and send it to the computer for further
processing. Here the computer is the master controller that oversees the functions of the
gate like; opening/closing the gate as at when due.

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH AND DESIGN METHODOLOGY
RESEARCH METHOD
Basically, research on this project was done both on the internet and on various
Electrical/Electronic textbooks. Finally, we arrived at designing the of a microcontroller
based water. The circuit was built around discrete electronics components including
resistors, capacitors, transistors and as the microcontroller as the core.
COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION
1. Resistors
Resistors are the most commonly used component in electronics and their purpose is to
create specified values of current and voltage in a circuit. A number of different resistors
are shown in the photos. (The resistors are on millimeter paper, with 1cm spacing to give
some
idea
of the
dimensions).
Photo
1.1a shows some
lowpower resistors, whilephoto 1.1b shows some higher-power resistors. Resistors with
power dissipation below 5 watt (most commonly used types) are cylindrical in shape, with
a wire protruding from each end for connecting to a circuit (photo 1.1-a). Resistors with
power dissipation above 5 watt are shown below (photo 1.1-b).

The symbol for a resistor is shown in the following diagram (upper: American symbol,
lower: European symbol.)

Fig. 1.2a: Resistor symbols


The unit for measuring resistance is the OHM. (the Greek letter - called Omega).
Higher resistance values are represented by "k" (kilo-ohms) and M (meg ohms). For
example, 120 000 is represented as 120k, while 1 200 000 is represented as 1M2.
The dot is generally omitted as it can easily be lost in the printing process. In some circuit
diagrams, a value such as 8 or 120 represents a resistance in ohms. Another common
practice is to use the letter E for resistance in ohms. The letter R can also be used. For
example, 120E (120R) stands for 120 , 1E2 stands for 1R2 etc.
2. Capacitors
Capacitors are common components of electronic circuits, used almost as frequently as
resistors. The basic difference between the two is the fact that capacitor resistance (called
reactance) depends on the frequency of the signal passing through the item. The symbol
for reactance is Xc and it can be calculated using the following formula:

f representing the frequency in Hz and C representing the capacitance in Farads.


For example, 5nF-capacitor's reactance at f=125kHz equals:

while, at f=1.25MHz, it equals:

A capacitor has an infinitely high reactance for direct current, because f=0.
Capacitors are used in circuits for many different purposes. They are common
components of filters, oscillators, power supplies, amplifiers, etc.
The basic characteristic of a capacitor is its capacity - the higher the capacity, the higher
is the amount of electricity it can hold. Capacity is measured in Farads (F). As one Farad
represents fairly high capacity, smaller values such as microfarad (F), nanofarad (nF)
and picofarad (pF) are commonly used. As a reminder, relations between units are:

1F=106F=109nF=1012pF,
that is 1F=1000nF and 1nF=1000pF. It is essential to remember this notation, as same
values may be marked differently in some circuits. For example, 1500pF is the same as
1.5nF,
100nF
is
0.1F.
A simpler notation system is used as with resistors. If the mark on the capacitor is 120 the
value is 120pF, 1n2 stands for 1.2nF, n22 stands for 0.22nF, while .1 (or .1u) stands for
0.1F.
Capacitors come in various shapes and sizes, depending on their capacity, working
voltage, type of insulation, temperature coefficient and other factors. All capacitors can
divided in two groups: those with changeable capacity values and those with fixed
capacity values. These will covered in the following chapters.

4. Transistors
Transistors are active components and are found everywhere in electronic circuits. They
are used as amplifiers and switching devices. As amplifiers, they are used in high and low
frequency stages, oscillators, modulators, detectors and in any circuit needing to perform
a
function.
In
digital
circuits
they
are
used
as
switches.
There is a large number of manufacturers around the world who produce semiconductors
(transistors are members of this family of components), so there are literally thousands of
different types. There are low, medium and high power transistors, for working with high
and low frequencies, for working with very high current and/or high voltages. Several
different
transistors
are
shown
on
4.1.
The most common type of transistor is called bipolar and these are divided into NPN and
PNP
types.
Their construction-material is most commonly silicon (their marking has the letter B) or
germanium (their marking has the letter A). Original transistor were made from
germanium, but they were very temperature-sensitive. Silicon transistors are much more
temperature-tolerant and much cheaper to manufacture.

