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CHP A Guide

to Steam
Conditioning

Overview of CHP

CHP A Guide to Steam Conditioning

CHP (Combined Heat and Power) is an Efcient Technology for


Generating Electricity and Heat Together

Overview of CHP

Benets of CCI CHP Technology

usable heat (usually steam and sometimes hot water) and power (usually

The Critical Role of Steam

electricity) in a single process. CHP is sometimes referred to as cogeneration ,

Unique Requirements for CHP Steam

energy centres and total energy. The basic elements of a CHP plant comprise
one or more prime movers usually driving electrical generators, where the

CHP Application Examples


Extraction/Exhaust

Bypass to Exhaust and Others

Condensing

Desuperheater

Vents, Startups & Silencers

A CHP plant is an installation where there is simultaneous generation of

10

Key Products for Severe Service Applications

heat generated in the process is utilized via suitable heat recovery equipment
for a variety of purposes including: industrial processes, district heating and
space heating. Figure 1 shows a possible conguration for a CHP plant. For the
purposes of this document we will cover Large Industrial Users.
The heat source can be established from many different sources. Waste heat
from process (e.g. ethylene, ammonia plants), incineration of waste, and waste
heat from gas turbine (also electricity generator) by a heat recovery steam

VST-SE

11

generator (HRSG) and from fossil red boilers.

VLB

12

Once the industry has established its need for heat, it then has to determine

DRAG

13

if the investment for power generation is economically viable. A study of the

Desuperheating

15

economical benets typically includes:

Cost of the added investment

Cost of added maintenance and man power

Economical benets to secure supply of power in case of external supply


failure. (key benet)

CHP A Guide to Steam Conditioning

Cost of produced power compared with purchased power

Figure 1: Typical simple CHP scheme with gas turbine, heat recovery steam
generator (HRSG) and steam turbine

Benets of CCI CHP Technology

Benets and Examples of Industry Utilizing CHP Technology


CHP provides a secure and highly efcient method of generating electricity
and heat at the point of use. Due to the utilization of heat from electricity
generation and the avoidance of transmission losses because electricity
is generated on site, CHP typically achieves a 35% increase in efciency
compared with power stations and heat only boilers. This can allow economic
savings where there is a suitable balance between the heat and power loads.
Figure 2: Conventional fossil fuelled
power station

Figure 2 shows typical percentage gains and losses for conventional fossil
fuelled power station. Figure 3 similarly indicates typical gures for combined
cycle power plant (CCPP) incorporating electricity generated from the gas
turbine and a steam turbine. Figure 4 shows the immediate benets in useful
energy in CHP when the steam turbine exhaust/extraction steam is utilised
as heat energy. Figure 5 indicates CHP plant with CCPP where electricity is
generated from the gas turbine and steam turbine and the exhaust heat energy
from the steam turbine is used for the process. Note that owing to the gas
turbine the proportion of useful electrical energy on Figure 5 is higher than
that in Figure 4.

Figure 3: For combined power plant CCPP

The current mix of CHP installations achieves a reduction of over 30 percent in


CO2 emissions in comparison with generation from coal-red power stations,
and over 10 percent in comparison with gas red combined cycle gas turbines.
The newest installations achieve a reduction of over 50 percent compared with
generation from coal-red power stations.
With this in mind both the EU and US have optimistic goals of increasing the
percentage of electrical generation by 2010 to approximately double the current
level. The USCHPA mission is to double the contribution of CHP to the nations
power supply (46GW in 1998 to 92GW by 2010.)

