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Gradually Varied Flow

Gradually Varied Flow


Introduction:
In practice, it becomes necessary to change the channel section or
bottom slope and use of transition and control structures like sluice
gate, weir etc in the channel as a result of which the flow in the channel
becomes varied or non-uniform between two uniform states of flow. Varied
flow may be of two types: gradually varied flow and rapidly varied flow.

In gradually varied flow, the water depth and flow velocity vary gradually
along the channel length. The streamlines are practically parallel so that
there is no appreciable acceleration component normal to the direction of
flow and the pressure distribution over the section is hydrostatic.
Since in gradually varied flow, the depth of flow changes gradually, to
produce a significant change in depth, long channel lengths are usually
involved in the analysis of gradually varied flow. Consequently, the frictional
losses, which are proportional to the channel length, play a significant role
in determining the flow characteristics and must be included.

Gradually Varied Flow


Introduction:
Example: Flow behind a dam and flow upstream of a sluice gate or weir
are examples of gradually varied flow.
The analysis of gradually varied flow involves the assumption that the
frictional losses in gradually varied flow are not significantly different from
those in uniform flow. By virtue of this assumption, the friction slope in
gradually varied flow is computed using the uniform flow formulae.

Sf

n 2V 2
R

4
3

n 2Q 2
A2 R

4
3

V2
Q2
Sf 2 2 2
C R C AR

....... Manning.... Equation

.......Chezy.... Equation

Gradually Varied Flow


Governing Equation: At any channel section, the total energy is given by

V2
H Zb y
2g

.......... ....(1)

Differentiating equation (i) with respect to x yields,

dH dZb dy d
V2


dx
dx dx dx
2g

dH
S f
dx

.......... ....( 2)

dZb
S0
dx

d
V2 d
Q 2 dy Q 2 2 dA dy
V 2 dy


2
3
dx
2 g dy
2 gA dx 2 g A dy dx
gA / T dx
d
V2
V 2 dy
dy


Fr 2 .
dx
2g
gD dx
dx

Gradually Varied Flow


Governing Equation contd:
From equation (ii),

S f S0

dy
dy
Fr 2 .
dx
dx

dy
(1 Fr 2 ) S0 S f
dx

dy S0 S f

dx (1 Fr 2 )

.......... ....( 3)

This is the basic differential equation of steady gradually varied flow and is
also known as the dynamic equation of steady gradually varied flow. It
represents the slope of the water surface with respect to channel bottom and
gives the variation of y in the x direction.
The water surface curve or profile represents a backwater curve when the
depth of flow increases in the direction of flow (dy/dx>0) and a drawdown
curve when the depth of flow decreases in the direction of flow (dy/dx<0).
When dy/dx=0, the water surface is parallel to the channel bottom and the
flow is uniform.

Gradually Varied Flow


Other forms of the dynamic equation of gradually varied flow:
The section factor and the section factor for critical flow computation can
be expressed, respectively,

ZA D

Z A D
2

Zc

Q
g

Zc
2

Q 2
g

Zc
Q
V
2

Fr
Z 2 gA2 D gD gD
2

Where Z represents the numerical value of AD to be computed for


discharge at the actual depth y of the gradually varied flow,
Zc represents the section factor to be computed for discharge as if the flow
in the channel is critical.

Gradually Varied Flow

Q K Sf

Q2
S0 2
Kn

Q
Sf 2
K

Sf

Kn
2
S0 K

Where
K = numerical value of conveyance to be computed for Q at actual depth y of
the gradually varied flow.
Kn = conveyance to be computed for Q as if flow in the channel is uniform.
From equation (3),

2
Sf
K
1
1 n2
dy
S0
K
S0

S
0
dx
1 Fr 2
Zc 2
1 2

Now, for a given channel section, the section factor and the conveyance are
functions of the depth of flow, i.e.