DIODE
This is an electronic device that allows the passage of current in only one direction. The
first such devices were vacuum-tube diodes, consisting of an evacuated glass or steel
envelope containing two electrodesa cathode and an anode. Because electrons can flow
in only one direction, from cathode to anode, the vacuum-tube diode could be used as a
rectifier. The diodes most commonly used in electronic circuits today are semiconductor
diodes. The simplest of these, the germanium point-contact diode, dates from the early
days of radio, when the received radio signal was detected by means of a germanium
crystal and a fine, pointed wire that rested on it. In modern germanium (or silicon) pointcontact diodes, the wire and a tiny crystal plate are mounted inside a small glass tube and
connected to two wires that are fused into the ends of the tube.
This is called a BRIDGE or BRIDGE RECTIFIER. Examples of a bridge are shown in
the diagram below:

You must be able to identify each of the 4 leads on a bridge so that it can be inserted into
a circuit around the correct way. The surface-mount device above is identified by a cut @
45 along one side. The leaded bridge has one leg longer than the others and the top is

marked with AC marks and "+." The high-current bridge has a corner cut off and the other
surface-mount device has a cut or notch at one end.
These devices are added to a circuit as shown in the next diagram:

The 4 diodes face the same direction and this means a single diode can be shown on the
circuit diagram:

Symbols in 5.2 show a number of diodes. There are a number of specially-designed


diodes: for high current, high-speed, low voltage-drop, light-detection, and varying
capacitance as the voltage is altered. Most diodes are made from silicon as it will
withstand high temperature, however germanium is used if a low voltage-drop is required.
There is also a light emitting diode called a LED, but this is a completely different type of
diode.

Fig. 5.2: Diode symbols: a - standard diode, b - LED,


c, d - Zener, e - photo, f,g - tunnel, h - Schottky, i - breakdown,
j - capacitative
LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) are constructed from a crystalline substance that emits
light when a current flows through it. Depending on the crystalline material: red, yellow,

green, blue or orange light is produced. The photo below shows some of the colours hat
can be produced by LEDs:

BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION


MICROCONTROLLER UNIT (MCU)
The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K
bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using
Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industrystandard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program
memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory
programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on
a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a
highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The
AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM,
32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector
two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator, and clock
circuitry.
In this design the microcontroller forms the core of the system, meaning that all
mathematical and logical operation of the system is executed from within it.

POWER SUPPLY UNIT


the power supply ection is built around a conventional components and also run directly
from a 6VDC that is stabilised down to 5VDC for proper operation of the microcontroller.
Below is the power supply circuit when running from the utility supply.

As seen on the above figure, in order to enable microcontroller to operate properly it is


necessary to provide:

Obviously, all this is about very simple circuits, but it does not have to be always like that.
If device is used for handling expensive machines or for maintaining vital functions,
everything becomes more and more complicated! This kind of solution is quite enough
for the time being. The circuit, shown on the figure above, uses cheap voltage stabilisator
LM7805 and provides high-quality voltage level and quite enough current to enable
microcontroller and peripheral electronics to operate (sufficient current in this case
amounts to 1A)!

METHODOLOGY
In any given design there must be a set rules and regulation guiding it, in view of this our
project microcomputer based programmable water heater is not a left out.

Our design

was triggered off by first; trying to figure out how the project can be actualized, getting
the desired clue, surfing online to gather more Intel, and behold the Ideal was achieved.
Below are some of the steps taken during the hardware development of this project;

Block Diagram Design


A rough sketch on how the project would look like was first drawn, detailing all the
components blocks that would make-up the complete system.

Once drawn and checked

for consistency we proceeded to the second phase.

Schematic Design
Schematic design poses one of the most difficult constraints in the design of this project
because here for sure, we are dealing with discrete components that have one common

goal speak the language of electronics effectively this simply means that all sections of
the system should work in harmony with little deviation from the target.

Soldering
Soldering is the process of a making a sound electrical and mechanical joint between
certain metals by joining them with a soft solder. This is a low temperature melting point
alloy of lead and tin. The joint is heated to the correct temperature by soldering iron. For
most electronic work miniature mains powered soldering irons are used. These consist of
a handle onto which is mounted the heating element. On the end of the heating element is
what is known as the "bit", so called because it is the bit that heats the joint up. Solder
melts at around 190 degrees Centigrade, and the bit reaches a temperature of over 250
degrees Centigrade. This temperature is pretty hot enough to inflict a nasty burn,
consequently care should be taken.
Good soldering is a skill that is learnt by practice. The most important point in soldering
is that both parts of the joint to be made must be at the same temperature. The solder will
flow evenly and make a good electrical and mechanical joint only if both parts of the joint
are at an equal temperature. Even though it appears that there is a metal to metal contact
in a joint to be made, very often there exists a film of oxide on the surface that insulates
the two parts. For this reason it is no good applying the soldering iron tip to one half of
the joint only and expecting this to heat the other half of the joint as well.

TESTING THE CIRCUIT


After the construction, the circuit was properly analyzed and short circuit and open
circuits were all corrected, the circuit is then powered.

