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TITLE

LIGHTNING CALCULATION FOR METHANOL PLANT

PROJECT
525 MTPD METHANOL PROJECT

OWNER
M/S GUJARAT STATE FERTILIZERS & CHEMICALS LIMITED
VADODARA

INDIAN ENGINEERING CONSULTANT (IEC)

M/S PROJECTS & DEVELOPMENT INDIA LIMITED


WESTERN REGIONAL OFFICE, VADODARA

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CONTENTS
Sr. No.

DESCRPTION

PAGE No.

1.

SCOPE OF WORK

2.

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS FOR LIGHTNING CALCULATION

3.

SITE CONDITIONS

4.

ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM

5.

LIGHTNING PROTECTION

6.

CALCULATIONS

7.

ANNEXURES

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1.0

SCOPE OF WORK
This document details the Lightning protection calculations for Methanol Plant, Gujarat state fertilizers
Co. LTD., Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

2.0

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS FOR LIGHNING CALCULATION


Code of practice for protection of buildings and

: IS-2309-1989 (Reaffirmed 2005)

allied structures against lightning

3.0

SITE CONDITION
Maximum temperature

: 46.7C

Atmosphere

: DUSTS Industrial, polluted


: VAPOUR - Natural gas, Methanol &
air borne chemical contaminants & corrosive as
found in industrial process plants.

Altitude
4.0

: Above sea level < 1000 M

ELECTRICAL SUPPLY SYSTEM


Supply system voltage

: (i) HV: 11KV 10%, 3 phase, 3 wire


3.3KV 10%, 3 phase, 3 wire, resistance earthed
(ii) LV: 415V 10%,3 phase 4 wire , Neutral
solidly earthed, supply frequency: 50Hz +2, -6 %

5.0

LIGHTNING PROTECTION

5.1

BASIS FOR LIGHTNING CALCULATIONS:


Lightning protection shall be as per IS: 2309
The probability of a structure or building struck by lightning in any one year is the product of the
lightning flash density (Ng) and the effective collection area of the structure (Ac). The lightning flash
density (Ng) is the number of flashes to ground per sq. km. per year.

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The average number of thunderstorms day in a year at particular location in India is indicated in figure1 of IS-2309. Based on this average no. of thunderstorms day, lightning flashes per sq. km. per year
(Ng) can be estimated using clause 8.1.2 of IS: 2309.
Accordingly for GSFC-Vadodara location this value is estimated as below
Lightning flash density Ng = 0.5 per sq. km. per year (Mean value)
Since the value for the lightning flash density for Vadodara in figure-1 of IS:2309 is 8. The effective
collection area of a structure is the area on the plan of the structure extended in all directions to take
account of its height. The edge of the effective collection area is displaced from the edge of the
structure by an amount equal to the height of the structure at that point. Hence for a simple rectangular
building effective collection area shall be calculated using following equation.
Collection area Ac = (L * W) + 2(L*H) + 2(W*H) + H

Where,
L = Length of structure or building in m.
W = Width of the structure or building in m.
H = Height of the structure or building in m.
The probable number of strikes (risk) to the structure per year is
P = Ac *Ng * 10

-5

(Ref eq. 2 of IS: 2309)


-5

The acceptable risk figure is indicated in IS: 2309 is 10 (i.e. 1 in 100000 per year)
After calculating the value of P (Probable no. of strikes per year) using above equation, the next step is
to apply weighing factors in Tables 1 and 2 of IS: 2309. This is done by multiplying P by the
-5
appropriate factors to see whether the result exceeds the acceptable risk of P= 10 per year. If the
-5
result obtain is considerably less than 10 then, lightning protection does not appear necessary and if
-5
the result is greater than 10 , then lightning protection shall be provided.
5.2

LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEM DESIGN


Please refer ANNEXURE-I for buildings to which lightning protection system shall be required to
provide.
As per IS: 2309, self conducting structure shall not be provided with aerial rod and down conductors,
but shall be connected to earthing system at two or more points at the base. An independent earthing
network shall be provided for lightning protection and this shall be bonded with the main earthing
network below ground, minimum at two points. The individual earth pit resistance may vary between 5-

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10 ohms based on the soil resistivity. However the total grid resistance shall be maintained as
required.
As per IS: 2309, Table no. 4 component dimensions for lightning protection are considered as given
below.
TYPE OF EQUIPMENT
Roof conductor/ Air termination
Down conductors
Below ground strip/ Fixed connections

5.3

STRIP SIZE
25 * 6 GI STRIP
25 * 6 GI STRIP
50 * 6 GI STRIP

CALCULATION FOR NUMBER OF DOWN CONDUCTOR


As per IS:2309, cl. 12.2.3 and fig. 13 & 14, number of down conductor can be calculated as follows:
a) A structure having a base area not exceeding 100 sq. m. needs only one down conductor, except
when built on bare rock.
b) For a structure having a base area exceeding 100 sq.mtr., the number of down conductors should
be at least the smaller of the following
(1) One plus an additional one for each 300 sq. mtr. or a part thereof, in excess of the first 100 sq.mtr.
(2) One for each 30m of perimeter of the structure protected.

