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FEA Analysis of Bullock cart Axle under

Static and Dynamic Condition

Mulani Nawaj. A & Mirza M. M.


Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, RIT Sakharale 415414, Sangli, Maharashtra, India
E-mail : nawaz7007@gmail.com, manzoor_mirza@rediffmail.com

Abstract In India, most of the people use bullock cart for


the transportation of sugarcane from the farm to the
respective sugar industry. Bullock carts are very popular
and cheaper mode of goods transport in rural area. But
these bullock carts are manufactured in small scale to
moderate scale industry. During manufacturing insufficient
use of new technology and new design features results in
problems such as breakdowns and failures during field
operations. The existing bullock cart Axle designed by the
industry uses heavy axle without considering Static and
dynamic loading conditions which in turn leads to higher
factor of safety increasing the overall cost of the axle. In
this present work, existing bullock cart axle is redesigned
considering the static and dynamic load conditions.
Minimum cross section for the axle is calculated which
resulted in the 22.5 % reduction in the weight of the axle.
The weight of axle is reduced without compromising with
existing hub assembly of wheel.

Fig.3 : Failure of various joint

Out of the above problems the axle failure is major


problem during transportation of sugarcane.
Last 2-3 years these bullock carts are attached to
tractor by using knuckle joint provided to Draw bar for
sugarcane transportation. In such situation due to
moderate speed and wavy road conditions the axle is
subjected to dynamic loads which are nonlinear in
nature. The load coming on the axle due to this are
much larger than static loads, which makes it necessary
to analyses the axle for dynamic loads.

Keywords Failure analysis, finite element analysis

I.

Fig. 4 : Puncture Problem.

INTRODUCTION

There are many problems which are occurred


during transportation of sugarcane. The following
failures are observed in bullock carts from survey of
bullock carts at Rajarambapu Patil Sahakari Sakhar
Karkhana Ltd, Sakharale.

Fig. 5 : Transportation of Sugarcane by Using Bullocks


and Tractor
The shocks due to sudden velocity change may
cause impact loading. And this high impact which
causes Axle failure. All these conditions have been
considered while preparing its dynamic load model.
Fig. 1 : Axle failure

Fig. 2 : Yoke failure

During Survey axle failure rate occurred at


Rajarambapu Patil Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd,
Sakharale as follows
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FEA Analysis of Bullock cart Axle under Static and Dynamic Condition

Year
2010-2011
2011-2012
2012-up to April 2013

The Mechanical properties of existing material are


shown in below table.

Total no of failed
Axle
257
219
112

Table1-Failure rate of existing axle


Above information collected during survey of
bullock cart from failure report Rajarambapu Patil
Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd, Sakharale

Density (g/cm3)
Poisson,s Ratio
Elastic modulus (GPa)
Tensile strength (MPa)

7.858
0.27 to 0.30
190-210
440

Yield strength (MPa)

370

Table 3: Mechanical properties of SAE1025


Above properties of SAE 1025 are utilized during Finite
element analysis of bullock cart axle.

II. INVESTIGATION ON EXISTING BULLOCK


CART AXLE

III. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF BULLOCK


CART AXLE UNDER STATIC CONDITION

A. To find out failure zone by visual examination:


Failure zone of existing axle find out by visual
examination of different failed shaft.These failure zone
showing in below,

A. Modeling of Axle
PRO-E modeling software is used for modeling of
the bullock cart axle. The model has a solid axle shaft of
square cross sectional area of 58mmX58mm, machined
at both ends with length 1676 mm.

Fig. 6 : Failure zone of Axle


B. Material testing of failed shaft:
The bullock cart axle of cross section 58x58mm &
length 1676 mm. The elemental analysis of materials is
done on Wet analysis method at M/S. USHA
METALAB AND CONSULTANCY, KOLHAPUR and
as per the component weight percentage found that the
material is belongs to SAE1025 standard of steel.

