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The

Institute of Fine Arts

New York University

Stephen Chan Library


of

Fine Arts

PRIMITIVE ART
IN

EGYPT
BY

JEAN CAPART
KKI-U'ER OF

THE EGYPTIAN ANTIijL'ITIES OF THE ROYAL MUSEUM, BRUSSELS


LECTURER AT TL'E UNIVERSITY OF LIEGE

TRANSLATED

FROM THE REVISED


AND AUGMENTED ORIGINAL EDITION

A.

S.

WITH

GRIFFITH

20S ILLUSTRATIONS

LONDON

H.
}3,

GREVEL &

CO.

KING STREET, CO\'ENT GARDEN,


1905

W.C.

Fine Arts

H 51

^^

PRINTED AND BOUND BY


HAZELL, WATSON AND VINEY,

LONDON AND AYLESBURY.

PROFESSOR
A

A 3 7 8 7 9

W.

M.

FLINDERS PETRIE

TOKEN OF PROFO U N D. GR ATITU DE

PREFACE.
^

M-I

I
-*-

S book made

a series of articles

March 1904

in

Bruxellcs,

dc

d' ArcJieologie

In

first

its

appearance

in

the form of

the Annales de

la

xvii.-xviii.,

vols,

Societ(^

1903-4.

was published as a separate volume,

it

without any modification of the text.


I

have been much gratified by the

Grevel

&

brought

edition.

before

In this

The works
Lubbock,

way my book

public

that

prepared both to receive and to

Gillen,

H.

Co. to issue an English translation of a revised

and enlarged
be

offer of Messrs.

which

criticise

is

will naturally

perhaps most

it.

of English ethnologists, more especially of

Tylor,

were the

Haddon,

Lang,
first

to

Spencer, and

Frazer,

draw attention

to a

whole series

of problems of the greatest importance for a study of the


oriofin of Art.

In submitting
I

am aware

for

the

my work

to the

English-speaking public,

that those points which ensured

its

originality

French public may perhaps give the book the

appearance of a compilation, borrowed from the works of


Enoflish scholars.

The

materials have, to a large extent, been drawn from

PREFACE.

viii

of

publications

the

two

Fund and

Exploration

from their pages

English

Egypt

the

societies,

Research Account

the Egyptian

have gathered a large number of

facts

of the greatest importance.


I

owe very

special gratitude to Protessor

with his habitual courtesy, has for

permitted

me

primitive

Egypt, gathered together

and

to study

University College, London.


I

am

have received from him

of

collection

at

in

how much

Egyptian archzeo-

at the yearly exhibition

Egypt Exploration Fund.

of the

his

in

years

tive

relics

cannot express

indebted to him for the lessons

logy that

more than

photograph the

to

who,

Petrie,

If

my book

nature to render any assistance to students,

is

it

is

in the

of a
first

instance to Professor Petrie that thanks are due.

Two

Oxford have enabled me

visits to

complete

to

collection

of notes and of photographic reproduction.

am happy

to

have

and Mr. Bell

for

this

my
I

opportunity of thanking Mr. Evans

their

generous reception of

me

at

the

Ashmolean Museum.

Owing
Shafer,

to

the

kindness

have been able

material from the Berlin

of

this

of
to

utilise

Museum.

opportunity of offering them

The

cordial

hospitality

Macgregor has enabled me


of important

pieces

antiquities at Bolehill

in

his

my

received
to

Erman and

Professors

much unpublished
gladly avail myself
sincere thanks.

from

the

draw attention

fine

collection

Rev.

to a
ot

Manor House, Tamworth.

W,

number

Egyptian

PREFACE.
The Egypt

Exploration Fund, the editorial staff of the

German review Die


Archaeology,

Umschait, and the Society of Biblical

London, have been good enough

several photograpliic reproductions at


It

to

is

Miss

ix

my

also a pleasant duty to express


Griffith

for

the

to

place

disposal.

my warm

admirable manner

in

thanks

which

she has accomplished the task of translating this book.


AuDERGHEM, December

1904.

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.


PAGE

Chapter

Preliminary CoxbiDERAXiox;

I.

Chapter

Personal Adornment
Body

II.

2r

Painting the

21

Painting the Eyes

23

Tattooing

30

Mutilations

The Hair
Combs and

34
35
P:

40

Wigs

42

Beards

43

Face-veils

45

Ornaments

47

Sliells

^7

Beads

47
48

Pendants
Bracelets

49
50

Rings
Clothing

52

Girdles

5-^

Tail

54

Karnata

54

Animal's Skin

55
56

Loin-cloth

Mantle

Chapter

III.

56

Ornamental and Decorati

Art

59

Generalities

Transformation of a Natural Design into a Geometrical


Designs derived from Technique

Transformation of a Useful Object into an Ornament

D esisn

59
60
63

64

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Chapter

III.

{continued).

Object of Decoration
Art

6S

65

Information

65
66

Luxury and Power


Religion and Magic
Knives
Spoons

66
67
71

Combs

72

Pins

75

Pendants
Palettes

76
.

77
82

Incised Palettes

Maces and Sceptres

94

Stone Vases

95

Skeuomorphic Decoration

Human

98

Decorations

98

Animal Decorations

99

....

Stone Vases of Fantastic Form

lOI

Pottery

103

Basket

Work and

Matting

Pottery copied from Plaited

108

Hard Stone

,,

104

Work

T08

Gourds
White Painted Vases

,,

108

,,

108

Floral Designs

109

Representations of
,,

,,

Human

Figures

Animals

Boats

Decorated Pottery

112

,,

in

,r

Imitation of

,,

Representations of Mountains

Hard Stones
Plaited Work
.

Plants
,,

Animals

,,

Human

,,

Boats

Vases decorated with Figures

,,

,,

116

ii7

Beings

119
J

20

121
in Relief

with Decoration inside

Incised Decoration

of Fantastic Forms

114

ii6

Various

no
no

22

126
126

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.


Chapjer in.

Xlll

{continued).
PAGE

Human Forms

Vases of
,,

,,

Animal Forms

[27

:28

Decorated Boxes

^31

....

Furniture and Personal Property

The Hearth

Zl
^Zli

t35

Ivory Carvings
Pottery Marks

:39

Primitive Hieroglyphs

[42

....

" Alphabetiform " Characters

Cylinders

Chapter

Sculpture and Paintin

IV.

Flints of

Human Statuettes
Men

54
^55

[60

\Vomen

72

Dwarfs
Captives

Servants

Vases

in

'52

Animal Forms

form of

72

74

Human

Figures

Figures of Animals

75
:76

76

Hippopotami

78

Lions

Dogs
Apes

55

Cattle

Quadrupeds

Various

Birds

[90

Fish

191

Crocodiles

[92

Scorpions

[92

Frogs

[92

Grififins

[92

Bulls'

f93

Head Amulets

Double Bulls

f95

Magical Instruments with

Human F

[96

Boats

[99

Houses

200

Fortified Enclosure

201

Sculptures in Relief

201

Drawing and Painting

202

xiv

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Chapter

IV. (continued).
PAGE

Graffiti

Painted

Tomb

of Hierakonpolis

....

........

Boats

Animals

Men
Object of Paintings and of

Graffiti

....

.....
....
.......
.....

The Earliest Pharaonic Monumexts

Chapter V.

Archaic Statues of Koptos

Statue of Hierakonpolis

Votive Palettes
First Cairo

Fragments

Fragment

....
.......

at the British

Museum and

the Louvre

Small Palette of Hierakonpolis

Louvre Palette

Small Fragment

at

202

206
207

210
21

213

222
222

226

226
228
229

230
23 +

.....

236

....
....
....

242

the British

Museum

Second Cairo Fragment


Fragments at the British Museum and Ashmolean
Fragment at the Louvre

236

Great Palette of Hierakonpolis

246

Small Fragment

at the

Louvre

Votive Mace- heads of Hierakonpolis


Ivory and \Vooden Plaques
Plaque of the Chief of the Anou
.

Private

248
249

256

and Royal Stelae from Abydos

Statues of Libyans

Cairo Statue, No.

I.

266

Archaic Statues
Statues of

King Khasakhmui

Hierakonpolis Lion

258
26c

266
270

Figure of Cheops

Chapter VI.

,....
....

Dancing, Music, and Poetry

Generalities

Dancing

Music

.......

Poetry

Chapter VII.
Index

Conclusions

....

272
272

274
277
280

282
291

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Fig.

I.

The Geese
The Geese

of
of

....
....

Medum
Medum

From

......

Fragment of one of the Panels of Hosi.


by Petrie

Fragment of one of the Panels of Hosi


Figure of a

Woman

a photograph

Whole Body

with Designs painted ov er the

Grey clay with black paint


Figures of

Women.

University College,

with greenish paint

....

Slate Palettes used for Grinding Paint

Ivory

Box

in

Form

of a

Grey

London.

clay

24

Duck

28

Tatoo-marks of the Primitive Egyptians compared with those o


the Libyans.

From r Aiithropologie
of Seti L

Tomb

lO.

Libyans from the

II.

Fragment of a Statuette with Tatoo-marks on the Breast and


Cabinet des Medailles, Paris

Right Shoulder.

Wooden

Statuette

ornaments
13-

.........

Pottery Vase with Designs

A
Woman

Bologna Museum, with Ivory Ear

the

in

White representing Men

in

14.

Ivory Statuette.

crouching captive

15-

Figure of a

in

16.

Ostrich Eggs.

17.

Combs and

8.

Glazed Pottery.

From Xaqada and Hu

a Pin, decorated with

From

Band

of False Hair.

of one of the Libyans

21.

Ornaments

Bone and Ivory


of an
24-

Bracelets,

wearing

40

42
I.

43

and a Spoon with a Handle

a Series of Similar Bracelets

XV

37

41

44
46
48

........

Arm

Ivory Kings

Forehead
.

3S

.....
.....-

Figure from the MacGregor Collection

Discovered at Abydos

Tomb of King Zer


from the Tomb of Seti

Head

36

the

19'

for the

.....
.....

J3

fighting

Animal and Bird Figures

20.

Pendants

in

Form
50
51

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

XVI

Fig. 25.

........
........

Wearing

Huntsman.

his girdle

Clothed

a feather on his head,

fixed to

tail

26.

Warriors.

,,

27.

Figures of

,,

28.

Evolution of the

,,

29.

Evolution of the Representation of the

30.

Tortoise-shell

31.

Magical Decoration on a

,,

32.

Flint

,,

33.

Gold Leaf with Incised Designs, sewn on

54

formed

a panther skin, or holding a shield

,,

in

and the

of a similar skin

Women. Wrapped

Below

is

nesian Art.

Museum

From Holmes

Art.

Alligator

Human

Figure

in

61

Poly

From Haddon

63
Straits, in imitation of the

From Haddon

(a).

Comb

65
of a

Malacca Tribe.

of Women

From
66

Brussels

cm

length, 25

Flint Knife to form the

67

Handle

one end of a large

....
....
to

68

and of a Boat on a gold Knife-handle

,,

34.

Figures

,,

35.

Ivory Knife-handle in the Pitt-Rivers Collection

,,

36.

Ivory Knife-handle.

,,

37.

Small Flint Knife with Ivory Handle.

,,

38.

Fragment of an Ivory Knife-handle with

Petrie Collection

Museum

Berlin

in

worked and retouched on both Faces.


;

57

Ancien

.....

of the

........

Haddon
Knife,

Representation

Ornaments from Torres

Fish-Hook

,,

39.

Ivory Spoon-handles

,,

40.

Ivory

,,

41.

Ivory

71

72

Petrie collection
a Figure of an Antelope

......

Human

with

42.

Ivory

,,

43.

Ivory

Comb

with

,,

44.

Ivory

,,

45.

Comb, Recto.
Ivory Comb, Verso

.,

46.

Ivory Pins decorated with Figures of Birds and a Bull's

,,

47.

Slate and Ivory Pendants

,,

48.

Slate

,,

49.

Stone and Ivory Pendants with Incised Line Decoration

50.

Plaque

in the Berlin

(?)

,,

51.

Plaque

in

the Berlin

(?)

,,

52.

Palette with a

,,

53.

Palette with the Figure of an Antelope, the

,,

54.

Palette in

,,

55.

Palettes in

,,

55A. Palette in

Figures.

69
70

Combs
Combs
Combs

,,

56

decorated

are fragments of leather with painted decoration

Columbian

,,

one of which

in cloaks,

73

74

Petrie Collection

75

with Figures of Antelopes and Giraffes

75

with Figures of Birds

76

the Figure of an Antelope

derived from Bird Forms

and Ornaments

....

......

Davis Collection

78

78

Head

79
80

and Ivory Pendants decorated with Derived Designs

Museum (Recto). Shell


Museum (Verso). Shell
Human Figure at the Top

84

Head missing

Form of Antelopes
Form of Elephants and Hippopotami
Form of a Lion. MacGregor Collection
.

84
85

86
87

LIST

OI'

LLL'ST RATIONS.

.....
......
......
.......

..

5-

Form of Turtctiscs
Palettes in Form ol' Fish
l-'alette in Form (jf a I5ir(i

..

59-

Palettes of Bird

60.

Bird-slia])ed Palette.

61.

Palettes decorated with Incised Figures

62.

Palettes with

..

63.

Palette.

With

64.

Palette.

With two

,.

65.

Mace-heads from Hierakonpolis and Naq.nda

Fig. 56.
..

57-

'alettes in

Form

birds carved in

89

90
91

92

Decorated Mace-heads

Mace-head carved

68.

Sceptre- or Mace-heads from Hierakonpolis

..

69.

Stone Vase.

70.

Fragment of Vase

71-

Fragment of Vase

,,

7--

Stone Vases with Animal Figures in Relief

'.

7h-

Pictographic

74-

Stone \'ase

in

..

75-

Stone Vase

in

,.

76.

Stone Vases

in

93

MacGregor

relief.

67.

Coll ttiou

95
Berlin

of a Tortoise.

IMusenm

96
97

Decorated with two humian heads

\v

Form
Form

in

Boat

ith

in

99
ICO

with a Hatchet

Low

Relief

ICO

101

102

Vase

Inscription on a Stone

(?)

Form

Warrior armed

103

of a Leather Bottle
of a Bird

103

?"orm of Frogs, Hi|ip(ip(>tamus, and Birds

104

Museum

104

77'

Vase

7S.

Vase, and Fragments of Vases, in

..

79-

Red Vases with White

u( a Dog.

Berlin

Form

of Animals

Paint, in Imitation of Basket

Black Incised Pottery, with Decoration

105

Work

Imitation of

in

ic6

B asket

Work

107

White with

109

81.

Vases painted

82

Bowl painted

83.

Vases painted

84.

\'ase painted in

85.

Vases painted

in

86.

Vases painted

in hriitation

7.

Vases decorated

..

88.

Vases decorated with a Series of Triangles

..

8c;.

Representations of .Moes and Trees

yo.

Decorated Vase with Representations of Animals, and a Tree

,.

9'-

Various Designs on Decorated Pottery

9--

V^ase with

in

in

Crocodile

in

Floral Designs

........

White with Figures of Hippopotami

a nd

no

White with Represent'ations of Animals


Wh.ite with a Boat and Various Animals
White.

University College,

Hard

of

in Imitation of

with Birds perched on

Dancer

93

94

Soft Stone

in

Form

80.

88

a sign (hieroglyphic?) in relief

66.

,.

86
87

.....

Engraved Designs

in

I-AGK

London

Univer^^ity CoUet^c',

.,

..

XVI

it

London

113

114

.Stoiujs

Basket

II

112

Work

115

116

....
....
.

Representations of Castanette Players

(?)

117

118

118
be!

119

^?)

..

93-

Vase Decoration representmg Gazelles fighting

.,

94-

Vase with Various Representations,

From de Morgan

120
121

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

XVIII

Fig.

95-

Decorated Vase from Abadiyeli

96.

Vase

97-

Decorated Vases

Representations

witli

Snakes.

ol'

Ornamentations

Designs

and

Relief

in

Other

98.

Black-topped Pottery with Figures

99.

Vase of Black-topped Pottery with an Incised Decoration

in

Rough-faced Pottery with Incised Decorations


Black Polished Vase

102.

Clay Vases

in

103.

Clay Vases

in

[04.

Clay Vase

[05.

Pottery Boxes with Various Designs

106.

Clay Fire-places decorated with Designs

Form

Form of Birds
Form of a Vulture

inside

126

....
......

of a

of .Animals

124
125

lOI.

in

R.ire

Relief

100.

in

122

........

vvitli

Form

PAGE

Giraffes, Ostriches, Crocodiles, an

Museum

Berlin

......
......
Woman

:B

......
......
.....

-9

130

Imitation of Plaited

in

Work
107.

Ivory Feet for Furniture, in the Shape of Bulls' Legs

[08.

Fragments of Ivory carved with Various Figures

[09.

Fragments of Ivory Objects carved with Various Designs

10.
1

1.

Carved Ivory Cylinders


Pottery Marks

Hieroglyphic

'3-

Table of

14-

Impressions taken from Cylinders

"

18.

Worked
Worked
Worked
Worked

19.

Figures of

'5-

16.
17-

Signs of the Prehistoric Period

Alphabetiform

"

56

.......
......
.....

12.

(?)

'33

Signs

.....

Form of Animals
Berlin Museum
Flint in Form of an Antelope (Bubalis).
Flint in Form of a W'ild Goat.
Berlin Museum
Berlin
Flint in Form of a Wild Barbary Sheep.
Museum.
Flints in

.........
....

Men

of the Primitive Period

Men

o7
138
141

'45

147
[50

53

54
55

155

[56

discovered at Hierakonpolis

'57

'5S

14.

Heads discovered at Hierakonpolis


Ivory Statuette from Abydos
Steatopygous Clay Figures. Ashmolean Museum
Steatopygous Clay Figures. Ashmolean Museum

25-

Steatopygous Figure

26.

Clay Female Figure.

-7-

Female Figure

28.

Female Figures

in Pottery, Ivory,

129.

Female Figures

in Ivory.

120.
:i.

Ivory Figures of

....
......

Ivory

in

in

Clay (complete).

Berlin

Museum

Berlin

I'"igure

ll-

Ivory

MacGregor Collection

of a

[32.

Ivory Figures discovered at Hierakonpolis

133-

Ivory Figures discovered at Hierakonpolis

[65

166
167

Shoulders
Berlin

163
[64

Lead, and Vegetable Paste

Woman carrying a Child on her


Figure of a Woman carrying a Child.

lo-

[62

Museum

University College, London

Vegetable Paste.

'59
[61

Museum

....
....

168
[69

[70
[71

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

XIX
pa(;e

fig- '34-

Small Figure

ill

..

135-

Ivory Figures of Dwarfs

..

136.

Figures of a

Woman standing
Form of Women

..

137-

Vases

..

i3<^-

Figures of Hippopotami

>.

139.

Hippopotamus

in

.......
.......

Lapis-Iazuli from Hierakoiipolis.

a Large Jar

in

Clay, Glazed Pottery, and Stone

in

Black and White Granite

in

172
173

174
175

177

178

.......
....
.......
.........
......
.......

,.

140.

Small Figures of Lions.

141-

Small Figures of Lions

180

,.

14-.

Limestone Statue of a Lion from Kuptos

181

-tj-

Dog and

Ivory Carvings of a

Museum

University College,

144.

Figures of Dogs

'45-

Part of an Ivory Figure of a

London

of a Lion Irom Abydos.

146.

Natural Flints roughly worked to represent Baboons


Figures of

148.

Figures of Cattle and Pigs.

149.

Camel's Head

150.

Figures of Birds and of Griffins

Monkeys
in

Aslimolean

Museum

Clay, found at Hierakonpolis

154-

Head Amulet in Ivory.


Bull's Head Amulets
Double Bull's Head Amulets.

155-

Magical Instruments

156.

Magical Instrument made of Horn, from Katanga.

157-

Models of Boats

15S.

Pottery Boat with Figures of Men.

'59-

Clay Model of a House discovered

160.

Clay Model of a Fortified Enclosure

161.

Graffiti

163.

Paintings on the Primitive

College,

in

187

193

Berlin

Museum

194

Hilton Price Collection

196

Ivory

197

........
.....

London

185

191

Figures of Frogs and of Scorpions

(?) in

183

184

189

151.

Bull's

182

188

15:.
'53-

Brussels

Dog

147.

179

University

Clay and Ivory

Museum
Amrah

Berlin
at El

from the Rocks of Upper Egypt

Tomb
Tomb

198

199

200

201

....

of Hierakonpolis

202

204
208

,63.

Paintings on the Primitive

164-

Standards on the Primitive Boats

165.

Gazelles caught in a Trap and Religious

tomb of Hierakonpolis

211

166.

Statues of the god Min discovered at Koptos

223

167.

Hammered Designs on

168.

Archaic

169.

Fragment of a Slate

From

the painted

Statue

Museum,

(?)

209
210

Representations

the Archaic Statues of the

God

iMiu

225

........

227

Museum

239

discovered

0.xford

.....

of Hierakonpolis

Palette.

at

Hierakonpolis.

Cairo

Aslimolean

170.

Slate Palette with Hunting Scenes.

171.

Slate Palette with Representations of

Animals (Recto).

O.xford

172.

Slate Palette with Representations of Animals (Verso).

O.xford

Louvre and British .Aluseum

231

232

LIST

XX

ILT.USTRATIOXS.

OI-

173.

Slate Palette (l\ecto).

Louvre Museum

174-

Slate l^alette (Verso).

Louvre Museum

175-

Fragment

I'U

176.

/ /

Fragment of

a Slate Palette (Verso).

Fragment of

.Slate

i7f^.

Fragment of Slate Palette

179-

Fragment

Cairo

(Verso).

237
238

O.xl'orci

-39

of Slate Palette (Recto).

British Must'urn

So.

Fragment

of Slate Palette (Verso).

British

,.

181.

Fragment

of Slate Palette (Recto).

Louvre ^Museum

Fragment

of Slate Palette (Verso).

1S3.

..

184.

240

Museum

241

242

Louvre Museum

^43

Museum
Cairo Museum
Slate Palette of Nar-Mer (Verso).
Fragment of Slate Palette. Louvre Museum
Slate Palette of

Xar-Mer

Cairo

(Recto).

-44
245

246

,.

185.

187.

Scenes carved on the Great Mace-head of King Nar-Mer

1S8.

Great i\Iace-head of an Unidentified King.

86.

-35

236

O.xlord

Palette (Recto).

234

Museum
Museum

Cairo

Slate Palette (Recto).

ol a

....
....

Ashmolean Museum, O.vfon

Great Mace-head of King Nar-Mer.

247

249

Ashmolean Museum

Oxford

189.

Principal Scene on the Great Mace-head of an Unidentified King

190.

Specimens

of Small Ivory

the Royal

Tombs

and Wooden Plaques discovered

in

Abydos
Glazed Pottery discovered at Abydos
Dynasty

of the First

at

,.

191-

Small Plaque

19--

Private Stehe from the Royal Necropolis of the First Dynasty a

.,

193.

Stela of Hekenen.

.,

194.

Limestone Statue of

..

195-

Head

Abydos

96.

in

..........
Ashmolean

Black Granite Statue.

197.

198.

Statue in the Brussels

199-

Statue of Ncsa,

..

^^03.

Cairo

a Lil)yau.

Fig. 202.

]\Iuseum, O.vford

of a Libyan in Limestone.

Statue of a Princess

Figs. 200, 201.

in

Turin

Ashmolean Museum,

O.xlord

....
....
......

of the Statue of

262

Museum

269

Ashmolean Museum,

Part of the Ivory Figure of Cheops.

Upper

i.

-05-

Dancers from the

,.

2C6.

Steatite Figure from Hierakoupoiis.

Tomb

261

263

O.^ford

Khasakhmui

Pottery Figure of a Lion

-59
260

......
.......

the Louvre

204.

Museum

256
-58

Museum
Museum
Museum
Cairo

in the

Statue of Khasaklimui.

Head

-55

of Aiita at

Cairo

Deshasheh

at

Bcni Hasan

266
267
26S

-75

Ashmolean IMuseum, O.xford

Musical Instruments, from a painting

265

-77

CHAPTER

I.

PRELIMIXARY COXSIDERATIONS.

TH E

extreme

antiquit}' of Egv'ptian civilization lends a x&ry

attraction

special

welcome

e\'ery

fresh

the

to

minds are so constituted

of

stud}'

productions.

its

reaching back

that,

clue that

guide

will

Our
we

into

the

past,

to

the

starting-

us

by man
more or less brilliant civilization.
From this point of view Egypt has proved itself to be a
mine of information.
Its
numerous monuments of antiquity
witness to the existence of an advanced art at a period when

we can

point whence

on paths which ha\e

trace the

curiositx'

setting

last

plunged

still

before

attainable.

about the

in

the deepest barbarism.

few years, however, Eg\"pt has

she only rendered

steps taken

led to

the rest of the world was


Until the

feeble

first

us

a riddle

it

the

more

not satisfied our

day

intense from

solution

to da\',

of which appeared un-

At the time of her first appearance in histor\-, at


commencement of the fourth dynasty, she already

possessed a civilization which was practically fixed and complete.

Language, writing, administration,


these

could

we found already
observe

thousand

period
race.

established,

\'ears

of time
If v/e

"

sufficient

was

it

etc.

of

we

be styled

development

to allow for the

Four thousand years," he


for

the

would perhaps not be enough.


no pretensions to exactitude
all

all

rarely that

may

development of an

facts

its

In

any case

only merit

is

this

that

intelligent
races,

figure
it

" is

says,

were watching the progress of transitional

to the exigencies of

suppose, as did Chabas, that about four

would be necessary

civilization.

and

ceremonies,

and there of what

here

One might

"archaism."

of such a

traces

cults,

it

makes

lends

itself

which are known up to the present


I

PRIMITIVE ART

time or which

when we

many

as

This impression

works of

considering;

arc

without

endorse

probable."

arc

an

hesitation

EGYPT.

IX

art,

and one

opinion

centuries to the period between the

and the Ancient Empire as

civiHzation

that empire and the

to

struck with their extreme realism, their


in

it

their intention,

such a manner that

mode

Egyptian

classical

art

Fig.

exclaims Mariette,
with

the

"

almost

commencement

the

earh'er

ductions that can scarcel}- be termed primitive

rendering

tempted to

is

assigns

period

of

between

years of the Christian era.

first

examining the productions of the

In

which

accentuated

is

far

mode of seeing nature, and


we can immediately grasp

still

"

us.

The Geese

they

are specially

more complete than the best

can show

1.

pro-

d>-nasties

we

Beautiful in

that

themselves,"

of Medu.m.

appear beautiful when compared

work of dynasties that we

believe

to

represent

the

flourishing centuries of Egypt."-

strange consequence of this opposition between the realism

of the

earliest

was, that

it

leci

dvnasties
scholars

and the hicratism of

who

which was distinctly disconcerting


to our taste at the

the

"

commencement

that

Egyptian

everything around

Chabas, Etudes

it

art,

the

stir Vantuiiiitc historiquc

Mariette,

ib.

p. 86.

perfect

formulae
d'apres

work which

of art as well

les sotoxcs

as

i-gypiiomes et

moiiumc7its /epiites prehisfoi-u/iies, 2nd ed. Paris, 1873, p. 9.


- Mariette, in the Revue archeologique,
i860; quoted by Rhone,

d petitcs jou7'iiecSy Paris, 1877,

Egypt

of the Ancient Empire, under

implacable influence of that slow sacerdotal

petrified

Ics

classical

studied the question to a conclusion

L Egypte

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.

immediately began

the formulae of belief"

more and more.

riorate

to

change and dete-

Nestor L'Hotc, one of the scholars best

acquainted with ancient Egypt, came to a legitimate conclusion,


appears,

it

when he

"

wrote,

The

one penetrates

further

antiquity towards the origins of Egyptian

art,

the

more

into

perfect

are the products of that art, as though the genius of the people,

he

art,"

that

to

invcrsel)-

"we

sa\-s,

know

onl\-

emerged

gradually

The

its

'decadence."

from

the

tombs

the

of

Empire

^Ancient

Shcikli el Beled, the seated scribe of the Louvre, the scribe

Museum,

Cairo

of the

statues of

who have seen them


has so far popularized them
them here. But a fact not
works

of

art

which

phenomena, appearing
exists

high

Another
of the

whole
level
fact

series

memory
Museum, and photography

as to render

it

unnecessary to reproduce

sufficiently realized outside the limited


in

man\'

to

addition

must

these magnificent

to

appear

to

be

isolated

a period of primitive barbarism

of

contemporary works which

attained by Egyptian

not sufficiently realized

painters

The two

the world.

Rakotcp, are living in the

that,

is

at

all

at the Cairo

Medum, Nojrit and

of Egyptologists

to

The Geese of Medu.m.

all

circle

known

are

Fig. 2.

the

in

need scarcely refer to the masterpieces of art which have

of

Egyptian

was formed suddenly.^

of others,

art
is

at

the

there

attest

Pyramid

to

age.

the marvellous dexterity

and sculptors who decorated the walls of the

tombs with paintings and


^Journal dcs savanis,

1851,

Hisfoire de I'art dans I'antiquite,

reliefs

pp.
vol.

53,
i.

of incredible delicacy, inspired


54.

Quoted by Perrot

L'^gypte,

p.

677.

&

Chipiez_

ART

PRIMITIX'K

by Nature, which

the\"

copied

KGYPT.

IX

with

scru[)iilou.s

fidelity.

It

will

dates from

the

be sufficient to quote a typical example of each.

modern painter could have


the

heav\-

of the

gait

tentious carriage of
(Figs.

and

than

it

human

In

figure.

tomb

pre-

plumage"'

its

and

perfection

of the

now

a high

deceased,

the

both seated

neck, the

its

2).

discovered six wooden panels,


represent

and humour

spirit

curves of

the

and

No

picture.

this

in

more

seized with

goose,

xAnother instance shows us the same


the

Maspero says

head, and the markings of

its

feeding

painters of the highest power,

gave better proof of

never

represented geese

artist

In reference to this painting

The Egyptians were animal

they

Medum, which

at

d\Miasty, the

third

tlie

various attitudes.

in
"

mastaba discovered

In

end of

d>'nast\'

tliird

the Cairo

in

of the

official

rendering

in

Mariette

Museum. The\'
name of Hosi,

There are hierogl\'ph inscriptions

standing.

above the figure or before the

We

face.

reproduce here

the

heads of two of the figures, which show the marvellous manner


in

which the

has succeeded

artist

and delicately rendering


that

convention

is

alread}'

in

profile

on a head seen
cannot

to

fail

be

seizing the type

in

with

it

the

there.

We

chisel.

The eye

and surely

must admit

drawn

is

full

but, admitting this con\-ention,

astonished,

and

at

the

face

one

same time charmed,

with this power of execution at a period when we only expect


to

meet with rude and barbarous work (Figs.

We
art

at

the

Eg}'ptian

banks of the Nile


Theories

Pharaonic

to

commencement

Was

explained?

held

bv'

by

Eg\-ptians

art

an

'

and

Maspero,

26 and

text

pi. .xxix.

until

the high level

is

history

Egvpt

of

to

be

brought to the

importation

man\'

from

scholars

who

would

Asia, conquering

the river, after a

prolonged on the east coast of Africa


h\'pothesis,

How

deal.

of the

conquering foreigners?

Nile as they descended

p.

4).

have now said enough to enable us to state briefly the

problem with which we have


of

and

the last

it

by Grebaut, Le muscc egyptien,

bring

valley

the

of the

more or

less

to strengthen

this

sojourn

appear

few years

the

has been difficult to


vol.

i.

Cairo,

1890- 1900,

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.
So

accept any other explanation.

back to the

far as

and

presence of a

was possible

circumstances, such as the

onl\' peculiar

name, permitted certain

king's

museums

Europe and Egypt contained

which might be dated as belonging

statues,

three

of

d\-nasties

first

drawn

seriousl}-

to

but

them, and

that their true character has

however,

Recently,

changed

the

of

current

the

discovered

first

at

begun

in 1893,

certain rude

was never

quite recent years

in

discoveries

has

Flinders

Petrie

some roughly-worked

statues

Professor

god Min, on which were

car\-ed,

very

in

singular figures of animals, 'of mountains, and

of hieroglyph employed to write the


the

true

to the period of the

important

research.

of

Koptos,

is

be recognized.^

to

of

series

only

is

it

It

of scholars

attention

the

be

bas-reliefs to

attributed to a period anterior to the fourth dxmasty.


that the

to trace

productions rarely presented

earliest d\-nasties, their

traces of archaism,

it

name

low

relief,

an archaic form

of the

god Min.

At

time potter)- was found of a peculiar t\'pe, which had

same

previously been

known

which could not

rare specimens,

onl\' in

be correctly dated.

The

following year,

Petrie, aided by Mr. Ouibcll, found


Naqada an enormous necropolis, where
found at Koptos, at the same time as the

Dr.

the neighbourhood of

in

similar pottery to that

statues of Miti, was extremely abundant.

Researches carried out

simultaneously by M. de Morgan proved that they were dealing with


prehistoric cemeteries.

of these excavations, as

an article

in

content

in

cannot attempt to enter here into details

have recently given an account of them

the Reviie de

myself

with

l^

Bnixellcs?

Universite de

mentioning

the

followed the publication of that work.

principal

events

will

which

During the winter 1S98-99,

Professor Petrie and his fellow workers explored various prehistoric

cemeteries at Abadiyeh and

menting those
'

See

Berlin,
C.'M'.ART,

plates
-

the

ii.

and

at

Bologna,

Hii.

These

discoveries, b>- supple-

Naqada, afforded material


Brussels,

Cairo, Leyden,

Rcciieil dc 7nonH7ncnts egypticns,

establishing

for

in

London, Naples,

Pari?,

Brussels,

Remarks on

1902.

Turin.

iii.

Petrie, Kcptos, London, 1893.


Cap.\rt, a otfs stir les origines de

Rcvuc de V Universite de Bnixelles,

P Egypte
iv.

d'apres

Ics

fouilles ri'centes, in

1898-9, pp. 105-139,

fig.

and

pi.

PRIMITIVE ART

a preliminary fashion the

the

same

main

time, Mr. Ouibell

IX KGVPT.

outlines of prehistoric Egypt.

of the ancient temple of Hierakonpolis

site

of objects, dating from the

which,

in

a manner,

At

and Mr. Green found (1S97-8-9) on the

commencement

an important

.series

of the historic period,

formed the bridge between Egypt of

historic

and of prehistoric age.

These

results

were confirmed

excavations of Professor Petrie in


d)-nasties at

the

in

following

\'ear

b\'

royal tombs of the

the

the
first

Abydos, which shortly before had been negligent!}'

-Fkag.ment of o

Ht

From a photograph by

AM.

I..

Petrie.

by M. Amelineau.

explored

Finally, the excavations in the


temcnos of the temple of Osiris at Ab\-dos (190 1-2-3), '" addition
to other discoveries, brought to light a small prehistoric town, which

provided the necessary materials

for a

complete and incontestable

welding together of prehistoric Egypt and the historical dynasties.


Other excavations carried out at El-Ahaiwah and Xaga-cd-Der,^
'

The

result of these excavations

Dr. Reisner will be

Fund,

fouiiti in

is

goo- 90 1, pp. 23-25 and 2 plates.


1

not yet puljlished.

the Archccolog/cal Report of the

.\

short note

by

Egypt Exploration

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.
under the direction of Dr. Reisner,

and

Amrah by

also at El

for the University of California,

Mr. Maclver and Mr. Wilkin, completed

the information already acquired relating to the primitive period.

The evidence thus acquired supplied us with much


it

\vas

at

once recognized that

the rituals, to discover

in

it

many

was

possible,

drawn from these discoveries

Fig. 4.

more

vestiges of that

as a

especially

civilization

The

which the archaic cemeteries bear witness.


clusions to be

interesting

primitive inhabitants of Egypt, and

information concerning the

whole

to

con-

general

are, that

Fragment of one of the Panels of Hosi.

From

a photograph by Petrie.

there was a civilization anterior to the Pharaonic civilization, and


that this civilization produced

We

of excavations were published.

simpK'

are

reports

important arc
1

vvitli
^'

works of

art.

must here mention the principal works

of

Most of

e.xcavations

of

in

which the

these are in English,

Naqada,'^ Diospolis'^ TJie Royal

Tombs of

Pama,

the Cemeteries of

Abadiyeh and

Hit,

&

and

The most

cemeteries.

NiK/ada and Ballas, 1895, by VV. I\I. Flinders Petrie


chapter by F. C. J. Spurrell, London, Oiiaritch, 1896.
Diospolis

results

J.

E.

tlie

First

Quibell,

1898-9, by

W. M.

PRIMITIVE ART

Dynasties^

(i.

Hierakunpolis'^

Green; and,
tions

and
(i.

and

finally,

Abydos'

ii.),

ii.),

and

i\.

by

published

El AmraJi^

EGYPT.

IX

t^ives

by Mr. Maclver and Mr. Wilkin

due

ii.),

Mr.

Petrie

to

Quibell

and

Mr.

the results of the excava-

the cemetery at

in

that

locality.

addition

In

monograph on

to

each of which

books,

these

constitutes

work by M. de Morgan

a prehistoric cemetery, a

must be mentioned, entitled Reclierches sur les origines de I'EgypteJ'


This is the only book in French which has been published on
Unfortunately

the subject.

had

discoveries

deal

appeared before the most important

made, and

been

became out of

rapidly

it

date,

in

by force of circumstances
those

chapters

at

least

generally with the primitive ethnology of the

it

which

inhabitants

of the Nile Valley.

We

must not

of Leipsic,

fail

who was

to

mention the work by Professor Steindorff

the

to

first

give an accurate

judgment on

a whole class of artistic remains belonging to the archaic period,


of which mention will frequently be

Being at
Flinders

last

Petrie,

in

with

possession

cliapters

by

made

in

this book.*^

of Egyptian artistic
A.