Z 2 C1 y M

K 2 C2 y N

and

and

Z c C1 yc
2

K n C2 y n
2

Gradually Varied Flow


Where C1 and C2 are the co-efficients and M and N are the hydraulic
exponents for critical flow computation and uniform flow computation,
respectively.
N
yn
N

1

2
M
2
yn
y
dy
Kn

Z
y
S0
c
c

M
2

dx
y
K
y
Z 2 y
1 c
y
For a (wide) rectangular channel, M = 3 and when Chezy formula is used
to compute Sf, N = 3 and hence,
3

y
1 n
y
dy

S0
3
dx
y
1 c
y

.......... ....( 4)

Gradually Varied Flow


Equation (4) is known as the Belanger equation. When Manning formula
if used to compute Sf, N = 3.33 and hence,
10
3

yn
1
y
dy
S0 3
dx
y
1 c
y

.......... ....( 5)

Equations (5) and (6) can be used to compute gradually varied flow in
wide rectangular channel.
The differential equation of gradually varied flow can also be expressed
in terms of the specific energy, E.

V2
E y
2g

V2
H Zb y
Zb E
2g

dE d
dH dZb
H Z b

S0 S f
dx dx
dx
dx

.......... ....( 6)

Gradually Varied Flow


Characteristics and classification of Flow Profiles:
Types of bottom slopes:
The channel bottom slopes are conveniently classified as:
Sustainable or positive slope (S0>0)
Non-sustainable slope (S0<=0).
A positive slope is the slope for which the channel bottom falls in the
direction of flow. It may be:
Mild (S0<Sc, yn>yc)
Critical (S0 = Sc, yn = yc)
Steep (S0>Sc, yn<yc).

Uniform flow can occur in positive slope channels only. In a mild slope
channel the uniform flow is subcritical, in a critical slope channel the
uniform flow is critical and in a steep slope channel the uniform flow is
supercritical.

Gradually Varied Flow


A non-sustaining slope is the slope for which the channel bottom does not
fall in the direction of flow. It may be:
Horizontal (S0 = 0)
Adverse (S0<0).

A horizontal slope is a zero slope. An adverse slope is a negative slope


for which the channel bottom rises in the direction of flow.
The symbols that are used for the bed slopes:
M

Mild

Critical

Steep

Horizontal

Adverse.

Gradually Varied Flow


Types of Flow Profiles:
For the given discharge and channel conditions, the normal depth line
(NDL) and the critical depth line (CDL) divide the space above the
channel into three zones:

Zone 1: Space above upper line (y>yn, y>yc)


Zone 2: Space between two lines (yn>y>yc, or yc>y>yn)
Zone 3: Space between channel bed and lower line (y<yn, y<yc)
The three zones are designated by 1 to 3 starting from the top. The flow
profiles are classified according to the channel slope and the zone in
which the flow profile lies.

The name of a flow profile includes the symbol used for the channel
slope followed by the zone number. Thus, the name of the flow profile
which lies in Zone 1 of a mild slope channel is M1.

Gradually Varied Flow


The flow profiles H1 and A1 are physically not possible. Thus the flow
profiles may be classified into 13 different types designated as:
M1

M2

M3

C1

C2

C3

S1

S2

S3

H2

H3

A2

A3

Of the 13 flow profiles, 12 are for gradually varied flow and one (C2) is for
uniform flow. The general characteristics of these flow profiles are given in
Table 6.1.

Gradually Varied Flow


Slope
Horizont
al
S0 = 0
Mild
0<S0<Sc
yn>yc
Critical
S0=Sc>0
yn=yc
Steep
S0>Sc>0
yn<yc
Adverse
S0<0

Zone Design.
1
2
H2

Range
y>yc

Type of Curve
Drawdown

Type of Flow
Subcritical

3
1
2

H3
M1
M2

yc>y
y>yn>yc
yn>y>yc

Backwater
Backwater
Drawdown

Supercritical
Subcritical
Subcritical

M3

yn>yc>y

Backwater

Supercritical

C1

y>yc=yn

Backwater

Subcritical

C2

yc=y=yn

3
1
2

C3
S1
S2

yc=yn>y
y>yc>yn
yc>y>yn

Backwater
Backwater
Drawdown

Supercritical
Subcritical
Supercritical

S3

yc>yn>y

Backwater

Supercritical

1
2

A2

y>yc

Drawdown

Subcritical

A3

yc>y

Backwater

Supercritical

Parallel to channel bed Uniform Critical

Behavior of Flow Profiles at Specific Depths:


(i)

When yyn, dy/dx0, i.e. the flow profile


approaches the NDL tangentially.