CHP A Guide to Steam Conditioning

Examples of industry utilizing the CHP technology:


Figure 4: Conventional power plant
with CHP

Ammonia/fertilizer plants

Sugar/food

Incineration plants

Power and desalination

Chemical plants

District heating

Pharmaceutical plants

Universities/hospitals

Pulp & Paper

Typical industries that require hot water:

Figure 5: CCPP with CHP

District/Community heating

Fish farming

HVAC, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning

Universities/hospitals

Unique Requirements for CHP Steam

What are the differences in the requirements for steam conditioning


equipment in a CHP plant compared with a conventional fossil fuel
power station?
In a power station the reason for using steam conditioning (steam turbine
bypass) equipment is to allow quick and easy start and stop and to protect the
equipment in case of turbine trip etc. These demands are also applicable to a
CHP plant, with the addition that there is a requirement for tightly controlled
Parameters to meet the downstream process requirements. Here are some
examples of the erroneous conditions that steam conditioning Equipment has
to handle on a CHP plant.

While the steam conditioning valve (bypass) on a power plant must


open sufciently quick to prevent safety valves from opening, the steam
conditioning valve on a CHP must additionally open quickly enough to
prevent pressure uctuations in the process header, this can be sometimes
less than 1 second.

Downstream temperature control on a CHP plant is far more critical


than on conventional power plants. Typically the temperature should be
within parameters acceptable for the condenser or reheater, while in a CHP
application it has to be close to the set point.

The CHP steam conditioning valve will operate more frequently and can
depend on several factors.
a)

Steam turbine not in operation.

b)

Export of electricity to the grid may or may not be required and the
bypass will provide the required exibility in operation.

c)

It has to make up the shortfall of steam supply from the steam


turbine compared to system demand.

CHP A Guide to Steam Conditioning

d)

Sometimes the steam conditioning valve can operate almost


constantly.

Extreme turndown with respect to control of steam ow to the correct


temperature at can be expected. If for example the steam turbine available
supplies to a process is 39T/hr and demand is 40 T/hr, the bypass will
have to supplement with 1T/hr, thereby requiring 40 to 1 turndown.
If the bypass valve can only achieve 5 to 1 turndown, it would have to
supplement a minimum of 8T/hr and the steam turbine would have to back
down to 32T/hr, meaning that there is 7T/hr not going through the steam
turbine resulting in lost revenue, due to decreased electrical production.
Assuming inlet steam conditions to be 80 bar a at 520 C and a back
pressure of 4 bar a, this 7T/hr would equate to a power loss of 1.4MW.

Every CHP plant is unique and requires system understanding to provide not
only the correct equipment, but also knowledge and experience regarding
aspects such as installation and control. Consult with CCI, who have more
than 80 years of expert knowledge and experience, to establish best practice
and operational performance for your CHP plant.

CHP Application Examples Extraction/


Exhaust

Turbine Extraction/Exhaust
The outlet steam temperature from extraction or exhaust varies depending
on the steam going through the steam turbine. For example, considering
exhaust steam only, as the steam ow through the turbine decreases, the
outlet temperature increases. Depending on the exhaust ow in general as
the extraction ow reduces, the extraction steam temperature increases. This
means to obtain a constant set temperature downstream, the proportion of
spraywater required at low ow is higher than compared to at full ow where
the requirement will be small if any at all.
On most CHP plants, the exhaust line can be of a large diameter and in
view of the conditions detailed above combined with the large diameter and
potentially low ow, providing good temperature control to the process close to
saturation can be extremely difcult and needs special consideration.
CCI with extensive experience and knowledge can provide installation
guidelines and recommendations in conjunction with the correct product
Figure 8: Turbine extraction/exhaust
desuperheating

selection for the optimum system solution.

