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Country Report:

PLANT PROTECTION PROFILE OF INDONESIA


SUWANDA
Centre for Plant Quarantine
Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Quarantine
25th Session of APPPC
Beijing, 27 31 August 2007

INTRODUCTION
Indonesia is endowed with exceptional resources in land, climate and people for
year-round agricultural production. Its diversity of ecological condition permits intensive
production of tropical and sub tropical crops. Since more than 50 percents of the population
engaged in agriculture, therefore, agriculture play a very important role in Indonesias
national and economy development.
Yield loss of agricultural products caused by the presence of pests is a major
constraint in Indonesian agriculture. Fortunately, a number of major pests are not yet widely
spread, but are still confined to certain island. Besides, the country is also still free from
many different exotic pests which are reported to cause a lot of damage and losses of
different crops in the areas or countries where they occur. Pest problems will certainly
increase if these pests are introduced into and spread within the country. Plant quarantine,
therefore, plays a very important role in preventing them from being introduced into and
spread within the country.
Ministry of Agriculture of Indonesia comprises of Directorate Generals (DGs) which
are responsible for their own concerns. There are three DGs where plants and plants
products are under their responsibility, namely DG of Food Crops, DG of Horticultural Crops,
and DG of Estate Crops. Each DG has its own Directorate of Plant Protection. The
Directorates (Directorate of Horticultural Crops Protection, Directorate of Food Crops
Protection, and Directorate of Estate Crops Protection) all are the member of National Plant
Protection Organization (NPPO) with the Agency for Agricultural Quarantine as the NPPO focal
point.
PLANT QUARANTINE IN INDONESIA
A. Organization
In Indonesia, the implementation of plant quarantine is placed under the
responsibility of Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Quarantine (IAAQ) of the Ministry of
Agriculture. IAAQ is in charge of the management of plant and animal quarantine. The
Director General (DG) of the agency reports directly to the Minister of Agriculture for the
execution of the Ministers policies regarding agricultural quarantine.
The Head Office of IAQA which is located in Jakarta, consists of a Secretariat, Centre
for Plant Quarantine, Centre for Animal Quarantine, and Centre for Quarantine Information
and Bio-safety. The main duty of Centre for Plant Quarantine is to manage plant quarantine
activities all over the country.
The objectives of plant quarantine are:

to prevent the introduction of plant quarantine pests into the territory of the
Republic of Indonesia;

to prevent dissemination of quarantine pests from one area to another within the
territory;

to prevent the concomitant exportation of plants if required by the country of


destination.
To carry out its duty, Centre for Plant Quarantine has three divisions, i.e. (1) Division of Plant
Import; (2) Division of Plant Export and Domestic; and (3) Division of Technique and Method.
Plant quarantine activities, i.e. inspection of documents and consignments,
detention of consignments, isolation and observation, treatment, refusal, destruction, and
release are carried out by plant quarantine services/stations at seaport and airports
(including post offices). There are 43 plant quarantine services/stations located at 43
seaports and airports throughout the country. Each service or station supervises a number of
checkpoints which are seaports, airports, container terminals, and post offices.

B.

Quarantine law
Indonesias first plant quarantine measure dates back to 1877 when by the
Ordinance of 19 December 1877 (Government Gazette No. 262) an absolute prohibition was
placed on the importation of coffee plants and seeds from Sri Lanka to prevent the
introduction of coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Several more ordinances concerning
importation, exportation and inter-islands movement of planting materials to prevent
introduction and spread of pests were issued in the past. However the first ordinance of a
general character designed to prevent the entry of plant pests and diseases by regulating the
importation of living plants and their part including seeds and fresh fruit was the Ordinance of
15 February 1922 (Government Gazette No. 84).
The latest law, i.e. Law No. 16 of 1992 concerning Animal, Fish, and Plant Quarantine
was published and came into effect on 8 June 1992. The Government Regulation No. 14 of
2002 which was designed to provide a strong legal foundation and to conduct the provision of
the law in implementing plant quarantine activities enacted on 23 April 2002. With the
issuance of these law and regulation, ordinances issued previously are all invalid. However,
all existing executive regulations as long as they are not in contravention of these law and
regulation remain in force pending the issuance of new executive regulations under these law
and regulation.
There has not been any changes of organization since 2005, except the issuances
of some regulations (Ministerial Decrees) as stipulations of Quarantine Law No. 16 of 1992
and Government Regulation No. 14 of 2002.
C. Quarantine requirements
Requirement for imported carrier
Any carrier of plant quarantine pests imported into the territory of the Republic of
Indonesia shall be:
a. accompanied by health certificate from the country of origin and the country in
which the carrier was landed and from which it was later re-consigned, for plant or
parts of plant, except carrier classified as other articles;
b. through the designated place of entry;
c. notified and presented to the plant quarantine officer at the place of entry for
quarantine action.
Requirements for inter-area within the country
Any carrier of plant quarantine pests to be moved from one area or island to another
within the territory of the Republic of Indonesia shall be:
a. accompanied by health certificate from the area of origin of plant or parts of plant,
except carrier classified as other articles;
b. through the designated place of entry and place of exit;
c. notified and presented to the plant quarantine officer at the place of exit and entry
for quarantine action.
Requirement for export
If so required by the country of destination, any carrier of plant pests exported from
the territory of the Republic of Indonesia shall be:
a. accompanied by health certificate of plant or parts of plant, except carrier classified
as other articles;
b. through the designated place of export;
c. notified and presented to the plant quarantine officer at the place of export for
quarantine action.
Prohibited Importation
The following plants and non-plant materials may not be imported:
plant propagating materials and plant products of Hevea and plant propagating materials
of non-Hevea from countries where South American Leaf blight is present.
declared quarantine pests;
soil and compost, excluding sphagnum and peat;

plant materials when used as packing materials (straw of rice, cotton waste, leaves of
banana, husk of coconut palm, etc.).

