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# Midterm Examination

## AV-611: Linear Feedback Control Systems, Spring 2014

Mar 20 Mar 24, 2014

Name:

1.
2.
3.
4.

## Due: 5pm, Monday, Mar 24, 2014, NO EXCEPTIONS

Problems are weighted equally.
Arguments should be stated clearly and concisely to receive maximum credit.
You are not allowed to consult with each other or any other person. I will
check for similarities in your work and I can figure out if you have copied
from each other. In case of similarities no credits will be given to either of
you.
I can be reached via email (preferably) or phone for any clarification. Dont

..
..
..
..

## Sign the honor code:

I have given nor received aid on this exam, nor have I concealed any violation of
the honor code.

Signature: ..

Problem 1:
In many control applications, the goal is to use the control input, u, to attenuate the effect of the
disturbance, d, upon a performance output, z. Often z is not measured for feedback, and instead
the control input must be generated using a different measurement, y. the result is a feedback
architecture as shown in Fig. We will assume for simplicity that all the transfer functions are single
input, single output (SISO).
Suppose that Gyd , Gzu , and Gzd are all stable. then K will stabilize the system in Fig. 1
if and only if K stabilizes Gyu . Equivalently, the system is stable if and only if the four transfer
functions,
(1 Gyu K)1 , Gyu K(1 Gyu K)1 , K(1 Gyu K)1 , (1 Gyu K)1 Gyu

(1)

d
Gzd
Gyd
z

Gzu

y
Gyu

## Figure 1: Feedback system for disturbance attenuation with different z & y

We say that a transfer function G is identically zero if G(s) = 0, s, and denote this condition by
G 0.
1. Find an expression for Tzd , the closed loop transfer function from d to z.
2. Find an expression for the controller K that will set Tzd 0. (Dont worry about whether or
not this controller stabilizes the system or is proper.) Will such a controller always exists? If
not, state necessary and sufficient conditions for the controller to exist.
3. Assume that the performance output is measured, so that Gzd = Gyd and Gzu = Gyu . Will
the controller from (2) exist under these conditions? Show that in this case Tzd reduces to,
Tzd = (1 Gyu K)1 Gzd

(2)

Sketch the block diagram of this system, showing how it simplifies in this special case.
4. Assume that the disturbance enters at the control input, so that Gzd = Gzu and Gyd = Gyu .
Will the controller from (2) exist under these conditions? Show that in this case Tzd reduces
to,
Tzd = Gzd (1 Gyu K)1
(3)
1

Sketch the block diagram of this system, showing how it simplifies in this special case.
5. For each of cases (3)-(4), suggest a strategy for achieving disturbance attenuation.
6. Consider the coupled mass system shown in Figure 2. Will the controller from part (2) result

k1

k2
m1

b1

k3
m2
b3

b2
y=q1

q1

z=q2

q2
Figure 2: Coupled Masses
in a stable feedback system? Either prove that the controller stabilizes the system, or show
that it does not by exhibiting a closed loop transfer function that is unstable.
The various transfer functions are given by,
Gzd (s) =

s(s + 1)
,
D(s)

Gyd (s) =

Gzu (s) =

s(s2 + 2s + 2)
,
D(s)

s(s2 + 2s + 2)
D(s)

(4)

s(s + 1)
D(s)

(5)

Gyd (s) =

where,
D(s) = s4 + 4s3 + 7s2 + 6s + 3

(6)

Problem 2:
Consider the advanced technology diesel engine depicted in Fig. 3. This engine has two novel
actuators, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The
presence of the EGR actuator implies that some of the gases in the exhaust maniffold will reenter
the intake manifold, and thus the intake manifold will contain burned fuel. The turbocharger
converts some of the energy of the exhaust gas into mechanical energy that drives a compressor, thus
increasing the density of air supplied to the engine. By varying the geometry of the turbocharger
vanes, the air flow to the engine can be controlled.
Wt

Ntc

cegr
Wegr
wf
m2

Wcyl

P2
F2

m1
P1

Engine

F1

Figure 3: Diesel engine with exhaust gas recirculation and a variable geometry turbocharger
It is desired to use these actuators in a feedback control scheme for the purpose of regulating
F1 , the fraction of burned gas in the intake manifold, and AF R, the ratio of air to fuel in the
cylinder. These variables are known to be closely connected with emissions of smoke and oxides of
nitrogen, both harmful pollutants. Unfortunately, neither F1 not AF R is measureable for real time
feedback control. However, sensors do exist for the Wcl , the airflow though the compressor, and
p1 , the pressure in the intake manifold. Hence in this control problem the performance outputs,
measured outputs, and control inputs are,

EGR
egr
F1
Wcl
(7)
z=
, y=
, u=
=
p1
V GT
nzl
AF R
respectively.
Consider a small signal model of the engine linearized about an operating condition that yields
optimum emissions reduction, and henceforth let y, z, and u denote deviations from these nominal
values. Let Py (s) and Pz (s) denote the transfer functions from u to y and z, respectively. It may
be determined experimentally that,

0.84 1.80
0.23 0.55
Py (0) =
, Pz (0) =
(8)
1.1 2.1
0.90 1.84
1. Propose a control architecture that will allow setpoint commands to y to be tracked with zero
steady state error despite the presence of small parameter uncertainty and step disturbances.
3

2. Modify your control architecture from (1) so that setpoint commands to z can be tracked
with zero steady state error. What effect will small errors in Pz (0) and/or Py (0) have upon
the ability to track z commands?
3. Compute the steady state value of the control signal needed to track a command z = [1 1]T .
Also compute the resulting steady state values of the measured outputs, y.
4. Let a state variable description of the engine be given by,
x = Ax + Bu + Ed
y = Cy x
z = Cz x
where d denotes a disturbance. Suppose that d is a step disturbance, d(t) = d0 1(t). Then the
controller from (1) will, in steady state, reject the effect of this disturbance upon measured
outputs y. Under what conditions on E will this controller also reject the effect that the
disturbance has upon the performance outputs z?

Problem 3:
Solve Problem 3.7 from the course book (page-122).

Problem 4:
Consider a state variable description of a double integrator. Let 1 and 2 denote the
position and velocity states, respectively. Then
1
0
+
0
1
= [1 0]

0
0

## Suppose we wish to stabilize this system using state feedback, = + , where is

chosen so that the DC gain from to is equal to unity. One approach is to solve the
optimal linear regulator problem with cost function,

= ( + 2 ) ,

12
0

0
,
22

= 2

1. Show that the closed loop eigenvalues have damping ratio no smaller than = 0.7.
2. Show that decreasing the penalty on the velocity state shortens the rise time and
increases the overshot in the step response. (Define rise time as the time taken for the
unit step response to go from 0.1 to 0.9, and overshot as the maximum amount by which
the unit step response exceeds one).
3. Suppose that is fixed, and that the control cost is allowed to vary. What trends do
you expect to see in rise time and overshoot when is very large? When is very small?
For reference, Fig. 4 contains step response plots for the linear system,
() =

2
2 + 2 + 2

5