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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Ultra low power IEEE 802.15.4 compliant


wireless sensor module

Humidity, Light, and Temperature sensors with USB

Product Description
Tmote Sky is an ultra low power wireless
module for use in sensor networks,
monitoring applications, and rapid
application prototyping. Tmote Sky
leverages industry standards like USB and
IEEE 802.15.4 to interoperate seamlessly
with other devices. By using industry
standards, integrating humidity,
temperature, and light sensors, and
providing flexible interconnection with
peripherals, Tmote Sky enables a wide
range of mesh network applications.
Tmote Sky is a drop-in replacement for Moteivs successful Telos design. Tmote Sky includes
increased performance, functionality, and expansion. With TinyOS support out-of-the-box,
Tmote leverages emerging wireless protocols and the open source software movement. Tmote
Sky is part of a line of modules featuring on-board sensors to increase robustness while
decreasing cost and package size.

Key Features

250kbps 2.4GHz IEEE 802.15.4 Chipcon Wireless Transceiver


Interoperability with other IEEE 802.15.4 devices
8MHz Texas Instruments MSP430 microcontroller (10k RAM, 48k Flash)
Integrated ADC, DAC, Supply Voltage Supervisor, and DMA Controller
Integrated onboard antenna with 50m range indoors / 125m range outdoors
Integrated Humidity, Temperature, and Light sensors
Ultra low current consumption
Fast wakeup from sleep (<6s)
Hardware link-layer encryption and authentication
Programming and data collection via USB
16-pin expansion support and optional SMA antenna connector
TinyOS support : mesh networking and communication implementation
Complies with FCC Part 15 and Industry Canada regulations

Moteiv Corporation

Tmote Sky : Datasheet (2/6/2006)

Page 1 of 28

Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Table of Contents
Module Description .......................................................................................................................3
Power ....................................................................................................................................4
Typical Operating Conditions ................................................................................................4
Mechanical Characteristics ...................................................................................................5
Block Diagram.......................................................................................................................6
Schematic .............................................................................................................................7
Microprocessor .............................................................................................................................9
Description ............................................................................................................................9
Typical Operating Conditions ................................................................................................9
PC Communication ...............................................................................................................9
Programming.......................................................................................................................10
Block Diagram.....................................................................................................................12
Radio...........................................................................................................................................13
Description ..........................................................................................................................13
Typical Operating Conditions ..............................................................................................14
Measured Output Power .....................................................................................................14
Antenna.......................................................................................................................................15
Internal Antenna without Battery Pack ................................................................................15
Internal Antenna with Battery Pack .....................................................................................15
Radiation Pattern ................................................................................................................16
External Flash .............................................................................................................................17
Typical Operating Conditions ..............................................................................................17
Flash Hardware Write Protection ........................................................................................18
Sensors.......................................................................................................................................19
Humidity/Temperature Sensor ............................................................................................19
Light Sensors ......................................................................................................................20
Expansion Connector..........................................................................................................21
Internal Temperature and Voltage Monitoring.....................................................................23
Agency Certification ....................................................................................................................24
FCC Certification.................................................................................................................24
FCC OEM Labeling Requirement .......................................................................................24
Industry Canada OEM Labeling Requirement ....................................................................24
Regulatory Notices..............................................................................................................25
General Information ....................................................................................................................26
Document History................................................................................................................26
Product Status Definitions...................................................................................................26
Disclaimer ...........................................................................................................................27
Address Information ............................................................................................................28
Headquarters ......................................................................................................................28

Moteiv Corporation

Tmote Sky : Datasheet (2/6/2006)

Page 2 of 28

Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Module Description
The Tmote Sky module is a low power mote with integrated sensors, radio, antenna,
microcontroller, and programming capabilities.

User
Button

USB Transmit LED

Humidity
Photosynthetically
Temperature
Active Radiation
Sensor
Sensor
(optional)
Reset
(optional)
Total Solar
Button
Radiation
6-pin expansion
Sensor
connector
(optional)

10-pin expansion
connector

USB
Connector
Internal
Antenna

USB Receive LED

USB
Microcontroller

LEDs

JTAG
connector

Digital switch
Isolating USB from
microcontroller

Texas Instruments
MSP430 F1611
microcontroller

CC2420
Radio

SMA
Antenna
Connector
(optional)

48-bit silicon
serial ID

2-pin SVS
connector

USB
Flash (2kB)

32kHz
oscillator

ST Code
Flash (1MB)

Figure 1 : Front and Back of the Tmote Sky module


Moteiv Corporation

Tmote Sky : Datasheet (2/6/2006)

Page 3 of 28

Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Power
Tmote Sky is powered by two AA batteries. The module was designed to fit the two AA battery
form factor. AA cells may be used in the operating range of 2.1 to 3.6V DC, however the
voltage must be at least 2.7V when programming the microcontroller flash or external flash.
If the Tmote Sky module is plugged into the USB port for programming or communication, it will
receive power from the host computer. The mote operating voltage when attached to USB is
3V. If Tmote will always be attached to a USB port, no battery pack is necessary.
The 16-pin expansion connector (described in the Section on page 17) can provide power to the
module. Any of the battery terminal connections may also provide power to the module. At no
point should the input voltage exceed 3.6Vdoing so may damage the microcontroller, radio, or
other components.

Typical Operating Conditions


Supply voltage
Supply voltage during flash memory programming
Operating free air temperature
Current Consumption: MCU on, Radio RX
Current Consumption: MCU on, Radio TX
Current Consumption: MCU on, Radio off
Current Consumption: MCU idle, Radio off
Current Consumption: MCU standby

MIN
2.1
2.7
-40

NOM

21.8
19.5
1800
54.5
5.1

MAX
3.6
3.6
85
23
21
2400
1200
21.0

UNIT
V
V
o
C
mA
mA
A
A
A

Caution!
ESD
sensitive
device.
Precaution should be used when handling
the device in order to prevent permanent
damage.