C.

Mace,

productions

London,

1901

{Egypt

Exploration Fimd).
by W. M. F. Petrie,
2 he Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty^ 1900,
with chapter by F. Ll. Griffith, London, 1900 {Egypt Exploration Fund).
The Koyal Tombs of the Earliest Dynasties, 1901, ii. by VV. M. Fli.nders
'

i.

Petrie, London, 190 1 {Egypt Exploration Fimd).


^ Abydos, i.
1902, by VV. M. Flinders Petrie, with chapter by A. E. Weig.'^ll
{Egypt Exploration Fund). Abydos, ii. 1903, by W. M. Flinders Peikie, with
chapter by F. Ll. Griffith, London, 1903 (Egypt Exploration Fund).
^ Hie?-akonpolis, i. by
with notes by W. M. Flinders Petrie,
J. E. Quibell,
London, Ouaritch, i()Oo {Egypt Research Account). Hicrakonpolis, li. by J. E.

Quibell

&

W. Green,

London, Quaritch, 1902 {Egypt Research Account).


by D. Randall MacIver & A. C. Mace, with a
chapter by F. Ll. Griffith, London, 1902 {Egypt Exploration Fund). The
name of Mr. Wilkin does not occur in the title of this public;ition, owing to
the lamented death of this young scholar shortly after the e.xcavatioiis were
-*

F.

El Amrah and

Abydos,

concluded.
^ Recherches sur

les origines de V Egyptc.


Edge dc la pierre et des metaux,
by J. DE Morgan, Paris, 1896. Recherches sur les origines de I' Egypte. Ethnographic prehistorique et tombeau royal de Negadah, by J. de Morgan, Paris,

Leroux, 1897.
^

filr

Steindorff, Einc neue Art iigyptischer Ku7ist


Georg Ebers, Leipsic, 1897, pp. 122- 141.

in

Aegyptiaca.

Festschrift

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.
anterior to the dynasties,

becomes possible

it

to enquire

Egypt can be

the question of the origin of art in

any hope of arriving

furnish

are extremely abundant

potters,

Of

objects

multiple

The

artistic!

because
of what

vary on
point

of

or other

these

which

almost un-

in

of

can claim

the

the\-

that

replying

in

utensils

what should we choose

are

difficulty

Unhappily

art.

is

all

difficulty.

the contents of the tombs

various

to

this

m()re

give a definition

only transfers the problem without

the

true

easy of solution.

nature of

art.

Qnot capita

truth,

were possible

it

specially

say with

tot census.

to

transcribe the ^\hole of the pages

written by Professor E. Grosse on this subject.^


as

great,

We know how opinions


Each author has his special
viev,', which
makes him insist more expressly on one
aspect of the subject.
So much is this the case, that
it

wish

of

title
is

there are {&\\ subjects in the world of which one can

more

these

all

question

this

we must

order to arrive at a solution

in

rendering

and

statuettes,

limited number.

with

raised

at a solution.

But here we are face to face with an unforeseen

The remains

whether

wish to observe, which

was

It

work,

his

me

started

first

on the

researches which have resulted in the production of this book

but to do this would appear excessive, and


with giving a

summary

them

of

must content myself

dwelling

as briefly as possible,

principally on those points which should act as our guide.

"The duty
establish
is

of a science," says Professor Grosse, "is this: to

and explain a certain group of phenomena.

two parts

therefore theoretically di\ided into

which

part,

is

the

description,

the explanatory part, which

Does the science of

laws."
first

part the reply ma\' be

as regards the second part?

and

of facts

refers

these

the descriptive

their
to

facts

All science

nature

art fulfil these conditions


in

the affirmative

It

appears that

it

For the

but can

i.s

and

their general

open

it

be so

to doubt,

and here Professor Grosse proves himself very severe concerning


the

productions of art criticism, which,


"

usually

infallibility

which

systems,

'

arrogate
is

the

GuosSE, Lcs Debuts dc

to

themselves

distinctive
I'Art,

in

French

sign

addition
that

of

to

complete

majestic

systems

air

of

edition, Pans. Alcan, 1902.

of
the

PRIMITIVE ART

lo

philosophy of

Of

"

he says,

course,"

both useful

of which,

art,

may

on art which

EGYPT.
when

are occasions

to be

fraijincnts.

they constitute nnere

in fact,

there

and pleasant

IX

nnay appear

it

informed of the subjective opinions

be held by a

man

of genius

when they

but

are imposed on us as general knowledge, founded on a scientific

from

basis,

moment we must

that

principle of scientific research

essential

is

The

them.

refuse to accept

always and everywhere

whether research concerns a plant or a work of art,


It is in consequence of not
should always be objective,"
it
having obeyed this necessity that the philosophy of art has not

same

the

yet succeeded

providing us with a satisfactory explanation of

in

phenomena, notwithstanding the mass of material placed


command by the history of art.

artistic

at its
"

The

task

which

describe and explain the

science

phenomena which

phenomena

"

denomination of

before the

lies

of art

is

a social one.

In the

the object must be to understand an isolated

work of

has two sides

entire work of one

to

artist,

and

individual work,

between an

artist

as the product of an artistic

his

it

is

possible

This task
case,

first

art,

or the

and

to explain

the

individuality working

This individual side of the problem,

under certain conditions."


if

to

discover the relations which exist

work of

art

are classed under the

of an artistic character."

an indixidual and

this

to study

it

with precision during the centuries

most nearly approaching our own times, becomes more and more
complex as we reach further back into the past, and very soon
we find ourselves forced to abandon our attempt and to adopt
the

social

" If it

side.

character of a work

is

impossible to explain the individual

of art

by the individual character

of the

author, nothing remains to us but to trace the collective character


of artistic groups having a certain extension within time or
space,

The

to

first

the

character

aspect of our

second sociological."
logical

aspect

of

the

of

nation

problem

is

or

of an

therefore

entire

psychological, the

As Professor Grosse observes,


problem

has

not

been

epoch.

this

socio-

overlooked

as

Reflexions critiques sur la


early
17 19
pocsie et la peinture, opened the way to the sociology of art.
Herder, Taine, Hennequin, and Guyau successively attempted
as

Abbe Dubos,

in

his

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.
to

general theories, or else combated

form

decessors

but

unfortunately,

studies

sociological

results

those of their

obtained

of art are reviewed,

matters

in

the

if

ii

pre-

by these
must be

it

This can be accounted

confessed that they are very poor.

for,

by the small number of students who have


realized the sociological value of art, but also and above all
by the erroneous method which forms the basis of all these
in

the

place,

first

researches.
"

In

we ha\e

other branches of sociology

all

We

beginning.

at the

phenomena, and
nature and

is

it

only when we thoroughly understand the

forms

simple

conditions of these

sociological schools have, one after another,


;

that

we attempt

more complicated.

the explanation of those which are

roads

learnt to begin

study the simplest forms of social

first

the science of art alone pursues

its

attempted

to find

mistaken methods.

All

new
All

others have eventually recognized the powerful and indispensable


aid that ethnology can afford to the science of civilization

only the science of art which


of primitive nations offered

still

ethnolog}'.

b}'

The

not yet capable of resolving the problem under


aspect.

we would one day

If

it

science of art
its

arrive at a scientific

of the art of civilized nations,

is

despises the rough productions

we must,

more

is

difficult

comprehension

to begin with, investigate

the nature and conditions of the art of the non-civilized.

We

must

know the multiplication table before resolving problems of higher


mathemiatics.
It is for this reason that the first and most pressing
task

of the

science

of art consists in the study of the art of

primitive nations."
It verily

itself to all

appears

which we attempt by degrees


our

first

study of

that, in the

the expressions employed.

to define,

conclusion that there again

and requiring
Which,

in

We

is

art,

misfortune attaches

begin with vague terms,

only to find on arriving at

a term wanting in precision

definition.
fact,

are the nations

who can be

called primitive

Here again the most diverse opinions have been expressed, and
when studying the proposed classifications, we meet at every step
with errors which lead us

Only

to

review the results with suspicion.

to

quote one example

"

Between an

inhabitant

of

the

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

12

Sandwich

Continent there
than

and

Islands

man

indigenous

a difference in

is

that which separates an

AustraUan

the

to

civiHzation greater, no doubt,

Arab and an educated

educated

European, and yet Ratzel, who distinguishes the 'semi-civilized'

Arabs from the


and Australians
Is

civilized

'

method of determining the

there an}'

any one

Europeans, combines the Polynesians

'

one group."

in

That which

civilization?

complicated, even in

civilization

called

is

simplest forms, that

its

relative degrees

it

is

is

of
so

impossible, at

our day, to determine with any certainty the factors

an\' rate in

we were to compare the various civilizations


we should probably not attain our end
but we should be able to solve our problem fairly easil\-, if we

that produce
in all their

were

to

If

it.

manifestations,

succeed

finding an isolated factor, which would be easy

in

determine and sufficiently important to pass as characteristic

to

of the whole of a civilization.

Now

there

tions indicated,

which

a factor to be found

is

and that

The form

production.

is

adopted exclusively, or almost exclusively,


is

to

say, the

their food

manner

is

a fact which

is

is

we can have no doubt

know

To have
nation,
vvc

that

directl\',

and to

civilization.

religious or social beliefs

as to their productions
It

is

perhaps

the intellectual civilization of the ancient

we know

Incas were agriculturists

group

any form of

in

a hunter and a collector of plants.

impossible for us to
Peruvians, but

of production

in a social

easy to observe

precision

Whatever may be our ignorance of the


the Australian

the two condi-

which the members of that group produce

in

determine with sufficient

of the Australians,

fulfils

that the citizens of the empire of the


that

established what

is

a fact which admits of no doubt.

the form of production of a given

is

however, would not be sufficient to attain the end that

have proposed to ourselves,

if

we could not prove

at the

same

time that the special form of civilization depends upon the special

form of production.

The

idea of classifying nations according to

the dominant principle of their production


the most ancient works on

is

in

no way new.

the history of civilization one

In
finds

already the well-known groups of nations, classed as hunters and


fishermen,

nomad

cattle breeders

and

agriculturists, established in

PRELIMINARY COXSIDHRATIOXS.
Few

their countries.

the

full

exaggerate

way

historians, however,

importance of production.

seem

to

13

have understood

easier to underrate than to

It is

In every form of civih'zation, production

it.

the centre of hfe

on the other factors of

it

in

is

some

has a profound and irresistible influence

civilization.

It

is

itself

factors of civilization but b}' natural factors

determined, not

b\-

by the geographical

and meteorological character of a country.


One would not be
wrong in calling production " the primar\' phenomenon

altogether

of

phenomenon by

civilization," a

the side of which other factors

of civilization are but sccondar\' derivatives, not in the sense that

they have sprung from production, but because they have been

formed and have remained under

its

of the necessities of production

dominant

powerful influence, although of

Religious ideas have certainly not grown out

independent origin.

nevertheless, the form of the

religious ideas of a tribe can

The

form of production.

belief in

belief in

an

among

the living

less
;

but

order of the

hierarchic

nothing more nor

of ancestors

in

its

turn

one

finds

It

it.

whose nomad

cial organization,

is

life

is

indeed the belief

The importance

manifests

nowhere so evidently as

family

of
in

in souls

that

of production.

on the product

appear

to

us

the

human

still

more

perfectly comprehensible

we consider them in their relation


The most primitive people depend

the term "chase"


and the plants which they

of the chase

broadest meaning

not of

howe\'er,

the organization of the

which have inspired sociologists with

strange hypotheses

among

but

production,

The strange forms which have been taken by

forms

moment

and centralizing

does not admit of a fixed so-

order.

family.

is

the consequence of pro-

for this reason that

the hierarchic
itself

than a reflection of the hierarchic order

which

tendencies which result from


tribes,

part to the

particular form

its

souls

duction, of the breeding of cattle, of the warlike

hunting

in

which exists among

souls

the Kaffirs, has an independent origin


the

be traced

to

the

the forms

for their food

being taken

in its

collect.^

we survey the world in search of tribes living in this elementary stage, we shall not find them in large numbers. Grosse quickly
" The immense continent of Africa contains
disposes of them.
If

'.pp. 26, 27.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

14

but one hunting tribe

leaving

us these

pygmy tribes
completely unknown

out of account the

of the centre, the civih'zation of

whom

is

Bushmen, the vagrants of the Kalahari


and surrounding countries.
In America we find true huntsman
tribes only in the north and the south
the Aleutians and the
to

are

the

Tuegians.

All

the

the exception of

who

live

still

some

more

are

or

less

under very primitive conditions.

exhibit the primitive state in

all

its

with

agricultural,

Brazilian tribes, such as the

Botocudos,

In Asia there are

any but the Mincopies of the Andaman

scarcely
still

others

purity

who

Islands,

Veddahs of

the

Ceylon have been too much influenced by the Cingalese, and the
Tchuktchis of the north and their ethnical relations are already
breeders of cattle.
There is only one continent which is still
occupied over
being

made

of

whole extent by a primitive people exception


European colonies this is Australia, a continent

its

its

that v>e can also consider from an ethnological point of view as


the

trace of a vanished

last

\\"h\-

artistic

Here an objection

world."

arises.

take into account the prehistoric populations, whose

not

productions are both numerous and varied

M. Grosse,

according to

that

is

in

evidence of these productions, before


certainty that

we

are

forms we are in search

The

considering the
"

reason,

invaluable

being able to say with

actually dealing here with the primitive


of,

would be necessary

it

for us to

know

the civilizations which have furnished these records."

Happily

this

objection

does not exist, at least

in

the

same
of

degree, in the case of primitive Egypt, where the abundance


records

already such that we can picture to ourselves the

is

of the primitive Egyptian


I

think,

to

of "artistic

distinguish

"
;

and with

with sufficient accuracy to be


productions which

those
this

we

" In

title

return to the problem just pro-

pounded, with some additional likelihood


to solve

merit the

life

able,.

this

time of being able

it.

collections of Australian objects," says Professor Grosse,^

"one almost invariably


binations

of points

and

finds

lines.

tinguish these designs at the


'

wooden

Grosse,

It

first
loc.

is

sticks

covered with com-

almost impossible to dis-

glance from

at. p. 17 et seq.

those which are.

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.

.15

found on the Australian clubs and shields, and which arc ordinarily

There

'ornaments.'

styled

difference

between

we

been

have

nothing

are

sticks

aware

the

that

than

else

an

notwithstandinj:^,

is,

so-called

rude

upon

desii^ns

kind

essential

For some time

two classes of patterns.

the

writing

of

these

marks

who carries the stick of the


They have therefore a practical

intended to remind the messenger


essential points of his message.

and not an

prevents our falling into error


instances where

how numerous must be

but

Who

otherwise?

it is

ments

Is

it

signs

tribal

Or

we

almost every time we look

arise

answer.

an

give

also

are

the orna-

at

Notwithstanding the great number of

many

can never be called

in

which the purely

aesthetic

The doubtful cases


our science. The birds'

in question.

from being valueless

far

iew instances can

very

In

race.

doubtful instances, there are also


signification

are religious symbols

these figures

possibl}'

any primitive

of

are actually orna-

not possible that they are marks of property or

These questions
mentation

the

could authoritatively assure

that the figures on the Australian shields

us

knowledge

In this instance our

aesthetic signification.

for

heads at the prows of the Papuan canoes are perhaps primarily


symbols, but

religious

ornamentation

of an

choice

also

the)'

sideration, the execution

serve

ornaments.

as

the

If

detennincd by a religious con-

is

and the combination with other

motifs,

whether different or analogous, are always affected by aesthetic


needs."
It

how

easy to see what are the

is

impossible

it

would be

had resolved from the outset


data on

all

subjects.

the

hope that one day

the

discuss

question

to give only definite

It is therefore

to multiplying observations
in

to

of the subject, and

difficulties

if

one

and assured

necessary to confine oneself

and studying the doubtful instances,


light

may

forth from

spring

them,

permitting us to trace with a sure hand the laws which govern


artistic

phenomena.

"

As

it

necessary,

is

give a definition of Art,

ideas, to

Speaking broadly, we mean by

activity
to

which

excite

is

intended by

direct

sensation,

'

we

jEsthetic

its

'

order

in

will

or

'

artistic

exercise, or

which

in

to

fix

our

say with M. Grosse

most

by

its

cases

'

activit)'

an

final result,
is

one of

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

i6

But we are careful

pleasure."

that "our definition

our edifice

is

This has been

some extent

time

of the

it

believe

be demolished when

we

that

difficulties

that

it

encounter

shall

may

for

in

Is

Egyptian

classical

asked ourselves? or

Was

is

it

same

at the

day
of Egyptian

possibly throw light one

art an

at the

the future from a

on the extremel}' interesting question of the origin


art.

Eg\-pt."

in

warning us

will be of service in

it

appears to

it

from "Primitive Art

shows us what we may hope

study thus directed

to

very long parenthesis, and

to be a digression

Nevertheless,
outset

merely a scaffolding

built."

is

add immediately, with our author,

to

we have

importation, as

of the primitive

continuation

just

art?

and progressive evolution or is it possible to


a sudden contrast between
establish at any given moment a hiatus
the primitive artistic productions and those of dynastic Egypt ?
there a slow

We

cannot attempt to reply to these questions

arrived at the completion of our study

the

result

will

state of our

As

remain

we have

until

and even then,

extremely problematic

in

the

fear,

present

knowledge.

a precaution against error

we

borrow from Professor

will

Grosse the plan of his book, and also the method of dividing our
matter shall be as follows: "Art," he says, "is divided into two

ence

The differarts of movement and arts of repose.


which separates them has been very clearly indicated by

great groups

Y^z\\^&x {Vorschule der Aesthetik,

by forms

in

repose, the others

ii.

The

5).

first

by forms eithen

following one another in time;

the

first

in

seek to plca.se

movement

or

transforms or combines

and the other produces the movement of the


body, or changes in time capable of attaining the result aimed at
masses

by

repose,

We

art.

called

in

"

will

commence with

the plastic arts."

of these, and as the

the

Decoration

object

first

is

"

arts in repose,"

adorned

is

the

human body,

we will begin with the study of personal adornment.


the most primitive folk are not content to adorn
'

J.

Collier,

in

his

commonly

probably the most primitive

Primer of Art (London,

18S2),

p.

36,

But even
the

body

defines art as a

"creative operation of the intelligence the making of something either with


a view to utility or pleasure."

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.
only

they must also embellish their weapons and utensils.

ornamentation of these objects

We

our stuciy of the subject.


art

occupy the second place

will

shall

It

between the

arts of repose

be defined

as

may

{lebendc Bildnerei')

people dancing

it

animated

Dancing forms

"

and the arts of movewhich creates movement

the art

plastic art.

always united with song

is

mode

in

then examine the free plastic

creation of works which are in themselv^es artistic.

the transition

The

which aims not at decoration but at the

Bildiierei),

{freie

ment.

17

Among

primitive

and thus we have

poetry.
Finally we will
The three last subjects can only be
treated in a most summary fashion in their relation to ancient
Egypt. Before commencing the last portion of our task we will
a convenient

of transition to

study primitive music."

devote a short chapter to the earliest Pharaonic monuments, the

comparison of which with the primitive remains cannot

fail

to

be interesting.

But before entering upon our subject,


give

some

Authors

differ

the date of the

enormously

first

3892

5004

their opinions

in

it

necessary to

Wilkin.son, 2320

Brugsch, 4455

on the subject of

Here are some of the dates

Eg}-ptian dynast}-.

which have been proposed.


5869

think

dates in order to fix our ideas.

Champollion-Figeac gives the year

Bockh, 5702

Unger, 5613

Bunsen, 3623

Lieblein,

5004

Lepsius,
Mariette,

Lauth, 4157.-

Dr. Budge, Keeper of the Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities of


the British

Museum,

in his

recent History

of Egypt^ having quoted

the dates given by Champollion-Figeac, Bockh, Lepsius, Mariette,

Bunsen, Wilkinson, and Brugsch, ends thus


onl\-

"

Of

these writers, the

ones whose chronological views are to be seriously considered

are Lepsius, Mariette, and Brugsch, between whose highest and

lowest dates

is

an mterval of over

lOO years.

Viewed

in

the light

of recent investigations, the date of Lepsius seems to be too low,


whilst that of Mariette, in the

same way, seems

to be too high

we

Grosse, loc. cit. pp. 38, 39.


According to the chronological table drawn up by Wiedema.xn in his
Acgyptischc Gcschichte, pp. 732, 733, which gives with reserve the date 5650.
3 Budge, History
of Egypt, i. Egypt in the Neolithic and Archaic Periods,
1

London, igo2,

p. 159.

PRIMITIVE ART

have therefore to consider the date

Egyptian

lists)

arrived at

M. Maspero,

in

for

Menes

(the

first

large

his

Histoire ancienne des

somewhat

possible error of several centuries

peiiples

He

similar dating.

king of the fourth dynasty, at 4100

first

king of the

by Brugsch."

I'Orioit} apparently accepts a

Sneferu,

EGYPT.

IX

more or

B.C.,

de

places

"with a

less."

Professor Petrie, in one of his more recent works,- places the


reign of

We

Menes between 4777 and

can therefore admit,

monuments
millenary

dealt with in

B.C.

in

4715.

taking a

date, that all the


to

the

fourth

but having thus obtained a provisional date for the

termination of the primitive period,


to assign

minimum

book are anterior

this

one also

for the

it

would be equally advisable

commencement

But here

of that period.

is still greater, and a calculation can only be based


upon extremely vague presumptions. F^or the development of the

the difficulty

primitive civilization Dr. Petrie

demands about two thousand

years,

and as he places the commencement of Pharaonic Egypt about


5000

B.C.,

the most ancient of the

to consider

As we

monuments which we

would necessarily date back


find ourselves

immense periods
any precise dates
be established,

in

our

to

about 7000

own country

are about

B.C.''

face to

face

with

of prehistoric ages, without being able to assign

it

to

the different stages of civilization which can

has

been

necessary

to

find

convenient

terminology to enable us with ease to classify the objects found.

To

this

end a

series of deposits characteristic of

chosen, and to that age the

name

an age has been

of the deposit has been given.

Thus terms have been created which

are universally accepted, such

as Chellean, Mousterian, Magdalenian, etc.

convenient to be able to do the same

in

It

would be extremely

Egypt, and

in

fact the

Paris, Hachette, i. 1895, p. 347, note 2.


In the new Gn/de to the Cairo
Mitsemn, Cairo, 1903, p. 2, the same author places the first dynasty at about
5000 B.C.
^ Abydos, i.
p. 22.
^ Mr. Maclver has recently attempted to
combat these conclusions, but his
arguments are not conclusive. In his calculations he has not taken into account
that the tribe who interred in the El Amrah cemetery may have been nomads
who would only return periodically to that locality, a circumstance that would
completely change the conclusions to be drawn from the number of tombs. Sec
MacIver & Mace, 1 Amrah and Abydos, pp. 50-52.
'

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS.

age, so called from the principal cemetery of that period

Naqada

which has been explored,


of Naqada,

gone

etc.,

farther,

still

a term already applied to the entire

is

Naqada

In scientific books the

primitive period.

men

19

already commonly

are

civilization, the

referred

Petrie has

to.

and instead of names he has proposed

to

make

use of numbers.

Relying upon the study of

t\'pes of pottery,

which are extremely

varied during the primitive period, Dr. Petrie has succeeded, by a

which

series of classifications

here, in separating all

known

it

impossible for

is

me

to describe

To

t\'pes into a scries of 50.

these

he has applied numbers ranging from 30 to 80, which numbers

To

represent the successive periods of the prehistoric age.

numbers he applies the term

seqiieiice

maximum and

minimum number,

The

dates.

tomb, when studied on the basis of these

these

contents of a

classifications, furnish a

the average of which indicates

the relative age of the burial.

scheme originated

This

rendered

only

have

which

criticisms

to

b\'

by the

possible

been

discovered.

which

his

Petrie

large

is

very ingenious,

number

of

is

intact

graves

the

various

Notwithstanding

m.ethod has been

and

subjected,

up

to

the

present time no one has apparently been able to bring forward


contradict

to

facts

we can

sa\'

his

results.

It

is

owing

of the type of a statuette or of a

to this

system that

scheme of decoration

that they occur, for instance, between the sequence dates 35 and

39

and

it is

thus that similar indications must be understood, as

they are met with


that

in the

pages of this book.

numbers previous

the

to

30 have been

a lucky find should bring to light

any already known.

As

first

must explain

reserved

in

case

monuments more ancient than

have previously mentioned, the point

of union between the sequence dates

of the

We

and the reigns of the kings

dynasty has been established on the evidence of the

small prehistoric town of Abydos, and Petrie has fixed the reign
of

Menes
'

as coinciding with the sequence date 79.-

Petrie, Sequences in Prehistoric Re?nains, in the Joiinial of the AnthroInstitute,


xxi.\.
19CO,
Petrie, Diospolis parua,
295-301
pp.

pological

pp. 4-12;

S.

Reinach, Review of the preceding

pp. 759-762.
^

Petrie, Abydos,

i.

p. 22.

in

rA?tthropologie,

xi.

1900,

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

20
It

on the basis of these sequence dates that we can state

is

of certain objects that they are

have endeavoured to multiply the

be

never

sufficiently

merely

intended

quoted

the text Naqada,

in

mark 78

23, the

where the text

summary commcntar\- on

each

of

manner

which can

illustrations,

work

in

as

source

following

the

in

numerous
serve

to

The

monuments.
cated

ix.

numerous during the

specially

or second half of the prehistoric period-

first

the

of

When,

Ixiv.

pi.

illustrations

is

indi-

there

instance,

for

is

the

is

and Diospolis Parva,

"jS,

be found at the side of the illustration

will

taken from Naqada, and D. 23 beside that taken from Diospolis.

A.

Abydos

signifies

Amrah;

These annotations,

etc.

foot of the page, should,

and

In

of the illustrations.
in Figs. 7

Royal

R. T.

or

A.,

it

easy to trace the originals

some very exceptional

especially

cases,

which give examples of objects which

17,

El

El,

connection with those at the

in

think, render

necessary to refer to again


identification

Am.,

tombs;

it

is

the indications relating to the

later,

of the objects will be found in

the passage where

they are treated in detail.^

concluding these preliminary remarks,

In

conceal

to

defects

the

this

work may

hazardous to write on a subject so

on a

will

of objects the

class

day.

to

sincerely

have rendered

number

hope that
this

book

simply endeavoured to render


that
it

it

will

remain, at any

existed at the
1

Following

the

moment
example

new

as

as

it

It

is,

in

fact,

and especially

increases from

a few years

altogether

rate,

do not attempt

this,

of which

in

contain.

new

day

discoveries

inadequate.

have

complete as possible, hoping

summary

of the question as

of publication.
of

M.

Salo.mon

Reinach

in

La

Sculpture

have my sell" drawn the


greater part of these figures (except those signed with a monogram). These
must, however, be considered entire!}^ as sketches, by no means intended to
supersede the original publications.
etiropeemir.

avant

les

ivfliiaiccs greco-rotnaines,

21

CHAPTER

II.

FERSOXAL ADORNMENT.

PRIMITIVE
only

The

races paint almost the whole of the body.

exception

bodies with clothing,

at

events,

all

who

Esquimaux,

the

are

when

cover

their

quit their huts.

the\-

Australian always has a store of white clay, or of red and

The

yellow ochre

pouch.

his

in

In

daily

he

life

content with

is

various smears on his cheeks, shoulders, or chest

but on solemn

occasions he daubs the whole of his bod\'.^


'

Is

possible to pro\-e that

it

the primitive Eg\'ptians?

antimony,

are

we must remark

e.xisted

among

that "colouring

and yellow ochre, malachite, and sulphide

materials, such as red

of

any similar custom

First

frequentl}-

found

in

usualh" contained

colouring materials are

tombs

the

"

these

small bags, placed

in

near the hands of the deceased person.^

There

no evidence,

is

believe, to

whole of the body, but there

is

at

Tukh

above her head,


of vases.

ration
shall

a position

In

the

make an attempt

which has designs


dis-

woman, standing, with her arms

represents a

it

in

that they painted the

This interesting object was

painted over the whole body.

covered

show

a clay statuette

we

shall

find

again

chapter dealing with

the

in

deco-

that subject

to determine, if possible, the

we

meaning of

this attitude.

The

designs painted

on

this

statuette are of various

kinds.

place there are figures of animals, goats or antelopes,

In the

first

which

Petrie

remarks are absolutely identical with those on the

'

Grosse, Lcs Debuts de

De Morgan, Kecherches sur

Petrie, Naqada,

p. 30.

I'Ari, p. 41.
les

origines de VEgyptc,

ii.

p. 51.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

22

We

red pottery with white line decoration.

should next observe

the zigzai^ patterns, and finally the motives borrowed from plants.
All these decorations occur

commencement

the

This indicates that the figure

(sequence dates).

extreme

upon the pottery contemporary with


between 31 and 32

of the prehistoric period

antiquit}',

and we may consider

it

as

in

question

one of the

is

of

earliest

female figures known, with the exception of the ivories discovered

Figure of a Woman with Designs painted over


THE Whole Body.

Fig. 5.

Grey clay

in

witli

black paint.

(Fig. 5).
M. de Morgan,
same figure, remarks that " it would be easy to
number of analogies among the tribes of Central

the caves of the south of France

reproducing
find a

this

large

Africa, of Asia,
'

and of Oceania."

Petrie, iVaqada,

pi.

li.x.

6 (.-\shmolean

Museum,

O.vford).

The examples of

pottery quoted by Petrie for comparison with the paintings are the following
pi.

xxviii.
^

34,

48;

pi.

xxix. J7, 85

De Morgan, Rechaxhes

c/,

stir les

91-95.

origines de

V Rgypte,

W-.

y. 56, fi?.

loi.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
The most

interesting comparison from

this

one indicated by Petrie, who observes how


on

designs

west

the

to

body

the

point of view

greatly the

is

painted

the tatoo-marks of the populations

recall

Timihu

Egypt, those

of

23

we

who, as

(Libyans)

have occasion to remark, present man\' analogies

shall frequently

The

with the primitive Eg\'ptians.

we

subject of tatooing

shall

consider presently.

Two

clay female

Museum, Oxford,
those on the
It

is

were

in

Also,

it

in

fragment

in

Ashmolean

the

painted v/ith designs analogous with

statuette^

be seen

the Petrie collection, University

similar

are also

Tukh

will thus

body

figures

London, and

College,

(^'ig-

6).

evidence relating to painting the

that

very scanty, and only enables us to assert that

body with various

the habit of decorating the

not absolutely certain, in the objects quoted here, that

is

we have

women

patterns.

not

deal with tatooing

to

it

only the discovery of

is

colouring materials in the tombs that leads us

to

believe

that

they are instances of painting.-

On

of painting

the subject

evidence

clearer

for

the

purpose

this

eyes

we happily

malachite was

possess far

used, ground

mixed with some fatt\' substance.


line was drawn round the eye,
which, besides being decorative, had a utilitarian purpose.
powder and

to

With

this

As

apparently

broad

paint a rather

Petrie observes, Livingstone records that in the centre of

Africa he found that the best

remedy against obstinate

sores

was

powdered malachite, which the natives provided for him. The


same author compares the coating of colour which preserved
the eye from the blazing glare of the desert with the custom of

the Esquimaux,
it

who

blacken the skin round the eye to protect

from the glare of the snow.^

My

'

whicli

attention

show

has been drawn

distinctly the line

ol'

to

paint

similar

figures

at

the Turin

iVIuseum,

below the eyes which we are about

to

consider.
=

For

painting

the

Antiqiiites

civilisation de

la

du

A'ord,
^

new

and

body

Blinkenberg,

Grece, in the

series,

tatooing

premycenictmes.

Manoires de

1896, pp. 46-50.

Petrie, Diospolis pania,

p. 20.

in

pre-Mycenaean Greece, see


sur la plus atictenne

Rtude

la Societe royale dcs aiitiquaires

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

24

Fig

6.

Figures

Grey clay with greenish


off,

and only a few

The following

of Women.

paint.

facts

On

lines

in

Petrie, A'aqada,

to the left the painting

on the torso can

prove that

during the primitive period.

been discovered

University College, London.

the figure

this

now

has scaled

be distinguished.

custom existed

Egypt

in

Shells containing green paint have

the tombs/ and similar traces of colour have


p.

6,

tomb 522 Ballas

p.

15,

tomb 23

Ballas

p.

16,

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.

25

been found on ordinary pebbles, very much polished, which are


invariably found with the slate palettes.^

These
speak

palettes, of

which we

shall

frequently have occasion to

course of this work, served for grinding the malachite,

in the

which was crushed

to

have just mentioned.

Fig.

powder on them by means of the pebbles

The

fact

is

demonstrated

in

an undeniable

Sl.\te P.^lettes used for grinding Paint.

7.

manner b\- the traces of green paint found on them, and also
by the cavities worn in them by prolonged grinding ' (Fig. 7)
Petrie

has

occasionall}'

also

found

traces

of

haematite

on

them.

The

palettes

were fated

to

fulfil

brilliant

destiny.

Later

The same use of shells in the fourth dynasty has also been
See Petrie, Medutn, London, 1892, pi. xxi.v. 17, p. 3.1 " Tiie shell
contains powdered blue carbonate of copper as paint."
Petrie, Xaqada, pp. 10, 19, tomb 5 Naqada. A fine specimen of a palette
with traces of paint, from Gebelein, at O.xford.
tomb

87 Dallas.

established.

'

Petrie, A'aqada,

p. 43.

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

26

on we find them developed into

works of

real

adolescent

the

Australians

the

immense

in

the

primitive

bones of the deceased with red colour.

period of paintini^ the

Among

of

art,

size and apparently employed ceremonially.


We must mention the custom that existed

red for the

painted

is

time at his initiation, when he joins the community of the

first

"

men.

Painting with red, characteristic of entrance into

employed

also for death."

life,

is

Without more evidence than we possess we cannot determine how far this custom was general among the primitive
Egyptians.

have only met with one instance mentioned by

Petrie.-

Did the habit of painting the body, and more especially of


line of green paint round the eye, continue in Egypt

drawing a

at the historic period

P'rom the earliest times the skin of the


is

in

men on

the

monuments

generally represented as being of a brownish red colour, dark


tone,

women

the skin of the

while

is

yellow.

M. Maspero,

r Orient classique^ expresses


" The men are generally coloured
himself thus on the subject
in fact, one can observe among them
red in these pictures
among the population at the present day,
all the shades seen
from the most delicate pink to the colour of smoked bronze.
The women, who are less exposed to the glare of the sun, are

in his Histoire anciennc des peuples de


:

usually painted yellow, the tint being paler

if

they belonged

to

the upper classes."

This explanation

might very easily be accepted.

It

even

explains the exceptions to the red and yellow colourings which

we observe on
skin

yellow,
will
in

the

of
is

certain

women,

for

nearly the

very

number of monuments, where


instance,

natural

instead
colour.

of

being

the

painted

As an example

mention the figure of a daughter of Prince Tchuti-hetep,


the

tombs of El Bersheh
'

GROsst:,

Inc. cit.

Naqada^

p. 25,

* Vol.
^

i.

^
;

or,

again,

the

pp. 41, 42.

tomb

234.

p. 47.

Newberry, El Bersheh,

i.

frontispiece.

representations

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
Aahmes

Queen

of

where the pink


of other

Thiti,

yellow on the walls of their

bright

in

Queen

of

those of thousands

contrast with

colours

painted

ladies

and

Deir-el-Bahari,

at

flesh

27

tombs.

am

however,

I,

Egyptians a custom resembling that of primitive nations,

the

especially

most frequently
yellowish

among them.

use

in

Grosse thus expresses


red,

the

is

of almost

is

employed, red and yellow, are those

colours

the

as

"palette,"

it

singular colouring of

disposed to see in the

when

in

"Red,

especially

colour of priniitive

fa\'ourite

nations.

all

the general sentiment

Analysing the primitive

himself:

Goethe undoubtedl\'

It

e.xpresses

he speaks of the

his Farbenleln^e

exciting influence of a yellowish red.

peoples, as

for this reason that

is

red has alwa}-s played an important part in the toilet, especially

The

of men.

that

in

habit

of victorious

painting themselves red has vanished with


.

Yellow

that

to the

the

vogue

in

long

at

period

is

also

employed

in

it

is

Egyptians, and although

all
it

yet

periods,

was

of painting

accuratel}-, of underlining

with

much

sufficientlv'

convention of representing

The custom
can

and

.".

by no means impossible to apply these prindo not wish to assert


I
manner was
this
skin
in
custom of painting the

believe

ciples

importance,

of similar

is

the same manner.

Roman generals of
the Roman republic

greater

men

suppose

that

general

to

in

red and

during a

give

rise

women

in

fairly

the

to

yellow.''

round the eyes with green or, more


the eye with a dash of green paint
certainty

be

attributed

to

Egyptian

civilization.

Petrie reports that he discovered in a

(M.

