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Analysis and Selection of Wastewater Flow

rates and Constituent Loading


Regional Training Decentralized
Wastewater Management
By:Dr.Ghaida Abu-Rumman
Nov-3rd-2013

Overview
Determining ww Flowrates and mass loadings is a
fundamental step in the conceptual process design of
wastewater treatment facilities.

Flowrates sizing of different treatment system


components

Loading to determine capacity and operational


characteristics of treatment facilities and ancillary
equipment.

Components of Wastewater Flows


Components:
Domestic discharge from residential, commercial, and
institutional facilities.

Industrial
Infiltration/inflow (I/I)

Types of sewer systems


Sanitary Sewer carries domestic, industrial, and
infiltration/inflow

Storm Sewer carries storm water


Combined Sewer both

Wastewater sources and flow rates


Data that can be used to estimate average wastewater flowrates from various
domestic, industrial, and I/I are presented here.

Domestic Wastewater Sources and Flow rates:


Residential Areas : Table 3-1
Commercial Districts: Generally expressed in gal/acre.d
(m3/ha.d) range form 800 1500 gal/acre.d (Table 3-2)
Institutional facilities Table 3-3
Recreational (highly seasonal) facilities Table 3-4

Industrial Wastewater Sources and Flow rates:

Range:
1000 1500 gal/acre.d light industrial development
15003000 gal/acre.d medium industrial development
85-95% of water use industries without internal water reuse
For large industries separate estimates must be made.
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Wastewater sources and flow rates


Infiltration/Inflow (I/I)
Infiltration defective pipes ----etc.
Steady inflow from cellar and foundation drains, etc.
Direct inflow from direct storm water runoff connections to

sanitary sewer possible source are roof leaders, yard drains,


manhole covers.
Total inflow direct + upstream flow (overflows/pumping
stations bypasses)
Delayed inflow storm water that requires several days to
drain through manholes, etc..

Infiltration flowrate:
The amount of water that can enter a sewer from groundwater

(or infiltration) ranges from 100 - 10,000 gal/d. in-mi .


Or 20 3000 gal/acre.d. (Example 3-2)
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Statistical Analysis of flowrates, constituent concentrations,


and mass loadings

Statistical analysis involves the determination of statistical


parameters used to quantify a series of measurements.
Important in developing wastewater management systems
Common statistical parameters:
In normal distribution, data is described using: mean, median,

mode, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation. Table 3-10

In skewed distribution, data is described using log of


the value of the normal distribution (geometric).
Table 3-10

Graphical analysis of data:

Used to determine the nature of distribution: plotting


data on both arithmetic and log-probability papers.
Examples 3-4 and 3-5

Analysis of flowrate data


Because the hydraulic design of both collection and treatment facilities is
affected by variation in wastewater flowrates, it is important that the
flowrate characteristics be carefully analyzed.

Definition of terms: (Table 3-11)


Variations in wastewater flowrates.
Short term variations: (Figure 3-4).
Seasonal variations.
Industrial variations.
Wastewater flowrate factors:
Maximum flows are determined by peaking factor (PF).

PF

peak flowrate (e.g., hourly,daily)


average long- term flowrate
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Analysis of constituent mass loading

BOD and TSS mass loadings can vary up to two or


three times the average conditions.

Design of wastewater treatment processes should


consider peak conditions.

Quantities of waste discharged: (Table 3-12)

Typical BOD5 (not including kitchen waste) is .18


Ib/cap.d.

Example:

Ib
Given: a town
of 125,000 population. Estimate the BOD5 loading of
cap.d

the raw wastewater

BOD5 = .18

x 125,000 cap= 22,500 lb/day

10

Analysis of constituent mass loading

Composition of Wastewater in Collection Systems.


gal
T3-15, p. 186. The values are based on 120 cap.d
,which is the

suggested EPA flow.

Example: The average flow is 120

gal
cap.d

190 mg/l. What is the BOD5 loading in

and the average BOD5 is

Ib
cap.d

Ib
cap.d

Ib
cap.d

= 190

Ib
cap.d

= .19 which aggress with value stated in T3-12, p.182.

= Conc. (mg/l) x 8.34


mg
L

x 8.34

Ib/MG
mg/l

Ib/MG
mg/l

x Q(MGD)

x 120

gal
cap.d

MG
106 gal

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Analysis of constituent mass loading


Short term variation in constituent values.
Figure 3-6: Typical hourly variations in flow and strength of
wastewater.

Variations in industrial wastewater.


Composition is highly variable depending on industry type.
Concentrations (BOD, TSS) vary significantly throughout the day.
Pre-treatment may be required before discharge to municipal
sewer.