(ii) When yyc, dy/dx, i.e. the flow profile becomes


vertical in crossing the critical depth line (CDL).

y
1 n
dy
y
S0
M
dx
yc
1
y

This indicates a hydraulic jump if the depth changes suddenly from a


lower value to a higher value or a hydraulic drop if the depth changes
abruptly from a higher value to a lower value. In both cases the flow
becomes rapidly varied and the theory of gradually varied flow does not
apply.
(iii) When y, dy/dxS0, i.e. the flow profile tends to be horizontal.
Note that the slope of the channel bottom S0 is determined with respect to
the horizontal line, whereas the slope of the flow profile dy/dx is
determined with respect to the channel bottom. Therefore, the flow
profile, whose slope is dy/dx = S0 with respect to channel bottom,
must be horizontal.

Behavior of Flow Profiles at Specific Depths contd:


(iv) As y0, dy/dx/. For wide rectangular
channel M = 3, and if Chezy formula is used to
compute Sf, N = 3, then

y
1 n
y
dy
S 0 3
dx
y
1 c
y

y
1 n
y
S0 3
dx
y
1 c
y

When Manning formula is used to compute Sf, N = 10/3,


then
dy
Thus for wide channel and y0, using Chezy formula,
3

y
1 n
3
y 3 yn 3
y
dy
yn

S0 3
S0
S 0 3
3
3
dx
yc
y
y yc
1 c
y

And for wide channel and y0, using Manning formula,


10
3

y
10
1 n
103
y yn 3
y
dy
S0 3 S0 3
3
dx
y

y
yc

c
1

10
3

10

3
y
yn 3 1

1
10
0
3
yc
y3
y3

Behavior of Flow Profiles at Specific Depths contd:


Thus the theoretical behavior of the flow profile at or near y = 0 depends
on the type of uniform flow formula used in the computation. However, this
result is not of much practical importance since zero depth does never
N
occur.
yn
1
General Procedure for sketching Qualitative
y
dy

S0
M
Flow Profiles:
dx
y
.
1 c
y
Flow Profiles in mild slope channel (S0>0, yn>yc):

dy

dy
Zone 1 : (y > y n > y c ),
ve,
0
dx

dx
dy

dy
Zone 2 : (yn > y > y c ),
ve, 0
dx

dx
Zone 3 : (yn > y c y),

dy

dy
ve,
0
dx

dx

Flow Profiles at Mild Slope Channel:


y N
dy
S0 1 n
y
dx

y M
1 c
y

M1 profile:
The water surface profile in zone 1, designated as M1, is a backwater
curve and represents subcritical flow. At the upstream boundary (yyn,
dy/dx0), the profile is tangential to the NDL and at the downstream
boundary (y, dy/dxS0), the profile asymptotically approaches a
horizontal line. It may be noted that the water surface in an M1 profile
falls in the d/s direction and approaches its horizontal asymptote from
above.
Occurrence of M1 profile:
The M1 profile occurs (i) behind a dam, (ii) u/s of a sluice gate in a mild
slope channel, (iii) when a long mild slope channel ends in a reservoir to a
depth greater than the normal depth and (iv) when a mild channel is
followed by a milder channel. The M1 profiles may be very long compared
to other flow profiles. In rivers and canals, the M1 profiles may extend
considerable distance before merging with the normal depth. Since the
slope of most rivers and canals is mild, the M1 profile is the most
important flow profile from the practical point of view.