I.

tomb of

Abydos) some powdered malachite

in

the

first

dynasty

box

a small ivory

Naville, Dcir-el-Bahari, iii. pi. Ixvii. Benedite, Le Joinbcau de la rei/ie


Ale moires de la Mission archeologique fran^aise du Caire, v. p. 397.
^ Grosse, Les Debuts dc V Art,
pp. 45-47.
^ Maspero, Histoirc ancicnne des peuples de V Orient classi(/!u\ i.
p 54 " Je
pense bien qu'au debut ils s'enduisaient tons les membres de graisse on d'iiuile.'
Why not grease, or oil, coloured by means of mineral or vegetable dyes? See,
however, ScHWEi.NFL'RTH, Origin and present condition of the Eg}ptia?is, in
Baedeker, Egypt, 5tli ed. Leipsic, 1903, p. xxxvi.
'

Thiti, in the

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

28

form of a duck

the

in

'

very interesting object as prototype

numerous boxes of paint of the same form which have


in tombs of the Second Theban Empire,
and of which several museums contain specimens- (Fig. 8).
of the

frequently been found

The monuments
green

of

of 'the fourth dynasty clearly show the line

under the eyes, espccialh' two door-posts

colour

Museum, on which is
named Sokar-khabiu, " who was
the Cairo

Nubian type

Hathornefer-Hotep as her

called

name this woman's

great name, and Toupis as her short


recall the

The

"

Sepa

celebrated

and of Nesa

have the same


the

e\-elids,

painted

8.-h^RY

Bo.k in

'^

Form

OF A Duck.

mencement of

features

she has a line of green paint under the


eyes."

Fig.

at

figured the wife of a personage

"

and the

black,

who

of

the

Louvre

The

pupils,

eyebrows are

and below the eyes

a line of green."

q{ Rauefer,

at

lines.

statues

The

mummy

lived about the

com-

the fourth dynasty, was closely enveloped in linen

wrappings, and on these the eyes

and eyebrows were painted

green.'

The green powder used


small bags, which

in

They were made,

offerings.

show,

of leather

graves
the

in

confirm

paint

was

or

the

preparing the paint was enclosed

are frequently

the

accuracy of

placed

pictured

these

as

and

skin,"

represented

this

small

specimens
detail.

in

the

of

lists

representations

found

in

the

Occasionally also

I
cannot
attempt to enter into the question of the composition of this
green paint in Pharaonic Egypt, nor stop to describe the various

paints in 'use at the

Petrie,

pi. -x.v.wii.

in

same

Diospolis patva,

see

p.

27

id.

ii.

period.

p.

20.

vases

It

or

baskets.

would have no bearing on

Published

in

Petrie, Royal

To?nbs,

i.

p. 37.

An example

in Petrie, Kahun, Gurob and Hawara, pi. xviii. 10, and


two others in Leema.xs, Aegyptische Monume}itat van het Nederhmdsche
Museum van Oiidheden te Leyden, ii. pi. xxxvi. 565, 567.
^ Maspero, Guide to the Cairo Miiseu?n,
Cairo, 1903, p. 40, No. 62.
* De Rouge, i\'otice des ?nonuments,
A 36-38, pp. 26, 27.
^

p.

35

'"

Petrie, Medum, p. iS.


Griffith, Beni Hasan,

iii.

pi.

iii.

27, p. 14.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
work, and

the subject of this

done by

others.^

already

been

however, mention the

must,

Egyptian writing and

has

it

29

ritual

b\'

this use of

admirably

traces

in

left

green paint.

hieroglyphic sign :^&= clearly shows the line of colour drawn

below the

and

c}'e,

sign, in addition

this

name Uazu

to determine the

other uses, serves

to

powder and of

of the

green paint.the

In

frequent

rituals

paint

Uzait, the painted eye,

This

or health}' eye.

been

has

point

green

to

and the

texts,

protective and curative \-irtues of the


that time, that the

made

are

allusions

occurring as early as the Pyramid

of the

daily ritual

funerary

means whereby the god,


healthy with
a

Finall}",

brings

all

rendered perfectly clear

expressed

is

left

Under

substituted.

subject.^

Egypt,

anci

also the

makes himself

"

thy

for

in

these terms

right

and

eye,

"
:

He

nicstcvt

e\'e."''

designs with which primitive

no persistenc}' of character
others

in

him."^

paint

th}'

cult

or the deceased person,


in

text

green

[another paint] for

The

is

curious

thee

to

that

at

called the sound

bringing a bag of green paint as

mention

rituals,

divine

the

was such, even

was

by Maspero, who has several times written on the

The

paint,

belief in

the\-

man

paints his skin ha\-e

can be got

some

of at will and

rid

circumstances

may

it

be

VViEDEM.ANX, k., Varieties of aticient ''Kohl,"' in Petrie, Medion, pp. 41-44.


Floren'CE & LoRET, Lc collyre noir et le collyre vert dii tombeau dc la
princcsse Xonbkotep, in De Morgan, Fouilles a Dakchour, March June, 1894,
1

153-164; also printed separately, Vienna, 1895,

pp.
-

Maspero, Revue

critique, April

22nd,

1901,

p.

16 pp.

Review of Davies,

308.

33 for the exact representation of the sign.


^ Masi'Eko, Notes au jour le jour,
25, in the Proceedings of the Society of
Biblical Arc/uEology, xiv. 1902, pp. 313-316, and La table d'uffrandes des tombeaux

Ptahhotep,

i.

see

cgypticns, in the
reprint,

p.

7-tcuedlis en

23).

pi. v.

Revue de
Petrie,

hgypte

et

en

I'histoire des religions,^ xxxv.

Medum,

pi.

xiii.

1897,

Mariette,

Italic, Paris, 1889, pi. xix. b,

where

p.

297 (separate

Momuncnts

TH

Q
^

divers,

occurs from a

000

mastaba of the beginning of the fourth dynasty.


^ See Moret, Le rituel du cultc divin journalier

e7i

gyp/e,

du Musee Guimct, Bibliotheque d' etudes, xiv. pp. 71, 109, 199.
V'ON Lemm, Das Ritualbuch des Ammondienstes, Leipsic,
''

in the

Annales

1882, p. 68.

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

30

them

desirable to render

indelible

of tribal or religious marks, and

custom of

for instance, in

as,

we

thus

the case

find the origin

of the

tatooiiig.

As we have seen

preceding pages,

the

in

it

is

difficult

to

distinguish clearly from the primitive Egyptian figures

between

The same

patterns

what was tatooed and what was painted.


were

apparently

comparison

have already stated, a

made between

been

has

As

use for both.

in

painted

the

or

tatooed

patterns on the primitive statuettes and the tatoo-marks on the

Libyans

'['imihii)

of the

tomb

of Seti

I.

This comparison, extended

^ m
'<((iwf

Tatoo-marks ok the Pruiitive Egyptians co.mpareu


WITH THOSE of THE LIBYANS.

Fig. 9.

From

V Anihropologie.

to the tatoo-marks of the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria, has

shown

We
Seti
to

I.-

the

(Fig.

;c=K,

the

we

especially

is

tatoo-marks

which we

to

10),
It

connection

is

Maspero

Vl.

(Fig.

9).

are

writes

times have occasion

shall several

interesting

note

to

that

one

of

very accurate reproduction of the hiero-

symbol

of the

led

an Egyptian king

of

all

reproduce here a group of Libyans from the tomb of

refer.

glyph

between them

close analogy

thus

to

of

the

Neith

goddess

consider
first

the

name

and
of

in

the

this

wife

dynasty called Meri-NeitJi.

on the subject

"

The name of Meri-

Wiedemann, Die Urzeit Acgyptens imd seine dltestc Bevvlkerung, in


Die Uttischau, September 23rd, 1899, pp. 756-766. Les modes d' ensevelissement
dans la 7iecropole de i\'egada/i ct la question de l'origi7ie du peuple egyptien^ in
'

De Morgan,
Naqada, pp.
xi.

Petrie,
stir les origines de l' Egypte, ii. pp. 221, 222.
Tatotiages des indigenes de I'Algaie, in I' Aftthropologie,

Reche7xhes
45, 46.

1900, p. 485.
*

Lepsius, Denkmciler aus Aegypteti

imd Aeihiopien,

iii.

pi.

136.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
Neith

interesting," apart from

is

its

we were already aware from other


by Neith

played

of high

ladies

in

the

religion

who

position

are

31

being a royal name; "but


of the important part

proofs

buried

mentioned

or

mastabas of the IVIemphite period have, as favourite


of

'

Prophetess

of Neith

'

or

'

Prophetess

at

of her cult during the primitive period

moment, when the Berlin school

this

is

is

pre-

noteworthy
to the

Libyans from the Tomb of Seti

10.

Fig.

Neith
the

Semitizing

utmost the language and the population of Egypt."


I

those

Hathor.'

of

the

in

titles,

appears to have been a goddess of Libyan origin, and

dominance

The

of the earliest centuries.

I.

This leads us to enquire whether the painting and tatooing

some other object, in addition to an jesthetic


order to answer this we must examine our ethnological
Family and tribal marks are generally to be recognized,

of the body had not


one.

In

evidence.

and

as

divinity

it

sometimes happens that a

for

its

religious signs
1

distinctive

among

M.A.SPERO, in the

tribe selects the

mark, there

is

symbol of a

a chance of finding

tatoo-marks.-

Revue

ctilique,

November

I2th,

1900, p.

366.

For the

inadequate arguments, see MacIver & Wilkin^


Libyan Notes, London, 1901, pp. 69, 7c. For Meri-Neith see Sethe, Bcitriige
zur iiltesten Geschichte Aegypteiis {Untersuchiotgen zur Geschichte und Altercontrary opinion, but

with

thionsktinde Aegyptcns, herausgegebcn


2

Gkosse,

loc. cit. p.

55

et.

seq.

von Kurt

Sethe,

iii.

i),

pp. 29, 30.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

32

Occasionally tatoo-marks are actually pictographic, and convey

An American

a meaning.

zigzag

may

lines

signifying

mysterious

be intended to serve

the

of

Indian, for instance, bore on his arm.

"

breast

on

the

Second Theban Empire

the

with

some instances

mention

With

arms.

reference

to

of

confined

to

exclusively

to

queen

his

upon the breast and

tatooed
subject

have met

be sufficient to

will

It

Wiedemann

Professor

remarks that Libyan influence can clearly be traced during

reign. ^

Museum shows
Thothmes III., who bears on

temporary with

cartouche of that

On

Pesth

stela in the

the

representations

Amenophis IV. and

A ten
this

or

do not remember
period.

of this.

god

names

perhaps

an example outside that

bore the names of the

The Egyptians

themselves occasionally on

the

was

custom

This

divinities.

arms with

tatooing

Also,

medical purpose.-

tatooed

period

classical

or

power.''

this

a personage conhis

arm a

right

king."*

we

other e.Kamples

Amon-Ra

god

find the figure of the

tatooed on the right shoulder, notably on a statue of a kneeling


scribe

in

Museum

the

Turin Museum.^

(D 19) bears on

Am.on-Ra, and on the

'

the

left

Another statue
right

VVashinoton,

1893,

figure of

shoulder the cartouche of Amenophis

Garrick Mallerv, Tenth Atmual Report of

1SSS-9,

Leyden

the

in

shoulder a small

pi.

xvii.

235.

p.

Bureau of Ethnology,
Examples by Hoerxes,

the

Urgeschichte der hildeyiden Ku7ist in Eu7-opa von den Attfiingen bis u?n 500 z-or
There the author also mentions the Libyans

Chr., Vienna, 1898, p. 31, note 4.

tomb of Seti I.
FouoUET, Le Tatouagc medical en Egyptc dans

of the
-

actuelle,

in

the Archives d' anthropologic cri?ninclle,

See BuscHAN
in

in the Centralblatt fiir

Anthropologic,

I'antiquite et a
xiii.

iv. p.

1S99, p.
75,

Vepoque

270

et

seq.

and R. Verxeau

Professor Petrie draws my attention to the


x. 1899, p. 99.
of a priestess of the sixth dynasty, in Cairo, where there are numerous

rAnthropologie,

mummy

tatoo-marks on the body.


^ Wiedemann, Die Urzeit Aegyptcns ...

in

Die Umschau,

iii.

1899, p. 766,

and

Recherches sur les origines de I'Egyptc, ii. p. 222. For the


Professor Petrie
figured representations see Lepsius, Dc7ikmdler. iii. pi. 106, 109.
has remarked to me that in this case the so-called tatoo-marks may be, in reality,

in

De Morgan,

small plaques of glazed pottery fixed on fine muslin.


plaques are found with the name of the god Aten.

.At

Tel-el-.A.marna similar

* Maspero,
Notes stir differents points de gram?naire et
Melanges d'archeologie egyptie?t?te ct assyrienne, i. 1872, p. 151.
'"

'Masve.v.o, Histoire ancie7ine des

pcuplcsde

I'

d'histoire,

Orient classique,\\.

in the

p. 53'' figure.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
[I. ?]

Another example from the same museum (V 82) represents

a sculptor
== 9

33

n,

who

bears on his breast and shoulders the tatooed sign

temple of Ptah.

Finally,

a small

statuette,

of which

the upper part alone remains, in the Cabinet des Mcdaillcs

in Paris,

shows that on the breast and shoulders signs were tatooed, the
meaning of which we cannot always follow, and which bear considerable resemblance to the

Fig.

II.

marks found on

potter\- (Fig. ii;.

Fragment of a Statuette with TAToo-MARKis on the Bre.\st


AND Right Shoulder.
Cabinet dcs Medailles, Paris.

With regard

to

decorative

tatoo-marks, they are

rare on Egyptian remains of the classical period.

however, on a small figure of a

Museum
'

in

(No. 9,583),- on a stela in the Cairo

They

occur,

faience in the Berlin

Museum

(No. 20,138),

Leemans, Aegyptlsche Monicmenten van het Nedcrhuidsche Musciun van

OudJicdcn
-

woman

somewhat

tc

Stratz,

Leydctt,

ii.

pi. 4.

Ueber die Kle idling der

iigyptiscJien

sclinft fiir dgypiiscJie Sprachc, xx.xviii. 1900, p. 149.

Tdnzerinncti in the

Zeit-

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

34

where a man
finally

decorated on the breast with tatoo-marks/ and

is

representation

in

of

tomb of the Second Theban

Empire.-

The

"

perforation of the ear, the nose, or the lips

a view to

obtained

some kind

placing

as a natural step

ment, which

may

am

placing

in

not

certain

one of the

that

thus

Libyans

ornaments upon
Egyptians

the prehistoric
I

wish to draw attention

use of ear-studs in the classic period

observe

hole

therefore be considered

hanging

or
that

practised these mutilations, nevertheless,


to the

the

in

done with

towards the second method of personal adorn-

consists

the body."-^

ornament

of

form of mutilation

this

is

of

the

and,

we

first,

tomb

of Seti

will
I.

is

wearing ear-studs, judging from the plates published by Belzoni


and by Champollion.
Lepsius, in the plate of which our
Fig.

represents

10

has not

part,

noted the ear-stud/

(See

Fig. 19.)

In

the

at

Egypt the wearing of ear-studs is fairly frequent, but only


commencement of the eighteenth dynasty. As Erman

remarks,'

these

ear-ornaments are either broad

During the reign of Amenophis IV. one

rings.

wore these ear-ornaments as much


Lange

'

&

discs
finds

l.xxxvi.

p.

that

men

ScHAEFER, Grab- und Denksteuie des mittlcren Reichs (CataMusee du Caire),


iv.
p. 163
i.

p. 465.

Lepsius, Denkmdlcr,

fig.

large

as women.''

logue general des antiquites Egyptiennes du


pi.

or

iii. 2.
See Erman, Life
Ancient Egypt, p. 230 and
See M.A.SPERO, Histoire ancienne des peuplcs de T Orient classiqiie, i.
and note 3.
See Alfred Herz, Tiittowining, Art tend Verhreitung,

216.

p.

54,

Leipsic,

tatooing

1900 (Doctor-dissertation,

and

painting

'EXa^ooTiKToy, in Hermes,

the

Universitat

body

xx.xviii.

among

Erlangen).

On

Greeks,

see

the

the subject of

Wolters,

P.,

pp. 265-273.

Deniker, Les races

et les peuples de la terre, Paris, igco, p. 209.


Belzoni, Plates illustrative of the Researches and Operations of G. Belzoni
in Egypt attd Nubia, London, 1821, pi. viii.
Champolliox, Moftii?nents de
V.gypte, pi. ccxl.
For a reproduction of the head after this plate see Perrot &
Chipiez, Histoire de I'art dans Vantique, i. Egypte, fig. 528, p. 796. It is much
to be regretted that the various publications of this important representation vary
^
^

so greatly in the details.

It

is

very desirable that an edition definitive should

be made.
^

Erman, Life

in Ancient Egypt, p. 228.


Steindorff, Vier Grabstelen aus der Zeit Amenophis IV.,

filr Aegyptische Sprache, xxxiv. 1896, p. 66.

in the Zeitschrift

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
The woman represented

Museum

Bologna

or to assure

place."

These discs

statuette

of

the

gravely pushing one of them forward, either to

is

show

off

charming

(Fig. 12) "is very proud of her large ear-orna-

ments, and
it

the

in

35

herself that

are

the jewel

is

safely in

its

not

found

tombs of the Second


Theban Empire, and a certain number
infrequently

in

been

appear to have
fixed

must

of

lobe

the

in

to

the

which

have

necessaril}-

be

intended
ear,

been

greatly

distended.

Schweinfurth

Professor

primitive

the

from

external

and
can

profile,

judging

which,

period,

shape

its

belonging to

brocatel

lished a ring in

pub-

has

from

also

its

been

only have

used as a lip-ring.^

We

now

pass to the consideration

of methods of hairdressing
'

On one

Egypt.

in

ancient

of the earliest vases of

by Petrie " cross-lined


^^ ^,.
at
which was onlv m use

the kind called


,,

pottery,
^

-^

the beginning of the

primitive

Wooden Statuette
THE Bologna Museu.m,
.
_
WITH Ivory Ear-ornaments.

Fig. 12.

IN

period

(sequence dates 31-34), a combat between two


(Fig.

13).

One

of the

combatants has

top of the head into four tresses,

his

men

is

represented

hair divided

which hang down

on the

his back.^

M.ASPERO, Histoire ancicJine des peiiples de VOrieiit classu/ue, ii. p. 533 and
states, probably erroneously, that the statuette belongs to
Petrie's photograph of the same, from which he has reprothe Turin Museum.
duced it, is No. 83 of the Italian series, but has the letter B, indicating Bologna.
If it is doubted that such a distension of the ear, in some cases very
1

fig.,

where the author

considerable, can be

fact,

such e.xamples as are represented by ScHURTZ,

1900, pp. 65 and 396, will carry most comElliott Smith, Report on the Mmnmy of the Priestess Xcsitet-neb-tani, in the Annales du service des Antiqiiitcs de VEgypte, iv. 1903, p. 158.
^ ScHWEi.NFURTH,
Ueber eincn Altiigyptischen Ring aus Brocatelle, in the
VerhandluHgcn der berl. Ajithropol. Geselischa/t {FehrwdTy, 1902, pp. 99, 100).
* Petrie,
Diospdis parva, p. 14: " M. Schweinfurth avait emis I'idee que
les 'n^olithiques' egyptiens se teignaient !es cheveux en blond (par decoloration

Urgeschiditc der Kiiltiir, Leipsic,

plete conviction.

PRIMITIVE ART

z^

P:GYPT.

IX

Other remains of more recent date show the hair arranged


a

in

variety

of

ways,

the

worn

hair

and divided

long

two rows of

framing the

curls,

and hanging down

face

shoulders

short

or

^
;

into

to the

hair

in

small curls, either round or of


"

"

corkscrew

form, arranged in

rows from the nape of

parallel

neck to the crown of the

the

head

again, in other in-

or,

the whole of the hair

stances,

massed

a single thick plait,

in

which, falling from

head, hangs

of the

back

(Fig.

found

methods of

the

hair-

men are also


monuments of

for

on

down

14),

All these

dressing

crown

the

the

the Ancient Egyptian Empire,

where

this

in

Egyptians appear

have

faith-

to

their predecessors.
plait,

the

the traditions of

fully followed

however,

worn by men

respect

The

is

no

by

this

single

longer

time

it

a I'aicle de chaux ou d'urine) ou en


roux (par coloration avec du henne).

M. Vircliow
hypothese.

croit devoir ecarter cette


.''

Salomon Reinach,

review of V'lRCHOW, Ueber die et/inologische Stcllung dcr priihistotischen


lend protnhistorischeii Aegypter [AdFig. 13.

Pottery Vase with Designs

White representing Men

fighting.

in

der Preuss. Akademie


der Wissenschaften, Berlin, 1898), in
/land/u/igcH

VAiithropologie,

ix.

1898, p. 447.

QuiBELL, Hierako7ipoIis,
pi. ii.
- Id. pi. V.
and vi., and Petrie, TIic Races of Early Egypt, in the Jojiriial
of the Anthropological Institute, xxxi. pi. xix. ii and 12.
^ OuiBELL, Hiera/conpolis, i. pi. xi. and xxvi. a, and Petrie, Royal Tombs
of
'

the Earliest Dynasties,

i.

ii.

pi. iv. 4.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
is

3/

worn only by children, or as one of the distinctive marks of


and certain high sacerdotal dignitaries.
In this case,

princes

when we see it represented on the monuments of the Second


Theban Empire, the plait has usually lost its original form, and
is

transformed into a fringed band hanging over the

The
and

it

earliest

female figures have no trace of any hair whatever,

might be considered that the head was entirelv shaved.

Fig. 14.

crouching captive.

It

is

of

The

Ivory Statuette.

hair, in a thick plait or twist, is

probable, however, that this

the

ear.^

artist,

who

did

not

is

owing

understand

hanging down the back.

to

how

the inexperience
to

render

hair.-'

For the types of wigs of the Ancient Empire, see Erman, L/fe in A7icicnt
Egypt, pp. 2ig-223.
P'cr
the side-locks of children and of princes, ib.
pp. 117, 235, 314, reproduction of the lock transformed into a decorated bandeau.
This forms an interesting example of the laws of evolution of clothing as laid
down by Darwix, G. H., Levolutio7i dans le vek??ient, in the Keznic de
I'Univcrsitc de Bruxcllcs, v. 1899-1900, pp. 385-411, ill.
(Separate reprint,
Brussels, Lamertin.)
Translation from MacMillan's Magazine, 1872.
' Later on
we shall see that hair-combo are especially abundant at this
'

period.

art

PRIMITIVP:

38

in EGYPT.

Towards the end of the primitive period, on the contrary, we


two distinct modes of hairdressin"", a short and a lon'j^ one.
the

on

first

each

case

the hair

of the

side

When worn

long

the

is

on the forehead, and,

di\'ided

face,

is

cut

short

abo\-e

breasts.-

15.

FiGUKE

falling

shoulders.'

hanging over the

statuette discovered at Ab\-dos (1902-3)

Fig.

In

hangs loose down the back, some

hair

being drawn over the shoulders and

tresses

the

find

of a

Woman

in Gl.\zed

by Professor

Pottery.

Discovered at Abydos.

Petrie

shows yet another arrangement, the whole of the hair

being drawn slightly to one side

down

in

the right shoulder-blade'' (Fig.

a thick plait, which

hangs

15).

QuiBELL, Hicrakonpoiis, i. pi.


Petrie, Royal Tombs, ii. pi. iii, a, 8.
QuiBELL, loc. cit. i. pi. i.x. xi. See, farther on, various female figures which
show numerous examples of the two kinds of hairdressing. It is possible that a
certain number of rings, hitherto classed as bracelets, were employed in hairdressing to support the curls, as they are found used in Greece {tcttigcs) and in
the Punic tombs.
See Gsell, Fotiilles de Couraya: Sepultures puniqucs de la
cote algerieiuie (publication of the Association Historique de I'Afrique du Nord),
1

i.\-.

Paris, Leroux, 1903, p. 39.


^

Petrie, Abydos,

ii

pi. iv. p. 25.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.

39

Here, again, we find modes of dressing the hair identical with


those

among women

use

in

commencement

at the

Empire, such as are represented,


statues of Nofrit, at Cairo,

and of Nesa,

at the Louvre.^

Savages of the present day delight


with various objects, such as feathers,
pins,

men

we

and

primitive

stuck

fragment

worn

find

in

of

We
hair

slate

palette

are

the

feathers,

Louvre.'-

feathers,

and

it

dress

The

goddess

of the

her name, which,

in

feather

^Nlaat,

and

is

found

also

the Pyramid texts,

bearing the feather on

its

On

head."

covered at Koptos by Petrie, the

surmounted by an ostrich

is

it
is

in

later

the

which the

noticeable

whether there was not a religious significance


of employing them.

among

prevailing

specially

is

in

ostrich

carved combs and

shells,

custom

this

decorating their hair

in

meet with

first

their

way

this

in

same

this

Egyptians.

of the Ancient

for instance, in the celebrated

on a

The

feathers

question

is

this

as

employed

method

the headin

determined by

writing
a

hawk

the ancient statues dis-

emblem

of the

god

Min

is

feather.^

must mention here that ostrich eggs have been found in


prehistoric tombs, showing traces of painting and engraving
I

(Fig.

The custom

16).

several

At Hu

history.''

of depositing ostrich eggs in tombs has

been observed at

times

different

periods

of

Egyptian

Petrie discovered clay models of ostrich eggs

See Er.man, Life in Ancient Egypt, pp. 222, 223.


Heuzev, gypte OH Chaldee, in the Comptes rendus de VAcademie des
See, farther on, our Fig. 25.
inscriptions et belles letlrcs, 1899, pi. on p. 66.
^ Griffith,
Davies, The Mastaba of Ptahhetep and Akhethetep at
in
'

Saqqareh,
*
'"

i.

p.

15.

Petrie, Koptos, pi. 3.


De Morgan, Recherches sur

Vkxkie, Naqada,

p.

19,

tomb 4;

les

origines de l'gypte,

p. 28,

ii.

pp. 35, 69,

tomb 1480 (Ashmolean Museum,

and

100.

O.xford).

At the historic period, ostrich eggs and feathers were imported from the land ot
Punt, and perhaps also from Asia, if we credit a scene in the tomb of Harmhabi.
See BouRiANT, Le Tombeaii d' Harmhabi, in the Memoires de la Mission
archeologique franraise du Caire, v. pp. 420 and 422, and pi. iii. and iv. We must
also remember the discovery of painted eggs in the Punic tombs of Carthage
(GsELL, Fouilles de Couraya, Paris, 1903, pp. 35-37, where the author questions
whether ostrich eggs were not decorated by the Greeks of Egypt or of Asia
Minor), and even in a tomb of the valley of Betis in Spain {I'Ajithropologie, xi. 1901,
It must,
See also Petrie, Naulcralis, i. p. 14 and pi. xx. 15.
p. 469).
nevertheless, be remembered that the ostricli egg was employed for industrial

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

40
one of these
of cords

(Fig

^
;

decorated with

is

the others

black

simply

are

zigzag lines
with

painted

in

imitation

white

spots'-

i6).

The

ostrich feather almost without exception

is

found placed

in

the hair of lightly-armed soldiers of ancient times, and a trace of


this

preserved

is

tomb of

Seti

I.

in

the

hieroglyph

have two feathers stuck

Fig.

iM

6.

Ostrich

.^

in

The

Lib\-ans of the

their hair.

Eggs.

fragment with incised figures; also clay models showing traces of painting.
Naqada and Hii.

The women
for fastening

up

delighted in the use of decorated


their hair

these were

made

combs and

From

pins

of bone or ivory,

See Tylor & Griffith, T/ie Tomb of Paheri at El Kab, pi. iv. and
Petrie, Illahun, Kahuii and Gnrob, pi. x.xii. and p. 19. Petrie, Kahun,
Gnrob and Hawara, p. 32. Mr. J. L. Myres contributes the following interesting
note relative to the persistence of the commerce in ostrich eggs in the north of
purposes.

p. i8.

Africa

"

The transsaharan

trade in ostrich eggs persists.

could ascertain in Tunis and Tripoli

(in

1897),

come

The

eggs, as far as

via Kano, along with the

consignments of feathers, and emerge at the Mediterranean seaboard termini,


where they are in request as pendant ornaments in the mosques."
Petrie, DiospoUs.parva, pi. v. and p. 33 (tomb B loi).
' Hil, tomb
B262 and B56 {2 examples), (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford).
* See the remarks of Max Muller, Asien and Eit7-opa tiach altagypHschen
Denkmiilern, p. 3 ^/ seq.
'

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
and were often decorated
a

human

figure

these

combs

were

even

occasionally

that

rennarks

top

the

at

commencement

with figures of animals;

found on

especially

period

prehistoric

the

of

is

41

them.

Petrie

numerous

between

at

the

and 44

;},2,

(sequence dates), while the pins,

which

of

type

is

decorated with a small


a

of

figure

whole

the

prehistoric

period

shall

found

are

bird,

throughout

We

common

most

the

the

of

(Fig.

17).

have an opportunity

these more in
when studying ornamental
but we will here observe
these combs
it is possible

examining

of

detail
art,

that

and

had

hairpins

purpose, as

magical

notably the case

is

China.

in

The

decorating the

of

art

and of arranging"

hair

it

in

manner does not

complicated

appear to have been raised to

any

high

Egypt.
certain

ideal.

in

primitive

which seem
more elevated

indications

point

to

level

Nevertheless, there are

Is

to
it

not

possible

to
Fig.

recognize
of certain
divinities

in

the

kings,

on

head-dresses
queens,

monuments

17.

WITH

Combs and a Pi.n, decorated


and Bird Figures.

Anim.'M-

and
of

the

classical

period

survivals

of

See pi. vi., where pins, a combined comb


p. 2\.
and also a spoon are to be seen still entangled in the hair of a woman.
M. DE Groot, The Religious System of Cliina, i. pp. 55-57 "Among
J. J.
the hairpins provided for a woman's burial is almost always one which is adorned
with small silver figures of a stag, a tortoise, a peach, and a crane. These being
emblems of longevity, it is supposed that the pin which is adorned with them
will absorb some of their life-giving power, and communicate it to the woman
in whose hair it is ultimately fastened."
E.xample quoted by Fr.azer, TIic
Cchidcn Bough, 2nd ed.
p. 48.
'

and

Petrie, Diospolis parva,

pin,

i.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

42

earlier fashions?

Observe, for example, the head-dress worn by

the queens, which

is

formed of the feathers of a vulture, with the

head of the bird arranged

front of the forehead.^

in

large

number of instances of decorations for the hair comparable with


those of Egypt can be furnished by ethnology.-

One

solitary

witness

bears

fact

to

honour

the

in

which

elaborate hairdressing was held in primitive Egypt, and that

custom of depositing

the

used during sleep to

in

preserve artistic

be renewed every day, and which

good order as long

From the tomb

Under

director

with

inspector

of

the fourth

tomb

of

false hair

keep

to

Band

in

of

King

of False Hair.
Zer, of the first dynast}-.

wigs was bestowed on great personages.

an

mentions
a

intended to

was desirable

Ancient Empire the charge of the king's hair

the

his

coiffures, not

it

as possible/'

Fig. i8.

and of

is

tombs head-rests, which were

the

King
(Fig.

of

wig-makers

and

fifth

Zer, of the
i8),

wig-makers to
to

the

king,

dynasties.^
first

composed of

the

king,

Maspero
and also

contemporary

Petrie

discovered

with
in

the

dynasty, at Abydos, a band of


curls,

and apparently intended

See an example of this head-dress upon the stela of Queen Nubkhas in


(C 13), dating back to the thirteenth dynasty. It is the earliest
example I know.
^ Grosse, Les Debuts de I'Art,
pp. 67, 68.
et seq
ScHURTZ, Urgeschichte der Kultto-, Leipsic, 1900, p.
*
Maspero, Histoire ancicftne des 'peuples de r Orient ciassique,
p. 278,
'

the Louvre

-i^'^c)

'

i.

note

I.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
The Libyans

worn on the forehead.^

be

to

are

Seti

I.

hair,

which

(Fig.

19).

wearing two rows


divided

is

and

of

similar

tomb

of the

curls

on both

falls

43

sides

between
of

of

their

head

the

Very numerous examples show that the men ordinarily wore


We shall meet with some of
their beards trimmed to a point.
these when we are considering representations of the human
figure.

Fig.

Showing

Head of one of the

19.

the ear-ring, the

rows of

Liby.a.ns fro.m

the Tojib of Seti

curls on the forehead,

I.

and the hair

falling

over the right shoulder.

We
in the

the

as

pletely

must here pause a moment

MacGregor
beard,

is

conceals

to consider a curious

Collection- (Fig. 20), where

enveloped
them.

If

in
it

kind of
not,

is

as

the

figure

hair, as well

pouch which com-

Naville

suggests,

"a

" The fringe of locks is exquisitely


Petrie. Abydos, i. pi. iv. 7 and p. 5
made, entirely on a band of hair, showing a long acquaintance with hair work at
'

that age.

It is

now

in the Pitt-Rivers

Museum

at

Oxford."

Naville, Figurines egyptie7ines de l'cpo(ine arckaujite,


travaux relatifs a la philologic et a Vajxheohgie egyptiennes
1900, pi. vi. and p. 68.
^

ii.,

in the Rcciieil

de

ct assyriennes, xxii.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

44

conventional or childish representation of hair," one might here


recognize an object related to the royal toilettes of the classical

where a

period,

What

used

it

false

was affixed by means of

beard

can have been the object of this sort of covering


order to ensure purity, for

in

ceremonies?

May

not the

Was

instance, during religious

custom which prevailed among the

Egyptian

priests

of completely shaving

simply a

radical

measure

for

avoiding

themselves
all

have been

contamination

that

Figure from the M.vcGregor Collection.

Fig. 20.

With a bag

straps.

for the hair

and beard, and a sheath

to protect

the lower part

of the body.

might

arise

suggestion
to

insist

from

which

unduly.^

the
I

hair

throw

and
out,

beard

This

and on which

is

do

merely a
not

wish

comparison might be suggested with the

One might compare this with the habit of our modern surgeons, who
occasionally cover the hair and beard during operations in order to avoid any
risk of infection for the patient.
'

' On the subject of


wearing a
Anacfit Egypt, especially pp. 225,
inde.x under " Beard."
The motive
pri77iitive, p. 5, for the wearing of
unfounded.

natural or false beard see

Erman, Life

in

and the various passages quoted in the


suggested by Moret, Coup d' ail sitr V .gypte
wigs and false beards, seems to me to be

226,

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
paddn of the Magian^

religion

custom

again, with the Jewish

or,

45

of covering the beard as a sign of mourning.-

There

a small series of interesting objects which affords a

is

proof that the custom


with a

of covering

was already known

veil

more

rarelv",

At

front of the forehead.

was used

conjectured,

has been found

manner

the

with lines

face

shell,

of copper, which were suspended in

the base

is

a hook, which, as Petrie has

One

of these pendants

upon a

skull,

and shows clearly

which

in

of the

to support a veil.

position

in

still

part

second half of the primitive

These are small objects of

period (sequence dates 50-61).


of limestone, or,

lower

the

in the

One

was worn.

it

specimen, decorated

imitation of plaited work, points to the fact that

in

made

these pendants were also

woven

of

fibre,

and

would

this

explain their rarity in the tombs, as only those in more enduring


materials would

hook

the

worn

survive

(Fig.

lower

the

at

and

merely as ornaments on

belonging to the

Petrie

Other specimens have not

21).

end,

must

Tvvo

forehead.

the

have

therefore

been

specimens

in

the

form of female

pendants and

veil

before

are

Collection

figures.
It

possible

is

by men,
of

no
'

the sacred

Avesta,

i.

of

Magian
the

veil,

After

Arabs.'^

traces

In the

with a

the

as well

as

fire,

this

the

face

by women, or even exclusively

judge by the custom of the

to

certain

are

that

men

were worn by

custom

of

Touaregs, and also

times

prehistoric

veiling

in

the

Egypt
face,

there

and

it

religion the officiant has the lower part of the face covered

paddn

(av. paitidana), which prevents the breath from defiling


and the hands covered with gloves.
Cf. Darmesteter, Zend

He

p. Ixi.

also wears Vne

paddn

in eating, in

order not to contaminate

the food, which he swallows at one gulp between two intakings of breath
ib.

p. 214,

ii.

No.

31.

The paddn was worn by

the time of Strabo


fifXP'-

^""^

the magi of Cappadocia,

at

(Augustus), xv. 733


nupas Tvikards KaOeiKvias eKareptjOeu
KoXvjTTfLv Tu XeiXt] Tcis Trapayvabidas.
(Note contributed by M. Franz
<:,

Cumont.)
Benzinger, Hcbriiische Archaologic (Grundriss der theologischen Wissenschaften, Zweite Reilie, Erster Band), Freiburg i. B. and Leipsic, 1894,
p.

165.
^

Frazer,

of the Sahara

TIte
all

Golden

the

men

2nd ed.

BoiigJi,

(and not the

especially the mouth, veiled constantly;

eating or sleeping."
their faces."

Also note 3

"

i.

p.

313:

women) keep
the veil

Amongst

the

is

"Among

the

Touaregs

the lower part of their face,

never put

off,

not even in

Arabs men sometimes veiled

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

46

was the Arabs who

introduced

more

once

it

the

in

sev^enth

century A.D.^
Grosse, in his

remark

book Les Debuts de r Art'^

of Lippert

"The

The two upper ornaments have been used

portions of the

body

Petrie, Naqada,

pi.

l.xii.

21-23,

p. Ixvii.

"

A.,

The

the

hanging a

veil before the face.

^nd

is

p.

47

principle

into

Diospolis parva,

pi.

is

governed

which coniii.

and

p. 22.
1.

5-7.

1902,

practice of wearing veils dates from very remote times (Gen. xxiv.

Isa. iii. 22, 23), though


65
ancient Egyptians, as veiled
;

for

Man, 1902, No. 13, pp. 161, 162, and pi.


Doctrines of El Islaju, in Baedeker, Egypt, 5th ed.

PreJiistoric Egyptiaii Carvings, in

See SociN,

selecting

in

adorned with ornaments

to be

considerations, and

practical

followed

principle

an interesting

Ornaments for the Forehead.

Fig. 21.

by

refers to

Pp. 63, 64.

it

is

doubtful whether

women

it

was customary among the

never appear upon the monuments."