Moteiv Corporation

Tmote Sky : Datasheet (2/6/2006)

Page 4 of 28

Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Mechanical Characteristics
O n -b o a rd a n t e n n a ; d o n o t c o v e r
w it h c o n d u c t in g m a t e ria ls

3
6
1.267

5
2

.513

2.580
3.163

.256

Tag
1
2
3
4
5
6

X
0.183
2.454
2.454
0.755
1.099
2.139

Y
Size
Notes
0.099 0.090 Mounting hole, do not use metal fixture
0.099 0.090 Mounting hole
1.151 0.090 Mounting hole
0.162 0.066 Pin 1 of 10-pin 0.1in rect IDC connector
0.163 0.066 Pin 1 of 6-pin 0.1in rect IDC connector
0.909 0.034 Pin 1 of 8-pin 2mm rect JTAG connector
Figure 2 : Physical dimensions of Tmote Sky.
All units are in inches unless otherwise noted.

Width
Length
Height (without battery pack and SMA antenna)

Moteiv Corporation

MIN
1.24
2.55
0.24

Tmote Sky : Datasheet (2/6/2006)

NOM
1.26
2.58
0.26

MAX
1.29
2.60
0.27

UNIT
in
in
in

Page 5 of 28

Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Block Diagram
PCB
Antenna

CC2420 Radio
2.4 GHz
IEEE 802.15.4 compliant

SMA
Coax

SPI

4
Power

PAR
Sensor

ADC[4]

TSR
Sensor

ADC[5]

JTAG 8-pin
2mm IDC header

JTAG

SPI[0]

I/O

P1[0,3,4]
P4[1,5,6]

TI MSP430 Microcontroller

UART[0]

I2C[0]

ADC[0-3,6-7]

GPIO

Reset

10-pin + 6-pin
IDC header

Humidity
Temperature
Sensor

Silicon Serial ID
1-wire

I/O

User
UART[1] Reset
P1.1/P2.2 TCK I2C[0]
2

Power

SVSin

RX/TX RTS/DTR
JTAG

USB 2.0
UART/RS232
Functionality

SVS 2-pin
IDC header

SPI[0] SVSout

Write Protection

ST Flash
1024k (2.7V)

Figure 3 : Functional Block Diagram of the Tmote Sky module, its components, and buses

Moteiv Corporation

Tmote Sky : Datasheet (2/6/2006)