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Design flowrates and mass loadings


Average daily flow
It is the average flow occurring over a 24-hour period under dry
weather conditions.

used in evaluating plant capacity, estimating pumping and


chemical cost, sludge production, organic loading rates

Maximum daily flow


It is the maximum flow on a typical dry weather diurnal flow curve.
used for the design of facilities involving retention time, such as:
Equalization basins and Chlorine Contact Tanks

Minimum daily flow

It is the minimum flow on a typical dry weather diurnal flow


curve.

used in sizing of conduits for minimum deposition


13

Design flowrates and mass loadings


Peak hourly flow
The peak hourly flow occurs during or after precipitation and
includes a substantial amount of I/I.

used for the design of


Collection and interceptor sewers
Pumping stations
Flow meters, grit chambers, conduits, channels in plant

Peak Flowrate Factors may be projected using Figure 3-13,


p.202.

Minimum hourly flow

It is the lowest flow on a typical dry weather diurnal flow curve.


used in sizing wastewater flowmeters, wastewater pumping
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Design flowrates and mass loadings


Mass loading:
Table 3-20
Important in the design of treatment facilities such as:
Sizing aeration tanks.
Biosolids processing facilities (Biosolids produced are directly
related to BOD mass loading)
Oxygen requirements are affected by mass loading

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

Origin of waste

Domestic sewage
Dairy industry
Yeast industry
Starch & glucose industry
Fruits & vegetable canning
industry
Textile industry
Pulp & paper industry
Beverage industry
* Rapid assessment for

Biochemical oxygen Total Suspended


demand
solids
BOD (kg/ton
TSS (kg/ton
product)
product)
0.025
(kg/day/person)
5.3
125
13.4
12.5

0.022
(kg/day/person)
2.2
18.7
9.7
4.3

30 - 314
4 - 130
2.5 - 220
48 - 86

55 - 196
11.5 - 26
1.3 - 257
85 - 155

Mass Loading Calculations

Mass

= Conc x Flow Rate


= mg/L x MGD x 8.34 x 1/24
= lbs/hr

Mass

= Conc x Flow Rate


= mg/L x ft3/sec x 0.22
= lb/hr

Mass Balance Calculations


Fundamental Law: Massin = Massout
Massin = Q1 x Conc1 + Q2 x Conc2 (knowns)
Massout = QT x ConcT
(unit constants cancel out)

QT = Q1 + Q2

ConcT = unknown

Determination of the pollution load in waste water expresed as


population equivalent (PE)

Population equivalent (in waste-water


monitoring and treatment) refers to the
amount of oxygendemanding substances
whose oxygen consumption during
biodegradation equals the average oxygen
demand of the waste water produced by one
person. For practical calculations, it is
assumed that one unit equals 54 grams of BOD
per 24 hours.

population equivalent (p.e.) is a measure of


pollution representing the average organic
biodegradable load per person per day: it is
defined in Directive 91/271/EEC as the organic
biodegradable load having a five-day
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 60g of
oxygen per day.

Determination of the pollution load in waste


water expresed as population equivalent (PE)

Site works 48 h:
Meauserment of flow every 15 minutes
Sampling every 15 minutes to prepare 2 h
composite samples
Meauserment of temperature every 2 h

Population Equivalents
1. Wastewater discharge: 100 -120 gpcd
- 70 gpcd domestic
- 10 gpcd industrial/commercial
- 20 to 40 gpcd infiltration
2. Suspended Solids and BOD
SS = 0.2 lb pcd (without kitchen grinder)
SS = 0.22 lb pcd (with kitchen grinder)
BOD = 0.17 lb BOD pcd
BOD = 0.26 lb BOD pcd (with kitchen grinder)

Population Equivalents cont.


For 100 gpcd and consider for one person:

BOD

0.17 lb
100 gal

BOD

204

8.34 lb

mg
L

mg
6
10 gal
L
SS

0.2 lb
100 gal

1
8.34 lb
mg

10 gal
L
6

SS

240

mg
L

Population Equivalents cont.

Used to

Establish population equivalency of an industrial

waste.
Establish charge for treating industrial waste based
on BOD or SS rather than flow.

Find the BOD and flow equivalent for an industrial wa


with the following characteristics:
mg
Q 0.1 MGD
BOD 450
L
Flow:

0.1 MGD

1000 people

100 gal
person day
BOD:

mg 8.34 lb

0.1 MGD 450


L
mg

MGD
L
0.17 lb BOD

2208 people

person day
BOD equivalent is 2.2 time s greater than flow equiva

Summary
Domestic wastewater is a well balanced, nutrient rich
medium for bacterial decomposition.
After primary treatment, biodegradation is the most cost
effective secondary treatment.
- Effective biodegradation requires
BOD:N:P = 100:5:1
- Domestic wastewater contains 100:20:5.
- Organics (BOD) limits N and P reduction.
Advanced treatment is required to
remove excessive N and P.