PERSOxXAL ADORNMENT.
of ideal

siderations

arrangement do not

of the body which are destined

contracted above

larger

enter.

47
.

The

parts

carry ornaments are those

to

portions which

are

bony or muscular.

the forehead and the temples,


These parts are the following
and the support afforded by
below
bones
with the projecting
:

the ear, the neck


it

and shoulders, the

the part above the ankles

is

and

wrist,

use of

all

a lesser degree

in

these for affixing ornaments

but he was not led to this

purely practical considerations."

b\-

We

the primitive Egyptians.

among

and

must now study

rings,

and see

in

necklaces,

their

what manner clothing

have developed out of these entirely elementary decorations.

The

simplest form of such decoration consists in attaching to

different parts of the

herbaceous

or

man makes

have already spoken of the arrangement of the hair

waist-belts, bracelets,

may

with the legs

Primitive

the fingers.

choice by aesthetic reasons, but

We

and hips

sides

with the arms, the biceps, the

body

fibres."^

beads, claws of animals,

In Egypt

"

thongs of leather, sinews of animals,

These

in

turn were

hung with

shells,

etc.

shells frequently occur in prehistoric

tombs.

Pierced

with a hole, they were evidently used as ornaments,- and their use

was continued

into historical times,

in glazed pottery, or in metal, to

content

when

shells

were even imitated

form parts of necklaces.

must

myself with a mere reference to the marvellous jewels

found at Dahchour by M. de Morgan.^

large

number of beads have been discovered

in

the tombs

of the primitive Egyptians, of which the forms remain practically


the same throughout the whole of the prehistoric period.

This

made

is

the

case

with the materials of which they were

Petrie

has

drawn

not

and

up a

chronological

list

of these with

considerable detail.^

Most of the ivory objects found

in

believes to be stoppers for leather bottles,


as necklace ornaments.
'

pi.

Deniker,

am

inclined to consider

are a species- of pendant, formed

peuples de

la terre, p.

211 et scq.

De MoRp.w, RcchcrcJies siir Ics origincs de V Rgypte, ii. p. 59.


De Morgan, Fouilles d Dahchour, March June, 1894, Vienna,

x.xiii.

Ll's races et Ics

"They

the tombs, which Petrie

and

xxiv.

Petrie, Diospolis parva,

pi. iv.

and

p. 27.

1895,

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

48

by the severed end of the


at the top

consequently,

wardsdeeply grooved
lines or

of an animal, often pierced

rib or tusk

they must have been worn point down-

at the wider end,

and covered with broken

with rudimentary geometric designs

these pendants are of stone

been used as vases.

"

(Fig. 22).

others are hollow, and

At the upper end of most of

a deep groove to allow of their being suspended

Some of
may have

these there

b\-

means of a

thong, which also passed through the hole with which

Numerous

them are pierced.


these

in

is

many

of

traces of leather ha\-e been found

cavities."'

fc^"^-^

Fig. 22.

Showing the imitation

We

shall

detail

in

Pendaxts.

of claws and of horns, decorated with incised or painted Hnes.

have opportunity to discuss these pendants more

when we

treat of

ornamental

art.

should, however,

It

made

be observed that a certain number of these ornaments are

imitation of horns or claws, and are merely a conventional

in

We can compare
still
more rudimentary ornaments.
them with the collars of the Bushmen, " the cords made of
tendons and painted with red ochre, from which are suspended
shells, teeth, claws, the carapaces of turtles, antelope horns, and
copy of

other

objects,

serving

partly

De Morgan,

Petrie, Naqada, pp. 46, 47,

as

receptacles

RccJicrchcs sur les origines dc


pi. lix.-lxiv.

V Egypte,

for

ii.

tobacco

p. 62, 63.

Diospolis paji'a, p. 21,

pi,

iii.

and

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
amulets, and for the

unguents, parth- as

of personal adornment."

49

most part as objects

need scarcely remark on the prevalent use of beads and

pendants

Pharaonic

in

Eg\'pt.

Professor Petrie at University College, London,

with regard

these

to

claws,

well worth studying, as

monuments.

It

the\'

highly instructive

is

Such a wealth of pendants for


shells,
and various amulets is

objects.

comprising

necklaces

such as that of

collection

found

rarely

are

on the

figured

not alwa\-s justifiable to deny the existence

is

of a custom from an argument based solely on the absence of

an object from the figured monuments of Egypt.

Beads and other pendants were not only used

necklaces

for

they were also emplo\-ed as decorations for girdles, bracelets, and

The

anklets.

of

Zer,

the

jewellery found by Petrie in

dynasty, enables

first

us

the

tomb of King

appreciate

to

already acquired by the Egyptians at that period

and grouping various materials and producing

The

truly marvellous.

is

skill

combining

in

results

perfection of the jewellery

the

which are

so great that,

as .Petrie remarks, with the exception of the gold beads, there

no bead

any one of the

in

any other of another

for

is

which could be exchanged

bracelets

completely destro\-ing

bracelet, without

the harmonv' of the whole.But, besides these

bracelets

must notice the simple


found

are

survived

dynasty

first

bone,

ivory,

in

This use

into

fragments of bracelets

'

Horn,

in

ib.

pp. 14, 47.


pp.

Diospolis,

14,

5,

pi. X. 23.

29,

yielded an

Diospolis parva, p.

47;
:

ib. p.

33.

Schist

pp. 14, 51, 59; Diospolis, p. 36; Abydos,

Shell

Ivory:
Schist

ib.
:

ii.

pp. 24, 35, 37

Abydos,

i.

p.
ib.

17.
ii.

i.

p.

etc.^

immense number of

pi.

stone.^

Petrie, Naqada,

2.

ii.

Shell:

p. 29.

21,

and

p. 37.
pi.

x.

ib. pp. 14, 47.


Ivory: Petrie,

Bone: Petrie,

Petrie, Naqada,

Flint

p. 14.

16.

Horn: Petrie, Royal To??ibs, ii. p. 39.


Stone: Royal Tombs, ii. pp. 35, 37.
Bracelets of Aha Royal Tombs,
pp. 5, 18, 29 ii. p. 5.

Petrie, Abydos,

Bracelets of Zer:

hard stone,

flint,

Copper: Petrie, Diospolis parva,

Beads

we
They

pieces,

and the tombs of the

ivory, horn, shell, slate,

Alabaster: Petrie, A'aqada,

pp. 34, 42, 47.

Naqada,

'

shell,

Grosse, Les Debuts de PArf, p. 68.


Petrie, Royal Tombs, ii. pi i. pp. 16-19.
See QuiBELL, El Kab, pp. 6, 7, 9, 10, 18, and

pi. xliii.

ib.

copper,

separate

of

of various materials.

historical times,

Abydos have

at

formed

made

circlets

i.

p.

17.

Abydos,

i.

p. 5.

pp.

17,

iS.

i.

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

50

spoon

(fig. 23), the handle of which resembles an

with a large

number

shows us that they were worn


armature.

sort of

Bohr

"

arm adorned

of these bracelets, similar in size and form,

numbers

to

form a

Pleyte obser\"es that this recalls the

"Danga

in

sufficient

which Schweinfurth found among the Bongoes.discovered

Petrie

mentions,

woman

tomb containing

wearing on the arm

nine

connection

in

or ten

with

this

that

fact,

child,

carving

of

shows the same system

reindeer age in France

of the

body of a

the

of these ivory rings, and he

<3

HCfflMdCj
Fig. 23.

Bone and Ivory Bracelets, and a Spoon with a Handle


OF AN Arm We.\ring a Series of Similar Bracelets.

of ornamentation.'^

worn on the

legs,

It

as

is

in

Form

probable that these rings were also

shown

in

the representation

of the chief

of the land of Punt at Deir-el-Bahari.^

As

primitive

question

of

man making

stone-working
rings

in

flint.^

it

is

astonishing

Many

to

conjectures

Petrie, Naqada, pi. .xliii. i (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford).


Pleyte, Chapitrcs supplcmcntaires du Livre des Marts,
Schweinfurth, Artcs Africanac, Leipsic and London, 1875, P'-

find

have

'

Petrie, Naqnda, pp. 42 and 47.

Pleyte,

'

De Morgan,

ib. fig.

i.

pp.

"' '-

facing p. 147.

Rccherches sur

les origiitcs

de I'^gypte,

ii.

pp. 60, 61.

147,

148.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT
hazarded

been

Karr

Seton

at

it

frequent

manner

the

remained

the

for

Wady-el-Sheikh

The

the work.^

explain

to

accomplished, but

which

in

fortunate

show us

to

51

the

all

was

this

discoveries of

phases of

Egyptian monuments

occurrence on

of Pharaonic times of collars, bracelets, and anklets has frequently

been remarked on, and we need not therefore dwell longer on


that point.-

The

primitive Eg\-ptian was also well acquainted with finger-

rings, especially in ivor\', either plain or decorated with a knob.

Two

specimens show that

very curious

occasionally they were

DiS

Fig. 24.

Ivory Rings.

decorated with figures of animals

animals on

So
and

far

it,^'

we have not

because there

this

one of these has two

and on the other are four


dealt

is

not,

hawks

with the decoration of the hips,


to

my

knowledge, any monument

of the primitive period which shows us such a decoration.


exists

of

no

statuette,

leather

But
'

it

is

There

no drawing, on which we can see a thong

round the

difficult to

feline

(Fig. 24).

adorned with beads

waist

or

pendants.

say whether the beads and pendants which

ScHWEixKURTti, AegyptiscJtcr Ringc

aics

Kiesclmassc,

Forbes,

in

the Zeitschrift

a collection of stone
impleine7its in the Mayer Miisemn, tnadc by M. H. VV. Seton KatT, in mines of
the ancient Egyptians discovered by him on the plateaux of the Nile Valley, in
the Btdletin Liverpool Museum, ii. Nos. 3 and 4, pp. 78-80, and fig. on p. 82.
2 Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, p. 227.
^ A specimen in the MacGregor Collection, Tamvvorth (No. 1,409 <z).

fiir Ethnologic, xxxi.

1899, p. 496 et seq.

Petrie, Naqada, pi.


nd pp. 21, 22.

X. 24, 25,

Ixii.

30

Ixiv.

78

and

p.

Ofi

47.

Diospoiis,

ix.

23

PRIMITIVE ART

52

may

have been discovered

body

EGYPT.

IN

not have decorated

that part of the

as appropriately as they did the neck, arms,

we can imply

analog)', therefore,

and

By

legs.

the use of ornamental girdles

and here we verge on the interesting

subject

the

origin

the

cord

of

of

clothing.

"The
round

skin of an

the

With

mantle.

aniinal

and

throat,

Fuegians

the

suspended

is

forthwith

effectually,

also

is-

skin

scanty

so

is

tied

into

has to be turned,

it

The thong round

following the direction of the wind.


the belt,

of

piece

this

body

that, in order to protect the

from

transformed

is

it

the waist,

hung with various appendages, and becomes

petticoat.
"

The

leafy branches

among

Xiam-Niam, the

the

supplies

which are thrust by the Veddahs under


of bark

pieces

the

their waist-belts,

'

sarang

by

held

the elements both of petticoat and of girdle

Writing

of

indigenous

the

inhabitants

Islands, Grosse expresses himself as follows


tribe the

women

some

of

Andaman

the

There

"

is,

however,

hang

this

classes, principally

brought by their occupation

most

articles

them

habitual

contact

as

absolutely

nude

of clothing

ornaments,

if

down
;

one

who were

with water,
while

their

wearing only a narrow girdle

part, are

with a few short strips hanging

those

into

represented

occasionally

fellow workers, for the

be called

these

all

has already remarked that, under the Ancient Empire,

the Egyptians of the lower

call

quite short fibres

must evidently be a mere ornament."

are

of which wear nothing round the waist but

a very fine string, from which

Erman

belt

are the prototype of the petticoat."

one

same

the

of the Indo-!\Iala}', which

'

in front.^

These can scarcely

and yet one would hesitate to


were

not

cases

this

assured

by numerous

ethnological parallels.
I

may add

that

in

some

round the loins served as an amulet.


quote the

curious

'

^
^

observation

of Dr.

simple

On

this

Stacquez,

Denucer, Les races et les peuples de la tej-re,


Grosse, Les Debuts de VArt, p. 70.
Erman, Life in Ancient Egypt, p. 212.

cord

knotted

subject

will

who, on

the

p. 312.

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
modern population

subject of the

number

greater

of Thebes, writes thus

wore a

all

these

thread round

fine

naked

entirely
folks,

but

of such

reason
existed

that

to

told

that

it

no one

asked the

had always

was considered that the thread concealed

it

nakedness, and that

wear owing

not

state.

it

their

represented the garments that they could

the

to

for

of indecency

height

that

girdle.

events

of

thread round their loins, and

tie

show himself in
custom, and I was

would have dared

course

the

But they

old.

form of a

in

natural

the

would have been

it

have omitted to

to

bodies

their

was

years

fifteen

The

"

among them

were entirely nude, and

of boys

were some who might have been

To go

53

temperature of

high

the

country.

myself believe that the thread should be considered as a species


of amulet, and
habit

the

wrists

for

have a

to

some
small cord tied by

this

reason

parts

in

of

Egypt

it

is

the sheikh round the

and ankles as a preservative against sprains and other

accidents while working or walking.


the thread encircling the loins
is

a similar

is

forgotten."

practice

passed

It

among

into

is

therefore possible that

the inhabitants of Thebes


habit,

of which the reason

It should also be remembered that under the Second Theban


Empire the young female slaves and the dancing women wore

as their only clothing a girdle,

uhich occasionally

may

have been

ornamented.

was during the primitive age. On the


famous painted tomb of Hierakonpolis, with which we shall later
have to deal at length, there are several personages whose only
Let us see how

garment appears

same

is

locality,

to

this

be a girdle knotted round the waist.

The

seen on the palettes and mace-heads from the same


where the forms are already verging on those of the

Ancient Empire.-^
Stacouez, L'Egyptc, la basse A'tcbic et le Sinai, Liege, 1865, pp. 252, 253.
See also M.aspero, Histoire ancienne des peuples de V Orient classiqtie, ii. p. 526.
- Ermax,
loc. cit. p. 216.
Stratz, Ueber die Kleidung der dgyptischen
Tdnzerinucn, in the Zeitschrift fiir dgyptische Sprache und Altcrtinnskunde,
^

xxxviii. 1900, pp. 148, 149.


'

xliii.

Capart, La fete de /rapper


1901, p. 255.

les

Anon,

in the

Revue

d' histoire des religions,

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

54

To

this

various

objects

be

recognized

on

can

these

of

girdle

siderable

a sheath for

is

One

precision.

the

is

protecting

were

objects

of an

tail

and

attached,

existing

animal

two

with

con-

the

other

concealing the lower part of the

or

body.

The

warriors

huntsmen

or

we

that

tail

a jackal, attached to their girdle

25;.

''Fig.

of

and

this

In Eg\-pt, during the Pharaonic

The

tail

its

t-i?-,,

recognized on

well

the

figured above (Fig. 20),

ivory figures which

we

described by M. Naville:
statuette

is

the large

resisting

the

Louvre

king

and

.1

'

note

the

palette,

gods

on

^1

just

purpose has been recognized


Naville.''

the

in

It

can be specially

MacGregor

Collection

upon a considerable number of

consider

"The most
organs.

material, such as

cylinder, to

of

sheath

the

to

later.

This

is

how

it

is

characteristic feature in this

...

It

appears to be made of

metal, wood, or

This sheath extends half-way up the stomach.


of a

exactly

tails

sheath or horn, which, held by a narrow

girdle, covers the genital

some

also

shall

its

by M.

statuette

and

form

monuments.

reference

^^^^"-

signification explained

of

the

classical

mentioned,

and

of

wood.-

in

on the objects

tails

between the

period

those

Egyptian

fixed

a specimen

Hierakonpolis

at

primitive

head, and the

and the Marseilles Museum

possesses

transition

and

to his girdle.

an ornament of princes

is

representations of

found
the

tail

priests,

actuall}-

feather on his

interesting to

is

is

age, the

Wearing a

It

caudiform

found among a considerable number

that

nations.'

25. Hunts.m.^n.

of an animal, possibly

decoration

note

Fig.

represented on the

find

fragment of the Louvre palette wear the

which

is

thick
It

is

leather.

composed

joined another narrower one, at

the

For a

fine example see Denu^er, o/>. cit. frontispiece.


Maspero, Histoire ancic/uie des pciiples de I'Onait

classiqiie,

i.

p.

55,

3.

Grosse, Les Debuts dc V Art, p. 70, mentions among the Botocudos of


de Wied, an " etui de feuilles qui cache les parties
genitales."
See Yrjo Hirn, The Origins of Art, London, 1900, pp. 215, 21^
'

Brazil, according to Prince

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
commencement

of which are two ovoid protuberances, which arc

an attempt to imitate nature.

M.

was

Naville

characteristic

Mediterranean

At

identify

to

Libyan

that

period

bore

the

that the
also

The

animal's

during
of

This

sheath

during

is

called

it

hang from
and the

with

stuff,

wrap oneself

to

and

the skin

it

loin-cloth

in

of

was

in

manner

this

All these elementary garments are

mantle was evolved.

the

be placed as an

ease

was easy

mat, a skin or a piece of woven

which,

people

stuff,

could
it

complete

a tradition,

and the sheath were attached

tail

possible to

skin

ornament on the shoulders

"

the

name

special

an animal, a mat, or a piece of


created.

group

with

itself

with

this

he says,

is,

march against Egypt."

same time
the girdle, it was

to

of

trait

to

Egyptian

the

enabled

."

dynasty, allied

nineteenth

the

by a similar covering, which

certainty

55

the

found

the historic period, and also in the primitive age.

in,

The

skin of a

panther, girded round the loins and covering

the lower part of the body, was

still

in

use

among

the negroes

of the Upper Nile at the time of the nineteenth dynast}'.

on the shoulders,
priests

One

it

and nobles as

at Hierakonpolis

adversary

had become one of the insignia of


earl}' as

is

tomb

of the primitixe age

thus clothed in a panther's skin, while his

holding a shield formed of a similar skin

is

certain

the beginning of the Ancient Empire."

warriors of the painted

of the

Placed

(Fig. 26;.

^
Naville, Figurines egypticnnes de Vepoque arc/iaiqtic, ii., in the Recueil dc
travaux relatifs d la philologie et a raixheologie egyptienites et assyrie>i7ics,

xxii. p.

69

et seq.

VON Lushax, Zur mithropologischen StcUung der altcn Acgypter,


1901, pp. 197-200: "Aenliche Taschen nun giebt es heute noch
im VVestlichen Sudan, besonders bei den Moba im Nordlichen Togo, wo sie
ganz allgemein von alien Mannern getragen werden."
' Maspero, Histoire ancien7ie des pcuples de V Orient classiquc,
pp. 53 and 55,
and p. 53, note a.
" I take the figure of the
* OuiBELL & Green, Hierakonpolis, ii. pi. Ixxvi.
^

in

See

Globus,

F.

Ix.xix.

i.

man
had

holding up the skin as showing that he has had


to

remove

loose clotliing

use as a shield.
skin, and from that the
it

to

But I do not think that


by Professor Petrie.

it

is

here

It

stiff

is

it

on his back, and has

the origin of the shield from the

shield with

wood frame was

shown as a defensive

derived.

shield alone."

Note

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

56

The

loin-cloth, either

narrow or wide,

frequently represented

is

on the primitive monuments on the palettes and maces of Hierakonpolis, in the


I

it

am

not

at all

tomb

women wore

with considerable doubt that

is

tomb

of

Hierakonpolis.

that the two

figures at the

are intended to represent


attitude with that of the
to

and again on the ivory

paintings,

certain that the

refer

wide

figures.^

loin-cloths,

here

to

the

and

painted

with any certainty

cannot assume

top of Plate Ixxvi. Hierakonpolis,

women

and yet the

ii.

similarity of their

female figures on the pottery appears

be noteworthv'.
Finally, the

has been so

long cloak, the use of which

Fig. 26.

appears several

There

times on the remains of the primitive age.

times

historic

in

ably dealt with by M. Maspero,-

is,

for instance.

W.xRRiORS.

Clothed in a panther skin, or holding a shield formed of a similar skin.

the figure of a

woman

in

the British Museum,^ and several ivory

from Hierakonpolis, which show the cloak, sometimes


sometimes decorated with geometric patterns.^ Petrie
and
plain
has very justly compared the decorated mantfe on one of these

statuettes

figures with the

fragments of leather painted

by him at Naqada, and they again


clothing of the Libyans of the

tomb

may

in

zigzag lines found

be compared with the

of Seti

I.'

(Fig. 27).

These

For the loin-cloth or sliort skirt in Egypt during the Ancient Empire see
in Ancient Egypt, pp. 202-206, and Sfiegelberg. Varia, xlviii. Zii
de7n Galasclmrz dcs altcn Rcichcs, in the Recueil de travaux relatifs a la philologie ei d V archeologie igyptiennes ct assyriennes, x\\. 1S99, pp. 54. 55Maspero, Histoire aficienne des peiiples de V Orient classiqne, 1. pp. 55"57.
'

Erman, Life

^
^

Budge, A History of Egypt, i. p. 53.


QuiBELL, Hierakonpolis, i. pi. ix. and x.
Petrie, Naqada, pi. Ixiv. 104 andp, 48. See

of the Earliest Dynasties,

ii.

pi. iv. 3. 4, 5.

also Petrie,

The Royal

Totiihs

PERSONAL ADORNMENT.
decorations
ivory

probably represent embroideries, as

statuette

Petrie at

Finallv

king

of a

of

the

first

57-

shown

Abydos, of which reproductions are given farther

we must mention a small

Fig. 27.

Wrapped

in cloaks,

the

in

dynasty discovered by

figure

of

woman

on.^

tiG-htl\^

Figures of Women.

one of which

decorated.

is

Below

are fragments of

leather with painted decoration.

wrapped

in

a cloak, discovered

by Petrie

from the commencement of the

The

first

at

Abydos, and dating-

dynasty.-

long cloak was fastened by means of studs intended


and

Petrie, Abydos,

Petrie, Tke Royal Tovibs of the Earliest Dyfiaslics,

p. 21.

ii.

pi.

ii.

xiii. p.

24.

.1

ii.

pi.

iii

a,

to-

8 and"

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

58

be slipped through loops, on the principle of our military frogs.


Petrie discovered
-of the

examples of these

temple of Osiris

We

at

have now arrived

adornment as
festation

which

it

is

at

glazed pottery in the temenos

Egypt

existed in primitive
)'et

an}' rate

our study of personal

at the close of

in

this

these

researches

sequence of ideas

there were sudden and radical changes at the

the Pharaonic

period,

between the habits


find

and that there

is

earliest

mani-

The immediate
is

that

to

it

not

is

prove that

commencement

we can maintain

of

no glaring discrepancy

the primitive people and those which

under the Ancient Eg\'ptian Empire.

seen whether
is

ot

this

so rich in artistic feeling.

conclusion to be drawn from


possible

in

Abydos.^

It

this conclusion

directed to the examination of ornamental

we

now remains to be
when our attention
art.

Petrie, Abydos, ii. pi. i. and viii. 141- 143, and p. 26.
On the subject of
comparing primitive clothing in Egypt with that of the Ancient Empire, I think it
well to quote a remark of Petrie's.
After describing the garments found in the
tombs of the fifth dynasty at Desliasheh, he adds " It is remarkable that not one
dress was found of the form shown on the monuments, with shoulder-straps but
the actual form seems to have been developed out of that by extension of the
shoulder-straps along the arms.
Hence the monumental dress must have been
-only an artistic survival in the Old Kingdom.'"
Petrie, Desliaslieli, London,
'

.189S, p. 31.

59

CHAPTER

III.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE

THE
and

at

problem of the

earliest

ART.

beginnings of ornamental and

is
one of the most difificult
same time one of those which appear

decorative art

to deal with,

the

to ha\'e been

most neglected

b>'

In

art critics.^

the last few

however,

\-ears,

numerous indications which give

ethnologists have contributed

us

some hope of arriving at a solution. We will follow the paths


thus marked out, and see what solid results can be gained.
" The characteristic feature of decorative art among primitive
.

people," says Deniker, "

by

objects

real

is

there

this

All artistic designs are inspired

no feeling

is

voluntarily ornamental, nor,

for

what

for

more

still

there any geometrical figures, as was believed

which appear to be of

figures

ings

animals, objects,

of

frequentl}' are those

etc.

purel\-

is

till

and

reasons, are

forcible

recently.

All

nature are simplified draw-

this

The

designs

which occur most

borrowed from animals (zoomorphic designs),

from the human figure (anthropomorphic), and occasionalh- from

manufactured objects (skeuomorphic)


(phytomorphic) are extremely
is

rare.

transformed into an ornament, and

purpose for which

for the

to notice that

it

those
.

Often the entire object

becomes wholly unsuited

was destined. ...

'

is

the

It

is

interesting

the more a nation loves decoration, the less

able to draw a design, properly so called."

This

from plants

taken

way

in

it

is

why

is

which objects are decorated

but

Nevertheless, two important works on this subject must be quoted

Se.mper,

den iechmschett tnid tektotiischen Kilnsten, Miinclien, 1878-9, 2 vols.


and RiEGL, Stilfragen, Gruiidlegungen ztc cincr Geschichte der Oi-ftamentik,
De7' Stil

ill

Berlin, 1893.
^

De.nu-cer,

Les races

et Ics pei plea dc la icrrc, Paris, 1900, pp. 237-240.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

6o

they are thus ornamented

that

it

problem

the

body
to

are

that

information, a

These

are

principles

apply them

the

in

consider
general

we must

also

luxury or

for

add the

from a view

power, and

for

but

clear,

Egyptians,

necessary

is

it

proceeding

before

primitive

the

of

to

order

in

we should

that

some complementary details which bear upon these


and give various examples which will enable

principles,

more

To
an

desire

established,

case

render our statement

us

Those who have studied

and

from religious or magical motives.^

finally

to

objects

ornamented from a variety of motives

to

art,

us

tell

easily to understand their bearing.

begin with,

animal can

let

how

see

us

be transformed

graphic

representation

geometric design

into

of
this

enable us to discover the laws which govern the treatment

will

of natural models.

One
view

is

most interesting

of the

furnished

examples from this point of


by Holmes' important work on the ancient
Colombia- (Fig.

art of the province of Chiriqui,

The

principal

theme

the

is

alligator,

28).

passing

which,

degradation to degradation, from simplification

from

to simplification,

ends by becoming transformed into a series of absolutely regular

more

shows

geometrical

designs.

explanation

can do the successive phases

which

tion,

is

28

Fig.

accounted

logically

The

of simplification,
child,

attempts

represents

by virtue
to

give

form which

of

animals

to
is

fixed

which he simplifies more and


idleness

to

diverging,

from the original

primitive

and

is

principles

the principle

man,

objects

like

the

which

he

and easily recognizable, and

more

this

can only be owing

consequence, more and

more widely

model.'"^

H.\DDO.\, Evolution in

'

London,

in

which

first

any

transforma-

this

by two great

for

which dominate the whole question.

than

clearly

of

Art as

illustrated by the Life-histories

on

of designs,

see also pp. 200-306.


Holmes, VV. H., Ancient art of the province of Chiriqui^ Colombia, in the

1895, pp. 4,

5,

illu.stration

p.

Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1884-5, VV'ashington, 1888.


mention of the work is taken from Haddon's book mentioned m the preced-

Sixtli

My

ing note.
^

Grosse, Les Debuts de I'Art, pp. 107 and

119.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


The second
preceding,

is

that
art

manner

does

it

order,

of the

least

that

of the

truly sa\-," continues the

S^^S>

unites

rh\-thmic

of

"dominates the
that

which

principle,

itself

the

Grosse says,

as

nations

the

in

most advanced."

c^o

"

same

We may

Csy^

G^^O

Fig. 28.

with

closely

which,

civilized

6i

same author, "that rhythm everywhere

!^2?

'^^m.

ART.

"^S^ii^^^ii^

mm

^s

Evolution of the Represent.a.tion of the Alligator


CoLLMBiAN Art.

in

Ancient

From Holmes.
affords

the

the

same

pleasure

of

regular repetition

movement,

or, as in

to

any

of unit

this case, of a figure."

'

Grosse,

Rhythm

mankind.
sort

/oc. cit. p.

113.

of

consists in

sound,

of a

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

62

And

we seek

review

the

of

origin

taste

for

rhythm among primitive men, Grosse gives us a concise

ex-

if

planation of

genesis

its

we

" If

rhythmic order, which

to this

this

attribute an sesthetic importance

so prevalent

is

decorative

the

in

we do not in any way pretend that its


same order. We are, on the contrary, con-

of hunting tribes,

art

was of the

origin

the primitive artist did not invent the symmetrical

vinced that

principle, but

work

of

to

probable that

is

that

and

value was recognized,

the

that

artist

in

the

arrange

his

it

it

was from

designs were

textile

was only by degrees that

it

obliged

is

It

pleasure,

aesthetic

for

imitated

first

who

manner.

regular

and that he found

it,

basket-maker,

the

and not

habit,

he found

that

material in a

at

to

their

began

aesthetic

combine

to

and enrich these regular series. Obviously it would be


to say where mechanical imitation ends and where

work begins
experienced
that

is

it

ment."

in

case,

pleasure which

it

pleasure

the

would be

provoked

has

to

justifiable

produced

has

symmetry, as

observing

that

would be equally

it

arrangement

regular

that

assert

any

in

difficult

aesthetic

to

assert

arrange-

regular

In

designs

words,

other

by manufactured objects

inspired

(skeuomorphs) have imposed

their derivatives

on designs derived

from natural objects.


Thus,

copy of an

alligator

teristic features,

general

foregoing example,

the

in

lines,

this

is

there

is,

next reduced to

and from the time

begin with, a

to
its

most charac-

fundamental features,

its

its

of the

have been recognized, the representations

animal are symmetrically combined, and adapted to the space


to

be

decorated,

whether

oblong,

square,

or

The

circular.

principle of rhythmic order here leads to the successive repetition

of the

same

of the whole

of

are

from

way

an object, and

two principal factors


derived

such

figures, in

the

one

to form

under the

most

and

as

diversified

the

same

the decoration

of these

influence

geometrical

designs
of

the

(Fig.

29)

representation

alligator.

Another example borrowed


1

Grosse,

from

loc. cit.

Polynesian

pp. 114, 115.

art

ORNx^MENTAL AND DECORATIVE ART.


distinctly

same

the

The

shows the degradation of the human

figure, following

principles.^

Aegean Islands

stone idols of the

In addition to small

figures,

afford another proof.

where the human representation

fairly accurate, there are also others "in

be sufficient to quote the instance of the

admirably worked out

floral

lotus,

Goodyear'^ as

b\'

is

the shape of a violin. "-

For the successive transformations of a


so

63

design

it

will

which has been

to

render

it

un-

necessary to dwell longer on this point.

Fig. 29.

Evolution of the Representation of the


Polynesian Art.

Human Figure

in

From Haddon.

With regard
the

to

designs

inspired

two most important types

derived
unite

from the

two objects

thongs
;

or

by manufactured

be mentioned

to

cords

which

are

originall}'

objects^,

designs

served

to-

and designs copied from the work of the

H.ADDOX, Evolution in Art, fig. IC4, 125, 127, 12S, pp. 271, 273. See another
example in Collier, Primer of Art, London, 1882, fig. 3, series of paddles,.
p. 7 (now in the Pitt-Rivers Collection, University Museum, Oxford).
^ Blinkenberg,
Chr., Antiquites prhnyccniennes, in the Mcmoires dc la
'

Socicte royale des antiqiiaires


^

Goodyear,

VV. H.,

The

du

i\ord,

new

series, 1896, pp. 13, 14.

Grammar of the

Lotus, 1891.

64

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

basket-maker.

Both of these occur with equal frequency, and a

few words

When

suffice

will

two objects

for

decoration.

material

one

to the

in

single

mind

primitive

and handle

the

If

piece,

to

latter

copied

is

being.

joined

an

actual

another

in

would naturally occur

idea

the

into

are

forms

straps

the

of

by strapping, the interlacing


geometrical

how they came

explain

to

instance, a blade

reproduce these interlacing

and

lines,

what invariably occurs.


I will recall the well-known instance of architecture in wood
communicating its forms to architecture in stone. Another very

this

is

also been established

example has

typical

pottery of almost

all

sembling

formed

widest

cord

which

part,

countries.

is

refer

on vases

nothing

as presented

the

to

most

but

frequently

remaining

the

on the

decoration

re-

their

at

trace

of

the cord of coarsely-twisted fibre which keeps the vases separate

from each other while they are being dried

in

the sun previous

to being baked.

The

industry of basket-making plays an

the daily

life

appearance

its

of primitive
earlier

than ceramics.

making often commences with


exterior

or

and

people,

"

mould, usually a basket,

is

easily understood that in this

regular lines of the

woven basket

left

from an interior

or some other
in

in

makes

appears that pottery-

It

cast taken

basket-work which burns immediately


It

important part

almost always

the baking."

object

of

case the combinations of


their

marks on the

soft

and formed an actual geometrical decoration on the baked


pottery, which continued to be reproduced after pottery was

clay,

manufactured by another method.

At

the

commencement of

this

chapter

stated that an object

by decoration, and becomes unfit for


We shall have
the purpose for which it was originally destined.
occasion later on to deal with curious examples of this. To make
is

frequently transformed

this

point clear

without delay

Petrie, Egyptian Decorative Art,

will,

however, quote the very

p. 92.

ScHWEiNFURTH, Oriiameutik der dltcstcn


Deniker, op. cit. p. 184.
Cultur-Epoche Aegyptcns, in the Verha?idlimgcn der b. Gesellsch. fiir Anthro*

J>ologie, Ethnologie, nttd Urgcschichte, 1897, pp. 377, 378.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


interesting instance of the tortoise-shell
Straits, which,

ART.

65

ornaments from the Torres

from the copy of a simple fish-hook,

diverging

by successive modifications and symmetrical development^ acquire


ornamental forms, which only

most distant

We

will

the

recall

model

original

manner (Fig. 30;.


now briefly examine some examples

the

in

motives which actuate primiti\"e

man

the

in

of the various

ornamentation of

objects.

The

motive

first

for

decorating an object

is

purely

artistic,

and requires no additional explanation.

Tortoise-shell Ornaments from Torres Straits, in imitation


OF THE FiSH-HoOK (a).

Fig. 30.

From Haddon.

Decoration

may

be

is

the

that

also

emplo}-ed with a view to information

maker

places

constitutes an actual signature, or

on
it

sign.

mark of ownership
The most typical example

mark

their

himself gives

'

for

object

may

is

itt

Art,

fig.

it

be that the proprietor

that
in

of the savages,

order to

tribal

who

be able to

symmetrical decoration see Schweinfurth,

398.

Haddon, Evolution

mark which

such, for instance, as a

arrows with a distinct sign,

For the origin of the taste

loc. cit. p.
^

it

an

44, p. jj.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

66

man

determine the rights of each

This point

chase.

part in the

of

is

animals killed

to the

important, for

it

the

in

has played a considerable

during the most primitive stages

history of writing

development.

its

was the desire

It

decorated

objects,

for

ostentation which gave

especially

rapidly developed

to

weapons of

tokens of power.

into

rise to

highly

which thus

state,

was the desire

It

for

luxury which produced those objects which are absolutely useless,


but the possession of which ensured to their

among

stantial reputation

made

objects developed where the attempt was

by employing

value

more

either

proprietor a sub-

In a parallel manner, votive

the tribe.

to

precious

augment

their

by

or

material,

applying more studied and complicated ornamentation.

31. Magical Decoration on a Comb of a Malacca Tribk.

Fig.

From Haddon.
Finally,
is

religion

or

furnish

tribe
in

one of the most usual reasons

preserving the

wearers

safeguard for their

from those ailments

known, show us how important

plaining the

the

graves
in

it

correct

interpretation.

from

as

the

next

and the

Other instances, equally


to

is

ornamentation of any object.

meaning, but without explanation


find

their

different

for

different design corresponds to each malady,

designs are purely geometricaP (Fig. 31).


well

combs
in

They

maladies.

specified

these

of

be placed

to

possessor

combs, with the object of

certain

thirty

and cause them

maladies,

world.

from

about twenty or

possess

object.'*

magical

the

hair a variety of decorated

their

decorating

for

combs of a Malacca
us with an excellent example.
The women wear
and

magic,

be cautious

natives

the

in

ex-

may have some

It

Unfortunately,

with

we cannot
objects

of

antiquity, the necessary explanations are almost entirely wanting.

These fundamental
sight of them,

principles are established,

we can now

or decorative art of the primitive Egyptians.

Haddon, Evolution

and without losing

enter upon the study of the ornamental

in Art, p. 236 et scq.,

fig.

To

begin with,

120, p. 240.

is

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE

ART.

67

there not already artistic feeling in the act of the primitive man,

who, not content with supplying himself with


the requirements they are intended

them

forms

have

the

as

and

perfect

opportunity

of

pointing

Egyptians attained perfection

to

elegant

in

possible

as

how

out

tools

suited

to

attempts to give

fulfil,

far

We

the

each class of objects

shall

primitive

we

pass in

review.

We
gerate

begin

will

when

with

say that

Fig. 32.

flint

working of
admire

do not exag-

in the

world has the

Flint Knife, worked and retouched on both Faces.

Museum;

length,

25cm.

been carried to such perfection.

flint

sufficiently

the

perfection

"

The

flakes

of

the

It

is

not easy

working and the

large, finely finished knives discovered

beauty of the forms of the


in the tombs.

believe

no other country

in

Brussels

to

knives.

have been struck off these objects with

such precision that the ribs

left

by the work upon the edge and

the back are symmetrically arranged, and correspond with each


other.