Application: Exhaust or Extraction Steam to Process Desuperheating

CHP A Guide to Steam Conditioning

Why Severe Service

Large diameter process piping

High rangeability of steam ow


tending to water fall out at low
ow

Solutions Recommended

Input Data for Selection

Desuperheater should provide good cross


sectional coverage

Steam ow rate, max, min normal

Use multi-nozzle conguration

Upstream steam temperature

Installation should incorporate smaller


diameter piping

Required downstream temperature

Partial or full steam atomization

Water pressure and temperature available

Use hottest water available for


desuperheating

Control set point temperature


close to saturation

Utilize enthalpy control


Consider steam atomization
Increase velocity at point of
desuperheating

Steam pressure

Pipe diameter and schedule

Atomizing steam if applicable


Design pressure of steam
Design temperature of steam
Design pressure and temperature of water
Type of actuation pneumatic, electric or
hydraulic
Failure mode

CHP Application Examples Bypass to


Exhaust

Steam Turbine Bypass to Extraction/Exhaust for Back Pressure


Turbines
The steam turbine bypass is used to reduce the pressure and temperature of the
steam to match the appropriate extraction/exhaust conditions. These valves are
used during startup, in the event of a turbine trip, non availability of the steam
turbine or to supplement steam to process that may not be available from the
extraction or exhaust from the steam turbine.
The bypass valve should:

Exhaust

Extraction

Be suitable for severe thermal shock (up to 300 C)

Modulate in 2-3 seconds or less. Snap action in this time is not


acceptable as the boiler will trip and the system will be unstable.

Figure 9: Steam turbine bypass to extraction/


exhaust for back pressure turbine

Have high range ability to maximize turndown

Provide repeatable tight shutoff

Inline repairability

Be of low noise design

Reliability of this valve is of the utmost importance. Non availability of this


valve can often mean loss of production. CCI with extensive experience
and knowledge can provide installation guidelines and recommendations
in conjunction with the correct product selection for the optimum system
solution.

CHP A Guide to Steam Conditioning

Application: Bypass to Exhaust or Extraction Process Line


Why Severe Service

Solutions Recommended

Input Data for Selection

Noise and vibration

Control of inlet and outlet velocity by providing


connections to suit application/piping

Steam ow rate, max, min normal

Multiple pressure reduction stages

Upstream steam pressure

Forged circular section body machined on inside


and outside to provide even material distribution

Upstream steam temperature at the applicable


steam ow rate

Thermal shock, up to 300


C in less than 2-3 seconds

Pressure seal bonnet


Steam atomizing to avoid water fall out at low ow

High rangeability of
steam ow

Control set point


temperature close to
saturation

Required downstream pressure


Required downstream temperature
Pipe diameter and schedule, inlet and outlet

Modied linear characteristic, typically from


opening, 15% stroke = 5% capacity

Water pressure available

Piston double acting pneumatic actuators or


hydraulic actuators

Design pressure of upstream and downstream


steam.

Use hottest water available for desuperheating,


typically above 100 C if possible

Design temperature of upstream steam

Proportion water ow with steam ow to prevent


temperature spikes and water fall out

Design temperature of water

Steam atomization

Type of actuation (pneumatic hydraulic)

Consider steam atomization

Noise requirements

Increase velocity by reducing pipe diameter at point


of desuperheating

Failure mode

Water temperature available

Design pressure of water


Actuating speed

CHP Application Examples Condensing

Condensing Steam Turbine with Extraction


Depending on the proportion of output energy with respect to electrical versus
heat, sometimes a CHP plant, will have a higher proportion of electricity
output. To facilitate this, the turbine will exhaust to condenser and extract
steam to process. Sometimes when electricity price is at a premium, the gas
turbine will continue to generate electricity even in the event of non availibility
of steam turbine, as the waste heat needs to be removed from the heat recovery
steam generator (HRSG.) On some occassions, the process may be stopped for
short periods and excess steam can be dumped to the condenser to keep the
system stable and when the process start again the condenser bypass will close
and the steam will continue to process.
The bypass valve to condenser should:
Figure 10: Condensing steam turbine with
extraction

Be suitable for severe thermal shock (up to 300 C)

Modulate in 2-3 seconds or less. Snap action in this time is not


acceptable as the boiler will trip and the system will be unstable.