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
All microcontroller embedded system runs on an internal firmware burnt into the chip or
outside the chip in a ROM. Our design uses the ever familiar MCU microcontroller unit
from Atmel semiconductors owing to the fact that its brand of MCU has a wider data I/O
lines for the job.
The firmware program was written in assembly language and compiled using the
ASEMW brand of macro cross-assembler to finally get the machine executable file.
Once the exec file is gotten, we downloaded it into the MCU internal flash memory
from where it is to be executed using a gadget called a Programmer.
Programmers are device used to get the executable file that resides in the computer
down to the microcontroller for final execution of the program.

CHAPTER FOUR
Introduction
There is nothing more dreadful than having to climb out of your car in the evening after a
long day at work to open your security gate. With a computer controlled automatic gate,
you can stay snugly inside your car until you get inside. The following morning, instead
of having to open the door, drive the car out, get out and close the door, and then crawl
back into the car, you simply click the button! In addition to an abundance of
convenience, this scheme provides safety.
Computer-Controlled Systems
Computer-controlled systems use an electronic module located directly above the security
gate (instead of a motor in the middle of the gate) to control the action. When it receives a
signal, the module evaluates the position of the door then activates motors on the door
itself to perform the necessary action. The block diagram below shows a simplified
system assembly of this scheme.

Fig 3.0 Block diagram of a computer controlled automatic gate with camera
THE SYSTEM DESIGN
The system design is premised along monitoring, controlling, and organizing the manual
based entrance and exit security gates operations to an automatic one using digital
computers

hardware

and

software

control

mechanisms

with

improvised

electromechanical systems that consists of a movable barricade and spiked barricade. This
system aims to control high voltage, high current, electromechanical devices and to
acquire video images with a digital camera. The input to the computer will consist of
sensors that signify presence and absence of automobile. The output of the computer will
be used to activate and deactivate the electromechanical devices introduced to the

entrance and exit security gates. In a bid to achieve these, five questions had to be
answered:
How will the presence or absence of an automobile be detected by the digital
computer?
How will the output of a digital computer be made compatible to drive the high
voltage/ current of the system?
How will the automobile be forced to allow the desired remote security
checkup(s)?
How will the camera be conveyed to the desired location (vertical and horizontal
movements) to give remote visual content of the vehicles boot?
What condition(s) or action(s) constitute the required security checks at the gate?

For the sensing control circuit, a simple photo-resistor will be used to detect the presence
and absence of an automobile on the developed entrance and exit security gates. The
74Ls04 Hex inverter/buffer integrated circuit chip is recommended to isolate electrically
the PC from the high current/voltage of the control circuit. The PC, will thus, impart the
desired intelligence onto the control circuit made up of direct current motor control
circuits for both reverse (open) and forward (close) movements using the saturation and
cut-off operation of C1815 fast-switching NPN transistors. The control circuit will
controls a DC motor.

THE SYSTEM CONTROL PROGRAM

The system control program directs the constructed electromechanical devices of the
entrance and exit security gates via the overall system interface unit. The software will be
developed with Microsoft Visual Basic .The software could perform the following
functional objectives:
Sensing the presence or absence of an automobile.
Directing the motorized camera subsystem to move in X-Y plane as the case may
be to locate the contents of an automobile boot based on the command from the
supervisor at the security centre.
Scan the content of an automobile boot and display the video image on a visual
display unit.
Open and Closes the motorized barricade on the road based on the result of scanned
automobile boot content based on the command from the supervisor at the security
centre.
Take a log of automobiles passing for any desired period.

THE SYSTEM OPERATION


The overview of the system operation is shown in Figure 3.0. The digital signal flowing
into the computer will enable the authorized security personnel at the security center to
know the presence of an automobile, control the motorized camera subsystem to move in
X-Y directions (as the case may be) in order to have a remote surveillance of the
automobiles boot, plate number, and drivers face. The system is rigged-up such that the
control of the motorized system for opening is engaged during a precise period for an
automobile to move out of the gate so that the exit sensor retriggers the gate drive back to

their previous states. By using this closed loop control, the desired flexible and cost
effective remote surveillance security system will achieved.

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION

This paper has successfully presented a functional, low cost computer controlled security
system that controls and monitors some of the operations at typical security gateposts.
Implementation of the surveillance system through the camera mounted on the DC
motorized-camera system helps to incorporate the intelligence of the human eye within
the system. A real-life equivalent of the prototype can be developed with minimal
development costs and with relatively low operational costs as compared to the present
manual operations for such check-points.
RECOMMENDATION
Electric gates alone, however solid and imposing they may be, cannot guarantee a totally
secure environment. Electric gates are recommended to be used in combination with other
security features to install a full security system.
Aside from the additional security features that should go with parking barrier gates,
electric security gates often offer safety features like sensors that determine when there is
an obstruction to prevent the electronic gate from swinging into a vehicle or closing on
somebody's hands. To prevent the electronic gates from being damaged by irresponsible
drivers driving fast speed bumps are also commonly placed before gate entrances to slow
down vehicles.
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