The meeting

of the ribs forms a very regular ridge

the centre of the blade


'

De Morgan,

pp. 107-109.

"

down

(F'g- 3-)-

Recherches sur Us origines de rgypte, i. pp. iii, 112; ii.


passages indicated in the
pi. Ix.xvi., and

See Petrie, Naqada^

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

68

The
covered

part of the knife which was held in the

with

-;^'

tfp)

leather.

Specimens

exist

hand was probably

which have gold and

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


which covers a part of the knife

by means of gold thread.


serpents

terlaced
rosettes

In
solid

one side two

at

spaces being

in-

up with

filled

on the other side there are nine figures of animals

also seen

is

it

at

gold handle fixed to

The handle
women, one

Fig. 34.

(Fig. 34).

especially

is

Cairo there

of

whom

holds a fan

Women

meet

.\nd of

rivets.

on one side are three

on the other

side, there

is

a boat

a Bo.\t on a gold Knife-handle.

Another dagger from the same place had an ivory

handle, only fragments of which remain


Collection,

The

to

also a dagger with a

is

decorated with incised figures

of

^t,).

blade by means of three

the

is

Figures

(Fig.

interesting

on the Chaldean monuments.^'

same museum

the

and a fantastic animaP

serpents

of interlaced

with, as

69

soldered, but sewn on

not

the point

engrnved, the

are

lions, gazelles, antelopes,

design

On

is

ART.

Farnham, Dorset, there

handle of which

is

decorated

is

and

a large

on both

in

flint

faces

the Pitt-Rivers
knife, the ivory

with a series of

animals^ (Fig. 35).


the Petrie Collection, University College, London,

Finally, in

De Morg.an, Reckerdics, i. pp. 112-115, and tig. 136 ii. pi. v.


Sculptured vase of Gudea. See Heuzey, Musec tiatianal du Louvre:
Catalogue des antiqjiitcs chaldeennes ; Sculpture et gravure a la poitite, Paris,
'

1902, pp. 280-285.

QuiBELL, Flint dagger from Gcbelehi, loc. cit. p. 13 r.


Petrie, Naqada, pi. Ixxvii. and p. 51. De Morgan, Recherches, ii. pp. 266, 267.
The whole of the knife has been produced in a plate intended for a work on the
A
Pitt-Rivers Collection, but which, I believe, has never been published.
copy of this plate is exhibited in the Pitt-Rivers Collection at the University
Museum, Oxford another copy is in the Edwards' Library, University College,
London. Its provenance is indicated thus upon the plate: "Obtained by the
Rev. Greville Chester in 1891 from Sheyk Hamadeh, near Souhag."
^

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

JO
there
a

two interesting

are

bearing

knife,

there

one of

on

frequently a fehne

pieces.

is

faces

chasing

animal

the hippopotannus goddess

Fig. 35.

it.

crocodile,

a handle, possibly of

design

gazelle

a quaint representation, in which

is

devour

its

One

which
on

occurs
other

the

sees

Professor Petrie

Taia-^ seizing a crocodile, perhaps to

Ivory Knife-handle in the Pitt-Rivers Collection.

With her
and with her

hand

right
left

she

she

holds

grasps
its

tail

a
(Fig.

foot
36).

of

the

Upon

a steatite prism discovered by Greville Chester at Karnak, and

Museum, Oxford, there is a


This reprecrocodile by the tail.

presented by him to the Ashmolean

man

standing and

sentation

may

holding a

perhaps

be connected with the figures

of

the

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


Greek

intaglios of the

The other
Upon one of

object

71

on which personages are figured

islands,

holding animals by the

ART.

tail.^

a small

is

flint

knife with an ivory handle.

the sides of the handle

are two interlaced serpents and rosettes,


as on the great knife at Cairo; on the
reverse there

a lion, a leopard, and

is

considered

another animal,

of a similar specimen

the

Museum

(No.

(Fig.

In

38).

the wa\-

in

in

fragment

a species of antelope

is

the

of

case

which the handle

the
is

Mr. Ouibell with

b\'

knife,

fastened

to the blade entirely confirms a

made

Berlin

proves, however,

15,13")

that this animal

Pctrie

b\'

to be a hedgehog- (Fig. ^y }.

remark

regard

states that the part of the knife


IS

fixed to the handle

is

knife

have

emplo\'ed

been

which

so minute that

could

certainly the

to

He

the ivor\"-handled knife at Cairo.

onl>"

cere-

monially.-'

The same

representations of

animals arc found on decorated


spoons, of which several interesting specimens

covered^ (Fig.
has

have been

published

dis-

handle

the

Ivory Knife-h.\.ndle.

Fig. 36.

Petrie Collection, University College,

Mr. Ouibell

39).

London.

of

some instrument, now disapoeared, which has two small animal


'

EvA.NS,

Arthur

Furtlier discoveries of Cretan aiid Aegean Script with


in i\\c Jonr/ial of Hellenic Studies, .xvii.

J.,

Libyan and proto-Egyptian Comparisons,


1S98, pp. 362-372.
Pefkie, Prehistoric

and

pi.

1.

3,

iii.,

and

4,

Egyptian Carvings,

in

Man,

ii.

1902,

No.

113, p. 16

r,

iv.

OuiBKLL, Flint dagger from Gebclcin, loc. cit. p. 132. See Lefebure. E.,
cole
Rites cgyptiens: Construction cl protection dcs edifices {Publications dc I'
'

des

Icttres, d' Alger),


^

Paris 1890,

Petrie, Naqada,

MoRG.A,.\, Rccherchcs,

ii.

pi.

p.

l.xi.

131.

p. 37.
2,

3,

5,

6,

8,

p.

47

Ouibell, Hierakonpolis,

Diospolis,
1.

pi.

.\ii.

p.
9.

22.

De

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

72
figures^

No. 7)
and there is also the handle of an
in form of a lion, which probably
a spoon or a knife

CF'g-

instrument

39,

came from Hierakonpolis, and

now

is

in the

Ashmolean Museum,

Oxford.

Combs

much

present a

us to follow

more

greater variety of types, and enable

and double combs were used


of a small

Both single

closeh- the evolution of the forms.

human

or animal

the most frequent type was that

figure,

lower part, as a means of fixing

Fig. 37.

Small

Fli.\t

in

it

furnished with teeth at the


the hair.

There are several

Knife with Ivory Handle.

Petrie Collection, University College, London.

specimens which have


a

outline of the face

The
is
is

for

is

represented

representations

remarkable

how

to

'

in

the

is

136.

drawn

in

merely the

point

still

more

variety.

It

very clearly characterized,


of being

unrecognizable,

the last specimen of Fig. 41, with

QuiBELL, Flint daggc?- fro7>i Gcbclein, he. cit. pi. i. 7.


Petrie, Naqada, pi. li.\. 5.
De Mokga.n, Rcchcrclics,

p. 62, fig.

face,

until

(Fig. 40).

the antelope, which

by degrees degraded

simplified

of animals offer

and of being confused," as

ii.

ornament the human

summary manner, and gradually

i.

p.

147,

fig.

342,

and

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVK


the type derived from the figure of a bird.^
in

two instances he can

beHeve that

it

Another type

Petric believes that

of the type of

a simplification

head of a

the

is

we

shall see later.^

a bird, which

is

bull,

The

Fracment of

found

also

face,

full

figure that occurs

also used for decorated pins.

is

Here we pass from forms copied with considerable

Fig. 38.

;.

the amulets, as

most frequently

71

representations of the giraffe.

more probably

is

antelope'- (Fig. 41

among

identif\-

ART.

fidelity,

to

Ivory Knife-h.^ndle with a Figure of an

a.v

a.ntelope.
Berlin

simplified forms,

principle of

Museum.

which only remotely suggest the

symmetry again intervenes

by placing the same conventional


'

i.

fig.

Petrie,

//;.

Ixiii.

59, 63,

66

l.\iv.

augment

figure of a

S7 and

p.

87.

bird

The

the confusion,
at each

'

De Morgan,

end

Recherches,

343, p. 148.

and

'

Petrie,

Petrie, ib. pi. xliii. 57, 57 .


Petrie, Naqada, pi. Ixiii. and

to

original.

Morgan,

ib.

pi. xliii.

Recherches,

i.

60-62,

p.

148.

p. 47.

Ixiv.

Pudge,

Diospol/s,

ix.

x.

History of Egypt,

and
i.

p.

p.

20.

54.

De

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

74

of the axis of the


the combination

comb

two

of the

Other specimens, again, show

(Fig. 42).

designs of quadrupeds and birds

(Fig- 43)-

Owing

to the

generous kindness of Herr von Bissing,

and Von Bissing

This

comb belongs

shortly

will

enable us

will

draw

lca\-ing

this

subject,

reader of the magical role

intended to

publish a detailed

account of

it,

interesting

conclusions from this

of work (Figs. 44 and 45).

ver}- fine piece

Before

to

M. Thcodor M. Davis,

Ivory Spoon-handles.

Fig. 39.

which

to

am

comb decorated with

able to reproduce here a magnificent ivory


figures of animals.

fulfil,

must once more remind the

which these combs were apparently

and on which

have already dwelt

length.
^

De Morgan',

Rccherches,

i.

p.

148,

fig.

243.

at

some

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


The

show

hair-pins, while the\-

the

same zoomorphic designs

the

combs

have

birds

also regular

on the pin
first

and

itself,

bulls'

ART.

as

heads

incised

lines

which form the

example we meet with

of an

ornamentation derived from tech-

They evidently

nique.

the
pin,

binding

which attached

the carved ornament


bird, etc.

at

represent

wrapped round

the top

firmly

it

the

bull's

to

head,

(Fig. 46;.

iM'Xiit^
Fig 40.

Ivory Combs with Hl'.man


Figures.
Petrie Collection.

K>M

Fig. 41.

'

i.

Ivory Combs with Figures of A.sTELorEs a.\d Giraffes.

Petrie, Nat/ada,

pp. 14S, 149.

pi.

and Ixiv. Diospolis, pi. x. De Morgan, RccJioxhcs,


Mace, El Amnih, pi. xii. 2, 3.

l.viii.

MacIver

&

PRIMITIVE ART IX P:GYPT.

76

VMicn
exactly

objects in

same

stone,

determine

to

turn

\vc

the

the

to

designs
ivory,

of

consideration

reappearing

and bone.

possibly they were

on

mere ornaments.

a groove and hole at the lower end, and

if

find

whole series of

purpose

Their

we

pendants,
a

not easy

is

They have

suspended

b\'

them,

Ivory Coiibs with Figures ok Birds.

Fig. 42.

hang upside down. This may be a device


enable the wearer to see them as they hang.
These objects

the figures, of course,


to

are carved with representations of


birds
'

more or

Men

less

Petrie, \a(/ada,

pi. lix.

1.x.

Birds

De Morgan, Origincs,
El Amrah and Abydos, pi. x. 7. Bulls:
pi.

X.

xi.

Diospolis',

xii.

vii.

ii.

1.

human

figures (Fig.

47\ with

conventionalized, with bulls" heads,' and also


L\ii. and Ixiv.
Diospolis
and 143. MacIver & Mace,
Petrie, Auqada, pi. Ixii. 37 and 51;
:

ib. li.x.

pp. 64

ORNAMENTxAL AND DECORATIVE ART.


with a singular ornament which

77

perhaps derived from a type

is

of bird (Fig. 4S}.

Another

class of decorated objects

formed by the pendants

is

of necklaces, which have already been mentioned

in

s-

Those of most
mereh' engraved on the two

the chapter on personal adornment.

frequent occurrence arc

^'

sides with various short strokes at regular intervals.

The

decoration of others

which,

from

starting

the

base,

round

coils

the

pendant

to the top.

Others, again, have intercross-

ing

forming

simple patterns.

lines,

\"er\-

Occasionally

the two systems of decoration are combined (Fig. 49,

and also

Fig. 22).

we have

alrcad}'

When we

recall the

made, there

imitation of a cord,

in

is

(\\

is

observations

nothing to prevent

our considering these decorative lines on the pendants


as having a magical purpose.^

Museum

the Berlin

In

plaque

of

there

a small shell

is

workmanship (No.

fine

(?;

which

13,797),

perhaps should be considered as a pendant for a


necklace.

which

It

decorated with figures of animals,

compared

be

study

presently

and

is

should

on

the

with

those

palettes

slate

we

shall

(Figs.

50

51)."

Beyond

all

question

it

the slate palettes which

is

provide us with the finest examples of evolution of

form

that

it

is

possible

imagine.

to

Petrie

has

'!^
Fig.

43.

Ivory Comb

^^"""^
worked out the chronological succession of these ^^f^ '^^
of an antelope
palettes, and we need not therefore dwell long on
and ornaments

the subject.''

The

earliest

of these are rhomboids,

derived

fiiDm

bird forms.

and

this

Petrie,

form was probably suggested, according to

by some natural cross-cleavages of the

afterwards

Petrie, Naqada,

Recherchcs,

i.

pi.

pp. 62, 63,

Ixi.

fig.

l.xii.

Ko7iij(liche

Muscen

sit

and

137-147.

with a blackish plaster.


-

slate rock.

forms appear, which we shall

natural

Berlin

l.xiv.

The

Diospol/s,

pi.

Shortly

now examine,
x.

De Morgan,

incised lines are frequently filled up

Ausfiihrliclies

Altcrtilmer luid Gipsabgiissc, 2nd ed. Berlin, 1899,


^ Petrie, Diu spoils, pi. iii.

Vcrzeichm's dcr dgyptischen

p. 38.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

78

and from which new forms were eventually derived which were
solely ^geometrical.
I

It

know only one

(Fig.

52).

Another specimen

surmounted by the
has disappeared
it

palette

which represents the human form.

belongs to the Petrie Collection, University College,

is

in

figure of an

(F"ig. S3)-

the

same

antelope

collection

(?;,

is

the head

With other specimens, on

London
a palette

of which

the contrary,

the entire palette which represents grosso viodo the lines of

mm

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


form of a tortoise are very instructive

having entirely mistaken


not scruple to

them

let

the

character

them disappear

of

entirelv',

into heads of antelopes^ (Fig.

Fig. 46.

we

ART.

79

see there that, after

the

feet,

they

56).

Ivory Pins decorated with Figures of Birds and a Bulls


Head.

Fish palettes, which are often shaped with great care, end
losing

'

all

characteristic form (Fig. 57).

remarkable example

Petrie, Naqada, pi. xlvii. 9-12, 14, and 18; Diospolis,


A History of Egypt, i. p. bo, 23,061. Berlin, No. 10,595.

Budge,

did

or even to transform

pi.

xi.

6,

9,

b^
is

lo.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

8o

one

in

itself

the centre

of our

Fic^.

been transformed into a

Fig. 47.

57,
still

where the
smaller

tail

of the fish has

fish.^

Slate and Ivory Pendants.

University College, London.

The most
recognizable'

curious case
(Fig.

58J,

it

is

that of the

At

bird.

first

promptly becomes modified.

Petrie, Xaqada, pi. xlviii. 51, 52, 60; Diospolis, pi.


Newberry, Extracts from my Notebooks, v. No.

of the Society of Biblical Arc/tceology,

x.xiv.

1902, p. 251

.\i.

36,

and

easily
It

is

15-18, 27, 29.


in
pi.

the Proceedings
ii.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


carved
palette

lengthened out of
of changes,

surface

plain

the

8[

order to give a symmetrical form to the

in duplicate, in

the

ART.

on which the

colour

proportion until, after

all

head

of

the

long

only

the

bird,

rubbed

is

is

succession

remaining,

part

finally becomes absorbed, and the palette presents a form where


it

would be impossible

to

recognize

the

original type,

the intermediate specimens been preserved

Fig. 4S.

bird

Sl.\te .vxd Ivory

(Fig.

the

Petrie

Collection,

London, which closely resembles the


the round that we

shall

59).

Pendants decor.\ted with Derived Designs.

wish to draw special attention to a palette


belonging to

had not

in

form of a

University

figures of

College,

birds carved

have occasion to study later on (Fig.

in

60).

Other forms might be quoted which do not appear to belong


to

any of the above

So much

for

Petrie, Naqada,
86, 89, 91, 92.

the

types.

shapes of the

pi. xlvii. 21, 23, 24, 29,

Diospolis.

pi. xii. 35, 38.

palettes.

30,

32

An

attempt was

pi. xlix. 64,

69, 72, 81, 82,

PRIMITIVE ART

82

made

render them

to

still

more

EGYPT.

IN
like

their

models by the aid

of incised lines, especially on those in form of a

shape was

less

or

In connection with

birds. ^

characteristic than

those

these

found-

On
others

Fig. 49.

where the

representing antelopes

complementary

are palettes of geometrical forms which also

on them.

fish,

lines

there

have figures incised

one of these the figure of an elephant has been


have representations of the crocodile/' and also

Stone and Ivory Pendants with Incised Line Decoration,


some Cases filled up with a Blackish Paste.

IN

figure of

covered

at

an indeterminate animaP (Fig.


Diospolis

(tomb B 102)

also

61).

bears

in

palette dis-

low

relief

figure difficult to identify'' (Fig. 61).

'

mentioned in the preceding notes,


Petrie, A'aqada, pi. xlvii.-l. and p. 43
MacIver & Mace, El A??irah and AOydos,

will

be found

pi.

and

p.

xi.

and

xii.

20.

Petrie, Diospolis,

Ue M0RG.A.N,
De Morgan,

'

in

X.

numerous

In addition to the palettes

specimens

pi. v.

Origiiies,

and

ii.

xii.

p. 144,

ib.

Petrie, Diospolis,

pi. v.

102.

43.

and Berlin Museum, No.

12,877.

Diospolis,
pi.

vii. viii.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


A

very

fine

Fig.

specimen

50. Plaque

belonging

in

to

the

ART.

Petrie

83

Collection,

the Berlin Museum (Recto).


Shell (?).

College,

Universitv

Fig. 51.

London,

Plaque

in

is

engraved

on

both

faces

with

the Berlin Museum (Verso).


Shell (?).

ibex

facing

cavities

each other

(Fig.

62).

Two

ivory

other

beads are inserted


specimens,

one

in

the

discovered

eye
at

TRIxMITIVE

84

Hu (Ashmolean Museum,

ART

IX EGYPT.

Oxford) and the other of unknown

provenance (University College, London; are inscribed with very

Fig. 52.

summary

Palette with a Human


Figure at the Top.

designs of animals^ (Fig. 62).

teresting discovery

Tlie

pi. x.x. 20.

Fig.

first is

is

Palette with a
53.
Figure of an Antelope,
the Head missing.

Finally,

the

somewhat recent one by Mr.

most

in-

Mac Tver,

the specimen published without description by Petrie, Diospolis,

ORXAMEXTAL AND DECORATIVE


who

found

car\'cd in

palette

on the

relief

two

with

ART.

resembling

signs

85

hieroglyphs

Before stopping to dwell on this

face.

important point we must remark that a considerable number of


palettes

arc

be

that the}" could

emplo\'ed

with a

pierced

for

hung

hole

suspension, which

for

carried on

or

grinding colour

proves

body ready

the

to

be

while the smaller ones indicate

that in course of time these palettes were occasionallx' converted

Fig.

of the ordinary object

fact that

in

the

preclude

Form of Amtelopes.

in

of this instance of the transformainto

an

palettes, the

is

the shape

measures 44 millimetres

in

of

at

dimensions of which absolutely

them

the possibilit}' of employing

of these

is
attested by the
Tamworth, there are

amulet

MacGregor Collection

some very minute

One

Palettes

The accuracy

into amulets.
tion

54.

Palette

height

for

69, of

grinding

our Fig.

the others,

of

paint.

59,

and

rhomboidal

form, measure respectively 80, 58, 56, and 39 millimetres.

Fig.

Sv

Palettes

Fig. 56.

in

Form of Elephants and Hiitopotami.

Palettes

in

Form ok Tortoises.

Fig. 55a.

Palette
MacGre^or

in

Form of a Lion.

Collection.

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

88

We

must now turn our attention

Maclver

Mr. Randall
sign.s

carved on

In an
palette

El

at

and what

it,

'Fig. 6}).

their

meaning?

is

Maclver wrote

"It

is

by

known

to

exist

but

dynasty,

first

before Menes, the

king of the

first

Palette

of these
statues

of

later),

the

he carries

we

have

and

one

his

here

of

on

Griffith,

the

the

analogy

standards

of

Min discovered by

hypothesis
a

sign

no

farther

similar

his

Amrah, Mr. Maclver points


of the sign

(we

ships

and with the signs engraved on


god

in

lO cm.

height,

El

at

subject

this

Form of a Bird.

Museum;

memoir on the excavations


Petrie

in

considerably

dynasty."

first

modified views

Brussels

palette

the

form as early as the

belongs to a period

slate

this

Fig. 5S.

with

are

example

far the earliest

a well-developed

in

Writing again with

out, with

What

Hieroglyphic writing has

yet found of the use of hieroglyphs.

been

found by

palette

published at the time of the discovery of this

article

]\Ir.

the

to

Amrah

to

Petrie

than

the

at

on the
speak

shall

the

archaic

Koptos, and

statement that

the

emblem

of

god

this

Min.-

Reduced

to

these proportions, the discovery

became no

1
MacIver, D. R., a Prehistoric Ce??tetcry at El Amrah in Egypt
liminary Report of Excavations, in Man, i. No. 40, April, 1901.
- MacIver & Mace, El Amrah and Abydos, pp. 37, 3S.

less

Pre-

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE

Fig. 59.

Patettf-s of Bird ForiM.

ART.

89

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

90
important,

because,

example of
us

furnishes

At

top

the

as

other,

of this

first

carved
the

follow

first

i,758h).
relief;

in

outline

very great, as

is

transition

have such remarkable specimens (Fig.

Our

are

piece

the

possible

as

the

Collection

fCataloi^ue

this

birds

bodies

their

was

it

The MacGregor

and the proto-dynastic

palettes

historic

and

interest

clearly

two

palette

this

The

palette.

shows

remarks,

relief.

another example of

with
of

they face each


the

author

the

as

palettes carved in

of
it

between the pre-

palettes

of

which we

64).

acquaintance with these was owing to the excava-

tions of Mr. Ouibell at Hierakonpolis,

which

led to the discovery

Bird-shaped Palette.

Fig. 60.

University College, London.

of two

marvellous palettes covered with carvings

These constitute evidence of the

first

They have

making of Egypt.

the

definitely fixed the period

to

Here

the

which arc found

in

simple

the

low

relief.

order for the history of


merit of having

great

the

which should be allocated various

fragments of objects of the same

museums.

in

kind

palettes

greater

preserved

in

grinding

for

number of

different

malachite,

prehistoric

have

tombs

de\ eloped

into

objects of luxury, votive offerings deposited in the temples

and

at

the

period

of

the

earliest

d}.'nasties,

perhaps intended to commemorate important

This

is

of which

another

instance

wc spoke

at the

of the

evolution

religious

festivals.

of decorated objects

cunimencement of

this chapter.

We

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


shall return

later to the scenes depicted

on the assumption

that

they relate

ART.

91

on these great palettes,

more

sculpture

to

than

to decorative art.

The same may be said of the votive maces from the same
temple of Mierakonpolis, which furnish another instance of common

Fig.

61.

Palettes decorated with Incised Figures.

objects

becoming actual objects of luxury, of huge proportions,

and

consequence rendered

in

entirely

unfit

for

their

original

purpose.

Speaking generally, stone mace-heads

two principal

classes.

the form of a disc.

The

first,

may

and the most

be divided

into

ancient, are

These are most frequently found

.'n

in

syenite

92

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

ORNAMENTAL AND DFXORATIVE


and

and

porphyr)',

and

pear-shaped,

more

The

alabaster.^

in

93

rarely

others

are

ART.

are

found

in

basalt, hsematite, breccia, alabaster,

and abo\'e

all

This

limestone.

pears

at

fourth
all

least

d}'nast}',

the

emblem

in

histor\in

compact white

latter

as

and
of

form

ap-

as

the

earl\-

throughout

Egypt

an

as

the hands of the king.

hicrogl>-phic

sign,

which

|,

conve\"s the idea of whiteness

and
has

distinction,

perpetuated

also

the figure.-

Two specimens discovered

Parva

po

Fig.

at
1

still

With

P.\LETTE.
?'

in relief.

63.

a sign (hierogl3-phic

handles,-'

retain their

one

and one of horn. Some


mace-heads are of a different form,
of

ivory

resembling

double

At the British

Museum

hammer

these objects are

not considered to be mace-heads.

Guide

with

See Budge,

and Fourth Egyptian


Nos. 63-84. The i)rooi

TJiird

to the

Roofns, 1904, p. 48,


that these pieces are really mace-heads will be

found

in

the representations on painted coffins

See Lepsius,

of the Middle Empire.

Aelteste

Texte des Todtcnbuchs nach Sarcophagen des


altiigyptischen
Berlin, 1S67, pi.

Reiclis

im Berliner Museum,
Lacau, Sarcophages

.x.xxviii.

anterieiirs
au nouvel empire : Catalogue
general des antiquites cgyptiennes du musee

du
Fig. 64.

With two

Palette.

birds carved in

Caire, 1904, pi.


-

relief.

MacGr.?:or Collection.

Naqada,
^

Lviii.

277.

Petrie, Dtospolis parva,

p.

24 and

pi. xvii.

Petrie, Diospolis pari'a,

pi. v.

pi. iv.

rRLMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

94
pointed ends

(FiL,^

'

Amrah

covered at El

These mace-heads are usually without

Nevertheless, a specimen in limestone was dis-

ornannentatit)n.

decorated with black spots.'

some objects discovered bvof the same class.


He considers them

believe

t(j

63).

are

regard to

haviny;

to\',

the

At Hierakonpolis,

to

materials of which

limestone and soft sandstone

'

am

disposed

at

Naqada

be a form of

they are

made

66;.

(Fi^;.

besides the

Petrie

that

show pieces

have just alluded

Mr. Ouibell discovered an enormous number of mace-heads,^

to,

which must have been merely


Mr. Ouibell, from the

Fig.

65.

Mace-heads

fro.m

completely pierced.

alwa\-s

for

ceremonial use, judging, with


hole for the handle

the

that

fact

Hierakonpolis

a.nd

is

not

Xaoada.

Mace-heads are occasionally found

decorated with incised lines extending from the summit to the


base (see

effect

Another
three
shall

in

in

the

possesses

hard

stone,

Museum

Berlin

presently.

from the

15,142)

decorated

is

6j\
with

Tamworth
human head is

Collection at

two mace-heads, on one of which a

human

Fig.

15,716,

head type, of which we

bull's

The MacGregor

carved, and on the other two

possesses

which has been carved with

shape of a tortoise (No.

designs derived

speak

The

23).

same museum (No.

the

in

No.

65,

mace-head

curious

weird

Fig.

heads, similar to those on

the vase of our Fig. 69 (Nos. 3,495 and 3,779).


'

Petrie, Naqada,

shaped mace

in the

pi.

.xvii.

23 (Aslimolean

MacGregor Collection (No.

Museum, Oxford),
1,720)

is

terminated

an animal's head.

&

MacIver

Petrie, Naqada,

Ouibell

&:

Mace, El Aturah and Ahydos, pi. x. 6 and p.


pi. vii. and p. 35 (Ashmolean Museum).

Gree.x, Hierakonpolis,

ii.

pi. xxvii. p. 41.

16.

A
at

liammerone end by

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


are

Einall\% there

ART.

v^

two macc-heads or sceptres which cannot

be compared with any otliers

One

known.

is

of

ivor\',

and

is

carved with three rows of capti\'es, represented with their arms


tied

behind

backs, and fastened

tlieir

passed round

a cord

carved

in

relief

their

necks

^
;

together

in

other

is

the

single

with alternate figures of dogs and

in

file

by

serpentin.e,

lions.-

The-e

two pieces belong to the com.rnencement of the historic period,

and arc masterpieces of workmanship (Eig.

The

Fig.

aid

the

66.

metal

of

onh' increase
in

made

perfection of the form of these mace-heads,

hardest stones, and

the

6S^.

if

tombs as

at

an\- rate

in

the earliest period

Decorated Mace-he.-\ds

tools,

marvellous.

is

we examine
earl}' as

in

the stone

of the

without

Soft SroxE.

Our amazement can


vases

commencement

which are found

of the

prehistoric

Throughout the whole

prehistoric

the

period.

Of

these

Petrie

writes

"

age, from immediately after the rude savage burials of (sequence

'

OuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,

OuiBELL

pi. xii. and ii. pi. .xxxvii.


Green, Hia-akonpolis, ii. pi. xxiii. Ixvi. and p. 38;
pi. xix.
On Fig. 6S is another mace-head from Hierakonpolis representing the fore part of
two bulls or rams. Hierakonpolis,
ii.
An
pi. xix. 3, xxv. and p. 8
p. 38.
analogous specimen from Hu is now, like the preceding pieces, in the Abinnolean
Museum, Oxford.
i.

&

i.

\.

PRIMITIVE ART L\ EGYPT.

96
date) 30

down

the taste

for

in

the

hundreds of stone bowls were buried with each


d\'nast\-,

and many are found

But

dynasties.

Moreover,

to the end, stone vases are abundant.

hard stone was kept up

in

in

tombs of the

historic

times

kini; of the

third

first

and fourth

the twelfth dynasty the softer serpentine and

alabaster supplanted the fine dioritcs

and porphyries, and

in

the

eighteenth dynasty the art of working hard stones was forgotten

Fig.

67. Mace-head Carved


Berlin

for

and

anything but statuary.


skill

in

of a Tortoise.

Museum.

From

the point of view of magnificence,

using hard and beautiful stones,

the Egyptians gradually rose


prehistoric

in For.m

and

to

their

highest level

archaic splendours."
'

in

sa\-

that

the later

and that the sixth, twelfth


a moment compare with the

early dynastic times,

or eighteenth dynasties cannot for

we must

Petrie, DiospoUs paf-ua,

p. 18.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


We

must not linger here

these vases, and

to Petrie's remarks,

to

study

in

detail

ART.
the

97

forms of

will

content myself with referring the reader

and

to the

numerous

plates on which

all

forms discovered up to the present time are reproduced.^

must turn

to

the

We

the decoration of pottery, and to those examples

LmLL

Fig. 68.

Scepire- or Mace-heads from Hierakonpolis.

'
Petrie, Diospolis parva, pp. iS, 19, and pi. iii. for the diagram showing the
evolution of forms during the prehistoric period (Mr. Petrie tells me that he has
reserved his opinion with regard to the evolution of the stone vases of cylindrical

PRIMITIVE ART

98

where the vase

been given a form either animal or

has

itself

EGYPT.

IN

human.

Most frequently the vase


there

without decoration

is

a simple representation of a

is

neck, and

other

instances

some

cases,

is

it

cord which encircles


out

workini;

in

mere sinuous

even

not

is

taken

has been

care

continuous.'

occasionally

the detail.

rounded

More

line,

decorated with regular ribs worked with "vvonderful


again,

or,

it

is

which,

In
in

vase

the

rarely

the

is

perfection-;

faced with a decoration of shells closely arranged

rows and overlapping each other.

in

On one
sented

vase

slight

in

there

network

skcuomorphic designs

chapter.
vase,

second

to

where the exterior

Finally, a

whole

commencement

This

This

is

be found

example of those
earlier

in

the

the fragment of a marble

most part from

show us

of only one vase which

figures in relief

We will

beings, animals, etc.

know
in

repre-

which the

in

fillet,

an

series of vases, dating for the

in

is

in

of the historic period,

them

and from

is

cords

carved to represent a plaited basket.'

heads and figures of human


pass

plaited

which we have referred

to

is

of

forming a sort of

relief,

might have been placed."

vase

the

is

rapidly

review.
is

decorated with

human

heads.

the Petrie Collection at University College, London^

its

form

mencement of

it

should belong to the time between the com-

the prehistoric period and the sequence dates 60-70

were based on Mr. Ouibell's observations,


and which Mr. Petrie did not himself check closely); Naqada, pi. viii.-xvi. ;
DiospoHs, pi. ix. MacIver & Mace, El A?nrah a)id Abydos, pi. xvi. Petrie,
pi. ix. x.
Abydos, i. pi. xxvii. xlii. xlvii. Royal To?nbs, ii. pi. lxvi.-liii._^ Abydos,
QuiBELL, El Kab, pi. ii. iii. vi. x. xxvii. Ouibell & Gree.n, Hie?-akonpolis, i.
pi. xxx.
These indications refer also to the
pi. xx.\i.-xxxiv. xxxvi. xxxvii.
ii.
See also A. H. Sayce, The Stone Vases
vases of the first Egyptian dynasties.
of Ancient Egypt, in The Connoisseur, a Magazine for Collectors, iv. 1902,
pp. 159-165, with beautiful photographs of vases in the Berens Collection.
Examples: Petrie, Naqada, pi. x. Royal Tombs, ii. pi. xlvii. Iii. liii. liii.
and liii./; QuiBELL, Hierakonpolls, i. pi. xxxiii.
pi. lix. 7.
De Morgan, Recherchcs, ii. p. 184. Quibell, Hierakonpolis,
pi. xxxviii.
and 2.
Petrie, Royal Tombs, ii. pi. xlix. pi. v. 12
* Petrie, Royal Tombs, ii. pi. vi. 27, xxix. 21-25, ^^iJ
De Morgan,
9-1form, of which ihe sequence dates

i.

Zi,

'

i.

i.

'^''-

Rechejxhcs,
*

ii.

fig.

823, p. 245.

Petrie, Royal Tojnbs,

ii.

pi. ix. 12.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


it

is

ART.

99

therefore entirely of the prehistoric period.

human

heads, sculptured

relief

in

There we see two


on the body of the vase, and of

same type we have already met with. The mouth is indicated


by a strongly accentuated horizontal line, and the eyes marked by
means of two beads fixed into the cavities of the stone (Fig. 69).
the

Two
relief

fragments of vases

in

fragment No. 15,084

is

IMuseum bear in light


15,084 and 15,693).
The

the Berlin

barks and hum.an figures (Nos.

specially remarkable for the representation

Fig.

Stone Vase.

69.

Decorated with two human heads.

of a warrior

The

style

armed with
of this

a hatchet, driving a prisoner before him.

figure

is

somewhat

similar to those

we

find

on the votive maces and palettes (Figs. 70 and 71).


At Hierakonpolis Mr. Ouibell discovered a whole series of

later

vases

decorated

feline creatures

with figures of animals.

There are heads of

above a sign which resembles the hieroglyph

r^^^^

A fragment of a similar vase uas found by Mr. Quibell at Dallas.


Petrie, iXaqada, pi. .<lii. 26, and p. 42.
'

Quibell, Hierakonpolis,

i.

pi. xvii.

,-

See

PRIMITIVE ART

lOO

LN'

EGYPT.
of

figure

(Fig.

72)

scorpion

and,

finally,

very curious group, which


I

am tempted

pictographic

as

I'epre-

without,

sentation,
ever,

to consider

how-

being able to suggest

any reading of

It

it.

is

more

especiall}'

of the

bow being depicted

that

the

makes me suspect

be something

to

fact

description
Other

it

of

this

(Fig.

J^).

pieces, unfortunate!)'

fragmentary, show a bird's


head, and

also

strange

object terminated b}-a

The

d\-na^^ty

first

have

afforded

ments of
Fig. 70.

Fragment of Vase Warrior


ARMED WITH A HaTCHET.
Berlin

Museum.

some,

star.-'"

royal tombs of the


at

Ab\Tlos

few

frag-

On

this nature.

curious

are car\'ed

in

ornaments
relief,

none

of which, unfortunately, can

be identified with certainty.

An

from the

alabaster vase

same

locality

base

the

is

with

incised

at

series

of

signs,

OuiBELL, Hicrakonpolis,
pi.
and xxiii.
Id. i. pi. xi.v. XX. and xxv.
QuiBELL & Green, Hic?-ako>i-

'

i.

xvii.
^
^

poliSy
*

15,

and

pi. lix.

ii.

Petrie, Royal Tombs,


\\.a,
ii.

23,

pi.

23;

Ii.//,

i.

335.

pi.

ii.

pi. v.

xxxviii.

4,

Fig. 71.

Fragment of Vase with Boat

Low
Berlin

Relief.

Museum.

in-

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


We

must mention that ivory was also used

judging

a very

from

was decorated

To

pass

curious

leather

represent

of

Hierakonpoh's

(Fig.

ATr.

in

Tamworth

there

it

one

of

the

most

Abydos, which represents

at

Relief.

in

specimens

from

Naqada

and hippopotami (Figs. 75 and "6). At


Ouibell discovered two vases of steatite and

is

In

birds."

the

a small steatite

'

Petrie, Royal Tombs,

Id.

QuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,

i.

Abx'dos,

at

frogs,

form of

serpentine

shapes,

Other

74).

for \'ases, and,

discovered

Stone Vases with Animal Figures

bottle'-

birds,

lOI

as stone.'

fantastic

by Petrie

that discovered

is

fragment

fine

same manner

vases

to

Fig. 72.

the

in

ART.

pi. xxxviii. 3,

and

ii.

MacGregor

vase,

at

and

and

Collection

the base of which

pi. vi. 22.

p. 28.
i.

pi.

xx. 2

4,

at

p.

ii.

p. 38.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

102
is

head and

the

support

to

same

the

collection

preserves

its

paws of a small animal, which appears


its
body (Catalogue 3,544,. In the

four

vase

with

there

a vase

is

with gold

leaf

are crossed

the

has

given

artist

shaped

ancient gold mounting.

the

by a
form

thin

of

delicate gold chains are attached

The

to

like

frog,

which

of metal,

strip

still

handles covered

lateral

serpent.

\'er}"

which

to

and

fine

the serj^ent. and ser\'ed

to

suspend the vase.