Flow Profiles at Mild Slope Channel contd:


N

M2 profile:

yn
1
dy
y
S0
M
dx
y
1 c
y

The M2 drawdown curve in zone 2 is tangential to the NDL at its u/s


boundary (as yyn, dy/dx0) and normal to the CDL (as yyc,
dy/dx), indicating a hydraulic drop at its d/s boundary.
Occurrence of M2 profile:
The M2 profile can occur (i) at a free overfall, (ii) when a mild slope is
followed by a steeper mild or critical or steep slope, (iv) when a mild
slope channel ends in a reservoir to a depth less than the normal depth
and (v) at the u/s side of a sudden enlargement of a channel section.

Flow Profiles at Mild Slope Channel contd:


y N y M
dy
S0 1 n 1 c
y y
dx
M3 profile:

The M3 backwater profile in zone 3 starts theoretically from the channel


bottom at its u/s end (y0) and terminates in a hydraulic jump at its d/s
boundary (yyc, dy/dx).
3

y
1 n
3
y 3 yn 3
y
yn
dy

S0 3
S0
S 0 3
3
3
dx
yc
yc
y yc
1
y
10
3

y
10
1 n
103
dy
y S y yn 3
S0
0
3
3
3
dx
yc
y yc
1

.......Chezy Eqn

10

3
y
yn 3
1

0
10
3
1
yc
y3
y3

....... Manning Eqn

Occurrence of M3 profile:
The M3 profile occurs d/s of a sluice gate in a mild slope channel and
when a supercritical flow enters a mild slope channel. The M3 profiles are
relatively shorter than M1 and M2 profile.

Flow Profiles in steep slope channel (S0>Sc>0, yn>yc):


N

S1 profile:

yn
1
dy
y
S0
M
dx
y
1 c
y

The S1 backwater profile begins with a hydraulic jump at its u/s boundary
(yyc, dy/dx) and tends to be horizontal at the d/s boundary (y,
dy/dxS0). The water surface rises in the d/s direction and approaches its
horizontal asymptote from below.
Occurrence of S1 profile:

The S1 profile occurs behind a dam or u/s of a sluice gate built in a


steep channel and in a steep channel ending in a reservoir to a depth
more than the critical depth.

Flow Profiles in Steep Slope Channel (S0>Sc>0, yn>yc) contd:


N

S2 profile:

yn
1
dy
y
S0
M
dx
y
1 c
y

The S2 drawdown curve starts from the CDL (yyc, dy/dx) with a
vertical slope at its u/s boundary and is tangential to the NDL at the d/s
end (yyn, dy/dx0). It is usually very short or acts like a transition
between a hydraulic drop and uniform flow.
Occurrence of S2 profile:

The S2 profile can occur d/s of an enlargement of a channel section and


also d/s of a transition of slope from mild to steep or steep to steeper.

Flow Profiles in Steep Slope Channel (S0>Sc>0, yn>yc) contd:


N

S3 profile:

yn
1
dy
y
S0
M
dx
y
1 c
y

The S3 backwater curve starts from the channel bottom (y0,


dy/dx/) at its u/s boundary and approaches the NDL tangentially
(yyn, dy/dx0).
Occurrence of S3 profile:
The S3 profile may occur d/s of a sluice gate on a steep slope or at a
transition between steep slope and milder steep slope.

Flow Profiles in Critical Slope Channel (S0 = Sc>0, yn = yc):

dy

dy
(i) Zone 1 : (y > yc y n ),
ve, 0
dx

dx
dy

dy
(ii) Zone 3 : (yc y n y),
ve,
0
dx

dx

y
1 n
y
dy

S0
M
dx
yc
1
y

In a critical slope channel, NDL and CDL coincide since yn = yc.


Therefore, zone 2 and the C2 profile which satisfy the condition yn=y=yc
also coincide with the NDL and CDL. The C2 profile thus represents
uniform critical flow and may occur in a long prismatic critical slope
channel. But it is not a profile of gradually varied flow.
The C1 backwater profile in zone 1 starts from the yn = yc line and tends
to be horizontal at d/s.
The C3 backwater profile in zone 3 starts from the channel bottom and
meets the yn = yc line at its d/s end.