Page 6 of 28

Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Schematic
5

R1

S E N S OR S

RESET

LED2

P5.5/SMCLK

49

P5.1/SIMO1

45

P5.0/STE1

44

P6.7/A7/DAC1/SVSIN
Vref+

XIN

XOUT/TCLK

10

43

P4.6/TB6

42

P4.5/TB5

41

P4.4/TB4

40
39

F L A SH _ H O L D
R A D I O _ R E S ET
R A D I O _ V R EF_ EN
F L A SH _ C S
Pr e v Fl a s h Pwr
RADIO_CS
R A DIO_SFD

P4.0/TB0

36

P3.7/URXD1

35

UART1RX

P3.6/UTXD1

34

UART1TX

P3.5/URXD0

33

UART0RX

L2
1
2
F Be a d 2 4 0 - 1 0 3 5 - 1

UART0RX

UART0TX

I 2 C _ SC L

I 2 C _ SD A

10

10

SW2

A DC3

U 28

EVQ-P2K02Q
C9
0 .1 u

0 open
A DC7
DAC1 / SVSi n
G IO 3
DMAE0
RESET
6

R 15

M O U N T ING HO L ES

S V S out
0 open

6 pin Header

1
P3.4/UTXD0

J TA G

32

U8

J10

TDO

TDO

TDI

TDI

TMS

TMS

TCK

TCK

J11

DV CC
DV CC

D4

S
Q
W
Vss

L ED 1

D5

U5

1
2
3
4

R7

R e d C l e a r - 404-1017-1-ND
470

F L A SH
F L A SH _ C S
R A D IO_ SO
P_DVCC

J12
No n p l a t e d
n e ar ant enna

L EDS

RESET

8 p i n H e a d e r - 2m m

R2
2.2k

Vcc
HOLD
C
D

8
7
6
5

DV CC
F L A SH _ H OL D
R A D I O_ SC L K
RADIO_SI

R8

L ED 2

G r e e n C lear - 4 0 4 - 1 0 2 1 - 1 - N D
220

C6
0 .1 u

R9

D6

L ED 3

B l u e C le a r - 4 0 4 - 1 0 2 8 - 1 - N D
100

S E R IA L ID

U9
1Wire

I/O Vcc
GND

2
3

Title

DV CC

Tel o s
Size
B

D S2 4 1 1

D a te:
4

D o c u ment Number

R ev
B

(c ) Co p y r i g h t 2004: UC B er k el ey
Wednesday, September 29, 2004

S h eet

of

C 64
1 0 u F L o w E SR < 5 o h m

NC

39

37

38
XOSC16_Q2

CC24K_DVDD

40

CC24K_DVDD3

41
VREG_EN

VREG_OUT

42

44

43

45
R_BIAS

VREG_IN

AVDD_IF1

47

46
ATEST2

AVDD_XOSC16

32

R A D I O_ SC L K

CSn

31

RADIO_CS

FIFO

30

R A D IO _ G IO 0

FIFOP

29

CCA

28

R A D IO _ G IO 1

AVDD_SW

SFD

27

R A DIO_SFD

DVDD1.8

26

C C 2 4 K _ D VD D

DVDD3.3

25

C C 2 4 K _ D VD D 3

PKT_INT

DSUB_CORE

24

RESETn
21

13

NC

2 . 4 GHz ma t c h i n g n e t wo r k

CC2420

DGUARD

NC
DGND_GUARD

NC

12

20

11

DSUB_PADS

RF_N

19

C 81
0 . 5 p + / - 0 .2 5 p n p 0

RADIO_SI

SCLK

GND

10

R 4 76
1 0k
R A D IO_ SO

2
7 .5 n 5 %

a t 2 . 4 GHz

TXRX_SWITCH

C C 2 4 K _ D VD D 3

R 4 74
10k

C C 2 4 K _ D VD D

DVDD_ADC

ma t c h e d t o 5 0 o h ms

RF_P

AVDD_ADC

L81
u s e 50 ohm t r ac es

33

GND

NC

SI

AVDD_RF1

5 . 6 p 1 0 % x5 r

34

18

SO

17

5 . 6 p + / - 0 .2 5 p n p 0

DVDD_RAM

AVDD_PRE

2
L61
7 .5 n 5 %

AVDD_VCO

16

L62
5 .6 n 5 %
C 71

C C 2 4 K _ D VD D 3

36
35

C C 2 4 K_ AVD D

NC

C 3 81
2 2 p 5% np0

1 6 MH Z - 1 6pf

GND_EX

AVDD_IF2

0 . 5 p + / - 0 .2 5 p n p 0

C 73

C391
2 2 p 5% np0
X1

VCO_GAURD U 10

AVDD_RF2

C 61

ATEST1

48

AVDD_CHP

49

15

CC24K_AVDD

A2
SMA

14

1
2
3

GND
GND
GND
RF GND

5
4
3
2

A1
C C 2 4 2 0 _ PC B_ AN T

DVCC
C8
0 .1 u

R 4 73
1m

R 4 75
0

R 4 51
43k 1%

L3
2
F Be a d 2 4 0 - 1 0 3 5 - 1
C7 i s o l a t i o n
0 .1 u

C C 2 4 K _ D VD D 3 1
R A D I O _ V R EF_ EN

XOSC16_Q1

C 87
0 .1 u

DGND

C 86
68p

23

C 85
0 .1 u

22

C 84
10n

CC24K_AVDD

C 83
68p

CC24K_AVDD

C C 2 4 K _ D VD D

U s e r IN T

M25P80

C 82
68p

R4
4 7 0k

U S E R S W I TC H

G IO 0
ACL K

A DC6
1 1
DAC0
G IO 2
3
Ti me r A Ca p t u r e 3
U s e r IN T
5 5

UART1RX

RESET

DV CC

R14

1 0 p i n H e a d e r - 0 .1 "

DV CC

C3
10uF

EVQ-P2K02Q

RADIO_SI

C C 2 4 K_ AVD D

DV CC

C2
0 . 1u

A DC1

R A D IO _ SO

DVCC

OPTI ONAL
R 12
1 0 0 k 1%

0 open

R A D I O_ SC L K

DV CC

C1
0 .1 u

D3
S1087-01 Photodiode

G IO 1

UART0TX

31
I2C_SCL RADIO_SCLK

P3.2/SOMI0

P3.0/STE0

P2.7/TA0

P3.1/SIMO0/SDA
29

30
RADIO_SO

I2C_SDA RADIO_SI

28

27

P2.6/ADC12CLK/DMAE0
GIO3

UserINT

26

P2.5/Rosc

P2.4/CA1/TA2

25

24
1Wire

P2.2/CAOUT/TA0/BSLRX

P2.1/TAINCLK

P2.3/CA0/TA1
23
GIO2

20

19

18

17
HUM_SDA

HUM_PWR

HUM_SCL

GIO0

P1.4/SMCLK

P1.7/TA2

P1.3/TA2

16

P1.6/TA1

15

P1.5/TA0

R A D I O _ G IO 0
R A D I O _ G IO 1

P2.0/ACLK

TI_MSP430_F1611

P3.3/UCLK0/SCL

38
37

P1.1/TA0/BSLTX

R 16

P4.1/TB1

P1.2/TA1

PW R _ C O NN

V C C in

A DC0

A DC2

P4.3/TB3

13

H U M_ S D A

A DC5

AV CC

P4.2/TB2

14

2SVS out

SW1

Vref-/VeREF-

P_DVCC

H U M_ S C L

U2

P1.0/TACLK

UART1TX

R E S E T S W I TC H

VeREF+

P_DVCC

SDA

E X P A N S ION

11

UART1TX

SCLK

OPTI ONAL
R 11
1 0 0 k 1%

12

22

PKT_INT

P4.7/TBCLK

MCU

21

GND

3 2kHz
R5
5 .1 M

GIO1

A DC7

2 p i n H e a d e r - 2m m

P6.5/A5

S V S in

S V S in 1

V C C in

P6.6/A6/DAC0

U7
V C C in

46

52

51

50
P5.6/ACLK

54

53
XT2IN

XT2OUT

P5.7/TBoutH/SVSOUT

TDI

TDO/TDI

55

56

TCK

TMS

57

58

47

P5.2/SOMI1

A DC6

LED3

SVSout

TDI

TDO

TCK

RESET

TMS

ADC0

P6.0/A0

RST/NMI

59

60

61

P5.3/UCLK1

P6.4/A4

1
C

P6.1/A1

P6.3/A3

D AC0

P6.2/A2

63

P5.4/MCLK

A DC4

DVcc

VCC
GND

D2
S1087 Photodiode

L ED 1

10k

SHT11
OPTI ONAL

A DC4

A DC3

UART1RX

U0

C5
0 .1 u

48

A DC5
X0

62

AVCC
DV CC

+
R 10
U3
HUMI DI TY/
TEMP SENSOR

AVss

AVcc

64

0 .1 u

DVss

U4

H U M_ P W R

ADC1

ADC2

1 0 0k

C4

P O WE R

C C 2 4 K_ AVD D
C C 2 4 K _ D VD D

C C 2 4 K _ D VD D

R A D I O _ R E SET

R472
1m

C C 2 4 K _ D VD D 3

Title

Tel o s
Size
B
D a te:
5

Moteiv Corporation

Tmote Sky : Datasheet (2/6/2006)