Have high rangeability to maximize turndown

Provide repeatable tight shutoff

Inline repairability

Be of low noise design

Reliability of this valve provides optimum plant exibility. CCI with


extensive experience and knowledge can provide installation guidelines and
recommendations in conjunction with the correct product selection for the
Application: Turbine Bypass to Condensor

CHP A Guide to Steam Conditioning

Why Severe Service

Noise and vibration

Thermal shock, up to 300 C in


less than 2-3 seconds

High rangeability of steam ow

optimum system solution.

Solutions Recommended

Input Data for Selection

Control of inlet and outlet velocity by providing


connections to suit application/piping

Steam fow rate, max, min normal

Multiple pressure reduction stages, introduce sufcient


stages to meet noise and vibration requirements

Upstream steam temperature at the


applicable steam ow rate

Consideration of dump tube, single stage or resistor

Condenser pressure

Forged circular section body machined on inside and


outside to provide even material distribution

Required enthalpy of steam to


condenser

Provide adequate drains and preheating

Pipe diameter and schedule inlet

Pressure seal bonnet

Water pressure available

Multiple variable area orice desuperheaters


circumferentially mounted

Water temperature available

Modied linear characteristic


Double acting pneumatic actuators or hydraulic
actuators
Utilizing CCI enthalpy control algorythm
Proportion water ow

Control of >30% of water to


steam without vibration and
damage to condenser

Water cooled condenser use single stage dump tube


Air cooled condenser < 90 dBA use resistor type dump to
condenser device
Careful installation to ducting for air cooled condenser

Upstream steam pressure

Design pressure of upstream and


downstream steam.
Design temperature of upstream
steam
Design pressure of water
Design temperature of water
Actuating speed
Type of actuation (pneumatic or
hydraulic)
Failure mode (normally closed)
Noise requirements

CHP Application Examples Desuperheater

Desuperheaters for Controlling Final Temperature


On some CHP plants, the process that requires the steam can be quite a
distance from the CHP plant and to prevent excessive water fall out and
wetness in the steam close to the plant, the steam exiting the CHP plant can
have a higher than required temperature to allow for the temperature drop
owing to the transportation time. The drop in temperature is a function of
distance, ambient conditions and ow rate at the time.
As the inlet temperature will uctuate to the process (higher the ow, hotter the
steam owing to less time for transportation loss) then there is a need to have
Figure 11: Desuperheater for trimming process
temperature

a nal control of the temperature close to process using the steam. It should
also be noted that there may be more than one process demanding the steam
and each one may require a separate desuperheating station to control the
temperature.
As the process will benet from a temperature close to saturation, and with the
little superheat available in the steam, the energy available for atomising the
spraywater is low and this application sometimes requires special consideration
particularly in large diameter piping and high turndown requirements.

Application: Desuperheaters for Trimming Process Temperature


Why Severe Service

Solutions Recommended

Input Data for Selection

Desuperheater should provide good cross


sectional coverage in steam ow

Steam ow rate, max, min normal


Steam pressure

CHP A Guide to Steam Conditioning

Large diameter process piping


Variable area nozzle to provide good
evaporation of water regardless of ow

High range ability of steam ow


tending to water fall out at low ow

Installation should incorporate smaller


diameter piping to increase velocity at
point of desuperheating
Partial or full steam atomization

Upstream steam temperature at the applicable


steam ow rate
Required downstream temperature
Pipe diameter and schedule
Water pressure available
Water temperature available

Use hottest water available for


deuperheating

Control set point temperature close


to saturation

Utilize enthalpy control with and trim with


temperature feedback & CCI guidance

Atomizing steam if applicable design pressure


of steam
Design pressure and temperature of steam
Design pressure and temperature of water

Consider steam atomization


Increase velocity by reducing pipe
diameter at point of desuperheating

Type of actuation (pneumatic electric or


hydraulic)
Failure mode (desuperheater to close or open)

CHP Application Examples Vents, Startups


and Silencers

10

CHP Vent Valves, Startup valves and Silencers


Startup vents are used to warm up piping in the various header. In the case
of the HP header, the steam should be superheated to preset pressure and
temperatures before steam can be admitted to the turbine. The vent can also
be used in the process headers for warming up the long length of piping.
Furthermore if for example the process shuts down for a short time and there is
a need to keep the gas turbine generating electricity, then it may be necessary to
vent the steam (assuming there is no dump condenser.)
Requirements of vent valves and silencers:

If required to quick open

should be capable of handling


Figure 12: CHP venting and startup systems

Be suitable for severe thermal


shock (up to 300 C)

severe thermal shock.