Flow Profiles in Critical Slope Channel (S0=Sc>0, yn=yc) contd:


For a wide rectangular channel, M = 3, using Chezy formula for computing
3
Sf, N = 3.
yn
1
y
dy
S 0 3
dx
y
1 c
y

dy
Using the condition yn = yc, we get
S0
dx
So, the C1 and C3 profiles in a wide channel are horizontal. For
channels which are not wide, generally, M N
So, using the condition yn = yc,

dy
S0
dx

This indicates that C1 and C3 profiles are approximately horizontal for


channels other than wide ones.

Flow Profiles in Critical Slope/Horizontal Channel :


Occurrence of C1 and C3 profiles:

The C1 profile may occur (i) u/s of a sluice gate on a critical slope or, (ii)
when a critical slope is followed by a mild or horizontal or adverse slope.
The C3 profile may occur (i) at d/s of a sluice gate in a critical slope
channel, (ii) at the transition between steep and critical slopes. The
critical slope profiles are very rare.
Flow Profiles in Horizontal channels (S0 = 0, yn = ):

Q K n S0
For a horizontal channel (S0 = 0), Kn = , or yn = , and therefore, zone 1
and an H1 profile satisfying the condition y>yn>yc are not physically
possible.

Flow Profiles in Horizontal channels (S0 = 0, yn = ) contd:


dy S0 S f

dx 1 Fr 2

Z C1 y
2

Zc
2

Fr
Z2
M

Z c C1 yc
2

dy
dy
(i) Zone 2 : (y > yc ),
ve, 0
dx
dx
dy
dy
(ii) Zone 3 : (y yc ),
ve,
0
dx
dx

Q2
Sf 2
K
Q2
2
dy 0 S f
K

M
dx 1 Fr 2
yc
1
y

The H2 drawdown profile has a horizontal asymptote at its u/s end


(y) and ends in a hydraulic drop at its d/s end (yyc, dy/dx). It may
occur on a horizontal slope u/s of a free overfall.
The H3 backwater profile, which is similar to the M3 profile, is obtained
d/s of sluice gates on a horizontal channel. The horizontal slope
profiles may be considered to be the limiting cases of the mild slope
profiles when the channel becomes horizontal.

Flow Profiles in Adverse Slope channels (S0 < 0, yn = imaginary):


Q K n S0
For an adverse slope channel (S0 < 0), Kn2 = -ve, and yn is imaginary.
Therefore, zone 1 and A1 profile are not physically possible.

dy S0 S f

dx 1 Fr 2

Z c C1 yc
2

Zc
2

Fr
Z2
M

Z 2 C1 y M

S0 S f
dy S0 S f S0 S f

M
dx 1 Fr 2
1 Fr 2
yc
1
y

dy
dy
(i) Zone 2 : (y > yc ),
ve, 0
dx
dx
dy
dy
(ii) Zone 3 : (y yc ),
ve,
0
dx
dx

The A2 and A3 profiles are similar to H2 and H3 profiles and are very
rare. Only short lengths of adverse slope profiles may be expected to
occur in practice.

Flow Profiles, summarized:


Thus, it is evident that the profiles in zone 1 (i.e., M1, S1 and C1) and
zone 3 (i.e., M3, S3, C3, H3 and A3) are backwater curves and those
in zone 2 (i.e., M2, S2, H2 and A2) are drawdown curves.
All the profiles in zones 1 and 2, except the S2 profile, represent
subcritical flow and those in zone 3 and the S2 profile represent
supercritical flow.
Flow Profiles in Serial Arrangement of channels:
When two or more prismatic channels of the same cross-section but with
different bottom slopes are combined and carry the same discharge, the
following procedure for the analysis of flow profile is to be adopted:
(i)

Draw the channel profile. Plot CDL and NDL, if any, in each channel.