"~t^

::^;^2?cr:

^^^^/^"^

Fig.

73.

The Berlin

One
is

PicTOGRAPHic (?)
Museum

a \-ase in form

a vase

in

in

vase
'

unpublished

several

of a hippopotamus (No. 14,147)

form of a dog (No. 12,590)^ (Fig.

//).

form of a frog (No. 14,403), and the

represents a fish (No.


In

possesses

pieces.

a stone vase in form of an elephant (No. 14,146); another

is

vase

Inscription on a broNE Vase.

the

third

Another

is

is

last of the series

16,025).

Petrie Collection at University College,

which

represents

what

is

probabl}'

an

London,

elephant.

is

Two

Kdnigliche Museen zu Berlin Aiisfilhrliches Verzeichnis dcr agyptischeit


und Gipsabgiisse, 2nd ed. Berlin, 1899, p. 36 and fig. 2, where one

Altertilmcr

can indistinctly see No. 12,590.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


fragments from

Fig.

74.

same

the

heads, and there

is

collection

exhibit

another of which

Stone

V.\se in

it

is

ART.

103

two hippopotamus

difficult

to

recognize

Form of a Le.\ther Bottle.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

the

subject.

(Fig. 7S)

Is

it

in

realit\-

representation

of

an

animal

Fig.

75.

Stone Vase

in Fok.m

Most of the forms met with


of the decorations found on them,

in

we

of a Bird.

stone vases, and also most


shall find again in pottery.

PRIMITIVE ART

104

Fig.

verify

76.

which

hypothesis

the

Stone Vases

in*

as regards Egypt,

attributes

the

origin

of

Form of Frogs, Hippopotamus, and Birds.

primitive pottery to moulding,


in

KGYPT.

we must enquire whether,

But, to begin with,

we can

IN

or, at

least,

cop\-ing a basket

to

plaited work.^

Did the primitive Egyptian

Fig. 77.

the

earliest

prehistoric

matting, or the

in

Vase

understand

in

In

Form of a Dog.

Berlin

Museum.

tombs

either

bottom

basket work?

the

bod\'

was

wrapped

of the tomb was lined with a mat.-

in primitive Greek civilization, see Johx L. Myres,


an Early Clay Vessel from A?norgos, in the Journal of
78-1 So and pi. xii.
the Anthropological histitutc, xxvii. November, 1897, pp.
^ Petrie, Naqada,
p. 27,
p. 15, tomb 31
p. 23, tomb B 14
p. 25, tomb 42
tomb 722. MacIver & Mace, El A?nrah and Abydos, p. 31, and pi. xi. 5, 5.
^

For the same

fact

Textile Impressions on

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE

ART.

Mats were frequently emplox'ed throughout the! whole


and

Ancient Empire, both as carpets

The

of rooms.

show

representations

of

lO:

of

the

decorating the walls

for

tombs of the fifth dynasty


they had attained at this

what a degree of perfection

to

period.^

tombs of the prehistoric cemeter\- of El Amrah were

In the

found baskets of the usual spherical form containing malachite.

The

on several

patterns

Fig. 7S.

V.\SE,

specimens recall the baskets made at

a.nd Fr.\gments of Vases, ix

Form of

Anim.\ls.

The same comparison was made


the present day in the Soudan.
by M. Amelineau on discovering in one of the chambers of the
tomb of King Khasakhmui a large quantity of objects in basket
"... I found there," he says, " fairh' long pieces of
work
:

wood covered with


out the chamber.

matting.
I

These

met with again through-

promptly recognized that

wood with matting round them were remains


one of the

for

chairs were

gives

the

at

well

ends was not


least o'"40

known form

high
of a

covered

with

and about
species

matting.

o'"6o

broad,

'

Petrie, EgypticDi Decorative Art, pp. 44, 45.


a prehistoric cemetery at El Amrah in Egypt,

MacIver,

No. 40,

p.

52

MacIver

&

Mace, El Amrah and Abydos,

vv^ork,

in

pi. xi. 2,

These
which

Upon
which,

Man,
and

of

chairs,

of high stool.

these chairs were placed other specimens of basket

pieces

these

of broken

1901,

p. 42.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

io6

plaited witli a kind of parti-coloured straw, resembled the basket

work

When

Fig.

made

still
I

asked

the

the

Soudan and

my workmen

sold in the bazaar at Assouan.

whether they had anything of the

79. Rf.d Vases with White Paint,

saine kind
told

in

me

inside their

that the

Berbers.

in

Imitation of Basket

Work.

houses, they replied in the negative, but

work closely resembled the Margofie made by


struck me, and I immediately recalled

The word

ORNAMENTAL AND DPXORATIVE


the word

MAPKflNI,

Pakhome.

of

Fie..

So.

."

which

had met with

in

ART.

107

the Coptic

life

Bl.vck In'cised Pottkrv, with Di;cor.\tio.\

i.n

Lmitatio.v or

Basket Work.

Independently
'

Amelineau,

Les

ceramic

of

noiivellcs

Cotnpte rendu in extenso,

d'Abydos (1S96-7),

Paris,

Paris,

art,

1897, p. 40.

industry

of

the

basket

second season, 1S96-7.


Les lumvellcs fouilles
See Petrie, Royal Tombs, i. p. 15.

fouilles
1902,

the

d'Abydos,

pp.

176,

177;

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

io8

maker, as

remarked/

has

Petrie

decorative art of the

The

first

numerous

left

dynast}-.

imitation of the basket in prehistoric pottery

The

noticeable in two classes of potter\\


is

by Petrie

called

tombs

(sequence dates

(Figs. 79

work

polished

other

the

31-34);

especially

of these

first

only found

is

is

what

is

surface

red

in

the most ancient

is

black

pottery,

with a whitish paste, and probably imported

filled

and

pottoy

cross-lined

with designs in white, which

with incisions

on the

traces

Several specimens with imitations of basket

So;.

also belong to the class of decorated pottery."

Here we must also note that a considerable number of pottery


vases are decorated
substitutes for

has remarked that

imitate hard stone, and are intended as

to

made

vases

of more valuable

tombs where

in

fine

Petrie

materials.

stone vases are

found,

of pottery vases there are few or none.*

With the mention


from a gourd, as

we

have,

which

are

of occasional

the

in

example published

think, observed

skcuomorphic

Herr von

b\-

Bissing,^^

the principal cases where designs

all

derived

or

of vases modelled

instances

from

technique

are

met

with.

We

now

will

pendently of the

The

first

class

consider

decoration

the

of

the

vases

inde-

origin of the various designs found on them.

of pottery which should

arrest

our attention

is

that of vases of a brilliant red colour, on which the designs are

As we have already remarked, these belong


to the earliest period.
The striking analogy which exists between
this pottery and that made at the present day by the Kabyles
painted in white.

has several times been pointed


^

Petrie, Royal Tombs,

ii.

out.''

pp. 35, 39.

Petrie, Naqada, p. 38 and pi. xxviii. 34, 36, 46, xxix. 52-79, xxx. Diospolis
pan'a, p. 14, pi. xiv. 55-70. MacIver & M.a.ce, El Amnih and Abydos, pi. xv.
^ Petrie, Naqada,
Schwei.n'furth, Oriiame7itik
p. 4c, and pi. xxxiii. 12, 29.
der dltestcn Ciiltur-Epodic Aegypteiis, in the Verhandli/ngen der b. Gescllsch.
-

pilr Aiitliropologic, Ethnologie,

VzTKiz, Naqada,

pp. 15
^

and
*

and

Von

p.

J,o,

pi.

and

Urgcschichte, 1897, pp. 397, 398.


Diospolis pjrva,.
xxxv. 62, 63, 65, 67
i,

xxxiii.

18.

Bissing, Les origincs dc lEgyptc, in

pi. iv. fig.

i.

Petrie, Naqada,

Petrie, Diospolis parva,

p.

14

I'

Anthropologic',

ix.

1898, p. 254

xxvi. 40-43, 50-52.

pi.
;

Naqada,

p.

38.

MacIver

&

Wilkin,

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE ART


We

have said that

floral

also

the

potter>'

work

basket

of

imitation

was often decorated with

but

addition

in

to

of zigzag

series

painted

patterns

lines,

the

whole

the

in

lines

we

these

human

designs, representations of animals and

109

and

beings,

same

in

find

style

as

on the archaic statuettes which we have

already described.

When

floral

Fig. Si.

branches

much

compare the

designs

Vases

make

painted in

similar

Libyati Notes, frontispiece.


Pottery, in the

White with Floral

decorations

Journal

John

of the

L.

of

We

Designs.

Myers,

to

prehistoric

reproductions

give
A'oies

tempted

is

Greek

certain

as simple

is

it

conventionalized, with which one

discovered at Santorin.^

vases

appearance

their

of two

on the History of the Kabylc


June,
xx.xii. January

Anthropological Institute,

1902, p. 248-262 and' pi. XX.


'

Von

Bissing,

and

Les origines de l'gypte,

in

l' Anthropologic',

i.\.

189S,

40-42; pi. xxi.v. 69, 76, 85^/; the


application of the laws of transformation of natural designs into geometrical will
pi.

iii.

be found

in

63, 64, etc.

3.

Petrie, iXaqada,

the specimens figured,

MacIver

&

Mace, El

pi. .xxviii.

pi.

xxviii.

40,

42, 46,

Amrah and Abydjs,

48;

pi.

xxix. 52, 54, 6i,

pi. xv. 10, 20, 21.

PRIMITIVE ART

10

vases showiiiL^ branches which

of the smaller vase

are

EGYPT.

IN

Both sides

are fairly decorative.


in a position to

figured

show

distinctly

the floral decorations' (Fig. 8i).

The other face of the vase in the centre of Fig. 8i, decorated
with human figures, has already been reproduced as an illustration
Two other vases
of the hairdressing of the men (Fig. 13).

Fig. 82.

Bowl

p.\i.\ted in

A.ND

discovered

human

one

at

White with Figures

of Hippopota.mi

A Crocodile.

Abydos and

the other at

Meala

also

show

figures.^

Representations of animals are more numerous.

potamus occurs most frequently


also found,

and other animals which cannot always be

'

Petrie, Prehistoric Egyptiati Pottery, in

De Morg.an,

pp. 246, 247.

The hippo-

antelopes of various species are

Recherches,

i.

pi.

il.

and

Man,
pi.

iii.

identified

1902, No. 83, pi. H,


fig.

i.

Von

2.

Bissing,

loc. cit.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


with

certainty

ART.

birds, crocodiles, scorpions, etc.

fish,

sufficient to describe a

few instances of these.

the

in

with

centre

hippopotami

the

is

i^Fi&-

decorated

animal that Petrie

Fig. 83.

the upper

is

decorated

part with three

Vases painted

design,

floral

hedgehog, although

in

indicate

Another vase from the same

^^J-

with

calls a

may

according to Petrie,

angles, which,

of water

ripples

at

be

will

It

below, at the lower part, with lines crossing each

other at right

collection

crocodile

large oval bowl

the Petrie Collection, Universitv' College, London,

in

am

and

deer,

an

not absolutely

White with Representations of Animals.

convinced of the accuracy of

this

identification

(vase in centre

"

of Fig. 83).

vase

which apparently comes from Gebelein shows some

extremely curious

above a

with a body greatly

by two pointed
it

'

On one

figures.

series of zigzag lines

giraffe,

ears.

but the

elongated, and

At
way

first

in

side, a

head surmounted

small

which the body


u\

Man,

placed

strange animal

one would be disposed

Petrie, Prehistoric Egyptian Pottery,


No. 83 and pi. H, 4.'

/b

two antelopes,

side

on the other

is

to consider

drawn precludes

1902, No. 83

and

pi.

H,

5.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

12

shows us

how

in

May

sented.

fragment discovered at Naqada (xxix. 98)

h\-pothesi.s.

this

the giraffe was repre-

characteristic a fashion

not the animal here figured have been the okapi,

recently discovered in the Belgian Congo, and which was certainly

known

vase

Wiedemann

Professor

the ancient Egv'ptians, as

to

demonstrated?^ (Fig-

has

83;.

found, according

to

Von

Herr

Abydos,

Bissing, at

according to M. de Morgan,
at Gebelein,

our

of

equally worthy

is

attention.

It

is

most curious specimen of

In the centre

class of vase.

scorpion

is

it

are

surrounding

animals

various

hippopotamus, crocodiles,

which

figures

we
Fig.

S4.

V.ASE

p.mnted

White with

in

those

to

have

soon

inter-

the drawing

similar

ship,

shall

fish,

unrecog-

are

is

other

But the most

nizable.

esting object

of

and

tortoise,

birds,

this

ex-

to

amine, and which ordinarily

A Boat .and V.arious Animals.

appear upon another class of

After r Anthropologic.

pottery- (Pig. 84).

These

e.xamples

are

sufficient

and

showing animal

figures,''

two

decorated

specimens

strange figures

of which

to

an

give

of

idea

vases

only remains for us to mention

it

with

and

designs

geometrical

with

explanation has yet to be found.

the

Wiedemann, Das Okapi im altcjt Aegyptett, in Die I'mschan, vi. 1902, pp.
Das dgyptisclie Set-Thier, in tlie Orientalistischc Litieraiur Zeitung,
Fetrie, Prehistoric Egyptian Pottery, in Man, 1902,
1902, col. 220-223.
'

1002-1005
V.

No.

83. pi.
-

H,

I.

De Morgan,

pp. 246, 247.


^ See also

Prehistoric

Rccherc/tcs,

Petrie, Naqada,

Egyptian

Pottery, in

EA Amrah and Abydos,


Rcchcrches,
pi.

iv.

5.

i.

i.

pi.

ii.

pi.

pi.

ii.

Von

5.

x.xi.v.

Man,

Bissing,

91-97; Diospolis,

pi.

iii.

2,

3.

pi.

iii.

xiv.

fig. 2,

93

(J,

and
96;

MacIver & Mace,


animal ?). De Morgan^

1902, No. 83, pi. H, 6.

pi. .w. 17, iS ? (conventioiiali;ied

loc. cit. pi.

Von

Bissing,

loc.

cit.

pi.

iii.

and 3;

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE ART


These
Collcire,

two

\ases

London^

Of an

bclonc^

(Eig. 85

to

the

University

entirely different type

Fig. 85.

Collection,

Petric

113

is

the

Vases painted

in

"

decorated pottery,"- to

White.

University College, London.

which we must now turn our attention.

The

earliest

specimens

Petrie, Preltistoric Egyptian Pottery, in Ma7i, 1902, No. 83. pi. H, 3, p. 133
" The upper figures might be adzes or hoes, the lower figures are curiously like
lictors' fasces, but no such forms are known in Egypt; tt;ey may, however, be a
form of stone axes set in handles. Certainly neither can be the hieroglyphic
neter sign, as that had double projections down to dynastic times.''
HoERNES, M., Urgesdiichte der bildciiden Kiinst in Eiiropa von den
Anfdngen bis urn 50') vor Chr., Vienna, 1898, Nachtriige, 2, Neolithische
Vdseninalerci tit Acgyptcn, pp. 687-689.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

114

almost contemporary with the white painted pottery, but

are

the

after

is

met

with.

the white

of

Fig. S6.

we look
"

for

the

Vases

the

will

pottery,

kinds

breccia-

of marble

accordinfj

to

and

distance,

Syrian

painted

coasts

of the

I.mit.\tion

i.\

point

of

the

if

Kabyle

to

specimens of

pottery,

is

it

Mediterranean

in

that

of H.\rd Stones.

the

manufacture of these

we mentioned

nummulitic

of

rem.embered

be

sometimes

is

at

starting

decorated vases."
It

for

painted type are related

direction

it

they are most frequently

40 that

appears that the origin of this kind of potter}'

It

be sought

should

the

sequence date

specifying

in

the

vases coloured in imitation


that

but the

limestone,

most

that,

thus

is

most

copied,

ingenious

of stone.

sometimes

interesting

represented

classes

by a

identification

imitation
scries

of

made bv

of
It

various
is

that

spirals,

Petrie

Petrie has termed these vases "decorated pottery,' and we will continue to
apply this term to them.
2 Petrie, Naqada, pi. x.xxiii. i, and p. 40, .xxxi. 6 (wavy handled)
Diospolis,
M.acIver & Mace, El
pi. XV. 5, \%b and c (wavy handled); xvi. 64, 76^.
'

Amrah

a7id Ahydos,

pi. xiv.

W/3 (wavy

handled).

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


and Schwcinfurth.^
after

was

the
lost,

and

by

Little

little

the

of that \vhich

recollection

eventually

two or three enormous

on

his

115

were developed,

spirals

they originally represented

was

decorator

the

spirals

ART.

vase by

to

satisfied

way

trace

of ornamenta-

tion- (Fig. S6).

This ornamentation has been wrongly interpreted by


observers,

who

considered

sex'eral

the spirals to be intended as a repre-

Unfortunately for this theory, spirals and

sentation of the sea.

representations of ships are never, to the best of m\- knowledge,

met with on the same piece


of pottery.^

We

must

call

attention to

representations of vases

the

of hard stone which are found


certain

in

tombs of the Old

Empire, representations which


follow the

same

lines as those
Fig. S7.

of the primitive decorators.^

Other vases

and

this

merely a repetition of what

Vases decorated in
OF Basket Work.

I.-viit.\tiox

is

have previously stated

are decorated

with lines representing the covering of plaited straw with which


the vase was covered, a covering sometimes loose, at other times
tightly twisted.'
It

is

thus that a vase published by

Upper Egypt, and showing

in

reproduces

most

great baskets

land

for

exactly,

De Morgan,

a slightly different style of work,

according

out

skill

of

the

pi. x.xxv. 67^7,

(5,

if,

Pefrie, Naqada,

A propos des bateaux cgyptiejis,

pi.

in

pi.

V A7ithropologie,

b.

xi.

1900, pp. 115, 347.


xix.

and pp.

22, 23.

&

Mace,

MacIver

De Morgan, Recherches, pi.


i.
Compare Petrie, Naqada,
Von Bissing, Les origines de VRgypte, in r Antkropologie,
i.

i.x.

Gcsellsch.

xv. 7 c.

Davies, The Rock To?nhs of Deir el Gebrawi, i. pi. xvii.


Petrie, Xaqada^ pi xxxii. x.xxv. Diospolis, pi. xv. xvi.
AmraJi and Abydos^ pi. xiv.
;

8/;.

Schweinfurth, Onumtentik

xxxiv. 3irt-33i^; Diospolis,

''

76.

p. 40.

(I'ig-

Ciiltur-Epoche Aegyptens, in the Verhandltcngeji der


Antkropologie, Etluwlogie luid Urgcscliichte, 1897, pp. 397, 398.

E!

and

leather-like

of

roots

iiltesteii

fur

those

milk that the present inhabitants of Somali-

weave with much

Petrie, Naqada,

"

Schweinfurth,

to

toughness of the bushy As/>aragns retroflexns"

dcr

discovered

pi.
ix.

xxxv.
1898,

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

ii6
It

undoubtedly'

is

method

this

in

hope to

find

the

more or

less

regular groups

some specimens they


gesting

merely

are

draughtboard

lines

of

origin

Frequently,

we

also,

those

parallel

scattered

lines

arranged

carefully

other

in

to be

drawn

we may

that

over the surface of the

effect

which appear

of decoration

chequer,

in

sug-

they are

again,

cases,

at hazard^

in

In

vase.

(I'^'g-

^7)-

on the vase, sometimes combined

find

with imitations of plaiting or of other designs, a series of small

which probably represent mountains.-

triangles

there

human

are

beings and animals placed

exactly as on the famous

statues

by

a resemblance pointed out

Fig. 88. --Vases

One

of

found upon

which

decorated

the most curious


these vases

Schweinfurth

has

is

of

Min

meets with

it

in

88).

which

representations

that

triangles,

a Serifs of Tri.wgles.

of

recognized

grown

plant

be

to

which does not belong to the spontaneous


still

on the

discovered at Koptos,

Petrie*^ (Fig.

whh

In one instance

Egypt, cultivated

in

the

pot,

plant

Egypt.

One

aloe,

flora of

been

has
in

cemeteries or placed

Schweinfurth, Ucdcf den Ursprung der Acgypter, in the Verpp. 247, 248.
ha?idlungen der b. Ceselhch. fur Antliropologie, Ethnologie icnd Urgeschichte,
Ornanicntik der dltesten Cultur-Epoche Aegypteiis, ib. p. 397.
1897, p. 281
Petrie, Naqada, pi. xxxiii. 11, 12, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26; Diospolis, pi. xv.
;

'

3,

4/

10b, 20c, lib, 2^a.

See MacIver & Wilkin, Libyan Notes^ London, 1901, p. 65, note 2
"The so-called 'mountain' pattern found on prehistoric Egyptian decorated
pottery occurs everywhere in Kabyle work, where it has clearly nothing to do
with mountains, but arises from a combination of the triangles which enter as
^

units into almost


*

all

these rectilinear designs.''

Petrie, Naqada,

53^. 54, 59^. 78^.

pi.

xxxiv.

and

Ixvii. 13-15,

17,

and

p.

49

Diospolis,

pi. xvi.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


above the doors of houses
a

as

symbol of

The

preservative against the evil eye.

plant should be borne in mind, and

this

to refer to

Other
trees,

later

it

on^

(F'-g-

and are

identification.

sufficienth'
I

suppose

like
it

is

be

to

the

and

force

vital

as

funerary character of

we

have occasion

shall

intended

hieroglyph

to these that

he speaks of representations of bushes,


signs of mountains, should

117

89^.

appear

representations

ART.

indicate

()

to

indicate

to permit

Petrie alludes

which,

this

when

combined with

the landscape, in the

midst

of which are animals, men, and boats."

rx.

Fig.

89. REPREsENrATiONs of Aloes

a.nd Trees.

The animals represented

are few in number.


One finds
and various kinds of gazelles and antelopes in exceptional cases the crocodile and the chameleon appear.^
A very
remarkable vase discovered at Abydos shows the figure of a

ostriches

kudu and of two long-horned

ScHWEiNFURTH, Onia7nentik der

cit. p.
^

Petrie, DiospoUs,
Petrie, Diospolis, p. 16.
392.

and also a representation

sheep,-*

iilU'stcn

Cidtur-Epoche Aegyptens,

loc.

p. 16.

Schweinkurth, Oniatnentik,

'
etc.. p. 399
Man erkennt uater ihnen die
Beisa-Antilope {Oryx leucoryx und Oryx Beisa), ferner AddaxAntilopen, beziehungsvveise Wasserbocke, vielleicht audi Kudus."'

Sabel- und
*

Thilenius, Das a<ryptiscke Hausschaf

in

the Reciieil de travaux relatifs

d Varcheologie egyptiennes et assyriejines, x.xii.


CLAUDt; Gaillard, Studieti iiber ('ie Geschichte

la philologie ct

DiJRST &
Hausscha/es,

ib.

xxiv. 1902, pp. 44-76.

1900, pp. 199-212.

dcs

agyptischen

ii8

Fig. 9c.

PRI.MITIVK

Dkcokateu

ART

IX

HGVrT

Vase with Representations of Animals, and a Tree


WITH Birds perched on it.

AA^Ai^AA
Fig. 91.

V.\Rious

Designs on Decor.xted Pottery Boats,


Ani.mals, Trees, Shields (?), etc.

of a tree, figured

in

a different

manner from

meet with, and on which birds are perched.^


'

Petrie, Abydos,

i.

pi.

1.

aiui p. 23.

Human

that

we

With

Beings,

ordinaril)'

this

we can

ORNAMENTAL AND DPXORATIVE


compare

a vase

ones

rarel}'

human

extremely diagrammatic
indicated

appear

these

of

Here we

principal

the

find female figures,

first

occasionallv' even the arm^ are not


body is resolved into two triangles superimposed
other, and surmounted by an oval black mass for the

Ordinarily

if

and

90;.

the

appear

females

with that of the statuette reproduced


which,

the

one on the
head."

T-'ig.

figures

be found on Fig. 91.

will

119

an aloe on which are two birds

showinL,^

another similar fragment-

More

ART.

we may judge

from

in

an

Fig.

in

identical

attitude

of this book, and

the

tombs

similar representations on the

of the Ancient Empire, should be a

indication of dancing.'

characteristic
this

If

we

interpretation

tion there

for

is

represented

it

what founda-

the

before

"

the

vase

will

be recognized, as

discovered

accepted

is

shall see presently

two persons
dancer
El

at

on

"'

Amrah

they are by

Mr. Maclvcr, as castanette

''

pla\"ers

(Fig- 92).

With the exception of this instance


to, when men are
represented we see them upright and
1

Fig. 92.

Vase with Representa-

tions OF Cast.a..\ette Pl.wers (?)

have just referred

BEFORE A Dancer

From

El

(^?).

Amrah.

walking, sometimes with indications


the

of

sheath

or

karnata

described

in

Chapter

On

II.

one

specimen an attempt has perhaps been made to represent them


chasing antelopes; they

and

carr\- sticks or

boomerangs

(?)

"^

(F'a^- S8

91).

The most

startling objects

&

met with on these primitive vases

Mace, El Amrah and Abydos,

M.AcIvER

Petrie, yae/ada,

pi. xiv.

D49.

pi. l.xvi. 3.

MacIver & Mace, El Amrah and Abydos, pi. xiv. D 50^-.


Morgan, Recherches, ii. p. 65.
* MacIver & Mace, El Amrah and Abydos, pi. .xiv. D 46, and p. 42.
Vases with human figures
Petrie, Naqada, pi. xxxv. 77 ixvi. 5, 7 Ixvii. 17.
Cecil Torr, Sur qiielqties pretendits navires cgyftiens, in V Anthropologic, ix.
De Morgan,
i8v^, p. 33, fig.
p. 35, figs. 5^: and 5
p. 34, figs. ;i)a and 3*^
^

De-

Keohirches,

i.

(5.

pl. x. 2 a, zb.

PRIMITIVE ART

120

They occur on

representations of ships.

are the

number of vases boats with oars


bined with figures of

human

EGYPT.

IN

a fairly larije

or even with sails,

beings and animals

and com-

a landscape

in

and mountains, they enliven the pottery with scenes


the signification of which we shall study later.
VVe must content
of trees

ourselves

The Egyptians, he

hand and the

indicates

that

(Figs. 91

and

they are

We

which

refer to a

them-

the

current

xA.

which we

class of objects to

boats, found

each with an oar

gazelles

his

in

where the

a curious vase

between

two boats.

against

several

in

painted in a very unsophisticated

is

figures of rowers,

fi.;ht

left

the position of the boats

left,

navigated

These are pottery

one of which

is

being

remarks, orientate

Vase Decoration representing Gazelles fighting.

must here
later.

There

Schweinfurth,

them the west being on the

for

on the

east

with

94).

Fig. 93.

return

remarking,

boats are drawn showing the

towards the south, and

selves
right

with

exception, these

(larboard).

side

moment

the

for

that without

also

fish,

hand-

artist

is

manner with

(Fig. 91).

has

a crocodile,

strange ornamentation

shall

tombs,

represented

an ostrich, and

se\eral times repeated,

believe to be unique, consisting of lozenges, half black,

half white'' (Fig. 93).

Occasionally on
i-

one

finds

zigzag

these

lines,

decorated

intended

'

Schweinfurth, Onnunentik,

etc., p.

Petrie, Naqada,

and

pi.

xxxvi. 80

close

represent

to

water.

boats,

the

Several

4C0.

Ixvi. i.

Legrain, holes tf inspection, vi. La necropole archai(/iie dti Gebcl Silsileh,


the A/males du senncc des antiquiics de iEgyptc, iv. 1903, pp. 21S-220, and
'

in

to

vases,

figs.

5,

6.

ORNAMENTxAL AND DECORATIVE ART.


show

vases
Petrie

curious object difficult to identify, considered

be

to

mast and

be compared

them

made

at the

On
S,

IZII ?

that

in

Schweinfurth

a long pole,

and

Baris,

and these

upper end- (Fig.

in

by

might

case

sees

of skin, which, by analogy with the

weapons of the Dinkas,

means of

and which

sail,

hieroglyph

the

to

shields

121

in

similar

would be secured by
Egypt would carr}' the ensign
Kaffirs,

91^.

the vases are also found a series of signs in the form of

N, and

which

for

Z:'

may

it

When, howe\er, we remember


hair-pins decorated

with

Fig. 94.

V.\SE

perhaps be

that

difficult

to account.

we have previously remarked

which occasionally present forms

birds

with \'ariou5 Representations.

From de Morsran.

very similar to an S, we ma\',


are derived

am much
a

be

presume that these signs

from a summarized form of a row of ostriches.

series of the sign

head

think,

inclined to find a similar abbreviation

by

vase discovered

of female

O,

figures

Petrie

which

at

Abadiyeh,^ where

with the

there

upon
is

summary drawing

regard as a very

represented

of forms

arms raised above the

(Fig. 95).

There are other vases the decoration of which can scarcely


classed with any of those we have passed under review.

Among

these

are

star'; another with

the

vases

human

on

figures

which there

'

Petrie, Naqada,

Schweinfurth, Omamentik,

lb. p. 398.

Petrie, Diospolis,

lb. pi. XV.

five-pointed

drawn reversed and

is

pi. I.xvi. 6, 9,

pi. x.x. 8.

10,

and

etc., p.

p. 49.

399.

in a

very

PRnilTIVE ART IX KGVPT.

TOO

summary

fashion

and,

arc crocodiles

one

and serpents

in

(Fig.

is

and

giraffes (No.

number

of vases on which

pierced with harpoons

include

97).

a small

Museum, on which

the Berlin

ostriches,

finallv',

of which

in

this

series

scorpions,
a

specimen

are painted serpents, crocodiles,

15,129; Fig. 96;.

W'e must now deal with the rare vases decorated with designs
in

relief,

of which a specimen discovered

figure of a lizard

and

which cannot

be

Another specimen

boats,

On

with figures of birds.

In

the

(No. 36,328) decorated with

two of the handles are surmounted

the

identified,

same vase there are two

symmetrically arranged,

at University College,

collection

of the

Petkie, Naqada, pi. xx.xv.


XXXV. 78; Diospolis,

lb. pi.

Petrie, Naqada,

Budge,

p. 32,

the

(Fig. 97).

London,

is

in

figures
relief.^

decorated

in

with figures of a crocodile, a crescent, and a harpoon.

relief

'

Museum

a vase in the British

ostriches, triangles,

''

Decorated Vase from Abadiveh.

Fig. 95.

On

Naqada shows

at

and another of a scorpion

No. 164.

Guide

pi.

77.
pi. xvi. j'&b,

xxxvi. 87,

to the

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, there

First

and

p.

78c, jZd.

41

and Second Egyptian Rooms, 2nd

ed.

1904,

0RXAMP:XTAL and decorative art.


arc three red vases, with the upper edge blackened

which

pottery),

period,

and

from

date

possess

in

relief;

this

is

1,449;,

perpendicularly, becoming

line

in

black-topped
the

On

98).

historic

the

first.

head roughly worked


relief,

gradually thinner.

which descends
believe this re-

Museum.

Berlin

presents

the

arms.

lines

Near the
can

be

in

base,

relief are

at

distinguished,

from which two


vase.

From each

body of the man.

two ascending

the

seen

of

Vase with Representations of Giraffes, Ostriches, Crocodiles, and Snakes.

FiG. 96.

line,

i-^

on by a

carried

(Fig.

interest

special

found at Naqada (tomb

commencement

the

123

lines

certain

also

ascend

The man must be

side near

the top,

detached, which represent

in

distance
relief,

somewhat
clasping

from

two

the

the

central

circular

knobs,

aoriiptly to

the vase,

in

the top of
a

position

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

124

which

is

chfficult

inexperience

of

imai^ine,

to

represent the head

and can only be explained by the

primitive

the

who has

artist,

full-face (the

of Fig.

98 are two fragments of a similar

interest

of

this

vase consists

curious

not

two photographs

in

onnitted

The

vase;.

its

to

the centre

in

special

permitting

us

to

watch the operation of that law of extreme simplification which

we have

recently been

considering.

This

is

carried

still

further

f^J^^f^'''

Fig. 9/.

-Decok.vted

with Designs in Relief


Ornamentations.

V.-vses

Hu

on two Other vases from

(tombs

.\.nd

Other Rare

179 and

loi), which,

according to sequence dating, are more recent than the Naqada


specimen, and show as decoration two ornaments
sisting

in

simply of a circular knob, from which a

the top of the vase.

It

the figure on the vase

first

of frequent copying, the

is

thus an exact
described.

meaning of the

relief,

line

copy of the

con-

rises

to

legs

of

think, as a consequence
lines

was

lost,

and, more

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


Hu

the

espcciall}- in

specimens,

any connection with the human


sembles two serpents
if

facin^^

it

ART.

125

was not known that they had

Thus

fic^ure.

each other, and

the ornament re-

should not be surprised

when he made the vase.^


Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, discovered

the primitive artist had that idea

vase

Naqada
rare

the

in

ftom.b

1,871,

sequence date 46) introduces us to a

The vase

scheme of decoration.

The

blackened upper edge.

Fig.

is

itself

but there

previous to baking, a
represent serpents
a

number

and

is

^?).

with
is

the

usual

ix Relief.

besides, roughly cut in the clay

of crude designs, which probably

plants (Fig. 99).

magic vase

red,

is

also blackened, as

9S. Black-topped Pottery with Figures

with these vases

figured as

interior

at

vcr\'

What

is

It

certain

may
is

possibly have
that, with

the

exception of two small fragments, of identical technique,

in

the

same museum,

to

my

knowledge
'

The

DiospoLh,
^

at

vase to

there
all

tlie

no piece

is

comparable with
left

is

in

existence at

least,

this.-

figured, without description in the text,

by Petrie,

pi. xiv. 66.

See Petrie, Naqada,

inside with fantastic signs,

xx.w. 71.
A vase in theBritisli Museum, decorated
apparently only a modern fraud.

pi.
is

PRIMITIVE ART

126

number

certain

with incised

lines,

been employed

but

etc.

Fig. 99.

It

V.\SE

propounded
is

\-arious

summed

dcri\-ed directly

it

mode

this
^

of ornamentation appears to have

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford).

(Fig. lOO,

of

classes

ornamentation with which

Egyptian pottery was decorated.

archaic

be cursorily

man,

EGYPT.

of vases of rouL;h-faced pottery arc decorated

onl\- rarely

Such are the

IN

up, they are

all

from some natural object

is

an excellent proof

So

far

as

they

can

either skeuomorphic, or else

in

mountain, plant, animal,


support of the theories

of Bl.ack-topped Pottery with ax Lvcised Decoration inside.

at the

commencement

of this chapter,

and on which

not necessary to insist further.

We

must now rapidly review the pieces of

potter\' to

which

human

or an

the primitive artist has attempted to give either a

animal form.-

An

extremely curious vase, of

brilliant black glaze,

found

in

p. 41, and pi. xx.xv. 74, 76; .xx.\'vi. 93^2 and b\ xxxvii. 41.
J^b and 93 <r; xvii. 49. In our figure the upper vase = Diospolis,
= Naqada, xxxvi. 93 b (smoke-blacked
xvi. 74
below, beginning at the left,
brown pottery): 2 Diospolis, xvi. 93c (Hu, U I-6); 3 (Hu, B158); 4 =
'

Petrie, Naqada,

Diospo/is, pi. xvi.


(J

Diospolis, xvii. 49 (Hu,


170).
I reserve for the chapter on sculpture

senting

human

figures

some vases in stone and clay reprewhere the "vase" disappears before the sculptured figure.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE

ART.

Dr. Petrie's excavations at Abadiyeh, was discovered


of the

The

first

in

127
a

tomb

sequence dates 33-41;.

half of the prehistoric period

primitive artist has endeavoured to give to the vase a female

form, and he has succeeded in

from the

differ greatly

which we

will

cla}'

consider

making

figure

which does not

female statuettes of the same period,

later,

and of which we have already given

clothing

and personal adornment.

specimens as

illustrating

mere pinch

the clay serves to indicate the nose, the ears, and

Fig.

shoulders

in

100.

the

Rough-faced Pottery with Ixcised Decorations.

breasts

are

they are with negresses.

summarily formed and pendant,

Finally, the vase swells

as

out suddenly

behind, attempting to portray the extraordinary development of


the buttocks (steatopygy), which

is

also seen

on the statuettes

(Fig. loi).
<\.nother

vase

of

human form

must

be

mentioned which

appears to represent a captive crouching on the ground

uncomfortable attitude.
to render the
'

head with

Petrie, Diospolis,

The

fidelity.pi. v.

in a

most

primitive artist has only attempted

102.

lb. pi. vi.

83.

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

128

The same CNcavations


covery of two vases

at

Hu- Abaci iych

also effected the dis-

in the form of hippopotami.

In one, care

has been taken to render the form of the animal as accurately as


pf)ssible

in

the other the design

with two lateral handles

'

(Fig. 102

a vase

summary, and decorated


The same is the case with

vcr\-

is
.

the form of a hippopotamus,

in

museum at
was published b\' Von
now

Cairo, which

the

in

some

Hissing

\'ears ago.-

The
piece

lies in

been

added

of

interest

special

last

this

the paintings which have


the

b\'

primiti\'c

artist.

Herr von Bissing speaks thus of


"

The

hippopotami

Empire

of

decorated,

are

remarks, with reeds,

because they

flies,

the

Maspero

as

lotus,

live

it

!\Iiddle

and buttermidst

the

in

of reeds, where butterflies are flitting

round them.

In

the

hippopotamus-shaped

the

long series

their

Egyptian

saw

of marsh

and

necks

long

of

characteristic

must

explanation
IN

or three

the head, and the

lip,

tail.