Fig.7 : Modeling of existing axle in Pro-E


B. Loads on Axle Beam

Chemical composition of the failed axle axle & SAE


1025 steel shown following table
Sr. Description
item
No

We have taken 100 readings of different load of


sugarcane carried by different cart at Rajarambapu Patil
sakhar karkhana, Sakharale. By using these readings
prepare frequency distribution table listed below

of Specification
Failed Axle
range (SAE 1025)

Relative
Frequency
0.7

Percentage
frequency
7%

15
27
33
18

0.15
0.27
0.33
0.18

15%
27%
33%
18%

1. Carbon (C)

0.22 to 0.28 %

0.22 %

Load (Kg)

Frequency

2. Manganese(Mn)

0.30 to 0.60 %

0.45 %

1-999
1000-1999
2000-2999
3000-3999
4000-5000

3. Silicon(Si)

0.15 to 0.35 %

0.17 %

4. Sulphur (S)

0.050% Max

0.023 %

5. Phosphorous(P)

0.040 % Max

0.030 %

Table 4 : Laod distribution

Table 2 : Chemical composition of failed axle

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FEA Analysis of Bullock cart Axle under Static and Dynamic Condition

From frequency distribution table as found that


33% loads carried by cart are as between 3000kg3999kg and 18% loads are in between 4000kg-5000kg.
To prevent future failure rate of axle, it is required to
design axle for maximum load of 5 Tonne. So FEA
analysis of bullock cart axle done under static condition
considering maximum load 5000Kg.Due to symmetrical
condition only half portion is used for FEA analysis.

In FEA mesh quality directed affected on quality of


results. While Software cannot obtain the exact solution
for the model, an approximation can be obtained with
very high accuracy using finite element method. As a
mesh is made finer and accuracy increased, as we go for
finer meshing at one stage deformation remains
constant. If we further decreased the mesh size, it results
into increase in node number and element number so it
will take more solving time for analysis .at this stage,
obtained results are slightly differ than results are
obtained at optimum mesh size .

C. Meshing
Critical areas are high stress locations. Dense
meshing & structured mesh (no Trias /pentas) is
recommended in these regions. Areas away from critical
are general areas.

Mesh Convergence study:

Fig. 8 : Mesh refinement at critical area


Geometry simplification & coarse mesh in general
areas are recommended so it reduces total Degree of
freedom hence reduces solving time required for
Analysis. So meshing of Axle is done as per standard
meshing guideline.

Mesh refinement at
critical area with
mesh size in mm

Total
Deformation
in mm

Number of
node

4mm

0.1779

111801

3mm

0.1773

116152

2mm

0.1787

129998

1mm

0.1793

199363

0.9mm

0.1795

220687

0.8mm

0.1796

249336

0.7mm

0.1797

293463

0.6mm

0.1797

359374

Table 5 : Mesh Convergence

D. Boundary condition
Loads and Boundary condition of axle are shown in
below figure.

Graph1: Mesh convergence


Mesh refinement done at critical area with varying mesh
size 4mm-0.8 mm and obtained deformation. The results
obtained from analysis, it is clear that at 0.9mm mesh
size answer is converged.

Fig. 9 : Boundary condition of existing axle

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FEA Analysis of Bullock cart Axle under Static and Dynamic Condition

E. Review Results

IV. FEA ANALYSIS OF BULLOCK CART AXLE


UNDER DYNAMIC CONDITION

1) Deformation
The following figure shows the Total deformations
within the axle, when the 5 Tonne loads are applied.

Total weight of fully loaded Bullock cart including


self weight of cart is 5340 kg
i.e. load capacity of
5000Kg & cart weight of 340Kg. This load is
concentrated at two mounting points rest on the axle.
Because of the vertical acceleration of lumped mass of
the cart body due to the road surface roughness,
maximum dynamic loading on each resting point is
estimated about twice as much as static loading [1] so
10 Tonne sugarcane load acting on axle during dynamic
loading condition. It is required to analyses existing axle
for 10 Tonne loading of sugarcane.

Fig.10 : Five Tonne loading deformation plot

Sugarcane load acting


on axle in static
condition

Sugarcane load acting on


axle in Dynamic condition

5000Kg + weight of cart


300Kg
=50300kg=493443N

Loads two time greater


than static load =
2*493443=986886N

Table 6 : Axle loading for static and dynamic condition

Red color shows the maximum deformation and


blue color shows minimum deformation generated on
the axle. Total deformation produced within the axle is
0.1795mm.

A. Results Review
1) Deformation plot

2) Equivalent (von-mises) stress


The following figure shows the Equivalent (vonmises) stress on the axle when the 5 Tonne load is
applied. Red color shows the maximum stress and blue
color shows minimum stress generated on the axle.

Fig.12 : Ten Tonne loading deformation plot


Red color shows the maximum deformation and
blue color shows minimum deformation generated on
the axle. Total deformation produced within the axle is
0.3590mm.
2) Equivalent (von-mises) stress:

Fig.11 : Five tonne loading stress plot

The following figure shows the Equivalent (vonmises) stress on the axle when the 10 Tonne load is
applied. Red color shows the maximum stress and blue
color shows minimum stress generated on the axle.