(ii) Locate all possible Control Sections at which the depth is known.
(iii) Starting from the known depth, which may be the normal depth or
the depth at a control section, draw the possible flow profiles in the
channels.

Flow Profiles in Serial Arrangement of channels contd:


The following points must be noted in connection with the flow profiles in
a number of channels:
(i)

The critical depth yc will be the same for all the channels, since it does
not depend on the channel bottom slope, S0.

(ii) The normal depth, yn will be different in different channels. Since yn is


inversely related to the channel bottom slope S0, the normal depth yn for a
channel will be higher if S0 is lower and vice versa.
(iii) Flow u/s of a control must be subcritical and d/s of a control must be
supercritical. The control itself locates the subcritical flow profile u/s of it
and the supercritical flow profile d/s of it. In fact, the gradually varied flow
profiles are the results of interaction between the flow and the control (s).

Flow Profiles in Serial Arrangement of channels contd:

(iv) When the flow changes from subcritical to supercritical, a hydraulic


drop usually forms. On the other hand, when the flow changes from
supercritical to subcritical state, a hydraulic jump usually forms.
(v) Under normal condition, the flow in a long straight prismatic channel
having positive slope is taken to be uniform. Therefore, flow beyond the
influence of a control or transition in a mild, critical or steep slope channel
will be uniform, i.e., at the normal depth yn.
(vi) Under normal condition, the flow in a long horizontal or adverse slope
channel is subcritical. Therefore, the flow beyond the influence of a control
or transition in a horizontal or adverse slope channel will be zone 2, i.e., the
flow profile will be H2 in a horizontal channel and A2 in an adverse slope
channel.

Specific Examples:
1. Mild Slope Channel followed by Steep Slope Channel (Qualitative
Flow Profile):
Obviously, the flow is uniform both u/s and d/s of the transition. The five
possible flow profiles (1 to 5), over the transition are shown in fig.
Profile 1: Flow is uniform in the entire mild slope channel and the flow
passes through an S1 profile in zone 1 and an S2 profile in zone 2 of the
steep slope channel. But S1 must be a backwater curve, not a
drawdown curve.
Profile 5: It consists of an M2 profile in zone 2 and an M3 profile in zone 3
of the mild slope channel. But M3 profile must be a backwater curve.
We come to the conclusion, the flow profile marked 3 consisting of an M2
drawdown profile in zone 2 of mild slope channel and an S2 drawdown
profile in zone 2 of steep slope channel, are the only acceptable flow
profiles.
Obviously, the flow changes from subcritical in the mild slope channel to
supercritical in the steep slope channel which is possible only through a
hydraulic drop.

Specific Examples contd:


2. Steep Slope Channel followed by a Mild Slope Channel (Qualitative Profile):

The uniform flow is supercritical in the u/s channel and subcritical in the d/s
channel. The change in the flow state from supercritical to subcritical can only
occur through a hydraulic jump. The location of the jump depends on the
relative magnitude of the two slopes.
If the magnitudes of the two slopes are such that jump is formed in the steep
slope channel, an S1 profile is formed in the steep slope channel and the flow
is uniform just from the beginning of the mild slope channel.
Now, if the slope of the d/s mild slope channel is gradually increased, the NDL
for the mild slope channel lowers and the jump gradually moves d/s and finally
the jump forms on the mild slope channel. In this situation, the flow is uniform in
the entire u/s channel, an M3 profile is formed in the d/s channel and the flow
eventually returns to uniform state after hydraulic jump in the mild slope
channel.
A hydraulic jump usually occurs when a steep slope channel is followed either
by a mild or a horizontal or an adverse slope channel. The jump forms either in
the u/s channel or in the d/s channel but such a situation does never occur that
part of the jump forms in the u/s channel and the rest of the jump forms in the
d/s channel.

