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Facility as an energy system, Methods for preparing process flow, Material and

energy balance diagrams.

Purpose of Material and Energy


Balance
To assess the input, conversion
efficiency, output and losses
To quantify all material, energy and
waste streams in a process or a system
Powerful tool for establishing basis
for improvement and potential savings

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Products out
m P1m P2m P3

Raw
Materials in
mR1mR2mR3

Waste products

Unit
Operation
Stored Materials
mS1mS2mS3

Energy in
Heat, Work,
Chemical, Electrical
ER1ER2ER3

Stored Energy
ES1 ES2E S3

m W1m W2m W3
Energy in
products

EP1EP2EP3
Energy in
Waste
EW1EW2EW3
Energy losses
To surroundings
EL1 E L2 E L3

Figure 5.2 Mass and Energy Balance

Previous Unit
operations

Energy
Control

Wasted
Energy
Unit operations

Subsequent
Unit
Operations

By-products
Wasted Energy

Figure 5.3 Representation of Process

Inputs of the process could include raw materials, water, steam, energy (electricity, etc);

Process Steps should be sequentially drawn from raw material to finished product.
Intermediates and any other by-product should also be represented. The operating
process parameters such as temperature, pressure, % concentration, etc. should be
represented.
The flow rate of various streams should also be represented in appropriate units like m3/h
or kg/h. In case of batch process the total cycle time should be included.
Wastes / by products could include solids, water, chemicals, energy etc. For each process
steps (unit operation) as well as for an entire plant, energy and mass balance diagram
should be drawn.
Output of the process is the final product produced in the plan

1) Total: X = Y + 1000..... EQ-1


2) Oil: 0.8 * X = 0.92 * Y + 0.6 * 1000..... EQ-2
3) UBP: 0.15 * X = 0.06 * Y + v * 1000... EQ-3
4) IMP: 0.05 * X = 0.02 * Y + w *1000.... EQ-4
5) OUTPUT impurities & UBP: v + w = 0.4 ... EQ-5

1) Mass In = Mass Out: 5833 = Y + Z (i.e. Z = 5833-Y) EQ-1


2) Fat In = Fat Out: 0.04 * 5833 = 0.0045 * Y + 0.45 * Z .. EQ-2

and so, 1.5 x 1 = n x 0.08206 x 298


n = 0.061 mole/m3
weight of air = n x mean molecular weight
= 0.061 x 28.8 = 1.76 kg / m3
and of this 23% is oxygen, so weight of oxygen = 0.23 x 1.76 = 0.4 kg in 1 m3
Concentration of oxygen = 0.4kg/m3
or 0.4 / 32 = 0.013 mole / m3

Dust balance, Mass (in) = Mass (out)


Inlet gas dust = Outlet gas dust +
HopperAsh

1. Calculation in/ out dust quantity

The Figure 5.6 below illustrates power


cycle schematic. In this input heat energy
(Qin) resulting from combustion of fuel is
transferred to water in a steam generator
(boiler). The fluid feed water is pumped
using input energy Win. The steam is used
to drive the turbine and perform useful
Figure 5.6 Energy Balance in Power Plant Cycle
work Wout,- and the steam is condensed in
condenser giving its heat energy Qout The working fluid is feed water which changes its state
from water to steam and back to condensate.

Raw Material
Energy Facility / Utility
Electricity
Steam
Energy Input

Coal
Oil
Gas
Electricity

Transformer
DG Set
Boilers
Chillers
Water Supplies
Air Compressors

Production
Facility
Heat Output

Thermic fluid
Chilled Water
DM Water
Cold/hot air

Energy
Conversion

Compressed air

Energy
Utilization

Product

Heat out in products


Flue gas
Water vapour
Heat and emissions

Quantity of water required =X kg


Specific heat of water = 1 kCal/kg C
Inlet cooling water temperature (T3) = 28C
Maximum cooling water outlet temperature (T4) = 33C
Heat removed by water X x 1 x (33 28) = 5X kCal
For energy balance:
Energy Stream #1 = Energy Stream #2
or Quantity of water required (X) = 14000/5 = 2800 kg

Figure 5.9 Sankey Diagram for an Internal Combustion Engine

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