CC2420 802.15.4 Wi r el es s Rad i o

D o c u ment Num ber

R ev
B

(c ) Co p y r i g h t 2004: UC B er k el ey
Wednesday, September 29, 2004

S h eet

of

Page 7 of 28

Low Power Wireless Sensor Module


5

U S B P OW E R F I L T E R

MOTE POWER

USB INTERFA CE

D 22
U _ VCC

27
U _ VCC

USBDM

USBDP

1 .5k

5
4
27

X3
GND

E EC S
EESK
EEDATA

R 32
1m

2
1

6 M r e s o n a to r

28
32
1
2
31

13

TXD
RXD
RTS#
CTS#
DTR#
DSR#
DCD#
RI#

25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18

TXDEN
TXLED#
RXLED#

16
12
11

PWRCTL
PWREN#
SLEEP#

14
15
10

RSTOUT#
RESET#
XTIN
XTOUT
EECS
EESK
EEDATA
TEST

FT232BM

P_DVCC

P_DVCC

V C C in

V C C in

Vout

Vin

L L SD 1 0 3 A

R 29
1 0k

C25
10u

U _ VCC

U 25
T C 5 5 R P3 3

C 22
0 . 1u

VCCIO

26
VCC

30

3V3OUT

U SBU SB+
R 24

R 23

AVCC

R 22
27

C 24
0 . 1u

TXD
RXD
RTS
DSR
D TR

U S B ID E N T I F I C A T ION EEPROM
D20

R 25
D CD
RI

2
1 00

E EC S

CS

VC C

EESK

SK

NC

EEDATA
R 27

DIN

NC

DOUT

GND

G r e e n C lear - 4 0 4 - 1 0 2 1 - 1 - N D
D21

R 26

2
1 00

U 23

U _ V C C 3 .3

R e d C l e a r - 404-1017-1-ND

U _ VCC

2.2k
9 3 C46

GND

GND

3
2

AGND

U SB A

U 20

VCC

0 . 1u
C 21
33n

U 22

U _ V C C 3 .3

R 20
470
U_AVCC

C20

C 23
0 . 1u

GND

U _ VCC

2
F Be a d 2 4 0 - 1 0 3 5 - 1

P_DVCC

R28
U _ VCC

17

29

L20

Used for Reading Serial / Programming


Connects and Powered via USB

10k

I/O B UFFER

R E S E T S E QU E N C E R E C OGN ITION

1Y

P_DVCC
UART1TX

7
5

2OE
2A

2Y

UART1RXUART1RX
RXD

D TR
RTS

3
1
23
24
22

VCC

DV CC
TD O
TDI
TMS
TCK
TCK
R ESET

R 30
10k
TCK

SDA
SCLK
RST
A0
A1

21

P_DVCC

A D G 7 1 5 BR U
D8 1 9
D7 1 7
TDO
D6 15
TDI
D5 13
TMS
D4 12
TCK
D3 10
TC K
8
D2
RESET
6
D1

GND

1OE
1A

VSS

1
2

Gnd

UART1TX

P_DVCC
TXD

S8
S7
S6
S5
S4
S3
S2
S1

DV CC

D CD
RI
DSR
D TR

N C7W Z126

Vcc

U 29

U 27

20
18
16
14
11
9
7
5

DV CC

DVCC
DVCC

Title

Tel o s
Size
B
D a te:
5

USB In t er f ac e

D o c u ment Number

R ev
B

(c ) Co p y r i g h t 2004: UC B er k el ey
Wednesday, September 29, 2004

S h eet

of

Figure 4 : Schematics for the Tmote Sky module

Moteiv Corporation

Tmote Sky : Datasheet (2/6/2006)

Page 8 of 28

Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Microprocessor
Description
The low power operation of the Tmote Sky module is due to the ultra low power Texas
Instruments MSP430 F1611 microcontroller featuring 10kB of RAM, 48kB of flash, and 128B of
information storage. This 16-bit RISC processor features extremely low active and sleep
current consumption that permits Tmote to run for years on a single pair of AA batteries. The
MSP430 has an internal digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) that may operate up to 8MHz. The
DCO may be turned on from sleep mode in 6s, however 292ns is typical at room temperature.
When the DCO is off, the MSP430 operates off an eternal 32768Hz watch crystal. Although the
DCO frequency changes with voltage and temperature, it may be calibrated by using the 32kHz
oscillator.
In addition to the DCO, the MSP430 has 8 external ADC ports and 8 internal ADC ports. The
ADC internal ports may be used to read the internal thermistor or monitor the battery voltage.
A variety of peripherals are available including SPI, UART, digital I/O ports, Watchdog timer,
and Timers with capture and compare functionality. The F1611 also includes a 2-port 12-bit
DAC module, Supply Voltage Supervisor, and 3-port DMA controller.
The features of the MSP430 F1611 are presented in detail in the Texas Instruments
MSP430x1xx Family Users Guide available at http://ti.com/msp430.

Typical Operating Conditions


Supply voltage during program execution
Supply voltage during flash memory programming
Operating free air temperature
Low frequency crystal frequency
Active current at Vcc = 3V, 1MHz
Sleep current in LPM3 Vcc = 3V, 32.768kHz active
Wake up from LPM3 (low power mode)

MIN
1.8
2.7
-40

NOM

32.768
500
2.6

MAX
3.6
3.6
85
600
3.0
6

UNIT
V
V
o
C
kHz
A
A
s

PC Communication
Tmote Sky uses a USB controller from FTDI to communicate with the host computer. In order
to communicate with the mote, the FTDI drivers must be installed on the host. FTDI provides
drivers for Windows, Linux, BSD, Macintosh, and Windows CE. These drivers are included on
the Moteiv CD shipped with your order. Windows users will need the Virtual Com Port (VCP)
drivers. They may also be downloaded from FTDIs website at: http://www.ftdichip.com/
Tmote Sky appears as a COM port in Windows device manager (or as a device in /dev in
Linux, OSX, and BSD). Multiple Tmote Sky motes may be connected to a single computers
USB ports at the same time. Each mote will receive a different COM port identifier. In the
example below, one Tmote Sky is connected and assigned COM6 USB Serial Port.
An application may read from Tmote Sky by opening the COM port assigned to the Tmote Sky
module. Tmote communicates with the host PC through USART1 on the TI MSP430.
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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Figure 5 : Device Manager showing Tmote installed as COM6

The motelist command line utility lists all of the Tmote Sky modules currently connected to a
computer. This utility optionally lists previously connected motes that the system has cached.
Invoke motelist with the -h option for more information.
> motelist
Reference CommPort
Description
---------- ---------- ---------------------------------------M49WD0S6
COM6
Moteiv tmote sky

NOTE: Tmote Sky uses an I2C digital switch to prevent unwanted conventional serial port
signals from reaching the TI microcontroller. The I2C protocol must be implemented and
sent over the RTS and DTR lines in order to obtain direct access between Tmote Sky and
the USB controller. The UART lines do not use the I2C switch allowing direct
communication (but not programming or JTAG) without additional software.