6.0

CALCULATIONS
Lightning Protection calculation is attached as per ANNEXURE.

7.0

ANNEXURES
ANNEXURE- I

Lightning protection need

ANNEXURE- II Lightning calculation for methanol substation & existing old compressor house
ANNEXURE-III Lightning calculation for methanol control room

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ANNEXURE-I
A LIGHTNING PROTECTION NEED
Sr.
no.

Equipment
no.

Service

Dimensions

Length Width
(L)
(Wi)

Height
(H)

Collection
area Ac , for
building (in
Sq. mtr.) =

Overall risk factor

Need of
lightning
protection
-6

P= Ac * Ng *W * 10
-5

Methanol
Sub station

52

17

1652.5

6.36 *10

Methanol
Control
Room

25

10

8.6

1084.23

4.1 * 10

Old existing
compressor
house

52

18

12

1700.16

6.546*10

YES/ NO
YES
YES

-5

-5

YES

Collection area for Sr. no. (1) & (2) Ac (in sq. mtr.) = (L*Wi) + 2(L*H) + 2(Wi * H) + H2
Collection area for Sr. no. (3) Ac (in sq. mtr.)= H2 +2 (L*H)
Lightning flash density Ng = 0.5 per sq. km. per year (Mean value)
Applying weighting factors:
A = 1 (Factory/ workshop)
B = 0.8 (Steel frame encased or reinforced concrete with metal roof)
C = 0.8 (industrial building)
D = 0.4 (Structure located in a large area of structures or trees)
E = 0.3 (Flat country)
W = A*B*C*D*E
= 0.077
Acceptable Risk per year = 1 * 10

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-5

If the result obtain is considerably less than 10 then, lightning protection does not appear necessary and if the
-5
result is greater than 10 then, lightning protection shall be provided.

ANNEXURE- II

A LIGHTNING CALCULATION FOR METHANOL SUBSTATION & EXISTING OLD COMPRESSOR HOUSE
Calculation of down conductors for Methanol Sub-station & existing old compressor house
(i) Calculation based on total base area
Length of sub-station area & Existing old compressor house (L) = 52 mtr.
Width of sub-station area (W1) = 17 mtrs.
Width of existing old compressor house (W2) = 18 mtrs.
Total width of base area W = W1 + W2
W = 35 mtrs.
Total base area of sub-station & existing old compressor house = L*W
= 1820 mtr

As per clause no. 12.2.3 (b)-1 of IS-2309


Total no. of Down conductors = {(Area-100)/300} + 1
= 6.7

----------------------- Equ. (1)

(ii) Calculation based on Perimeter


Perimeter of methanol substation & existing old compressor house area = 2 * (L+W)
= 174
As per clause no. 12.2.3 (b)-2 of IS: 2309
Total no. of down conductors = Perimeter/30
= 5.8

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Hence, concluding from result of Equ. (1) & (2) is that number of down conductors and electrodes shall be
equal 6. (Considering the smaller value of result from Equ. (1) & (2) as per clause no. 12.2.3 of IS:2309)

ANNEXURE- III

LIGHTNING CALCULATION FOR METHANOL CONTROL ROOM


Calculation of down conductors for Methanol Control room
(i) Calculation based on total base area
Length of sub-station area (L) = 25 mtr.
Width of sub-station area (W) = 10 mtrs.
Total base area of sub-station = L*W
= 250 mtr

As per clause no. 12.2.3 (b)-1 of IS-2309


Total no. of Down conductors = {(Area-100)/300} + 1
= 1.5

------------------------- Equ (1)

(ii) Calculation based on Perimeter


Perimeter of methanol control room = 2 * (L+W)
= 70
As per clause no. 12.2.3 (b)-2 of IS: 2309
Total no. of down conductors = Perimeter/30
= 2.3

---------------------------- Equ (2)

Hence, concluding from result of Equ (1) & (2) is that number of down conductors and electrodes shall be
equal 2. (Considering the smaller value of result from Equ (1) & (2) as per clause no. 12.2.3 of IS:2309)

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