Modulate in 2-3 seconds or less

If required for operational

Provide repeatable tight shutoff

Inline repairability

purposes, then valve and


silencer should be designed
for low noise.
Application: CHP Venting and Startup Systems
Why Severe Service

Noise and vibration

CHP A Guide to Steam Conditioning

Thermal shock, up to 300 C in


less than 2-3 seconds

Solutions Recommended

Input Data for Selection

Control of inlet and outlet velocity by providing


connections to suit application/piping

Steam ow rate, max, min normal

Multiple pressure reduction stages

Upstream steam pressure

Consideration of silencer, or resistor

Upstream steam temperature at the


applicable steam ow rate

Forged circular section body machined on inside


and outside to provide even material distribution

Pipe diameter and schedule inlet

Angle pattern body to provide integrity against


thermal transients
Provide adequate drains and preheating
Pressure seal bonnet

High rangeability of steam ow


Leakage

Modied linear characteristic


Double acting pneumatic or hydraulic actuators

Design pressure of upstream and


downstream steam.
Design temperature of upstream steam
Actuating speed
Type of actuation (pneumatic electric or
hydraulic)
Failure mode (normally closed)
Noise requirements

Class V repeatable tight shutoff

Other severe service valves and desuperheaters which are covered in other CCI
literature. They include:

Main and booster feed-pump

Auxiliary steam PRDS

recirculation

Blow-down, continuous &

Startup and main feedwater


regulation

Figure 13:DRAG vent resistor with shroud

intermittent

Boiler attemperators, nal and

Deaerator level control

Spraywater control

HP/LP heater bypass

High level heater drains

Economizer mixer valve

inter-stage

(3 way valve)

Steam Conditioning Technology

11

Application: Bypass to Process


The VST-SE was designed as a steam turbine bypass to process conditioning
valve. The requirements are to open and close very quickly (refer to application
examples) in response to a turbine trip, startup or to provide additional steam
ow to the process. This means that the system will benet from:
Benets

Reliable operation: suitable for up to 300 C thermal shock

More revenue owing to higher electrical production. This is achieved by


providing high turndown capability with regard to steam ow.

High performance and stable control: system stability despite severe


transients with respect to pressure and ow. Solved by integral
water proportioning.

Figure 14: VST-SE valve

Reduced maintenance cost & downtime: provide repeatable tight


shutoff despite exposure to thermal shock.

Maximize plant exibility: the VST-SE provides modulating steam


atomization. Generally standard systems provide on/off atomization
requiring at least 5% steam for atomization.

The Solution
The VST-SE design is unique as it can simply and easily cater for these
requirements as the valve was designed to provide solutions to these
requirements.

Thermal shock: forged fully machined valve body both inside and
outside to handle thermal fatigue, critical for reliable service.

Steam atomized desuperheating: Steam is bled through the central stem


to atomize the spraywater. From 0-15% of stroke, (0-5% of steam ow)
the control of steam is only through this channel and is controlled by

CHP A Guide to Steam Conditioning

the positioning of the main plug and which uncovers sequential holes
Figure 15: VST-SE features

leading to the atomizing channel. Above 15% (5% ow), then the main
cage proper opens and the steam ow modulates normally through
control section providing a linear characteristic. The total characteristic
will therefore be modied linear providing excellent control at low ow.
With steam atomization the VST-SE will achieve turndown with respect to
desuperheated steam ow of greater than 50 to 1.