The calculated Von-mises stress is 294.4 MPa far


below the materials yielding stress. This means that
axle satisfies the safety conditions for maximum loading
if it is exerted statically.

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FEA Analysis of Bullock cart Axle under Static and Dynamic Condition

The Axle having the wheel support at point A and B, so


reactions are comes at point A and B
RA+RB=10340 Kg
MA=5150*(51+10+18) +40*(51+10+18+688)
+5150*(51+10+18+688+688)
- RB*(51+10+706+706+10+51) =0
RB=5170 Kg
RA=5170kg
A. Calculation of Shear Force and Bending Moment
on Axle
Load Point
A
C
D
E
B

Fig.13 : Ten tonnene loading stress plot


Above Figure shows equivalent Von-mises stress
distribution provided from the Finite element analysis.

Yield strength
(Existing Material of
Axle SAE 1025 )

370 MPa

Shear Force
5170 N
5170 N
20 N
-20 N
-5170 N

Bending Moment
0 N-mm
408430 N-mm
422190 N-mm
408430 N-mm
0 N-mm

Table 8 : Shear force and bending moment on axle

Equivalent(Von-mises)
Stress For 10 Tonnene
loading

Bending Stress

(Existing Material
Axle SAE 1025 )

Maximum Bending=4141683.90 N-mm at point D

(M/I)= (Bending stress (allowable)/y)

of

Permissible stress= (yield strength/factor of safety)

588.8 MPa

= (370/1.5)

Table 7 : Stress comparison

= 246 MPa

Results show that there are tensile stress


concentrated regions at transition area of axle hub
mountings. The calculated Von- mises stress is 588.8
MPa far above the materials yielding stress. This means
that axle not satisfies the safety conditions for dynamic
loading condition.

Z=section modulus= (Bending stress (allowable) /y max)


M/I= Bending stress (allowable) /y
Bending stress (allowable) =(y max*M/ I) =M/Z
Z=M/ Bending stress (allowable)

V. MODIFICATIONS SUGGESTED IN EXISTING


AXLE

Z=4141683.90/246
Z=16836.11 mm3

A bullock cart axle is a stationary machine element


and is used for the transmission of bending moment
only. Axle shaft will be designed based on its strength
and subjected to bending stresses

Section modulus of existing Axle


Z=I/y max
Z= (bd3/12)/ (d/2)
Z= (58*582)/6 =32518mm3
The required section modulus < section modulus of
current section.
16836 < 32518
Hence required section modulus can be reduced to
16836 mm3 for permissible stress of 246 MPa.

Fig.14 : Load Diagram

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FEA Analysis of Bullock cart Axle under Static and Dynamic Condition

Density (g/cm3)
Poisson,s Ratio

7.872
0.27 to 0.30

Elastic modulus (GPa)


Tensile strength (MPa)
Yield strength (MPa)

210
710
605

Table : Mechanical properties of SAE 1547


C. Finite Element Analysis of suggested axle by using
ANSYS
Z= (Bd3-bd3)/6D

1)

16836= (58*583-b*d3)/6D

b=d

The calculated dimensions are used to create model


of axle required for Finite Element Analysis. PRO-E
modeling software is used for modeling of the bullock
cart axle.

b4=5457568

2) Define material

b= 48.3367= 48.50mm

Solid axle SAE 1025

d = 48.50mm

Hallow axle SAE 1547

bd3=5457568

Built Geometry

The external dimension can be 58mm and Thickness


=4.75mm

3) Generate Mesh

So Taking thickness= 5mm

Solid 187 elements and mesh refinement is done at


critical area.

Axle geometry descritized by using element

Fig.17 : Mesh refinement at critical area

Fig.14 : Combined axle

Fig.15 : Hallow square shaft


(Material SAE 1025)

4) Apply boundary condition

Fig.16 : Solid axle


(SAE 1547)

B. Material selection
Mechanical Properties of suggested material SAE
1547 for solid axle

Fig.18 : Boundary condition

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FEA Analysis of Bullock cart Axle under Static and Dynamic Condition

Red color shows the maximum deformation and


blue color shows minimum deformation generated on
the axle. Total deformation produced within the axle is
0.3386mm.