Restricted Importation
Import requiring a permit:

planting materials of any species of plant;

soil and compost for research purposes;

biological agents.
Import requiring a Phytosanitary Certificate
The following plant materials must be accompanied by phytosanitary certificate
from the country of origin:

all planting materials;

fresh fruits, seeds and other parts of living plants for purposes other than further
growth or propagation.
Import not requiring a Phytosanitary Certificate
Processed or manufactured plant materials which are not capable of carrying or
harboring plant pest may enter without phytosanitary certificates.
D.

Quarantine Activities
Any carrier of plant quarantine pests imported into, or destined to be moved from
one area to another within the territory of the republic of Indonesia shall be subjected to
quarantine actions. Carrier of pests to be exported from the territory of the republic of
Indonesia shall not be subjected to quarantine actions, unless required by the country of
destination.
Quarantine actions performed by the quarantine officers include:

inspection

isolation

observation

treatment

detention

refusal

destruction, and

release
Number of Plant Quarantine Officers authorized to inspect/certify plants or plant
products to be exported/imported are limited to 350-es personnel throughout the country. At
least 2000 Plant Quarantine Inspectors are needed to have an adequate number to protect
the country against harmful plant pests. The volume of plant consignments offering for
export and import has been increase lately, shown by the increase of plant quarantine
certificates issued by plant quarantine stations.
Interceptions of quarantine pests resulted in the destruction of certain commodities,
such as rice seeds, vegetable seeds, and ornamental plants. Some consignments which did
not comply with plant quarantine requirement were also destroyed.
Based on Ministerial Decree No. 38 0f 2006, Indonesia has a list of regulated pest
which was prepared by experts from NPPO members, University, and Research Agencies. The
list supposes to be reviewed every two years.
The government designates:

the kinds of plant quarantine pests;


the kinds of carrier of plant quarantine pests; and

the kinds of carrier of plant quarantine pests the importation of which into, or the
movement of which from one area to another within the territory of the Republic of
Indonesia is prohibited.
Pest risk assessment conducted to the importation of plant propagating materials
prior to shipment. The assessment caries out by Plant Quarantine Expert Committee
appointed by the DG of Agency for Agricultural Quarantine.

The establishment of pest free of production and pest free production site are still in
the process of determination.
Several companies had applied to be recognized as
companies that produce plant products originated from pest free production site.
Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Quarantine has already owned its website. Use
of International Phytosanitary Portal (IPP) has been a need for information exchange or
distribution.
Participation of Indonesian Plant Quarantine Officer to prepare international/regional
standards for phytosanitary measures is quite active in several meetings.
Training in phytosanitary capacity building is an effort to posses qualified plant
quarantine officers. Training conducted as in-house training as well as overseas training.
Overseas training had been conducted in ASEAN countries, Australia, Japan, China, South
Korea, and USA.
SURVEILLANCE, PEST OUTBREAKS AND INVASIVE SPECIES MANAGEMENT
Surveillance of pests mainly conducted by the Directorate of Crops (Food,
Horticulture, and Estate), while plant quarantine conducts monitoring of pest distribution or
the possibilities of establishment of new pests in the country. Adequacy of personnel and
facilities in relation to pest outbreaks and invasive species management is still a constraint.
Central government and regional government have to work harmonically in overcoming the
outbreaks. Success story of controlling the pests were Sexava grasshopper and Khapra
beetle controlling. Other main pests controlled successfully are brown hopper, and jumping
lice hopper. Fruitflies are the main pests of fruits. Government pays big attention to the
pests. Many effort have been done including campaign of fruitflies control, utilizing natural
enemies, and controlling by means of self-made attractant.
Newly invaded species which is very hard to eradicate is potato cyst nematodes.
The organisms has been reported to occur in Java Island. The government controls the
movement of those nematodes by means of plant quarantine regulation. So far the pests are
only isolated in Java Island.
PEST MANAGEMENT
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program has been launched since 1990s.
Several project on IPM funded either by Government or donor countries or international banks
conducted in Indonesia. The purpose of using natural enemies and bio/botanical pesticides
instead of the chemical ones is to minimize the using chemical pesticides that may hamper
natural balances and environment. The project had successfully changed the attitude of
many farmers in uncontrolled application of pesticide. Good agricultural practices are also
the government program to educate farmers toward having a better quality and healthy of
agricultural products.
PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT
Any registration of pesticide shall go through Centre for Investment and Permit,
Ministry of Agriculture. Monitoring of pesticide applications are conducted by related DG
(DGs of Horticultural, Food, or Estate Crops). Report of the pesticide applications shall be
addressed to the Committee of Pesticides. Pesticide monitoring system shall be improved
due to lack of personnel in implementation and enforcement of pesticide regulations.
The purpose of establishment of new Centre (Centre for Quarantine Information and
Biosafety) at the Agency for Agricultural Quarantine is to control the movement of
unprocessed agricultural product that may cause disease to human being due to presence of
hazardous microbial and chemical agents.