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Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, RIT Sakharale 415414, Sangli, Maharashtra, India

E-mail : nawaz7007@gmail.com, manzoor_mirza@rediffmail.com

the transportation of sugarcane from the farm to the

respective sugar industry. Bullock carts are very popular

and cheaper mode of goods transport in rural area. But

these bullock carts are manufactured in small scale to

moderate scale industry. During manufacturing insufficient

use of new technology and new design features results in

problems such as breakdowns and failures during field

operations. The existing bullock cart Axle designed by the

industry uses heavy axle without considering Static and

dynamic loading conditions which in turn leads to higher

factor of safety increasing the overall cost of the axle. In

this present work, existing bullock cart axle is redesigned

considering the static and dynamic load conditions.

Minimum cross section for the axle is calculated which

resulted in the 22.5 % reduction in the weight of the axle.

The weight of axle is reduced without compromising with

existing hub assembly of wheel.

problem during transportation of sugarcane.

Last 2-3 years these bullock carts are attached to

tractor by using knuckle joint provided to Draw bar for

sugarcane transportation. In such situation due to

moderate speed and wavy road conditions the axle is

subjected to dynamic loads which are nonlinear in

nature. The load coming on the axle due to this are

much larger than static loads, which makes it necessary

to analyses the axle for dynamic loads.

I.

INTRODUCTION

during transportation of sugarcane. The following

failures are observed in bullock carts from survey of

bullock carts at Rajarambapu Patil Sahakari Sakhar

Karkhana Ltd, Sakharale.

and Tractor

The shocks due to sudden velocity change may

cause impact loading. And this high impact which

causes Axle failure. All these conditions have been

considered while preparing its dynamic load model.

Fig. 1 : Axle failure

Rajarambapu Patil Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd,

Sakharale as follows

ISSN (Print): 2321-5747, Volume-1, Issue-2, 2013

105

FEA Analysis of Bullock cart Axle under Static and Dynamic Condition

Year

2010-2011

2011-2012

2012-up to April 2013

shown in below table.

Total no of failed

Axle

257

219

112

Above information collected during survey of

bullock cart from failure report Rajarambapu Patil

Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd, Sakharale

Density (g/cm3)

Poisson,s Ratio

Elastic modulus (GPa)

Tensile strength (MPa)

7.858

0.27 to 0.30

190-210

440

370

Above properties of SAE 1025 are utilized during Finite

element analysis of bullock cart axle.

CART AXLE

CART AXLE UNDER STATIC CONDITION

Failure zone of existing axle find out by visual

examination of different failed shaft.These failure zone

showing in below,

A. Modeling of Axle

PRO-E modeling software is used for modeling of

the bullock cart axle. The model has a solid axle shaft of

square cross sectional area of 58mmX58mm, machined

at both ends with length 1676 mm.

B. Material testing of failed shaft:

The bullock cart axle of cross section 58x58mm &

length 1676 mm. The elemental analysis of materials is

done on Wet analysis method at M/S. USHA

METALAB AND CONSULTANCY, KOLHAPUR and

as per the component weight percentage found that the

material is belongs to SAE1025 standard of steel.

B. Loads on Axle Beam

1025 steel shown following table

Sr. Description

item

No

sugarcane carried by different cart at Rajarambapu Patil

sakhar karkhana, Sakharale. By using these readings

prepare frequency distribution table listed below

of Specification

Failed Axle

range (SAE 1025)

Relative

Frequency

0.7

Percentage

frequency

7%

15

27

33

18

0.15

0.27

0.33

0.18

15%

27%

33%

18%

1. Carbon (C)

0.22 to 0.28 %

0.22 %

Load (Kg)

Frequency

2. Manganese(Mn)

0.30 to 0.60 %

0.45 %

1-999

1000-1999

2000-2999

3000-3999

4000-5000

3. Silicon(Si)

0.15 to 0.35 %

0.17 %

4. Sulphur (S)

0.050% Max

0.023 %

5. Phosphorous(P)

0.040 % Max

0.030 %

106

FEA Analysis of Bullock cart Axle under Static and Dynamic Condition

33% loads carried by cart are as between 3000kg3999kg and 18% loads are in between 4000kg-5000kg.

To prevent future failure rate of axle, it is required to

design axle for maximum load of 5 Tonne. So FEA

analysis of bullock cart axle done under static condition

considering maximum load 5000Kg.Due to symmetrical

condition only half portion is used for FEA analysis.

results. While Software cannot obtain the exact solution

for the model, an approximation can be obtained with

very high accuracy using finite element method. As a

mesh is made finer and accuracy increased, as we go for

finer meshing at one stage deformation remains

constant. If we further decreased the mesh size, it results

into increase in node number and element number so it

will take more solving time for analysis .at this stage,

obtained results are slightly differ than results are

obtained at optimum mesh size .