Programming
The Tmote Sky module is programmed through the onboard USB connector. A modified
version of the MSP430 Bootstrap Loader, msp430-bsl, programs the microcontrollers flash.
Tmote Sky has a unique hardware circuit that prevents spurious resets. This hardware circuit
makes it necessary for a special sequence to be sent to the module in order to program it.
By invoking msp430-bsl, verify you have the patched BSL by looking for the telos keyword.
Version 1.39-telos-7 or later is required for Tmote Sky.
> msp430-bsl
MSP430 Bootstrap Loader Version: 1.39-telos-7
Use -h for help
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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

To communicate with Tmote Sky, the MSP430 Bootstrap Loader requires a set of options to
provide the proper signals to the microcontroller to initiate programming. For convenience, the
options have been folded into a single Tmote flag:
--tmote
To program a Tmote Sky module on COM6 (or /dev/ttyUSB5 in Linux) with an application
image named app.ihex, invoke the MSP430 Bootstrap loader with the following options.
> msp430-bsl --tmote -c 5 -r -e -I -p app.ihex
MSP430 Bootstrap Loader Version: 1.39-telos-7
Mass Erase...
Transmit default password ...
Invoking BSL...
Transmit default password ...
Current bootstrap loader version: 1.61 (Device ID: f16c)
Changing baudrate to 38400 ...
Program ...
2742 bytes programmed.
Reset device ...
If you are using TinyOS, it has support for programming Tmote Sky. After compiling your
application, you may install it with the following command
> make tmote install,x bsl,n
Where x is the 16-bit address assigned to the mote and n is the COM port that Tmote Sky is
currently using. Note that not including bsl or bsl,n will program automatically using the
bsl to the first Tmote Sky mote found on the USB bus using the motelist command.
For more information about the options in the MSP430 Bootstrap loader, invoke msp430-bsl
with the -h option to display the help information.
motelist and msp430-bsl are available from Moteiv Corporation at http://www.moteiv.com in
the Support section.
NOTE: msp430-bsl starts counting from 0, but COM ports in Windows start counting at 1.
If Tmote is connected to COM6 in Windows, you must program it using -c 5 or bsl,5
when invoking msp430-bsl. In Linux, Tmote Sky will appear as /dev/ttyUSB5 and may
be programmed using -c 5 or bsl,5.

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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Block Diagram
32kHz

Oscillator

Flash
ACLK

System
Clock

SMCLK

RAM

12-bit ADC
8 Channels
<10s Conv

12-bit DAC I/O Port 1/2 I/O Port 3/4 I/O Port 5/6
16 I/Os
16 I/Os
8 I/Os
2 Channels
Interrupts

MCLK
16-bit bus

CPU
16 bit
16 reg
multiply

DMA
Controller
3 Channels

Watchdog
Timer
15/16 bit

Timer A
3 CC reg

Timer B
7 CC reg

Comparator
A

USART0
UART
SPI
I 2C

USART1
UART
SPI

CC2420 Radio
Interrupts & SPI

PC
UART via USB

Figure 6 : Block diagram of the TI MSP430 microcontroller and its connection to other peripherals
in the Tmote module

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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Radio
Description
Tmote Sky features the Chipcon CC2420 radio for wireless communications. The CC2420 is an
IEEE 802.15.4 compliant radio providing the PHY and some MAC functions. With sensitivity
exceeding the IEEE 802.15.4 specification and low power operation, the CC2420 provides
reliable wireless communication. The CC2420 is highly configurable for many applications with
the default radio settings providing IEEE 802.15.4 compliance. Features and usage of the
CC2420 is available in Chipcons datasheet at http://www.chipcon.com
The CC2420 is controlled by the TI MSP430 microcontroller through the SPI port and a series of
digital I/O lines and interrupts (see the Schematics on page 7 for more information). The radio
may be shut off by the microcontroller for low power duty cycled operation.
The CC2420 has programmable output power. Common CC2420 register values and their
corresponding current consumption and output power are shown in Figure 7.
PA_LEVEL
31
27
23
19
15
11
7
3

Current Consumption [mA]


TXCTRL register Output Power [dBm]
0xA0FF
0
17.4
0xA0FB
-1
16.5
0xA0F7
-3
15.2
0xA0F3
-5
13.9
0xA0EF
-7
12.5
0xA0EB
-10
11.2
0xA0E7
-15
9.9
0xA0E3
-25
8.5
Figure 7 : Output power configuration for the CC2420

The CC2420 provides a digital received signal strength indicator (RSSI) that may be read any
time. Additionally, on each packet reception, the CC2420 samples the first eight chips,
calculates the error rate, and produces a link quality indication (LQI) value with each received
packet. A mapping from RSSI to the RF level in dBm is shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8 : Received Signal Strength Indicator mapping to RF Power [dBm]


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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Typical Operating Conditions


Supply voltage during radio operation (Vreg on)
Operating free air temperature
RF frequency range
Transmit bit rate
Nominal output power
Programmable output power range
Receiver sensitivity
Current consumption: Radio transmitting at 0 dBm
Current consumption: Radio receiving
Current consumption: Radio on, Oscillator on
Current consumption: Idle mode, Oscillator off
Current consumption: Power Down mode, Vreg off
Voltage regulator current draw
Radio oscillator startup time

MIN
2.1
-40
2400
250
-3
-90

13

NOM

MAX
3.6
85
2483.5
250

0
40
-94
17.4
19.7
365
20
1
29
860

20
580

UNIT
V
o
C
MHz
kbps
dBm
dBm
dBm
mA
mA

Measured Output Power


The RF output power of the Tmote Sky module from the CC2420 radio is shown in Figure 9.
For this test, the Tmote Sky module is transmitting at 2.405GHz (IEEE 802.15.4 channel 11)
using the O-QPSK modulation with DSSS. The CC2420 programmed output power is set to 0
dBm. The measured output power of the entire modulated spectrum is 2.4 dBm.
0
RWB: 100 kHz
VWB: 100 kHz
Sweep: 50ms

10

Output power (dBm)

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50
2.4

2.401

2.402

2.403

2.404
2.405
2.406
Frequency (GHz)

2.407

2.408

2.409

2.41

Figure 9 : Measured RF output power over the modulated spectrum from the Tmote Sky module

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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Antenna
Tmote Skys internal antenna is an Inverted-F microstrip design protruding from the end of the
board away from the battery pack. The Inverted-F antenna is a wire monopole where the top
section is folded down to be parallel with the ground plane. Although not a perfect
omnidirectional pattern, the antenna may attain 50-meter range indoors and upwards of 125meter range outdoors. Measurements of the internal antennas performance with and without a
battery pack are show in Figure 10 and Figure 11. Approximate radiation patterns for the
Inverted-F antenna as provided by Chipcon AS are shown in Figure 12 and Figure 13.