Mesh Convergence Study


Mesh
refinement at
critical area with
mesh size (mm)
7 mm

Total
Deformation
( mm)

Number of
node

0.3341

88491

6 mm
5 mm
4 mm
3 mm
2 mm
1 mm

0.3351
0.3356
0.3364
0.3377
0.3386
0.3387

89433
90955
92986
98365
112028
186783

0.9 mm
0.8mm

0.3688
0.3390

212463
242958

2) Equivalent (von-mises) stress:


The following figure shows the Equivalent (vonmises) stress on the axle when the 10 Tonne load is
applied. Red color shows the maximum stress and blue
color shows minimum stress generated on the axle.

Table : Mesh convergence study

Fig. Equivalent Stress


Above Figure shows the Equivalent (von-mises)
stress on the axle when the load is applied. Red color
shows the maximum stress and blue color shows
minimum stress generated on the axle.

Mesh refinement done at critical area with varying


mesh size 9 mm-0.8 mm and obtained deformation. The
results obtained from analysis, it is clear that at 2 mm
mesh size answer is converged.
D. Results Review

Yield strength of
suggested material for
solid axle (SAE 1547 )

Equivalent (Von-mises)
Stress developed within
suggested Axle due to
max loading Condition

605 MPa

440.43 MPa

The calculated Von-mises stress is 440.43 MPa far


below the materials yielding stress. This means that
axle with suggested satisfies the safety conditions for
maximum loading.

1) Deformation plot
The following figure shows the Total deformations
within the axle, when the 10 Tonne loads are applied.

VI. COMPARISON BETWEEN EXISTING AXLE


AND PROPOSED AXLE

Sr.
no

Existing Axle

Proposed Axle

Material SAE 1025

Combined Axle
Material SAE1547
(Solid axle) and
SAE 1025 (Hallow
axle)

Fig.19 : Total deformation


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FEA Analysis of Bullock cart Axle under Static and Dynamic Condition

[2]

Harish V. Katore, Prof. Santosh B. Jaju ,


Redesigning of tractor trolley axle using
ANSYS International Journal of Engineering
Science and Technology (IJEST) ISSN : 09755462 Vol. 3 No. 6 (June 2011)

[3]

Osman Asi Fatigue failure of a rear axle shaft of


an automobile Engineering Failure Analysis 13
(2006) 12931302

The existing bullock cart Axle designed by the


industry uses heavy axle without considering Static and
dynamic loading conditions which in turn leads to
higher factor of safety increasing the overall cost of the
axle. In this dissertation work, existing bullock cart axle
is redesigned considering the static and dynamic load
conditions. Minimum cross section for the axle is
calculated which resulted in the 22.5 % reduction in the
weight of the axle. The weight of axle is reduced
without compromising with existing hub assembly of
wheel.

[4]

N. Len , O. Martnez , P.Orta C, P.Adaya


Reducing the Weight of a Frontal Truck Axle
Beam Using Experimental Test Procedures to
Fine Tune FEA. 2 nd Worldwide MSC
Automotive Conference.Dearborn, Michigan;
October 9-11, (2000)

[5]

Ali Jafari,Majid Khanali, Hossein Mobli And Ali


Rajabipour, Stress Analysis of Front Axle of JD
955 Combine Harvester Under Static Loading
Journal Of Agriculture &Social Sciences 1813
2235/023133135 (2006)

Suggested combination axle is safe under the given


loading conditions but it involves some problems. It is
difficult to manufacture such a design as it needs one
hollow shaft and two solid shafts which are inserted into
hollow shaft at both ends and then welded for rigidity. It
also includes manufacturing difficulties as it is much
difficult to fabricate or cast a hollow shaft than a solid
shaft.

[6]

Lalit Bhardwaj, Amit Yadav, Deepak Chhabra,


Design & Static Analysis of Rear Axle

[7]

C. Kendall Clarke, Don Halimunanda Failure


Analysis of Induction Hardened Automotive
Axles J Fail. Anal. and Preven. DOI
10.1007/s11668-008-9148-3

Section
modulus=32518mm3

Section
modulus=16836 mm3

Weight 40Kg

Weight 31Kg

Table : Comparison between existing axle and proposed


axle
VII. CONCLUSIONS

VIII. REFERENCES
[1]

Sanjay Aloni, Comparative Evaluation of


Tractor Trolley Axle by Using Finite Element
Analysis Approach International Journal of
Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)
ISS : 0975-5462 Vol.4 No.04 (April 2012 )

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