C. Meshing

Critical areas are high stress locations. Dense

meshing & structured mesh (no Trias /pentas) is

recommended in these regions. Areas away from critical

are general areas.

Geometry simplification & coarse mesh in general

areas are recommended so it reduces total Degree of

freedom hence reduces solving time required for

Analysis. So meshing of Axle is done as per standard

meshing guideline.

Mesh refinement at

critical area with

mesh size in mm

Total

Deformation

in mm

Number of

node

4mm

0.1779

111801

3mm

0.1773

116152

2mm

0.1787

129998

1mm

0.1793

199363

0.9mm

0.1795

220687

0.8mm

0.1796

249336

0.7mm

0.1797

293463

0.6mm

0.1797

359374

D. Boundary condition

Loads and Boundary condition of axle are shown in

below figure.

Mesh refinement done at critical area with varying mesh

size 4mm-0.8 mm and obtained deformation. The results

obtained from analysis, it is clear that at 0.9mm mesh

size answer is converged.

107

FEA Analysis of Bullock cart Axle under Static and Dynamic Condition

E. Review Results

UNDER DYNAMIC CONDITION

1) Deformation

The following figure shows the Total deformations

within the axle, when the 5 Tonne loads are applied.

self weight of cart is 5340 kg

i.e. load capacity of

5000Kg & cart weight of 340Kg. This load is

concentrated at two mounting points rest on the axle.

Because of the vertical acceleration of lumped mass of

the cart body due to the road surface roughness,

maximum dynamic loading on each resting point is

estimated about twice as much as static loading [1] so

10 Tonne sugarcane load acting on axle during dynamic

loading condition. It is required to analyses existing axle

for 10 Tonne loading of sugarcane.

on axle in static

condition

axle in Dynamic condition

300Kg

=50300kg=493443N

than static load =

2*493443=986886N

blue color shows minimum deformation generated on

the axle. Total deformation produced within the axle is

0.1795mm.

A. Results Review

1) Deformation plot

The following figure shows the Equivalent (vonmises) stress on the axle when the 5 Tonne load is

applied. Red color shows the maximum stress and blue

color shows minimum stress generated on the axle.

Red color shows the maximum deformation and

blue color shows minimum deformation generated on

the axle. Total deformation produced within the axle is

0.3590mm.

2) Equivalent (von-mises) stress:

The following figure shows the Equivalent (vonmises) stress on the axle when the 10 Tonne load is

applied. Red color shows the maximum stress and blue

color shows minimum stress generated on the axle.

below the materials yielding stress. This means that

axle satisfies the safety conditions for maximum loading

if it is exerted statically.

108

FEA Analysis of Bullock cart Axle under Static and Dynamic Condition

reactions are comes at point A and B

RA+RB=10340 Kg

MA=5150*(51+10+18) +40*(51+10+18+688)

+5150*(51+10+18+688+688)

- RB*(51+10+706+706+10+51) =0

RB=5170 Kg

RA=5170kg

A. Calculation of Shear Force and Bending Moment

on Axle

Load Point

A

C

D

E

B

Above Figure shows equivalent Von-mises stress

distribution provided from the Finite element analysis.

Yield strength

(Existing Material of

Axle SAE 1025 )

370 MPa

Shear Force

5170 N

5170 N

20 N

-20 N

-5170 N

Bending Moment

0 N-mm

408430 N-mm

422190 N-mm

408430 N-mm

0 N-mm

Equivalent(Von-mises)

Stress For 10 Tonnene

loading

Bending Stress

(Existing Material

Axle SAE 1025 )

of

588.8 MPa

= (370/1.5)

= 246 MPa

concentrated regions at transition area of axle hub

mountings. The calculated Von- mises stress is 588.8

MPa far above the materials yielding stress. This means

that axle not satisfies the safety conditions for dynamic

loading condition.

M/I= Bending stress (allowable) /y

Bending stress (allowable) =(y max*M/ I) =M/Z

Z=M/ Bending stress (allowable)

AXLE

Z=4141683.90/246

Z=16836.11 mm3

and is used for the transmission of bending moment

only. Axle shaft will be designed based on its strength

and subjected to bending stresses

Z=I/y max

Z= (bd3/12)/ (d/2)

Z= (58*582)/6 =32518mm3

The required section modulus < section modulus of

current section.

16836 < 32518

Hence required section modulus can be reduced to

16836 mm3 for permissible stress of 246 MPa.