Internal Antenna without Battery Pack


0

2004/11/25 Thr 14:44:06


CH2 S11

SMITH(R+jX)

FS

1.000
MKR 3: 2.483 958 333GHz
65.166
4.083

5
1

10

Cor

15

Log(|S11|) (dB)

20

25

30

35

1
40

1:2.400 000GHz
2:2.450 000GHz
3:2.483 958GHz

40.014
39.757
65.041

START 2.3GHz

-40.598
-4.623
4.227

[ 10.00 dBm]

1.633pF
14.050pF
270.843pH
STOP 2.55GHz

1:
2:
3:
45 4:

2.400 GHz
2.450 GHz
2.485 GHz
2.500 GHz

50
2.3

2.325

7.40 dB
16.58 dB
16.58 dB
12.50 dB

2.35

2.375

2.4

2.425

2.45

2.475

2.5

2.525

2.55

Frequency (GHz)

Figure 10 : S11 measurements for the internal inverted-F antenna when no battery pack is present

Internal Antenna with Battery Pack


0

2004/11/25 Thr 14:49:13


CH2 S11

SMITH(R+jX)

FS

1.000
MKR 3: 2.483 958 333GHz
57.265
7.168

5
1
10

Cor

Log(|S11|) (dB)

15

20
3
25

30

2
35

40

1:2.400 000GHz
2:2.450 000GHz
3:2.483 958GHz
START 2.3GHz

38.610
34.763
57.205

-49.225
-8.204
7.146

[ 10.00 dBm]

1.347pF
7.917pF
457.900pH
STOP 2.55GHz

1:
2:
3:
45 4:

2.400 GHz
2.450 GHz
2.485 GHz
2.500 GHz

50
2.3

2.325

5.10 dB
13.27 dB
20.92 dB
12.24 dB

2.35

2.375

2.4

2.425

2.45

2.475

2.5

2.525

2.55

Frequency (GHz)

Figure 11 : S11 measurements for the internal inverted-F antenna with battery pack underneath
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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Radiation Pattern

Figure 12 : Radiated pattern of the Inverted-F antenna with horizontal mounting (from Chipcon AS)

Figure 13 : Radiated pattern of the Inverted-F antenna with vertical mounting (from Chipcon AS)

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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

External Flash
Tmote Sky uses the ST M25P80 40MHz serial code flash for external data and code storage.
The flash holds 1024kB of data and is decomposed into 16 segments, each 64kB in size. The
flash shares SPI communication lines with the CC2420 transceiver. Care must be taken when
reading or writing to flash such that it is interleaved with radio communication, typically
implemented as a software arbitration protocol for the SPI bus on the microcontroller.
DVCC
U5
FLASH_CS
RADIO_SO

P 4.4
P _DVCC

USB Power
R29
10k

1
2
3
4

S
Q
W
Vss

Vcc
HOLD
C
D

8
7
6
5

DVCC
FLASH_HOLD
R ADIO_SCLK
RADIO_SI

P 4.7

M25P80

Figure 14 : External serial flash schematic

Typical Operating Conditions


Supply voltage during flash memory programming
Operating free air temperature
Erase/Programming cycles
Data Retention
Active current (READ)
Active current (WRITE/ERASE)
Standby current
Deep Power Down current

MIN
2.7
-40

NOM

8
1

MAX
3.6
85
100,000
20
4
20
50
10

UNIT
V
o
C
cycles
years
mA
mA
A

NOTE: The ST M25P-series of code flash always starts in the standby state. For low
power applications, the flash must be sent a command at boot time to place it in the deep
power down mode. If using TinyOS, the flash is automatically put into deep power down
mode and must be instructed to exit deep power down mode the first time the flash is
accessed. See the ST M25P80 datasheet for more information.
http://www.st.com/stonline/books/pdf/docs/8495.pdf

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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Flash Hardware Write Protection


The flash includes hardware write protection functionality. The write protection exists on a
sector basis as shown in Figure 16. The hardware write protection pin (Pin 3 of the M25P80
shown in Figure 14) only disables write protection when the module is powered by the USB port.
When connected to USB, the status register must be updated by removing the write protect and
block protect bits in Figure 15. The write protected segments may only be changed after the
module connected to USB and the write protect bit is cleared.
Tmote Sky ships with sector 15 (the upper sixteenth sector) write protected and the SRWD bit
set. In sector 15 is the Golden Image and factor metadata. The Golden Image is a factory
program image that includes network reprogramming so that Tmote Sky may always return to a
known good state, even if loaded with a malfunctioning program image. When Tmote Sky is
connected to the USB, the Golden Image may be changed. See the TinyOS Deluge
documentation in tinyos-1.x/docs of the TinyOS distribution included with Tmote.
b7
SRWD

b0
0

BP2

BP1

BP0

WEL

WIP

Status Register
Write Protect
Block Protect Bits
Write Enable Latch Bit
Write In Progress Bit

Figure 15 : ST M25P80 Status Register contents (from ST).

Status Register Content


Memory Content (Sectors)
BP2 Bit BP1 Bit BP0 Bit Protected Area
Unprotected Area
0
0
0
None
All sectors (0-15)
0
0
1
Upper sixteenth (15)
Lower fifteen-sixteenths (0-14)
0
1
0
Upper eighth (14-15)
Lower seven-eighths (0-13)
0
1
1
Upper quarter (12-15)
Lower three-quarters (0-11)
1
0
0
Upper half (8-15)
Lower half (0-7)
1
0
1
All sectors (0-15)
None
1
1
0
All sectors (0-15)
None
1
1
1
All sectors (0-15)
None
Figure 16 : Write protection settings for the ST M25P80 flash.
Tmote Sky modules are shipped with the gray setting (001).