Water proportioning: As steam ow modulates, the spraywater ow is


proportioned mechanically by a unique system linked to the main steam
plug. This minimizes temperature spikes and enhances system stability
regarding temperature control.

Flexible seat and excellent guiding. Thermal change can cause crushing
of the seat as the body contracts. The special two piece seat prevents
crushing of the seat. Good guiding ensure that the valve can be installed
horizontally or vertically without risk of sticking.

Figure 16: VST-SE mini valve

Steam Conditioning Technology

12

Valve Specications and Features


Variable area
nozzles
In-Line Repair
Material of
Construction
Shut-off Class
Plug Size
Characteristic
Stem Guiding, 2
Positions
Equivalent
Rating
Max
Temperature
Pressure
Reducing Stages

Yes qty as required


Yes

Application: Bypass to Condensor


The VLB was designed as a steam turbine bypass valve and is widely used for
bypass or dump to condenser. The requirements are:

To suit application
III, IV or V, MSS SP 61
28-400 mm/1.1 16
Modied Linear

Yes

To Cl 2500 (PN420)

event of island operation

Allow independent operation of


the steam turbine and the

Allow exible plant operation

H.R.S.G. during startup

In the event of short-term

Bypass the turbine in the event

process trip, The bypass valve

of a turbine trip (<2 seconds)

will stabilize system.

Stabilize steam header in the

Up to 600 C
Up to 8

The bypass system with VLB will benet from:

Reliable operation: suitable for


High performance and stable

preventing condenser damage

control: system stability despite

owing to overspray and

pressure, ow and temperature

vibration.

Low noise (DRAG dump tube

understanding implemented.

used if noise requirements are

Reduced maintenance cost &

onerous.)

downtime: provide repeatable


Figure 17: Bypass to water cooled condensor

Accurate control of nal steam


conditions to condenser,

transients with CCI total system

up to 300 C thermal shock.

Custom design of bypass valve

tight shutoff despite exposure to

inlet/outlet connections to suit

thermal shock.

application.

The Solution
The VLB design in conjunction with a CCI dump tube can simply and easily
cater for these requirements as the valve was designed to meet these arduous

CHP A Guide to Steam Conditioning

requirements.

Thermal shock: forged fully machined valve body both outside and inside
to handle thermal fatigue which is critical for reliable service.

Flexible seat and excellent guiding. Thermal change can cause crushing
of the seat as the body contracts. The special two piece seat prevents
crushing of the seat. Good guiding ensure that the valve can be installed
horizontally or vertically without risk of sticking.

Multi nozzle variable area desuperheating. Variable area nozzles provide


excellent atomization regardless of water ow and are easily exchangeable.
The nozzles are positioned around the circumference to provide an even
distribution and to best utilize the energy of the high velocity steam
exiting the diffusers which further atomize the desuperheating spraywater.
The nozzles are after pressure reduction and situated so that cool
spraywater will not impinge on components or piping. The combination
results in reliable and accurate control of outlet conditions.

Pressure sealed bonnet: maintains tightness regardless of temperature


transients.

Figure 18: VLB desuperheating features

Velocity Control Technology

13

DRAG Velocity Control Technology


How to Solve Severe Service Valve Problems
Uncontrolled owing velocityerosiona control valves worst enemy. High
velocity uid or gases as a result of high pressure drop or large change in
pressure ratio creates velocity, which if to high causes cavitation and or erosion
resulting in valve failure (refer Figure 19.)
Even today, despite widespread attempts to copy the CCI DRAG solution is
unique in solving this, utilizing multi ow paths and introducing the required
number of pressure reducing stages. Refer to CCI DRAG brochure.
Taming Velocity
Fortunately, the solution is found in basic engineering principles.
Figure 19: Uncontrolled velocity a
control valves worst enemy.