109

FEA Analysis of Bullock cart Axle under Static and Dynamic Condition

Density (g/cm3)

Poisson,s Ratio

7.872

0.27 to 0.30

Tensile strength (MPa)

Yield strength (MPa)

210

710

605

C. Finite Element Analysis of suggested axle by using

ANSYS

Z= (Bd3-bd3)/6D

1)

16836= (58*583-b*d3)/6D

b=d

of axle required for Finite Element Analysis. PRO-E

modeling software is used for modeling of the bullock

cart axle.

b4=5457568

2) Define material

b= 48.3367= 48.50mm

d = 48.50mm

bd3=5457568

Built Geometry

=4.75mm

3) Generate Mesh

critical area.

(Material SAE 1025)

(SAE 1547)

B. Material selection

Mechanical Properties of suggested material SAE

1547 for solid axle

110

FEA Analysis of Bullock cart Axle under Static and Dynamic Condition

blue color shows minimum deformation generated on

the axle. Total deformation produced within the axle is

0.3386mm.

Mesh

refinement at

critical area with

mesh size (mm)

7 mm

Total

Deformation

( mm)

Number of

node

0.3341

88491

6 mm

5 mm

4 mm

3 mm

2 mm

1 mm

0.3351

0.3356

0.3364

0.3377

0.3386

0.3387

89433

90955

92986

98365

112028

186783

0.9 mm

0.8mm

0.3688

0.3390

212463

242958

The following figure shows the Equivalent (vonmises) stress on the axle when the 10 Tonne load is

applied. Red color shows the maximum stress and blue

color shows minimum stress generated on the axle.

Above Figure shows the Equivalent (von-mises)

stress on the axle when the load is applied. Red color

shows the maximum stress and blue color shows

minimum stress generated on the axle.

mesh size 9 mm-0.8 mm and obtained deformation. The

results obtained from analysis, it is clear that at 2 mm

mesh size answer is converged.

D. Results Review

Yield strength of

suggested material for

solid axle (SAE 1547 )

Equivalent (Von-mises)

Stress developed within

suggested Axle due to

max loading Condition

605 MPa

440.43 MPa

below the materials yielding stress. This means that

axle with suggested satisfies the safety conditions for

maximum loading.

1) Deformation plot

The following figure shows the Total deformations

within the axle, when the 10 Tonne loads are applied.

AND PROPOSED AXLE

Sr.

no

Existing Axle

Proposed Axle

Combined Axle

Material SAE1547

(Solid axle) and

SAE 1025 (Hallow

axle)

ISSN (Print): 2321-5747, Volume-1, Issue-2, 2013

111

FEA Analysis of Bullock cart Axle under Static and Dynamic Condition

[2]

Redesigning of tractor trolley axle using

ANSYS International Journal of Engineering

Science and Technology (IJEST) ISSN : 09755462 Vol. 3 No. 6 (June 2011)

[3]

an automobile Engineering Failure Analysis 13

(2006) 12931302

industry uses heavy axle without considering Static and

dynamic loading conditions which in turn leads to

higher factor of safety increasing the overall cost of the

axle. In this dissertation work, existing bullock cart axle

is redesigned considering the static and dynamic load

conditions. Minimum cross section for the axle is

calculated which resulted in the 22.5 % reduction in the

weight of the axle. The weight of axle is reduced

without compromising with existing hub assembly of

wheel.

[4]

Reducing the Weight of a Frontal Truck Axle

Beam Using Experimental Test Procedures to

Fine Tune FEA. 2 nd Worldwide MSC

Automotive Conference.Dearborn, Michigan;

October 9-11, (2000)

[5]

Rajabipour, Stress Analysis of Front Axle of JD

955 Combine Harvester Under Static Loading

Journal Of Agriculture &Social Sciences 1813

2235/023133135 (2006)

loading conditions but it involves some problems. It is

difficult to manufacture such a design as it needs one

hollow shaft and two solid shafts which are inserted into

hollow shaft at both ends and then welded for rigidity. It

also includes manufacturing difficulties as it is much

difficult to fabricate or cast a hollow shaft than a solid

shaft.

[6]

Design & Static Analysis of Rear Axle

[7]

Analysis of Induction Hardened Automotive

Axles J Fail. Anal. and Preven. DOI

10.1007/s11668-008-9148-3

Section

modulus=32518mm3

Section

modulus=16836 mm3

Weight 40Kg

Weight 31Kg

axle

VII. CONCLUSIONS

VIII. REFERENCES

[1]

Tractor Trolley Axle by Using Finite Element

Analysis Approach International Journal of

Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

ISS : 0975-5462 Vol.4 No.04 (April 2012 )

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