NOTE: When programming data to write protected segments of external flash, do not
disconnect the module before the programming is completely. If the module is
disconnected from the USB, the write may be interrupted or the status register may not be
updated to reflect the new write protection settings.

Moteiv Corporation

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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Sensors
Humidity/Temperature Sensor
The optional humidity/temperature sensor is manufactured by Sensirion AG. The SHT11 and
SHT15 models may be directly mounted on the Tmote module in the U3 component position.
The SHT11/SHT15 sensors are calibrated and produce a digital output. The calibration
coefficients are stored in the sensors onboard EEPROM. The difference between the SHT11
and SHT15 model is that the SHT15 produces higher accuracy readings as shown in Figure 18.
The sensor is produced using a CMOS process and is coupled with a 14-bit A/D converter. The
low power relative humidity sensor is small in size and may be used for a variety of
environmental monitoring applications.
More information can be found in the SHT1x datasheet available at http://www.sensirion.com

Parameter
Humidity
Resolution
Repeatability
Range
Temperature
Resolution

MIN

TYP

MAX

Units

0.5
8

0.03
12
0.1

0.03
12

%RH
Bit
%RH
%RH

Relative Humidity absolute accuracy

Temperature accuracy

2 C

SHT15

0.01
0.02
14

3 C

SHT11

0.01
0.02
14
0.1
0.2

C
F
bit
o
Repeatability
C
o
F
Range
-40
123.8 oC
-40
254.9 oF
Figure 17 : Sensirion relative humidity and temperature performance specifications

%RH
5

0.04
0.07
12

100

SHT15

1
0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

%RH

3.6 F

SHT11

1 C

5.4 F

1.8 F

0 C

0 F
-40C
-40F

0C
32F

40C
104F

80C
176F

120C
248F

Figure 18 : Accuracy of Sensirion relative humidity and temperature sensors (courtesy Sensirion)

Moteiv Corporation

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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Light Sensors
A variety of light sensors may be used with Tmote Sky. Tmote Sky has connections for two
photodiodes. Moteiv currently uses photodiodes from Hamamatsu Corporation
(http://www.hamamatsu.com)
If your mote is populated with light photodiodes, the default diodes are the S1087 for sensing
photosynthetically active radiation and the S1087-01 for sensing the entire visible spectrum
including infrared
Although these photodiodes from Hamamatsu have been tested with Tmote Sky, any
photodiode with similar physical dimensions may be used with Tmote Sky.
(Typ. Ta=25oC)

0.7
S1087-01

PHOTO SENSITIVITY (A/W)

0.6
0.5

QE=100 %

0.4
0.3
0.2

S1087

0.1
0
200

400

600

800

1000

WAVELENGTH (nm)

Figure 19 : Photo Sensitivity of the Light sensors on Tmote Sky (from Hamamatsu)

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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Expansion Connector
Tmote Sky has two expansion connectors and a pair of onboard jumpers that may configured so
that additional devices (analog sensors, LCD displays, and digital peripherals) may be
controlled by the Tmote Sky module. On the far side of the board from the USB connector is a
10-pin IDC header at position U2 and a 6-pin IDC header at U28. The 10-pin connector has the
same connections as Tmote Sky and is the primary connector. It provides digital input and
output signals as well as and analog inputs. Peripherals may be connected to the 10-pin
connector using an IDC header, an IDC ribbon cable, or by designing a printed circuit board that
solders directly on to the IDC header providing a robust connection to the module. An additional
6-pin (U28) header provides access to the exclusive features of Tmote Sky. Two additional
ADC inputs are provided that may be reconfigured by software to be two 12-bit DAC outputs.
ADC7 may also act as the input to the supply voltage supervisor. The user interface
elementsthe reset and user buttonsare exported by the 6-pin header for use in external
interfaces and packaging.

Analog VCC (AVcc))

UART Receive (UART0RX)

Analog Input 0 (ADC0)

UART Transmit (UART0TX)

Analog Input 1 (ADC1)

I2C Clock (I2C_SCL)


Shared Digital I/O 4 (GIO4)

Analog Input 2 (ADC2)


Exclusive Digital I/O 1 (GIO1)

Analog Ground (Gnd))

10

I2C Data (I2C_SDA)


Shared Digital I/O 5 (GIO5)
Analog Input 3 (ADC3)
Exclusive Digital I/O 0 (GIO0)

Figure 20 : Functionality of the 10-pin expansion connector (U2).


Alternative pin uses are shown in gray.

Analog Input 6 (ADC6)


DAC0

Analog Input 7 (ADC7)


DAC 1 / SVS in

Exclusive Digital I/O 2 (GIO2)


Timer A Capture (TA1)

Exclusive Digital I/O 3 (GIO3)


External DMA Trigger (DMAE0)

User Interrupt (UserInt))

Reset

Figure 21 : Functionality of the 6-pin expansion connector (U28).

NOTE: The I2C pins are shared with the radios data input pin and the radio clock. Care
must be taken by application developers to multiplex operations on the I2C bus and the
radio.
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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module


If expansion pin 10 (ADC3) is used to generate microcontroller interrupts instead of digital I/O
and analog input functionality, R14 must be populated with a 0 ohm resistor to enable the pin
for digital I/O (GIO0) on the microcontroller. R16 must be populated with a 0 ohm resistor to
enable GIO1. R14 and R16 are located on the top side of Tmote Sky between the USB
controller and the radio.
NOTE: When R14/R16 is populated (GIO0/GIO1 enabled), ADC3/ADC2 will not provide
reliable readings if an application reverts to using the ADC input instead of the digital I/O
port input on the microcontroller. R14/R16 are not required for digital I/O functionality from
ADC3/ADC2; they are only needed if an interrupt request must be generated by an
external device on these pins. R14/R16 should be removed when using ADC3/ADC2 for
analog input.
The 6-pin IDC header also has an optional jumper, R15. By installing a 0 ohm resistor at R15,
GIO3 is directly connected to SVSout. By making GIO3 an input and using the SVS features of
the microcontroller, the SVSout function can be exported via pin 4 of U28.
A separate Supply Voltage Supervisor (SVS) 2-pin IDC header is provided underneath the USB
connector at position U7. The SVS header allows add-on boards to be built that connect to the
positive and negative battery terminals and the SVS pins in order to provide power the module
and use the microcontrollers advanced SVS functionality for boost converters, solar systems,
and rechargeable systems. The SVS header is shown in Figure 22 and includes the SVSin and
SVSout pins from the microcontroller.