These very
'

Petrie,

painting
^

Fr.

ajit

id. pi. vi.

may still be

W.

v.

in

and

pi.

it

was desired

to

show

by harpoons."^

xW. 67.

On

Gcfcisse

shall

again

the latter specimen traces of

seen, notably harpoons painted under the

Bissing, Altiigyptische

Another

groups of two

remarks are interesting, and we


134,

nature

in

upon the handles, under the

Apparently

the hippopotamus hunted and taken

ancient

found for the

be

harpoons, which are

Form of a Woma.v.

feet,

they actually

birds.

Vase

Bl.\ck Polished

with

with

large

hippopotamus

the

vase
birds,

most

the

because

art,

surrounded by such
fiG. loi.

same wa}' the

the

could decorate the two sides of

artist

i? i

body of the animal.

Museum

zii

Cisc,

in

the

Zeitschrift fiir iigyptischc Sprache, xxxvi. 189S, pp. 123-^25.


^

We

have already remarked the same detail

in a

representation of crocodiles.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


have occasion

to refer to them.

ART.

129

Herr von Bissing notes

at the

same time the frequent occurrence of vases of animal forms


primitive Egyptian

Among

as

art,

in

these vases of ancient

and others more numerous

the

art

Egypt

vases,

Clay Vases

one

primitive

in

Petrie.

Hierakoiipolis,

Naqada,
ii.

pi. l.xvi.

pi.

and

68

<;-<:,

The Petrie
number

Form of Animals.

of which

xxvii.

fish,^

certain

is

very remarkable as an

attempt at representing a vulture^ (Figs. 103 and


'

people.
as

Occasionally

side^' (Fig. 102).

London, contains a

Collection, University Collecie,

of bird-shaped

all

some shaped

in bird form'- (Fig. 102).

the vase represents tu-o birds side by

Fig. 102.

of

are

in

and

p.

37.

104).

Ouibell

&

Greex,

p. 50.

Petrie, Naqada,

pi. xxvii.

Petrie, Naqada,

pi.

69 z-f.

De Morgan,

Recherchcs,

i.

p. 160, fig.

481.

xxxvi. 90.

* " I am inclined to connect this bird (with mouth on top and spout in front)
with the bird vase said to be used by the Ansairiyeh in Syria, called 7}z.y'(the
peacock) from which they receive sacramental wine in their secret rites." Note
by Professor Petrie.

i^.o

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE

ART.

Here, again, the copy differs widely from the model, and

i^^i

it

is

only by the aid of the intermediate forms that we can realize

what

it is

the primitive artist wished to represent.^

some tombs small rectangular pottery boxes have been


discovered, which are decorated on the outside in the same
In

Fig. 104.

Clay Vase

in

Form of a Vulture.

manner as the vases. One of these boxes from Diospolis shows


a row of triangles in imitation of mountains, and also rows of
parallel lines, which slope in alternate directions from one row
to the next- (Fig.

105,

D 73).

Another specimen belonging


1

Petrie, Diospolis,

lb, pi. .xvi. 73.

to the British

pi.

vi.^R 131

Museum

.\i.\'.

71.

is

decorated

PRIMITIVE ART LN EGYPT.

132

with
signs

(Fig.

There

groups of parallel

ibex,

boats,
1

105).

a cover of a

is

similar

the

Maclver,

Mr.

Fig.

105.

most ancient representations of

this

x\mrah excavations,

dis-

the

in

Pottery

El

Boxes with Various Designs.

box of the same kind, on

were drawn

On

charcoal.

in

the Petrie Collection,

in

the cover an ostrich, a scorpion, and two

workmen engraved on
human figures, one of
class that we know.Finally,

box

Before baking the clay, the primitive

University College, London.

covered

and with S-shaped

lines,

which

different

one of the sides appears a hippo-

potamus, on the second a boat, beneath which

The

third

side

is

at present

pi.

in

it

Budge,

Petrie,

series

of

animals

si.x

History of Egypt,

i.

is

crocodile.

inexplicable,'"^ while with regard to

Mr. Maclver

the fourth, various interpretations are attempted.


sees

scenes

p. 98, fig.

with

British

Prehistoric Egyptiari Figures, in

(probably

long necks
Museum. No.

Man,

1902, No.

3:;,63q.

14.

p.

17

and

B, 22.
^

See ^ETRiE, Naqada,

pi.

liii.

the design on this side (Fig. 105).

13,

where

a pottery

mark

is

given similar to

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


giraffes) proceedinc^

drawn

are

The drawings of

triangles.^

simplified as they arc,

their bodies,

the

have not accustomed us

diagrammatic representations of animals.


probabl}- a palisade, of which

decorated with bucrania.

It

the

he remarks,

greatly

period,

to

00

Below these

and resemble palings.

di.igrammaticall}',

row of

is

towards the right

ART.

such extremely

consider

it

as

more

upper part of the posts are

has been proved on several occasions

that at this period animals' skulls

were emplo\-ed not only

for

decoration, but also for magical or religious purposes- (Fig. 105).

We

have now arrived at the close of our examination of

There

decorative pottery of the primitive era.

which we must mention

of designs

another series

connection, although

this

in

is

they can scarcely be considered as a form of decoration

and signs engraved on the

are the marks

which

decorative

art,

the chapter,

it

will

somewhat outside the domain

be preferable to reserve

when we have

these

As, however, this subject would

of primary importance.

is

lead us to treat of questions

pottery, the study of

finished our

it

for the

of

end of

examination of decorated

objects of the ^primitive period.

The

furniture of the primitive

Egyptians, as

The

imagined, was extremely rudimentary.

may

easily

be

materials employed

purpose, less resistant than ivory or pottery, have been

for this

by the action of time. We cannot,


we have but little information on this
must wait for the commencement of the historic

almost or quite destroyed

therefore, be surprised that

We

subject.

period to find precise indications.

We
by

recent excavations, and

houses,
in

however, mention several objects brought to light

can,

of which

Professor

first

the fire-places of the primitive

Petrie

discovered

several

examples

the small prehistoric town which lay close round the earliest

temple of Osiris at Abydos.


pottery cisterns.

found

'

in

fiire-places closely

in

resemble

them, and cinders were

one of them.

&

Mace, El Amrah and Abydos, pi. xii. 10-13, '^"^ P- 4-- This
in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.
Capart, La fete de frapper les Anon, in the Revue dJiistoire des religions,

MacIver

decorated box
xliii.

These

Charcoal was burnt

is

now

1901, pp. 252, 253.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

134

They

have designs

all

pottery on the

the

in

The

remarkable.

the

The

of plaited work

the creature appears to be hanging over

the hearth-place^ (Fig.

fetish

at

combined

prehistoric times, with

ot

io6).

have already spoken of fragments of furniture w

ith plaited

The excavations

of

Naqada, of Messrs. Amelineau and Petrie

at

work attached, found


M. de Morgan

incised

specimens are specially

decorator, remarks Professor Petrie, has

the agathodemon, the domestic

We

Two

rims.

design represents a serpent, whose head projects

inside the rim so that


fire.

imitation

in

flat

the

in

royal

tombs.

j^.n

Fig.

io6.

Clay

Fire-places decor.\ted with De.signs

i.\

I.mit.a.tio.v

of

Plaited Work.

Abydos, and of Mr. Quibell

at Hierakonpolis,

have unfortunately

only produced fragments of small importance, which give a very

vague idea of furniture


lound

are

parts

The\'

are,

however,

of

or

coffers,

sufficient

to

and were treated

in

of

show

supported these pieces of furniture were


bulls,

All that has been

the primitive age.

in

small

seats

that
in

or

the

low
feet

beds.

which

the form of legs of

manner which reminds

Dr. Petrie of

Italian cinque cento work, rather than of archaic efforts- vPig. 107).
'

I^ETRiE,

Abydos,
*

i.

Exxavations at Abydos,

pi. liii.

13-18,

and

Petrie, Royal Tombs,

p. 25.
i.

p. 27.

Man,

1992, No. 64, p. 89

and

tig?.

6-8.

ORXAMIiNTAL AND DECORATIVE ART.


It

is

specially intcrcstin-j to observe the

the decorators for

Small

inlaying.

plaques

pronounced
in

03
taste of

ivory, wood, and

'dazed pottery with incised lines are very numerous.^

Fig.

The

107.

models

principall}'
'

Ivory Feet for Furniture,

which

inspired

in

the

the Shape of Bulls' Legs.

decorators

from matting, cords, and feathers.

Petrie discovered at

Abydos

had served as a wall decoration.

large

number

are

of glazed pottery

See Petrie, Abydos,

borrowed

The human

ii.

pi. viii.

figure

tiles

which

and

p.

26.

This entails an entire revision of the opinions given in Borchardt, Zur


Ccschiciite dcr Pyra?ftiden I. Thiir aus der Stufenpyrainidc hei Sakkara,
Berliner y'asenm, No. 1185, in the Zcitschrift filr iigyptische Sprachc, x.\x. 1892,
Wiedemann, review of Q\ji\iY.i.wfiierii/co7tpolis, i., in
pp. 83-S7 and pi. i.
Pzx\n^. /uyyal Tonihs,
1900,001. 331.
\.\\z OricntijUstiiche Litteraiurzeitti/tg, iii.
;,

p. 36.

is

ART

PRIMITIV1-:

136

also used as a support,

IX

EGYPT.

and alreadv one

finds kneclini,^ captives

supporting seats, as they are found later on durin;^ the historic


period

(Fig.

14).

Certain ivor\' fragments found at Hierakonpolis arc perhaps


the

arms

of

chairs

the same style as


The most remarkable

animals

these

of

with the neck lengthened out of

with

found on

those

in

knives.

ornamented

are

thc\-

is

of

handles of

the

animal

fantastic

Occasionally a

proportion.

all

figures

man, standing, seizes the neck of one of these animals with


both hands, in an attitude which is specially familiar to us in
M\-cena;an and Chaldean art- (Figs. loS, 109).

108.

Fig.

Frac.mknts of Ivory cakvf.d with Various Figurf.s.

The same excavations

at Hierakonpolis

cylinders decorated with figures of

the

same

style.

brought

men and

Judging by the sceptre discovered

they might be considered as fragments of a sceptre.

interesting as a curious

example

'

OuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,

lb.

pi.

.xii.-.\iv.

-xvi.

EvA.xs, The Mycciuran tree


illiistrc lions

from

Journal of Hellenic

recent

xvii.

and

pi.

.xi.

and

xx.xii.

p. 7;

Cretan finds,

Studies), p.' 65 et seq.,

Petrie, Royal Tombs,

ii.

pi. ix.

i.

ii.

fantastic

pillar cult

occasion to return to this point.


^

of a

name

at

Abydos/'

One

of these

King Nar-Mer, is
pictographic and hierogl\-phic

cylinders in particular, which bears the

i.

to light ivory

animals, treated in

and

its

of

p. 37.

animal,

pi.

xvi.

and

xvii.

Meditcrranca7i relations, with

London, 1901 (reprinted from the


and figs. 43-45- We shall later have

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE

ART.

137

PRnilTIVK ART IX EGYPT.

n8
inscription

Cairo

similar

to

Museum, of which

When we

engraved on

that

\vc shall

plaque

slate

later

on

more especially

in review, there

striking.

observers of nature

The

men.

is

the

in

no).

(Fig.

we have

recall the various types of decoration that

had occasion to pass

one which appears

to be

primitive Egyptians were accurate

plants,

and animals almost exclusively


have rarely met with what

We

them with models.

supplied

speak

^^k.

i?d^
A^ ^m

/TvM

.H6

Fig.

no.

might be called geometric

Carved Ivory

Cyli.nders.

beyond those which sprang

pattern.s

spontaneously from the imitation of materials employed by primitive


industries,

especially

from

basket

decorative genius, as distinguished

appears to have been absent

work and matting.


from a fancy

among

natural models thc\- copied.


the

"

decorated

potteyy,"

OuiBELL, Hicra/onpolis,

This mediocrity

and one
i.

fact

decoration,

the primitive Eg>'ptians.

must be admitted that they achieved very mediocre


in

for

In

pi. .\v. 7,

may

is

results

It

from the

especially flagrant

even ask oneself

inscription of Nar-Mcr.

if

ORXAMKXTAL AXD DECORATIVE


man who

the primitive

and men,

the vase, or whether they had not

sake of art

for the

is,

believe,

people, and a purpose which

among them.

be found
of the

tomb

to elucidate this point,

appreciation

The

stud\-

of the

which

really wished to decorate

some other

object

an exception

among

view.

in

primitive

truly aesthetic can only ver\' rarely

is

The

Hierakonpolis

at

139

traced on the clay those rcpiesentations

of boats, birds, plants, gazelles,

Art

ART.

we

is

decorative

devote to the paintings

shall

will.

believe,

partly

enable

us

of great importance for the just


art

of the

primitive

Egyptian'^.

period of the Ancient Egyptian

Empire does not differ very


greatly in this respect from the primitive age, and on this point
also it is difficult to find any radical modification between the
two periods. There is nothing, I think, which should prevent
our seeing

the art of the fourth,

and sixth dynasties the


outcome of the gradual development of ideas which were
first evolved
by their distant predecessors of primitive times.
I
hope to show in due course that the decorations of walls of
in

fifth,

natural

mastabas of the Ancient Empire arc no other than the development of the ideas which the primitive Egyptians expressed in
adorning their pottery with painted

figures.

Besides scenes and

designs borrowed directly from nature, these tombs merel\us imitations of hard

stones, of

plaiting

show

and weaving, or even

of the graining of wood.^

To

return

scarcely be
these incised

present

day

certainty.

those

to

marks

found

lines
it

is

seem

on

pottery,

The motives

regarded as decoration.

which

for inscribing

have been various, although

to

impossible

always

to

can

at

the

determine them with

Professor Petrie has recognized that in

some

instances

they appear to have been a mark of property, various pieces of


pottery in one tomb bearing the same mark.Frcquentl}-, I
think, they should

be considered as a kind of signature placed


by the potter upon the vases which issued from his hands. Dr.
Petrie has
after the

'

remarked

to

that

baking of the vase.

It

Petrie, Egyptian Decorative Art,

decoration.
*

me

Petrie, Naqada,

p. 44.

all

these

marks were inscribed

should be observed that there


pp. 44, 89,

and. chap.

iv.

Structural

PRIMITIVE ART

140

which they are commonly found

classes of pottery on

two

are

the black-topped and

we have

red

the

On

polished.

and

cross-lined

the

studied,

KGYPT.

IX

the

other pottery

they do

decorated,

the

not occur.

wc

If

The human
which

animal,

head

the

marks under

follow Petrie in classifying the.se

we

heading's, the results

of

to

difficult

identif\',

animals

one exception they

differ

style

in

the

recalls

more

occur

little

one

In

instance

m}'thological

The most

lined pottery.

usual t\-pes

the

are

Birds

often

on

the

decorated

Petrie,

Tlie

which frequently

S,

Crocodiles and serpents are


limited

to

summarv

sketches

and of various kinds of vegetation not easy

palm-tree

determine.^

are

an

into

pottery.''

designs

Floral

found.'

of the
to

one recognizes, however, the bird with long

and with the neck curved

occurs

giraffe.'^

and the species represented are not

frequent,

are less

identifiable

easil\-

cross-

hippo-

elephant,

potamus, various kinds of antelope, and possibly the

feet,

and with

frequentl}',

from those painted on

and perhaps resemble most closely those on the

vases,

an

apparently devouring

is

man, a group which

iMgurcs of

2Ia/ies:^

appear^."

rarely

figure
is

different

shall gather are as follows'' (Fig. ill).

Boats,

while

the\'

are

rare,

arc

not

entirely

iXai/iu/a, p. 44.

marks D 20

from a slate

are

The

describe in Diospo'iis.

original

is

palette which Petrie has omitted to

in the

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and

reproduced earlier in the book in dealing with palettes with incised


ornamentation.
^
Petrie, Naqnda, pi. li. i, 2, 7.
*
According to Pleyte, Chapitrcs S2ippleicntaiycs da Li^'rc dcs Morfs,
p. 41,
" Ce n'est pas qu'apres la xx''. dynastie que le titre on nom de Mahes davient un
nom de dieu." I believe the representations of this god to be rare. I will quote
Naos D 29 at the Louvre Pierret, PaiitJicoii cgypticii^ fig. on p. 79), a whip
handle at the Leyden Museum, i. TJ (Lee:\iaxs, Mo/noiie/iis, ii. pi. Ixxxiv.),
and a magical boomerang at University College, London, ol the twelfth
is

i.

dynasty.
'

Petrie, Naqada,

pi.

El Amrali and A/jydos,


V.

No.

p. 251

li.

7-27

pi. xvii.

Diospolis,

19-24.

pi.

xx

13-29.

M.acIver

Newberry, Extracts fro7)i my

&

Mace,

Notebooks,

37, in the

Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archccology, xxiv. 1902,

and

5.

pi.

i.

Diospolis,
Petrie, Naqada, pi li. 28-32
Petrie, Naqada, pi. li. 33*38; Diospolis,
^
Petrie, Naqada, pi. Hi. 52-69 Diospolis,
El Amrah and Abydos, pi. xvii. 25-29.
'"'

'

pi. xx.

30-35, xxi, 51.

pi. xxi.

36-43.

pi. xxi.

53-72.

MacIver & Mace,

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


absL-nt,

but

they

only

recall

ART.

very vaguely those that

141

we know

on the decorated potter}-.'

Fig.

Men, elephants, hippopotami,

III.

-Pottery M.arks.

lions, antelopes, giraffes,

birds, plants, reptiles,

boats, etc.

These are almost the only representations which


1

Petrie, I\'aqada,

pi. Hi. 70,

71

Diospolis,

it

pi. xxi. 52.

is

possible

PRIMITIVE ART

142
to

recognize at a

tion

question of

we

continuing our examina-

Before

glance.

first

marks,

these

of

EGYPT.

IX

should

ask

therefore

our.-elves

some importance.

Among

those

which

figures

easv

are

of

do

identification,

we could designate as " hierogl\'phs"?


we
ought
to consider hieroglypliic writing as
In other words,
an importation brought by conquerors from Asia, from Upper
we meet with

signs that

Nubia, or from some other region

belonging

anx'thing on these objects


that suggests that they

it

possible to discover

to the

primitive Eg}'ptians

or

is

of which

employed a method of writing

the later hieroglyphs are but a development?

We

must

some remarks

recall

Von

of

Bissing on the subject

of the African origin of hieroglyphs.

"Hieroglyphic writing," he says, "in m}' opitiion presents a

which

character

is

Egyptian.

entirely

large

fairly

number

of extremely ancient signs are drawn from plants and animals.

The papyrus
which
of
it

and flower of

Lower Egypt and


occurs

so

with

frequently

occurs

sents the stem

often

Egyptian

an

assuredly

is

the

Now

plant.

meaning

this plant.

It

sign

the

also the standard

As

thousaud

for

verdant repre-

of
is

the sign for the north.

that

group

to the lotus,

Eg\'ptian

in

is

actually the stem of the Xymp/ura ccrnlea, with a leaf floating


on the water.
The flowers of Xynipkcva on a basin is the
earliest form of the letter S where the papyrus enters later.
I
do not know that the XyiiipJicca ccrnlea and the NyiHpluva
lotus

and

of Asia,

natives

are

from the

times

earliest

Asia,

monuments of the late period.


" With regard to animals, the
crocodile

and

the

from

the

archaic

separate

mythological

Asia (the

conceptions

Indian

species

is

black

vulture,

not

result

hippopotamus,
civilization

of

the

fliffcr

these

plants,

as

which one meets with

the

is

found except on the

and

Egyptians,

The

bald-headed

Above

the same.

which

considerably

specimens figured on the monuments).


reality

precisely

Griffith,

Egypt, while the Nyinplura ucluinbo,

in

which probabl\' comes from

the

is

it

proved by Messrs. Borchardt and

one

from

the

do not
from the
eagle,

vulture

all,

not

could

earliest

exist

in

African

which
(sacred

is

in

bird

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


Mut\

goddess

the

of

termed

sparroa--hawk

the

above

a falcon;, the owl, and,

are absolute!)' African,

at

or,

the

all,

143

should

('which
ibis, offer

be

types which

no way characteristic

arc in

least,

ART.

of Asia.
" It is the

same with the

animals, such as the jackal,

dift'erent

symbol of various gods of the dead


nearly a

which

fox

the

Asia

in

the

e\'en

the African type, the hyxtia, and

snakes, insects, and tish

among

Icukoryx,

presents

others.

we

we come to
species known

If

find

the uncus, scarab, scorpion,

that one sees in the hieroglyphs

fish

and meets with

of the Ancient Empire.

again in the mural decorations

more

is

0/i:v

these

all

the

it

elephant, which

many

as existing in Eg\'pt at that period

and various

told that

"among others

gazelles

unknown

is

am

(I

Natur-

ally the

Egyptians must have long been acquainted with a large

number

of the

many

animals

mentioned before they learnt

here

them the conventional meaning they

attribute to

times did they see the hippopotamus

of the water to breathe

animal

appearing

that which we

in

above

call

air,

thrust his head out

before finding in the head of the

water a

the

graphic

seeing

in

him

formation of the egg.


strictly speaking,

into

s\-mbol

the
If

it

the

ver}'

Egypt."

mud

the

it

at their first entry

to

In an\- case, the Egyptians before entering

an ins taut or

for

to

become,

words which designate these ideas are native

to

Basing

his

argument

partly

on

these

considerations

and

we

shall

conclusion

that

partly on the pottery marks, and the graffiti of which

speak presently,

F.

balls,

creation,

them the very strange idea


cannot at any rate have been the

Egypt could have had no word


as

for

were possible that the hippopotamus,

Egypt, and had suggested

case with the beetle.

his

perpetual

of

had struck the new arrivals

of symbolizing an instant,

expression

For a long time the ancient

iiiiiiutc'^

Egyptian must have watched the beeile making


before

to

How-

received.

M.

Zaborowski came

to

VON BissiNG, Les origines dc VEgypte,

pp. 409-411.

In these last lines there

in

me

the

r Anthropo/ogic,

i.v.

1898,

be a confusion, which I
See Erma.v,
the present time.

appears to

am convinced the autlior would not make at


Aegyptische Grammatik, 2nd ed. Berlin, 1902, 36,

tc

p. 17.

PRIMITIVE ART

144
the

writing should

of hicrogU'[)hic

origin

EGYPT.

I\

reality

be sought

extremely

attractive,

in

for in the graffiti.^

At
and

conchisions

these

sight

first

seems

it

arc

evoKe the

to

ratic^nal

a system of elcmentar>' pictograph)-.

Von

to

being

Bissing,

effected

M. Zaborowski appear
more

me

This

e\'olution,

absolutcl}'

On

correct.
it

according

deductions

the

Eg}-pt,

question, however,

the

closely into

be

to

in

from

hierogl\'phs

classical

of

looking

does not a{)pear to

to be a certainty.

The

inscriptions of the

d\-nasty have not the appearance

first

The concordance

of hieroglyphs in course of formation.

sequence dating with the dates of

Empire, as
of his

Dr.

has

Petrie

excavations

the

in

kings

the

Osiris

at

hope

could

form a link between the pottery marks, the

present

We may

the classical hierogl\-phs.

not

is

chance that excavations

discovery of some

relics

There

is

sign

and another which

south;^

Lower Egypt,*
Libyan

origin,

an)'

hierogl\-phs

ask, however,

graffiti,

and

may some day

lead

to

the

worshippers of Horus," whose


solve."

mentioned include few

alread}'

representing

plant

the

nothing else than

is

that

whether there

Sethe has recently been able to

we have

pottery marks

hieroglyphs.

"

of those

real significance Professor

The

discovering

of

results

Abydos, leaves

little

at

of the

Ancient

the

them from the

established
tenicnos of

of

the

of

the

crown of

crown of the goddess Neith, which, being of


we have mentioned previousl}-, might very

the
as

well have been introduced as a pictographic sign into a system

of writing which was already constituted.


I

will also refer to

the sign engraved on a slate palette, the

god Min, which occurs rather frequently among these

sign of the

pottery marks.'^

This could

onl)-

have

become

hieroglyphic

Zaborowski, Origincs africaincs dc la civilisation dc I'aiicicv.nc Egyplc, in


Revue scienti/iqiie, 4th series, xi., March iitii, 1S99, pp. 293, 394.
- Sethe,
Reitrdgc zur iiltcsten Geschichtc Aegyptcns [Untersuclinngen zur
Gcsdiichte und Alterlhumskundc ^Icgypfcns, herausgegeben von Kurt Sethe, iii. i),
'

the

pp. 3-21

die

''

HorKsdiencr."

Petrie, A'aqada,

It),

pi. Hi.

11).

pi.

"'

liii.

pi. Hi.

74.

75.
1

17-122

Diospolis, pi.

.x.'^i.

67, 69, 73-79.

ORXA^IEXTAL AND DECORATIVE ART.


sign

145

by the adoption of an indigenous god by the conquering

population.

seems

also

It

possible

to

recognize

which would confirm the interpretation which


years ago (Fig.

the

sign

gave of

some

it

12).^

Another sign which


possible to explain

found on the pottery, where

is
is

it,-

not

is

it

found apparently on an interesting

scription

discovered

in

the

tomb

dynasty,

where also

it

has

so

of

King Den

the

of

infirst

proved inexplicable^ (Fig.

far

112, No. jSj.

These indications are very


serious conclusions.

and do not warrant any

faint,

believe, until

evidence

fresh

obtained,

is

42
^\
Fig.

we cannot

Hieroglyphic

112.

(?)

-^^^tDl

'r^i

Signs of the Prehistoric Period.

that the ancient Egyptians were in

assert

possession

of any system of hieroglyphic writing.

Were they
of

the

greatest

perceive the
characters.^

discovered

of

among

the

later

discoveries

has

One

been to

having employed alphabetifonn

of their

precisely

is

these

characters

the pottery marks, and

it

that
is

have

been

with these that

deal.

Petrie, Diospolis,

gypte,
-

surprises

possibility
It

we must now
'

possession of any other kind of writing

in

pi. xxi. 4.8, 68. 97.

in the Zcitsclirift fiir cigyptische

Petrie, Saqada,

pi.

lii.

Petrie, Royal Tombs,

p.

78 et

Capart, Note

sicr la decapitation

en

Sprache, x.xxvi. 1S98, pp. 125, 126.

scq.

and pi. xvi. 20; ii. pi. xxvi. 59, andxxvii.


See Evans, Arthur J., Further discoveries of Cretan and Aegean Script
with Libya" and Proto-Egyptian Co7nparisons, in t\\Q Journal of Hellcftic Studies,
^

i.

pi.

.x.

11,

102.

xvii. 1897, p. 378.


*
I m 1st apologize
for this barbaric term, which in my eyes possesses the
advantage of not prejudicing the question of the value of the signs.

10

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

146

excavations at Naqada Professor Petric

In the course of the

found

number

certain
"

he states that

marks

of

geometrical

of

few of them are striking, or

alphabetical series

nor are any to be found

in

and

forms,

any

like

definite

sequence to suggest

that constant ideas were attached to them."^

But the excavations

new

supplied

the

tombs

royal

Evans among

Mr.

of

researches

in

materials for the study of this

Cretan

the

Abydos

of

have

and the

question,

and

pictographs

way

the linear systems of the Creto-Aegean world prepared the

has drawn from them.

for the conclusions that Petrie

The examination
our subject, and

would lead us

question

and with referring the reader

indications,

far

from

works where

to

he

more complete information.

find

will

of this

must content myself with a k\v summary

the pottery of the royal tombs of the

Dr. Petrie noted on

marks which showed themselves

identical

with the alphabetiform marks of the prehistoric vases.

At the

first

dynasty a

series of

same time he confirmed what Mr. Evans had already observed


that

with

is

Creto-Aegean

to say, the identity of the

the

potter)'

marks

discovered

in

Egypt

linear alphabets

Kahun and

at

Gurob, on vases of the twelfth and eighteenth Egyptian dynasties.


This time a step
tabulated

in

advance was taken

in

showing that the

marks of the twelfth and eighteenth dynasties corre-

spond exactly with the marks of the royal tombs of the


dynasty and of the prehistoric pottery.

first

Finally, the primitive

alphabets of Karia and Spain present a series of identical signs.


If the

table

drawn up by Petrie^

Petrie, Naqada,

'

some marks

in

i.

MacIver

p. 44, pi.

&

Petrie, Royal Tombs,

Pre-Phoeiiicia7i

Scnpt froJH

liii.

et seq.

is

examined,

Diospolis, pi.

Mace, El Amrah and Abydos,


i.

it

is

seen that
See also

x.xi.-xxiii.

pi. xvii.

Evans, Primitive Pictographs and a


Journal of Hellenic Studies, xi\-. 894,
Further Discoveries of Cretan and
1895

pp. 31, 32.

Crete, in the

270 et seq., and London, Oiiaritch,


Aegeaft Script, with Libyan ajid Prolo-Egyptian Comparisons, ib. xvii. 1897,
Sergi, The Mcditoranean Race : A
pp. 327-395, and London, Oiiaritch, 189S.
Study of the Origin of Eu7-opean People, London, 1901, pp. 296-305, and figs. 79-93.
^ The sources whence this table was derived are as follows, from information
Kahtcn,
kindly supplied by Dr. Petrie.
Petrie, Naqada Royal Tombs,
p.

Gurob a7td Hawara, London,


Lnscriptio7is, in the

pp.

12-154

1S90.

Sayce,

i.

The Karian Language and

Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archceology, ix. 1887,


P. A., Essai sur la numis7natique iberie/me, Paris, 1859.

BouDARD,

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


missing from

few of the signs are


that

the

which
It

which are found

signs

differ seriously

must,

any one of the

ha\e

was well established from

been

the

course

first,

of ages.

system

and

modifications

in

probability be

compared with the Libyan

which are

still

the Touaregs.
.. i..

employed

The

series,

present

rarely

all

147

in

the

conclusion

that

may

It

of

signs,

113).

which

signs

underwent
even

with

and with

and

variants

from the most ancient signs (Fig.

therefore,

the

in

ART.

few

some

tifiiiagJi,

present day in the writing of

that

may

be

drawn from these

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

148

Here

Dr. Petrie's reply

is

" Certainly the so-called

were familiar long before the

letters

What

is

due

really

of Phoenician influence.

rise

Phoenicians seems to have been the

the

to

amount of the surviving

selection of a short series (only half the

alphabets)

N =

50,

numerical

for

100,

purposes,

500,

A=

as

use of them

M.

in

5,

own numbers, and

10,

force

Phoenicians

with which the

countries

all

Hence before long these

traded.

except

on

E =

i,

This usage would soon render

etc.

these signs as invariable in order as our


the

Phoenician

signs drove out of use

others,

all

the less changed civilizations of Asia Minor and Spain."

Weill, in a recent article in the

these results, but

Revue

must confess that

way convinced me.

do not think

arc]ieologiqtie-

contested

arguments have

his

possible for

it

in

no

any one

to

say, as the result of his demonstration, as he himself says, that


"

of

Dr.

fact

is

Petrie's

and deductions not one word nor one

table

standing."

left

seems

It

one point of primary importance


form

signs

linear

are

we must

If

known

these

in

after

use for the signs to develop a linear

remains

primitive

have

failed

very doubtful traces


of M.

Weill,

who,

question, do not
tables

'

seem

manner as to render
to compare them

Up

to

thirty) discovered

the

present time

those hieroglyphs which

on

prehistoric

think,

number of

Spain.

in

recover

to

must have been propagated

so strange a

in

had been retained

thousands of years,

several

with the identical signs (to the


the

existence which

in

only a very small number

Mediterranean world

possible,

of

that, previous to the earliest

(thirty-three in Petrie's table), which


in the

commencement

the

remains, a hieroglyphic system was

Of

alphabeti-

merely a degradation of the hieroglyph signs,

had been long enough


form.

"

admit, as he wishes, that the

would also be necessary to believe

it

the presence of

it is

that he has lost sight of

signs on prehistoric pottery from

"

the primitive period.

it

me

to

to

me

has
in

have

remains, and

not

any way

only

the criticisms
side

of the

have touched

Petrie's

faced
to

left

on

we

that

and deductions.

Petrie, Royal Tombs,

Weill,

R.,

La

i.

pr 32.

question de Vcoiturc lincaire dans la Mcditci'rancc primitive,

in ihc Rcviic arc/tcologique, 1903,

i.

pp. 213-232.

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE

ART.

149

"
Now, how can we explain the fact that these " alphabetiform
signs are found in Egypt at the prehistoric age, and under the
I
think there
first, the twelfth, and the eighteenth dynasties?
considered.
At these
which
should
be
hypotheses
are two

may have been

Egypt

periods

different

country where this system

from primitive times

may

the

Egyptians

the

else

have preserved the knowledge of

this

in addition to their hieroglyphic writing.

system

We

have already remarked on the analogies with the Libyans

We

presented by the primitive Egyptians.

resemblances

of

primitive

their

Libyan alphabets, and

have mentioned the

system

alphabetical

with

the

between the Libyan and

also the relations

Creto-Aegean peoples have several times been established.

the
I

with

touch

in

or

originated,

do

think

not

appearance
history

to

it

these

of

contact

is

bold

too

marks

with

at

the

attribute

definitely

to

different

Egyptian

of

periods

Aegean people, either directly or


These relations are

the

through the intermediary of the Libyans.


indicated

type

special

same time by the appearance of vases of

the

at

this is

in

the

found

in

Spain and

and

in

attributed

Bosnia,

appearance

in

thirteenth dynasties of small

disappeared

at

of

pottery, with a

Hissarlik,
in

from

Egyptian

Egypt

nude
art

Crete

in

Egypt

is

it

during

figures of

since

whitish

pottery have been

this

(Knossos),

evidently an

believe also that to these relationships

the

incised

specimens

and when found

Sardinia,

importation.^

black

the

incisions

paste

the

must be

twelfth

and

women, which had


times.

primitive

Again,

finds them reappearing in the eighteenth dynasty, and the


phenomenon is interesting to note. The proof of the relations
of Egypt with the Libyo-Aegean people during the first dynasty

one

is

easily

found

in the vases

discovered by Dr. Petrie at Abydos,

in

the royal tombs, and in the temple of Osiris; during the twelfth
dynasty, in the fact that at Knossos there are Egyptian remains of
that period, and perhaps also in the appearance of
'

M.AcIvER

Ahns

&

Mace, / Amrah and Abydos, p. 43.


London, 1904, fig. 61, pp. 160-162.

"

pan graves."

Petrie, Methods attd

in ArcJucologv

The description of these will be found in Petrie, Diospolis, pp. 45-49 ^he
term employed by Petne, "pan graves," is merely an abbreviation of " pan-shaped
'<

graves.''

PRIMITIX'E

1^0

The presence
the

end of

of these graves

route

the

EGYPT.

IN

in

the vicinity of Abydos, at

from the oases, indicates

which must have been taken


people,

ART

after the twelfth

whose Libyan character

is

the

direction

dynasty by these
Foreign relations,

so evident.^

.M.SGO.

i_%_a^^^^r.';

'''

R T.IL.35.
Fig.

with

especially

114.

the

I.MPUESsiON's
Mycensean

during the eighteenth


this

point

taken from Cylinders.

civilization,

dynasty, that

we have already

it

pointed out

is

were
useless

the

under Amenophis IV.


1

MacIver

&

Mace,

/oc. cit.

pp. 67, 6S.

so
to

numerous
insist

on

Libyan influence

ORNAMENTAL AND DECORATIVE


As
signs

the hypothesis of a continued use of

to
in

Eg}'pt,

must,

it

think, be

Mace

pointed out by Mr.

"

rejected,

ART.

He

and the objects there discovered.

the

for

reasons

pan graves,"

"

also estabhshes the fact

we have just mentioned is with


two sporadic examples under the third

that this incised black potter}-

the exception of one or

dynasty

"

alphabetiform

connection with the

in

151

completely absent

during the whole of the period which

separates the prehistoric people from those of the pan graves.^

must apologize

nature of which

primitive writings,
to

refer to

the

am fully
may be

inscriptions,

Some

present

We

art.-

these last pages


'

MacIver

&

permitted

have discussed the

closing

in

Mace,

thus return

loc. cit. p.

chapter
at

the

disappear with

onl}- to

to

and animals
them completely with the

our subject,

we have somewhat diverged

wish specially

this

of personages

to connect

as

unsubstantial

of these, in addition to hieroglyphic

representations

archaic a style

primitive

As

aware.

the history of Egypt,

considerable rapidity.

of the

reflections,

which make their appearance

cylinders,

earliest period of

of so

these

for

from which

(Fig.

in

114).

69.

quote two ivory cylinders at Berlin, Nos. 15.337 and


ScHAEFER, Neue Alte)-tliumcr der " new race " aus Ncgadah, in the Zeit1 5,338.
Petrie, Royal Tombs,
schftfi fur dgyptische Spraclie, xxxiv. 1896, p. 160, fig. 4.
-

ii.

pi.

X.

to

De Morgan,

Petrie, Abydos,
xiv. 101-104.

i.

pi.

Ii.

Rcchcrches,

No.

Max MOller,

1 1

ii.

p.

Royal

i6g,

fig.

To}?ibs,

Att archaic cylinder

i.

560,
pi.

Hellenic Studies,

xvii. 1897, p.

362

ct seq.

p.

from Egypt,

v. 1902, col. 90-92, and fig.


Evans, Further Discoveries of Cretan and Aegean

tische Litteratiirzeitiing,

and

xix. 8,

Dennis,

170,
ii.

fig.

pi. xiii.

561.

95

in the Orientalisib. col.

210, 211.