The uid in a valve reaches its maximum velocity just slightly downstream of
the valve trims vena contracta or minimum ow area. This high velocity in a
single path or multi-path design can produce cavitation, erosion and abrasion

Vena
Contracta

all of which can quickly destroy the valve. Even before damaging the valve,
the symptoms of excessive noise, severe vibration, poor process control and
product degradation may be observed.

V2

DRAG velocity control valves from CCI solved the problem a generation ago.
DRAG valves prevent the development of high uid velocities at all valve
settings. At the same time, they satisfy the true purpose of a nal control
element: to effectively control system pressure over the valves full stroke.

V1
V2 =

Heres how the DRAG valve accomplishes what the others can only approach:

2gh

The DRAG trim divides ow into many parallel multi-path streams


(Figure 21.) Each ow passage consists of a specic number of right angle

V2 > V1

turnsa tortuous path where each turn reduces the pressure of the owing
medium. By increasing the number of turns, damaging velocity can be

Figure 20: Single-stage and single-path


pressure reduction.

controlled while an increased pressure drop across the control valve can be

CHP A Guide to Steam Conditioning

successfully handled.

The number of turns, N, needed to dissipate the maximum expected


differential pressure across the trim is determined by limiting the velocity
to an acceptable level, then changing element = 2gh/N and solving for
N. Applying this principle to the DRAG valves disk stack and plug as
shown in Figure 20 means that velocity is fully controlled in each passage
on every disk in the stack and that the valve can operate at a controlled,
predetermined velocity over its full service range.

In the DRAG trim, the resistance, number and area of the individual ow
passages is custom matched to the specic application and exit velocities
are kept low to eliminate cavitation of liquids and erosion, vibration and
noise in gas service.

Figure 21: DRAG disk multi-trim multi


ow path

14

Velocity Control Technology

Applications for DRAG Valves on CHP


The DRAG trim can be installed in several body styles and can even
incorporate steam conditioning as a total system solution. Applications for
DRAG in CHP in general are where service is particularly severe, for example
very high differential pressure, high risk of cavitation and especially when
there are strict low noise requirements. The DRAG valve can be utilized for the
following example applications.

Figure 22: Low noise DRAG for turbine bypass

Bypass to condenser (low noise)

Vent valves

Vent resistor

Dump tube (low noise to air cooled condenser)

Combined startup and feedwater control valves

Boiler feedpump minimum ow recirculation control valves

Startup valves

Spraywater control valves

CCI DRAG Benets

Low noise: depending on application, noise levels of 85 dBA or lower at


1 m are possible even with large ow and high

P. Working with CCI can

provide reduced total system noise rather than just individual product.

Reliable operation: by controlling velocity.

Longer valve life: controlling velocity and pressure head, preventing


damaging conditions such as cavitation.

More revenue owing to higher electrical production. Properly applied,

CHP A Guide to Steam Conditioning

will reduce or eliminate maintenance activity or process shut down


owing to equipment failure.

High performance and stable control: disk stack can be custom


characterized to suit particular application, such as boiler level control
valve (feedwater control valve.)

Figure 23: Steamjet for high pressure drop/


low noise applications

Reduced maintenance cost & downtime: provide repeatable tight


shutoff utilizing high shutoff capability MSS-SP61 shutoff with
1000 pounds per linear inch utilizing pressurized seat design.

Maximize plant exibility.

Reduced installation cost. Valve custom designed including inlet/outlet


connections to suit application.

Figure 24: Low noise DRAG dump

Desuperheater Technology

15

Application: Desuperheating for Extraction and Exhaust Steam


As mentioned earlier control of the extraction and exhaust can be difcult
owing to the following.
Low velocity/ water fall out

Insufcient cross sectional


coverage

Set temperature close to saturation


is required

Large piping diameters dont


encourage mixing

Desuperheaters subject to transient


conditions

Excess water fall out creating inef-

ciency, erosion, water hammer etc.