Analog Input 7 (ADC7)


DAC 1 / SVS in

SVS out

Figure 22 : Functionality of the 2-pin Supply Voltage Supervisor connector (U7).

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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Internal Temperature and Voltage Monitoring


The MSP430 microcontroller has internal temperature and voltage sensors that may be used
through the microcontrollers ADC interface.
The voltage port (input 11) on the 12-bit ADC monitors the output from a voltage divider.
DVcc

AD C11
R

Voltage monitoring for Tmote modules.


Converting the ADC units to a voltage reading can be done with the following formula:

DVcc =

ADCCounts
2R
Vref
R
4096

The temperature input is a temperature diode connected to internal ADC port 10. When using
the temperature sensor, the sample period must be greater than 30 s. The temperature sensor
offset error can be large, and may need to be calibrated for most applications. The typical
response of the temperature sensor is shown in Figure 23.
Volts
1.300

1.200

1.100

1.000

0.900
V T E MP =0.00355(T E MP C )+0.986
0.800

0.700
C els ius
50

50

100

Figure 23 : Typical response of the internal temperature sensor. Results vary and the sensor
should be calibrated for most applications. Response curve from Texas Instruments.
Moteiv Corporation

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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Agency Certification
FCC Certification
The Tmote Sky module complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules and regulations. Compliance
with the labeling requirements, FCC notices and antenna usage guidelines is required.
To fulfill FCC Certification requirements, the OEM must comply with the following regulations:
1. The system integrator must ensure that the text on the external label provided with this
device is placed on the outside of the final product [Figure 24].
2. The Tmote Sky module may be used only with approved antennas that have been tested
with this module.

FCC OEM Labeling Requirement


Contains FCC ID: TOQTMOTESKY
The enclosed device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation
Figure 24 : Required FCC label for OEM products containing the Tmote Sky module

The Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) must ensure that FCC labeling requirements are
met. This includes a clearly visible label on the outside of the final product enclosure that
displays the contents shown in Figure 24.

Industry Canada OEM Labeling Requirement


To satisfy Industry Canada labeling requirements, the following text must be placed on the
exterior of the end product:
Contains IC: 6142A-TMOTESKY
Figure 255 : Required Industry Canada label for OEM products containing the Tmote Sky module

Moteiv Corporation

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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Regulatory Notices
IMPORTANT: The Tmote Sky module has been certified by the FCC for use with other
products without any further certification (as per FCC section 2.1091). Changes or
modifications not expressly approved by Moteiv Corporation could void the user's authority
to operate the equipment.
IMPORTANT: OEMs must test final product to comply with unintentional radiators (FCC
section 15.107 & 15.109) before declaring compliance of their final product to Part 15 of
the FCC Rules.
IMPORTANT: The RF module has been certified for remote and base radio applications.
If the module will be used for portable applications, the device must undergo SAR testing.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital
device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide
reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This
equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and
used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a
particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or
television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the
user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following
measures: Re-orient or relocate the receiving antenna, Increase the separation between
the equipment and receiver, Connect equipment and receiver to outlets on different
circuits, or Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.

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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

General Information
Document History
Revision

Date

Notes

1.0
1.0.1
1.0.2

2005/02/23
2005/12/28
2006/02/06

Initial Release
Added FCC and IC regulatory information
Updated contact information

Product Status Definitions


Data Sheet Identification

Product Status

Definition

Advance Information

Planned or under
development

Preliminary

Engineering
samples or first
production

No Identification Noted

Full production

Obsolete

Not in production

This data sheet contains the design specifications


for product development. Specifications may
change in any manner without notice.
This data sheet contains preliminary data, and
supplementary data will be published at a later
date. Moteiv reserves the right to make changes at
any time without notice in order to improve design
and supply the best possible product.
This data sheet contains the final specifications.
Moteiv reserves the right to make changes at any
time without notice in order to improve design and
supply the best possible product.
This data sheet contains specifications on a
product that has been discontinued by Moteiv. The
data sheet is printed for reference information only.
Moteiv no longer supports this product.

Moteiv Corporation

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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Disclaimer
Moteiv Corporation believes the information contained herein is correct and accurate at the time
of this printing. However, Moteiv Corporation reserves the right to make changes to this product
without notice. Moteiv Corporation does not assume any responsibility for the use of the
described product; neither does it convey any license under its patent rights, or the rights of
others. This product is not designed for use in life support devices or any other system where
malfunction can reasonably be expected to result in significant personal injury to the user. This
product is not designed for critical systems where failure of the product to perform affects safety
or effectiveness. Moteiv Corporation customers using or selling products for use in such
applications do so at their own risk and agree to fully indemnify Moteiv Corporation for any
damages resulting from improper use or sale.
As far as possible, major changes of product specifications and functionality, will be stated in
product specific errata notes published at the Moteiv website. The latest updates are available
from the Moteiv website at www.moteiv.com or by contacting Moteiv directly.

Moteiv Corporation

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Low Power Wireless Sensor Module

Address Information
Web site:
E-mail:
Technical Support E-mail:
Phone Number:
Fax Number:

http://www.moteiv.com
info@moteiv.com
support@moteiv.com
+1.415.692.0960
+1.415.358.4872

Headquarters
Moteiv Corporation
55 Hawthorne St, Suite 550
San Francisco, CA 94105

2004-2006 Moteiv Corporation

Moteiv Corporation

Tmote Sky : Datasheet (2/6/2006)

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