Specific Examples contd:


3. Free Overfall at the end of a Mild Slope Channel (Qualitative Flow
Profile):
Suppose there is a free overfall at the end of a mild slope channel. The flow
is uniform in the channel far u/s of the free overfall. The water surface falls
as a result of the free overfall, an M2 profile develops immediately u/s of
the free overfall and the critical depth occurs just u/s of the brink.
Different Water Levels d/s of a Mild Slope Channel:
Three positions of the water level, yd d/s of a mild slope channel are shown
in fig. Obviously,
(i)

When yd>yn, an M1 profile is formed

(ii) When yn>yd>yc, an M2 profile is formed

(iii) When yn>yc>yd, the situation is similar to a free overfall and an M2


profile is formed.

Specific Examples contd:


4. Sluice gate in a Steep Slope Channel:

The flow in the channel far u/s of the sluice gate is uniform and
supercritical. The presence of the sluice gate, which is a control,
changes the flow from supercritical to subcritical with the formation of a
hydraulic jump and an S1 profile is formed. An S3 profile representing
supercritical flow is formed d/s of the sluice gate through which the water
surface joins the NDL d/s.
5. Overflow Weir in a Mild Slope Channel:

The flow in the channel far u/s of the weir is uniform and subcritical. The
depth above the weir is approximately equal to the critical depth, i.e.,
critical section occurs just u/s of the weir. Therefore, an M1 profile is
formed u/s of the weir.

Example 1:
A trapezoidal channel with b = 6 m, n = 0.025, z = 2, and S0 = 0.001 carries a
discharge of 30 m3/s. At a certain section A of the channel, the depth of flow is 1.50 m.
(i) Determine the type of channel slope.
(ii) Determine the type of flow profile.
(iii) If at another section B, the depth of flow is 1.70 m, state whether section B is
located u/s or d/s of section A.
Soln:

A b yz y

y 6 y 2 y
(m 2 )
(m)

P b 2 y 1 z2
62 5*y
( m)

A
R
P
(m)

AR

2
3

2
3

Comme
nt

10.472

0.764

6.685

20

14.944

1.338

24.288

1.97

19.582

14.810

1.322

23.589

1.98

19.721

14.855

1.328

23.821 Closest

Zc

Q
30

10.137
g
9.81 1.12

An Rn

nQn
Sn

0.025 30

0.001
23.717

yn 1.98 m

Example 1 contd:
A b yz y

6y 2y

y (m)

(m 2 )

Zc

T b 2 yz
6 4* y
( m)

A
T

Q
30

10.137
g
9.81 1.12

ZA D

(m)

Comment

10.000

0.800

7.155

20

14.000

1.429

23.905

1.2

10.080

10.800

0.933

9.738

1.3

11.180

11.200

0.998

11.170

1.22

10.297

10.880

0.946

10.017

1.23

10.406

10.920

0.953

10.158

Here, yn = 1.98 m, yc = 1.23 m.

yA = 1.50 m, yB = 1.70 m.
(i) yn>yc, the channel is of mild slope.
(ii) yn>yA>yc, the profile is M2.

Closest

(iii) Since the M2 profile is a


drawdown curve and yB = 1.70 m, so
Section B is located u/s of Section A.

Example 2:
A rectangular channel 8 m wide and having = 1.12 and n = 0.025 has
three reaches arranged serially. The bottom slopes of these reaches are
0.0035, 0.006 and 0.0085, respectively. For a discharge of 30 m3/s in this
channel, sketch the resulting flow profiles.
Solution:
2
2

yc 3

gb2

1.12 30
1.17 m
2
9.81 8

Since the critical slope is the slope for which flow in the channel is both
uniform and critical, hence yn = yc = 1.17 m.

A by 8 *1.17 9.36 m
P b 2 y 8 2 *1.17 10.34 m
2

nQ
Sc
2

AR 3

0.025 30

2

9.36 0.9053

A 9.36
R
0.905 m
P 10.34

0.00733

Thus the bottom slopes of the three reaches are mild, steeper mild and
steep, respectively as shown in sketch..