Key Components for Desuperheating

Small inside Diameter + High


Velocity = Good Mixing

Smaller water droplet diameter =


quicker atomization

Quality of atomization
proportional velocity2 (steam)

Hotter Water = smaller water


droplet dia(function of surface
tension forces)

Even distribution (across the area of


the steam) of the spraywater
regardless of steam ow

Good Control of downstream


temperature

More P = smaller water


droplet diameter

Installation

Figure 25: Multi-nozzle DAM


desuperheater

Solutions
CCI have several innovative styles of desuperheaters, but for extraction &
exhaust solutions, review and advice of the system is necessary. Aspects such
as liners, control, reduced sections of piping, location of instrumentation and
installation are all aspects necessary to meet performance requirements.
There are 3 stages to desuperheating:

Primary. The spraywater is admitted into the steam via the nozzle.

CHP A Guide to Steam Conditioning

The desuperheating nozzle can be either of the mechanical type or the


pneumatic type. The pneumatic type in this instance refers to steam
atomising. Mechanical relies on

P to provide spray pattern through nozzle.

Secondary. This is where the momentum of the steam accelerates the water
droplets and this action breaks up the water droplets. The higher the velocity
of the steam the better the secondary atomization.

Tertiary. This is where the water droplets evaporate in the steam when being
transported. If the velocity is to low or the size of the water droplets too

Figure 26:DA-O variable area nozzle


desuperheater

large, there will be water fall out. Time is required to complete this process.
To achieve excellent primary desuperheating:

CCI will provide the correct


total system solution for
the application.

Variable area nozzles are used

which maintain excellent spray


pattern and ne constant droplet

recombining to form larger droplets.

size regardless of water ow.

A swirl chamber to improves the

Avoid multiple spray patterns


Accurate control of spray water with
well selected water control valve.

High water turndown capability

coverage of the spray pattern.

(steam turndown is a function of

Even distribution over the total

several other factors.)

cross section.

Throughout the world, companies rely


on CCI to solve their severe service
control valve problems. CCI has provided
custom solutions for these and other
industry applications for more than
80 years.

CHP A Guide to Steam Conditioning

Sales and service locations worldwide.


CCI World Headquarters
California
Telephone: (949) 858-1877
Fax: (949) 858-1878
22591 Avenida Empresa
Rancho Santa Margarita,
California 92688
USA

CCI FK
(Fluid Kinetics)
Telephone: 805 644 5587
Fax: 805 644 1080
2368 Eastman Avenue, Suite 8
Ventura
California 93003
USA

CCI Austria
(Spectris Components GmbH)
Telephone: 43 1 869 27 40
Fax: 43 1 865 36 03
Carlbergergasse 38/Pf.19
AT-1233 Vienna
Austria

CCI Italy
(STI)
Telephone: 39 035 29282
Fax: 39 035 2928247
Via G. Pascoli 10 A-B
24020 Gorle, Bergamo
Italy

CCI China
Telephone: 86 10 6501 0350
Fax: 86 10 6501 0286
Room 567/569
Ofce Tower, Poly Plaza
14 Dongzhimen South Avenue
Beijing 100027
China

CCI Japan
Telephone: 81 726 41 7197
Fax: 81 726 41 7198
194-2, Shukunosho
Ibaraki-City, Osaka 567-0051
Japan

CCI Korea
Telephone: 82 31 980 9800
Fax: 82 31 985 0552
26-17, Pungmu-Dong
Gimpo City
Kyunggi-Do 415-070
Republic of Korea
CCI Sweden
(BTG Valves)
Telephone: 46 533 689 600
Fax: 46 533 689 601
Box 603
SE-661 29 Sfe
Sweden

CCI Switzerland
(Sulzer Valves)
Telephone: 41 52 262 11 66
Fax: 41 52 262 01 65
Hegifeldstrasse 10
CH-8404 Winterthur
Switzerland

Contact us at:
info@ccivalve.com
Visit us online at:
www.ccivalve.com
DRAG is a registered trademark of CCI.
2003 CCI
539
3/03 7K