Script, in the Jotirual

of

CHAPTER

IV.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

WE

most

have now arrived at the

same time

the

most

and

difficult,

Objects illustrating our subject become increasingly

and

enable

perhaps,

will,

hitherto have been


difficulties

us

some

decide

to

uncertainty.

in

left

One

at

our

of

part

interesting,

the

study.

numerous,

which

points

our greatest

of

has been to establish the exact line of demar-

here

between remains of prehistoric times and those of the


commencement of the Egyptian historical age. It has seemed
cation

me

to

advisable

importance to

for

this

which can be

remains

the chapter

for

those

great

too

attach

objects

only

with certainty, owing to their bearing

classified

an inscription or royal

to

and to reserve

Egyptian

devoted to the earliest

not

present

the

distinction,

name.

These specimens form a distinct

nucleus, round which the various objects which are closely allied

them can be grouped.

to

To

begin

with,

we

consider

will

shaped into the forms of animals.

As

flints

have

which

example

early as 1890 an

representing a hippopotamus was discovered at Kahun.


Petrie

is

inclined to assign

it

to

the twelfth

whole group of similar finds induces

me

dynasty

to consider

been

Professor
^
;

it

but the
rather as

being of the primitive period.


In the Petrie
are

several

Collection,

University College,

most interesting examples

a snake

London, there
from

Koptos,

Petrie, Kahun, Gurob and Hazuara, London, 1890, p. 30 and pi. viii. 22
Ten Years' Digging in Egypt, 2nd ed. London, 1893, p. 127; Prehistoric
Egyptian Figures, in t^Ian, 1892, No. 14, p. 17 and pi. B, 20.
1

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


a

dog

The

Berlin

represented

and also a bird

(?),

Museum

153

flight^

in

(Fig-

possesses three remarkable specimens,

form of an antelope

{bubaiis), a

i^S)in

the

wild goat, and a wild Barbary

manner the figures of


M. Schweinfurth,
who has recently published them, also compares them with the
At the British
which we shall consider later on.graffiti,
sheep, which resemble in

a most striking

animals engraved on the vases (Figs. 116-118).

Museum

there

(No. 30,41

1),

an unpublished specimen

is

and also another

115. Worked

Fig.

In the

MacGregor

Collection,

form of a

in

bull's head'^^

Form of

Fli.nts in

form of an antelope

in

Ani.-\ials.

Tamworth, there

is

/;/

situ

among

'

Petrie, Prcldstoric Egyptian Figures,

Schweinfurth,

Umschau,

(?),

discovered in the small

town surrounding the temple of

vii.

1903,

G.,

pp.

i&w specimens

other remains of the primitive age.

These are crocodiles and hippopotami


prehistoric

a large specimen

of the bull's head form, about 19 cm. in height.

have been found

(No. 32,124).

loc. cit. p.

Osiris at

17, pi. B,

Ab\-dos.^

17-iq.

Aegyptischc Tierbildcr ah Kiesclartefakte, in Die


804-806 and fig.
Figures
French translation

d'afiiviaicx fabriques en silex et

provcnent dc I'Egypie,

in the Rcviie

de

V Ecolc

d'Anthropologie dc Paris, xi. 1903, pp. 395-399, figs. 87-89.


* Budge, A History 0/ Egypt, i. fig. of p. 84, No. 32124.

i.

pi.

Petrie, Excavations at Abydos,


xxvi. 292-

:c.',

and

p. 12.

in

Man,

1902, No. 64, p. 89, No. 3

Abydos^

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

154

These curious pieces

testily to

working (Fig.

known
in

Fig.

16.

Worked

in

remarkable dexterity

Ii5)-

The only analogous

other countries

in

flint

pieces

been discovered

ha\-e

Russia and America.'

Flint

in

Form of an Antelope
(BUBALIS).
Berlin Museum.-

Small figures of human beings are very numerous, and specially

My

Baron de Loe, keeper of the preliistoric antiquities of the


good enough to communicate to me his
notes on this subject.
A flint in form of a fish comes from Archangel. Another,
A specimen from the
in form of a bird, from the Government of Vladimir.
same neighbourhood perhaps represents a human figure. Several worked fiints
from the Volossovo bed. Government of Vladimir, present, he says, exceptional
'

Royal

colleague,

Museums

of Brussels, has been

forms.

Some show

of a boat

of animals,

others

more

the outline

the

profiles

or less deter-

among which a bird may


be distinguished.
Volossovo
mined,

was

a centre of habitation in the

... In the Government of Irkutsk a flint has


been discovered, also of bird
form.
These specimens are all

neolithic age.

of extremely fine work, the contour being retouched with extraordinary delicacy.

Other similar pieces have been discovered in the valleys of the Ohio and
See Wilson, Th.,
Mississippi, one representing a bird, another a serpent.
Classification des pointcs de fieches, des pointcs des laiiccs, et des coiiteaux de
pierre, in the Compte rendu dit Congres intcniaiional d'antliropologic et
d'arcJieologie pi'ehistoriqiies,

pp. 320-322,

and

fig.

twelfth

session,

at

Paris,

in

1900,

Paris,

1903,

14.

Reproduction alter Die L'?nscliaif. Ubersicht iiber Fortschritte und Bewegungen auf dem Gesamtgebiet der Wissenschaft, Technick, Litteratur und
Kunst. Francfurt a/Main, H. Bechhold, Verlag.
-

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


the

at

period of Egyptian history

earliest

various materials

and

pottery,

lead.

remind

will

men

reader of the figures of

which

of

given earlier
there

is

The
rare

been

further.

men

of

somewhat

are

specimen was found

one

not

Petrie

human

book, and of which

the

no need to speak
statuettes

the

have

illustrations

in

in

carved on the

combs, and also of the pendants of

form

they are found

clay, stone, ivory, glazed

b\'

the vast necropolis of Naqada.

in

At Diospolis a few rude examples were


found, made apparently at '^6 and 33-55
(sequence

represented standing

seen

be
,

Fig.

be

rendering of these figures

not more perfect than

is

human
(Fig.

that of the

we examined

representations

chapter

the

in

the

that

said

117. Worked Flint

Form of a Wild Goat.


,.

^,
Berlin IMuseum.-

caretullv marked.^

is

may

it

to

of the karnata,
,

the beard

general,

In

them are

of

indications

distinct

or sheath

another appears to

On most

be seated.

are

figures

Se\-eral

dates).

relating

decorative

to

in

art

119).

Another
Gebel

statuette,

discovered

pottery,

Tarif,

el

is

in

more

yellowish

necropolis

the

in

interesting.

of
It

shows a bearded personage kneeling, the


Fig. 118.

Worked

Flint

arms

Form of a Wild
Barbary Sheep.
IN

hanging

already

the

the nose

Berlin Museum.-'

down

face

body.

the

formed, and

better

is

and ears are

Here

well indicated.'*

and p. 36. The two statuettes U96


were discovered by Mr. Garstang, at
Alawanyeh see Garstang, Mahdsjia and Bet KlialUif, London, 1903, pi. iii.
See also two specimens in ivory in the MacGregor Collection. Naville, Figurines
egyptiennes de I'lipoque archaique, ii., in the Recueil dc travaux relatifs a la
Petrie, Diospolis,

'

pi. v.

are of clay, painted red.

U96;

Two

vi.

19,

similar pieces

philologie, et a Parclicologic egyptiennes et assyrienties, xxii. 1900,


-

After Die Umschai/,

lb.

De Morgan,

pi. v.

loc. cit.

Reclierclies sitr les origines,

i.

p.

151,

fig.

373

ii.

fig.

ill, p. 54.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT,

i=;6

Mr. Evans has drawn an extremely able comparison between


this

figure

and

Fig.

the
its

side,

marble

idol

found at Amorgos.

"Though

Figures of Men of the Pri.mitive Period.

119.

he says, "from the primitive marble 'idols' of the

differing,"

Aegean

Islands

yet

general

in

it

shape

its

bent

knees

shows a remarkable
;

while

in

its

and

arms

held

close

to

resemblance to them

in

recurved

flat-topped

head

it

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

157

reproduces one of their most characteristic features"^ (Fig- 119.

M.

III).

In

the

excavations

several figures of

type

Mr.

Maclver discovered

of the same

specimens

the

as

Amrah

El

at

men

found

at

Diospolis, and always characterized

by the

karjiata or sheath- (Fig.

19).

There are several other statuettes

Museum,^ and

Berlin

the

in

without

legs,

University

in the Petrie Collection,

London.

College,

one

history unknown,

its

men

Figures of

occur more frequently

the mass

in

of ivories discovered at Hierakon-

and

polis,

These

pieces.

tunately

in

to

before
see,

effort

realize

are

bad
is

unfor-

condition,

necessary

what

in

they were

We

mutilation.

their

can

however, that they were standing

figures, clothed
in

preceding

the

ivories

rather

and a serious
order

same time we note

at the

advance on

real

its

was

in a loin-cloth held

place by a girdle, to which

attached

the

The

karjiata.

120.
Ivory Figures of Men
discovered at hierakonpolis.

Fig.

beard,

when represented,

is

enclosed

the bag already described.

in

short,

it

frequent

appears
type

that

the

In

most

The heads probably do not belong to


the bodies. Ashmolean Museum,

Oxford.

was that of which

Mr. MacGregor's ivory figure supplies the best specimen^ (Figs.


20,

119,

120,

and

121).

Evans, Further Discoveries of Cretan and Aegean Script, in the Journal


of Hellenic Studies, xvii. 1897, p. 380, and fig. 33, p. 381.
MacIver & Mace, El Amrah and Abydos, pi. xx. 11, xii. 7, pp. 41, 42.
3 ScHAEFER, Neue Altertiimer der " tiew race "
aiis Negadah in the Zeitschrift
1

filr dgyptische Sprache, xxxiv. 1896, pp. 160, 161, figs.


^

OuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,

egyptie7t7ies

i.

pi. vii. viii. x.

de I'cpoque archaique,

ii.,

in the

and pp.

8,

11.

6, 7.

Naville, Figurines

Rccueil de travaux relatifs a la

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

1^8

From an examination
statuettes,

of the

whom we
head

ivor\-

Dr.

considers

race, anterior

that
to

they represent

the

I2i)

(Fig.

which

is

especially characteristic.^

Ivory He.\ds discovered

121.

another head of a

two small ivory figures


at

these

Egytians those Libyans


There is an

man we

see

.\t

Hier.^konpolis.

kind of high-pointed

philologic ct a VcDxhdologic cgypticnncs ct assyriemies, xxii. 1900,

found

all

individuals

have already met with several times.

Fig.

On

Petrie

primitive

of the ph\-.sioIogical t\-pc of

in the

MacGregor Collection

pi. v.

There are

similar to the specimens

HierakonpolLs.

OuiBELL, Hicrakonpolii, i. pi. v. vi. 4, 5, p. 6. Schwei.nfurth, Die


Oberagyptcn mid die Stclhmg der iioch lebcndctt
nciiestcn Grdbcrfimde
Wiistcn-Starnmeii zii dcr altiigyptischcn Bcvolkerutig, in the Vcrhandlungen der
Petrie, The Races of
berl. aHthropologischen Gesellschaft, 189S, pp. 180-1S6.
'

Early Egypt,
pi. xviii. 6.

in

i\\e.

Journal of the Anthropological

Institute, x.\xi. 1901, p. 250,

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

159

casque, suggestive of the white crown' (Figs. 121 and liz), and

the
in

same head-dress

is

found on a small ivory statuette discovered

the temple of Abydos, which dates

of the historic period.

This

is

ivory carving of the primitive age.

on the subject, and we

may

from the commencement

undoubtedly the masterpiece of


Professor Petrie speaks thus

entirely

rely

on

his

judgment

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

i6o

shows

power

apart from

with

dealing

of

work

the later

all

in

which

individuality

stands

unshrinking figuring of age

its

and weakness with a subtle character. It belongs to the same


and these reveal a style which
school of art as the figures
.

has hitherto been

(F'g-

on

to

be questioned whether this

ma\'

It

the

more

122}.

seem

and

head,

the

custom of intentional malformation of the


the

preceding

as

position of the ears should be noticed

perpendicularly
size.

Kingdom"^

formal style of the Old

The

unsuspected,

quite

is

they are placed

be

abnormal

of

not a trace of a

more so that

ears, the

same anomaly, with even greater exaggeration, is seen on


from Hierakonpolis and Abydos' (Fig. 132,

other ivory heads

No.

14).

Female

statuettes are

more numerous, and enable us

far

follow closely the evolution of the type.

begin

to

by

body

appearance,

two

of

to

however,

completely on one side certain figures of

setting

extraordinary
illustrations

It is necessary,

which

of

we

have

already

given

specimens when treating of painting the

(Fig. 6).

These

ment of

figures are characterized

principally

fat,

thighs (steatopygy).

found

among

Petrie, Abydos,

lb.

is

the

known

in

by an exaggerated develop-

lower limbs, and especially the


that this deformity

Hottentots, and

the

a representation

It

in

it

the temple of Deir

has
el

is

frequently

been compared with


Bahari of an African

and xiii.
Mexican statue in the Ethnographical
Museum, Berlin, shows a similar deformity.
See Woekman, Geschichte
der Kunst aller Zeiten und Volker, i. Leipzic, 1900, fig. p. 88. Pliny, Natural
" The island of the Fanesii, in which the inhabitants,
History, iv. 27, 5
who are naked, completely cover themselves with their ears, which are of
excessive size.'' Male, E., L'ari religeux du xiii'. siecle en France, Paris, 1902,
" Men with ears as large as winnowing fans."
p. "]"] (the Portal of V^zelay)
Delafosse, M., Sur des traces probables de ci^iilisation egyptienne et d'hommes
de race blanche a la cote d'ivoirc, in l' Anthropologic, xi. 19C0, p. 679, " Ces
fils du Ciel avaient la peau blanche
leurs oreilles etaient si grandes qu'ils
s'en cachaient leur visage a la vue d'un homme de la terre."
P. 684, " Tous
ceux qui en ont vu ou en ont entendu parler disent que, pour ne pas etre
reconniis, ils prenaient leurs oreilles avec les mains et les ramenaient sur
leur visage."
Information contributed by MM. Bayet, Macoir, M. Hebert,
and F. d4 Zeltner.
ii.

pi.

ii.

17-19,

iii.

p. 24, pi.

and

p.

ii.

24.

3,

sculpturp: and painting.


These curious statuettes arc

queen, the queen of Punt.^

standing

either

positions,

i6i

or

seated.'

The specimens

in

two

in

the

Ashmolean Museum, Oxreproduced here, are

ford,

of a greyish clay, covered

with a briUiant red glaze,

and

show

still

(Figs.

paint

black

Museum

only complete

know

We

Berlin

possesses a seated

the

figure,

one

123,

The

125).

124,

of

traces

of (Fig. 125).

here encounter an

problem

important

con-

cerning the history of the


primitive

of

migrations
peoples.

Should

Egyptian

statuettes

these

be

taken as a proof of the


of

presence

Hottentot

Egypt

race in prehistoric

Fouquet

Dr.
after

the

writes,

examination

of

discovered

in

the

bones

the

tombs

At

"

South

Naqada, the cephalic index

for

men,

the

women,

the

for

72,

"Ji

13

Ji,

induces a comparison with


those
the

of

Bushmen

Kaffirs

(72,

Naqada
^

les peitples
2

The

54).

itself

1878,

dc la

discovery

of steatopygous

ii.

62, pp. 72,

terre, pp.

Petrie, Aaqada,

Steatopygous Clay Figures.


Ashmolean Museum.

10,

pi. vi.

made by

statuettes

1-4

73.

Flinders

suggested

Mariette, Voyage dans

p. 34.

pi.

123.

the

(72, 42)

Petxij. Naqada,

and Cairo,

Fig.

Hottentots,

the

le

to

Petrie

Haute ^gypte,

Paris

See, however, Deniker, Les races et

1.

p.

at

him the

34
II

ART

PRIiMITIVE

l62

same

IN EGYPT.

which he does not appear

idea,

final

analysis.

It

is

known, however, that

into

France, and

it

is

Egypt."

writes

way

of

This impression appears at the

all

penetrated

race

this

returned by

they

possible that

but we hasten to add that

by

have adopted on

to

it

is

first

glance to be extraordinary

identical

with that entertained

who have examined these objects. M. de Villenoisy


The excavations at Brassempuy have effected the disa series of ivory statuettes representing women with

those
'

"

covery of

whose head-dress there

Fig.

is

nothing analogous except

in

Egypt,

Steatopygous Clay Figures.

124.

Ashmolean Museum.

and whose physiological characteristics are found only

among

the most ancient inhabitants of the soil

in Africa,

the dwellers in

the land of Punt (now Somaliland) in the time of the Egyptian

Queen Hatasu (eighteenth dynasty), Abyssinians and Bolofs (who


must at one time have been neighbours of Egypt), Bushmen
and Hottentots.
out,
^

in

on

The

insistence

Pyrenean

the

FouQUET, Recherches sur

with

Piette pointed

peculiarities

which

cranes de I'epoque de la pierre taillceen Egypte,

Df Morgan, Recherches sur les origincs^


^ De Villenoisy, Lhiatus prehisioriqice

in the Bulletui

figures,

palaeolithic
les

which M.

ii.

p. 378.

et les decouvertcs

de

M. Ed.

Piette,

de la Socicte de spcleologic , April to June and July to September,

1896, pp. 97, 98.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


among women
African,

did

163

of contemporary races are found to be exclusively

not

at

succeed

first

in

fixing

attention

was

it

considered that they were merely the result of accidental circumstances, or

lack of skill on the part of the sculptor.

was taken when,

step in advance

dcs

Inscriptions,

the

great

November

similarity

that

23rd,

at the

meeting of the Academie

1894,

M. Maspero recognized

between the

exists

great

legless

figures

of

Bassempuy and those deposited in the tombs of Egypt.


He
believes them to be inspired by the same religious conception."

Fig.

125.

Steatopygous Figure
Berlin

M. Boule,

way

may

in

in Cl.\y (complete).

Museum.

r Anthropologic} expresses himself

with regard to the Hierakonpolis figures

have very slender foundation, yet

"

in

the

same

The comparison

cannot

resist

finding

a certain resemblance between some of these reproductions and


those on the sculptures found by M. Piette at
I

received the

Mas

d'Azil,

and

same impression on examining the steatopygous

female figures [found by Professor Flinders Petrie and Mr. Quibell


at

Naqada and

Ballas."
'

r Anthropologic

xi.

1900, p. 759.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

164

doubts,

NotwithstandiriL^ Boule's

resemblance

is

figures in the

and

Illyria,

without

not

French caves/

seems probable that

it

We

foundation.

Thrace

Malta,- in the regions of

in

at Butmir, Cucuteni,

Sereth, in

and the Aegean Islands, notably

Poland,'^ in

Greece,'*

Crete.''

But by the side of these steatopygous

Egypt

in

this

analogous

find

figures,

as also in France, statuettes of another

type are found, characteristic of a race of less

The

bulky proportions.''
be quoted

can

paintings

of this type in

where the

decorated
(Fig.

with

There

5;.

clay, ivory,

and

summarily indicated.

are

legs

specimen that

best

figure

reproduced

alread}'

are statuettes
lead,

the

is

Frequently the arms are merely represented by

means of a nip

at other

deti Kiuist, pi.

ii.

29-1

ix.

not a trace

is

p. 34,

5 1.

figs.

dcconvcrte dans

polog/e,

there

where he quetes l AnthropoHoERNES, Urgcschiditc der bildenReinach, S., Statuette de femme


9-13.

Petrie, Naqada,

logic, vi. 1895,

Jine

times

\Vc must notice a curious specimen,

of them.
'

causing the shoulder

Occasionally the breasts are clearly

to project.

indicated

in the clay,

des gj'ottes de iMctiton, in l'Anth?-o-

ic?ie

189S, pp. 26-31, pi.

i.

ii.

von Malta,
Akadcmie der ^V'iss.,
CI., .\xi. Bd., iii. Abth. Mu.nchen, 1901, pp. 699-703, and
pi. X. 2, xi.
and 2. Review by Arthur Evans, in Man,

Mayr, Die

in

tiie

vo7geschichtliclicn Denkmiila-

Abhandliuigcn der

k.

bayer.

i.

1902, No. 32, pp. 41-44,


.xi.

Fig 126.
Clay
Fe.male Figure.
University Col'ege,

Poland are reproduced

London.
(separate reprint, p.
of our Fig. 123.

Perrot

&

in

Europe avatit les influences


Compare especially the
39).

Chipiez,

priynitive, I'art fnycenien,


*

43,

reproduces

fig.

2 of pi.

'

pi.

fig. 3, p.

Mayr more clearly tatoo-marks are distinguishable.


HoERNES, Ufgeschichtc der bildendcfi Kunst,-p. 192 and
iii.
The statuette of Cucuteni (Roumania) and tiiat of
of

fig.

Reinach,
figure

Histoire de fart dans


325, p. 736,

and

figs.

La

S.,

sculpture en

94 and 95
from Poland with those

greco-romai7ics,

I'antiquitc',

333 and 334,

fig.

La

vi..

Grece

p. 741.

Evans, Arthur, The Neolithic Settlement at Knossos and

its

Place in the

History of Early Aegean Culture, in Ma.t, 1901, No. 146, pp. 184-186, and fig.
They appear again in Egypt in the eighteenth dynasty. See MacIver & Mace,

El Amrah and Abydos,


E 178.

pi.

pi. xi.x.
*

Petrie, Naqada, p. 34.

iv.

D8.

Garstang, El Arabah, London,

1901,

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


unknown provenance,

of

hands

the

of

body

the

clasped

are

(Fig.

specimen which

Museum

as

to

hide

There

is

also

126).

No.

paste,

London, where

College,

though

almost perfect at

is

vegetable

in

University

at

165

the

lower

part

Berlin

the

(Fig.

14 167

127).

Another very early example (sequence date


38) in vegetable paste moulded on a reed core

painted red and

the thighs

edge

be covered with a

there

when joined^

(Fig.

specimen

a similar

University

tomb B

10

arms

There

11).

Petrie

The excavations
examples,

(sequence date

the

lower

the

at

No.

128,

the

in

have furnished other

D.

Round

Collection,

London, as well as another

College,

in lead (Fig. 128).

with

curved

a belt

is

of the

part
veil.

both ends so as to form a point between

at

the legs
is

The lower

black.

appears to

face

is

at Diospolis

small

carved-

carefully

from

notably,
a

34),

figure

(Fig.

128,

loi).

In

same

the

necropolis,

tomb

in

S;^

(sequence date 33-48), excavations have brought


to

hair

at

least

legs

and

(Fig.
^

128,

D.

B80

in

the

same

the

indicated

=*

The arms

are

rudimentary
.

Aegean

still

fashion

represented
as

worked

already

statuette,

where

detail,

in

are

female

light

more

the

in

III-!
Islands.-*

'

also

figures

the
-J^

of

c
Fig.

127.

r-

Fe.m.\le

Figure in Veget^^^^ Paste.


the
Berlin Museum.

In the series of ivory female statuettes the progress

is enorUnfortunately there has been no specimen found in the


course of scientific excavation to furnish a relative date for these

mous.

objects.

The examples we can quote

Petrie, Naqada, pi.


mok.an Museum, Oxford.

P-

lix.

11

'

Petrie, Diospolis,
lb. pi.

vi.

pi. v.

83, p. 32.

Diospolis,

p.

26.

Now

Identical fragments \n\Diospolis,

533

present a great variety in

p.

33.

pi.

at
v.

tiie

loi,

Ashand

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT

66

Fig.

128.

Female Figures

in

Pottery, Ivory, Lead, and Vegetable Paste.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


the

position

body

of

Sometimes they hang

arms.

the

sometimes

only

the

right

arm

on

the

breast

have

others

pendant,

is

One

appears to support the breasts.

left

folded

167

Most have the head shaved


long,

two

with

Fig.

locks

129.

some, on

hanging

on

carved,

and

lower

the

series

framing

the

part

of holes,

of

arranged

sometimes

the

arms

the

placed

on the
body.

of the

contrary, wear

the

over

the

in

front

Fem.\le Figures in Ivory.

MacGregor

shoulders,

the

down

the

has

figure

one hand

stomach, while the second hides the lower part

hair

down
while

Collection.

On some

face.

the

body

is

fan-shape.

inlaid

with

later

figures

the\'

were

ar^^'

The

round

specimens
'y
e\-es

the

rendered
are

bone beads

hair
b\-

sometimes
(Figs.

128

129).

Some
means

of

of these

which

have a tenon at the base, by


fastened

to

stands,

similar

to

Budge, A Hiitory of Egypt,


p. 52.
MacGregor Collection Naville,
Figicrines cgvpiicmies de tepoque archa.que, ii., in the Rcciieil dc travaux relatifs
Britisii

Museum, 32.125, 32,139-42.


London see our Fig.

University College,

i.

128

a la philologii ct a I'archeologie egypticn?ics et assyriennes,


V hicli our Fig. 129

is

a reproduction.

xxii. 1900, pi. iv.

of

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

68

some of

those of

Hierakonpoh's ivories which we are about

the

to consider.

The
woman
which

British

Museum

(No. 32,143; possesses a statuette of a

standing, wrapped

leaving

fringed,

is

shoulder she carries

the

uncovered

breast

left

whose body

child,

upper edge of

cloak, the

large

in

is

folds of the cltiak^

The
in

her

'fig-

of

t\"pe

carrying

ijO).

also occurs

child

in

the Berlin

Museum

(No.

14,441;

tremely

rough

style

ex-

of

work

of

130-

At
the

her

woman

the

an ivory figure

(Fig.

on

hidden beneath the

wc

find

figures,

and

Hierakonpolis

same female

these enable us to decide that


the

examples described

preceding

the

in

which

lines,

are

of

uncertain provenance, are to be

considered as belonging to the

130.-F1GCREOFAW0M.AN carkving

Fig

^ge shortly before

A Child on her Shouledrs.

the

Hntibh ^,
Museum.
,,

,_

fact,

progress

rise

There

dynastx-.
^

first

the

made

is,

of
in

between

one group and the next, and although the pose and the arrange-

ment of the
artist

has

completely

absent

examples, a
I

hair

fair

same, one

ma\' be the

feeling
in

for

the

the

earlier

number of

is

conscious that the

individuality of the

Like

figures.

type which
the

is

preceding

^hese statuettes have the e\'es inlaid.

cannot attempt to describe

but few varieties beyond those

all
I

these carvings.

They

have mentioned.

present

In Figs.

132

and 133 are reppodiictions of the best ivories found at Hierakonpolis, and
now at the Ashmolean Museum. O.xford.
wish
I
however,

to

cloaks which

two small
^

Budge,

For

tlie

draw attention

we have already

statuettes,

to

the

figures

dealt with,

on bases,- identical

and
in

wrapped
also to
st\-le

in

with an ivory

History of E;^ypt, i. p. 53, No. 7.


Hierakonpolis ivories see Quibell, Hierakonpolis,

large

remark on

i.

pi. ix. x.

SCULPTURK AND PAINTING.


discovered

statuette

carved

of children

tionality^ (Fig.

The

in

konpolis

carved

one

of

and

free

from

figures

conven2).

at

with

we had

met with

the

pre\-iously

from Hiera-

a figure

chrysocolla.'"

in

two

Abydos,

ivory

women were

of

shows

which

carvings"^ (Fig

found,

strong

Hicrakonpolis

the

to

affinity

style,

Abx'dos,

at

These are

other

contributed

attitude- which

at

1902-3

mouth, a traditional

finger in the

Also,

of

Nos. iSjand 21, and Fig. 133, No.

children,

of

statuettes

excellent

excavations

have

Abx'dos
car\-ings

winter

Egyptian dynast}'.

first

in

132,

same

the

durinc^

and dating from the

169

Ab

I-8.

5^

while

the other, according to Dr. Petrie,

already shows signs of the forma-

Ancient Empire.'

st\ie of the

list

There are

\'arious other figures

which are unimportant, with the


exception of some

specimens

in

clay and glazed potter}'," and the

pretty statuette in glazed pottery

reproduced

to

dressing (Fig.
Finall}',

illustrate

to

Fig. 131.

terminate

of female figures,

IvoKv Figure

of

.\

Woman

CARRYING A ChiLD.

list

Berlin

in lapis-lazuli,

Museum.

discovered at Hicrakonpolis.

position of the hands, the slender proportions of the body,


Petrie, Abydos,

ii.

pi.

ii.

lb.

QuiBELL, Hicrakonpolis,

ii.

pi.

ii.

7,

8;

Petrie, Abydos,
female figures found

this

we must mention

an interesting statuette

The

hair-

15).

pi.

ii.

in

i,

and

j).

23.

18.

ill.

i.

pi. .xviii. 4.

and

tiie

ii.

p.

24.

ro>al tombs at Abydos.

pi. vii.b, 8, and p. 21.


compte rendu in extcnso, Paris, 1^99, pi. xx.xi.
^ Petrie, Abydos. ii. pi. ii. 2 and np.
23, 24.
* lb. ii. pi. i.\. if-'4,
23c
.>:i.

The same

is tiie cai^e with the


Petrie, Royal Tombs, ii.
Amelineau, Les nouvelles foiiillcs d' Abydos, 1895-6.

pi.

170

PRIMITIVE ART

IX

EGYPT.

'-

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

171

.r

PRIMITIVE ART

1/2

and the bending of the knees

IN EGYPT.

recall to

an astonishing degree the

small figures of the Greek Islands^ (Fig.


I

134).

have intentionally omitted a

and female

which

specimens

curious

at once elicited a

figures of

"

in

suggest

have been

and these

Ptah

male

class of

because they represent ana-

malformations

tomical

Some

figures,

comparison with the

embryo" of

There are two examples

rickets.

published,

the historic

ivory in

in

age.'^

the Petrie

We

Collection, University College, London.

shall

presenth- have occasion to enquire what was the

meaning of these deformed


reason

they were

temples (Fig.

We
FjG.

134.

Figure

SM.A.LL

i.v

Lapis-

from

lazuli

must

tombs and

the

135).

also class in a separate category the

squatting or

in

This

positions
is

either

which seem to be im-

the case with

men

represented

There

the back, and apparently captives.

with

ivory figure, very instructive

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford

it

regard

to

is

point, in

this

was brought from Egypt

by Greville Chester (159-91), and

1891

in

what

standing^ or kneeling, with the arms bound behind

Ashmolean
Museum.

is

stated

to

an
the
in

have been

ii. p. 38.
QuiBELi., HierakonpoUs, i. pi. xviii. 3, and p. 7
N.AViLLE, Figitrines egyptienncs de iepoque arcfmu/iie, ii., in the Reciieil ch

'

travaux

7-elatifs

1900,

pi. 5.

pi. xi.

and

X.

deposited

for

which represent human beings

statuettes

possible.

HlERAKONPOLIS.

and

figures,

a la philologie et a I'archcologie egyptie7mcs ct assyrietmes, xxii.


A History of Egypt, ix. p. 52, 2. Quibell, HierakonpoUs, i.
Petrie, Abydos, ii. pi. v. 44, 48
ii. pp. 37, 38.
7, 19, and p. 7

Budge,
xviii.

213, pp. 25, 27.


'

See ViRCHOVv, Die Phokomele/i imd das Biirenweib,

in the

Verhandlmtgen

Gesellschaft filr Anthropologie, EtJmologie imd Urgeschichte, 1898,


Dr. Parrot, Sitr I'origitie d'lme des formes dii
pp. 55-61, witli fig. and plate.
dicii Ptah, \\\ the Rcciteil de travaux relalifs a la philologie et a I' archeologie

der

berl.

egyptiemies ct assyriciiiics. ii. 18S0, pp. 129-133, and plate (reproduction from the
Dr. Eifer,
Bulletins de la ^ociete d\mthropologic de Paris, 1878, p. 296).
LAchondrflf>lasie, in the Correspondant medical, vi. 120, September 15th, 1899.

See ScHVEi.FURTH, Ueber ivestafrikanische Figure?i aiis lalkschicfer, in the


Verha7idlugai der berl. Gesellschaft fiir Anthropologie, Eihnologie tmd
Urgeschicrte, \<)C\, pp. 329, 330 and fig.
* ScHAEKJiK, Nene Altertiimer der " new race " aus Negadah. in the Zeitschrift
fiir dgypUiche Sprache, xxxiv. 1896, p. 159, and fig. 3, p. 160

SCULPTURE

x*\ND

The main

found at Thebes.

thong that held the captive


other

specimens

example shows how similar


of our Fig.

132,

No.

Fig.

same

give

ivories

There

is

in

i.

pi. xi.

the

3.

to

be noticed at

dynasty,

the

where scenes

.xii.

Petrie Prehistoric Egyptian Figures,

3, xxii.

(Fi&-

figure

first

Petrie. Abydos,

2,

hard red limestone, with eyes

lb.

xxi.

all

this

examples of these

fragment of crystal inlaid on

Objects of

QuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,

pi.

In

but

Collection.

a small

also

of rock crystal, and 'another

i.

drawn

H)- Objects of
glazed pottery, were found at Hierakonpolis

University College, London,

'

several

arms bound behind the back

head.'''

the

Ivory Figures of Dwarfs.

135.

type, but in

top of the

disappeared,

in

statuettes should be interpreted (t\'pe

MacGregor

and Abydos.-

lies

tightly

19J.

The Hierakonpolis

captives, the

the

crouching position.

thong has

leather

this

his

in

/5

object

interest of this

preserved leather belt, which represents

well

the

PAINTING.

in

ii.

Man,

pi. v. 37,

and

p. 25.

1902, No. 14 p.

17, pi.

B,

1.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

1/4

we

occur representing captives, and which

shall

consider farther

on, afford proof of the accuracy of this interpretation.

Finally

we

At Naqada,

with the statuettes representing servants.

will deal

tomb (No.

in

271), Petrie discovered a

placed

ivory statuettes
the

upright,

on

tomb, several

the

of

side

east

row of four

They represented

centimetres apart.

personages (whether male or female


it

to

difficult

is

by beads
of

these

say) having a vase

The eyes

on the head.

are indicated

(Fig.

119, No.

at

University

is

London, and

also

One

7).

College,

head

the

of

similar piece in alabaster.

There are some specimens

at the

Museum, which are supposed


have come from Naqada, which

Berlin
to

must

be

included

statuettes, although

Figure of a Woman
STANDING IN A LaRGE |aR.

Fjg.

136.

in

this

they

very different style.

list

are

Some

of

of

of these

formed part of the crew of a boat


(Fig. 119,

of a

S3,

woman

8,

and

standing

thing under her

One

ii).

in

is

the figure

a large jar, occupied in crushing

The

feet.

of the most curious

left

hand

is

upon her

the right she supports herself by resting

it

hip,

some-

and with

on the edge of the

vase- (Fig. 136).


I

have reserved
Petrie, Naqada,

'

date 38

is

given.

pi.

for
li.x.

this
7,

and

chapter some vases of


p, 21

where the sequence


du Louvre, Catalogue des

Diospolis, p. 26,

Compare Heuzey, Musee

antiquites chaldee7tnes, scjilpture et

human form

natiofial

gravurc a

la pointt\ Paris,

1902, pp. 96, 97,

race" aus Negadah,

in the Zeitschrift

105, III, 305, 306. 313-318.


^

ScHAEFER, Neue Altertiimer der

''

new

fragment of a similar figure


id.
has been found at Naqada see Petrie, Naqada, pi. x.xxvi. 95, and p 41
pi. xxxvi. 96, another piece of unknown provenance (Fig. 119); an unpublished
piece at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and a head at University College,
in he
London.
It seems that the woman, standing in the jar, is occupieo
See Borchar:)T, Imc
preparation of beer, made by means of bread.

fur

(igyptische Sprache, xxxiv. 1896, pp. 160, 161.

Diencrstatueu aus den Griibeni des alien Reiches,


pp. 128 et scq. and

fig.

p.

129; Kat. 1895, No. 91.

in the ZeitscJ'rLft,

xxxv. t^q/,

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


published

by M. Naville

and which appear


art.

The

first

to

as

belonging to the primitive period,

belong rather to sculpture than to decorative

of these are two vases

Fig.

137.

Vases

in

of hard

Oni

i.i

a kneeling

p'-esents

and the

fine

woman, holding

collection of Mr.
in

her hand an

was struck with the analogy which


with the attribute that appears on a large

object resembling a horn.


this object

stone

Form of Women.

fragment of a tbiid vase belonging to the

MacGregor.

1/5

(]

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

1/6

number of European

prehistoric

The other

sculptures.^

is

dwarf of a type already known, while the fragment appears

to

be

part

two

female

of

terracotta

and

Petrie,

M.

figure.-

figures

in

do not hesitate

compares these with

Naville

With Erman

Museum.
them to

Athens

the

the eighteenth

to attribute

dynasty.'^

As regards
M. Naville

the

preceding ones,

and

work,

ceramic

have

am

inclined

which

art

difficult)'

at the

believing

in

connect

to

produced

artists

rendering of animals than of

valuable.

Of

classif\'ing

them according

these

we

will

human

at

Hicrakonpolis,

Sometimes
at times, in

'

Reinach,

in

is

it

La

137).

strange to

is

They carved

materials

in

a great

hard and

both

to their species.
in

almost

glazed

in

There

is

the excava-

all

and

Diospolis,

sometimes

stone" (Fig. 138;,


S.,

It

of

with

note the most interesting specimens.

Abydo.s,

clay,^

pottery

earlier (P"ig.

figures.

The hippopotamus has been found


tions

school

the

general understood better the

in

animals, and sometimes

variety of

be Egyptian

to

incised

extremely numerous.

P'igurcs of animals are

remark that the primitive

it

with

it

black

the

we have spoken

whitish paste, of which

woman, bought by
same time as the two

standing

the

of

figure

Luxor and published

at

Gebelein

at

potter)','

figure

and
a

of

also,

hippo-

sculpture en Europe avant les injluences greco-romaines,

and figs. 26, 28, 44. 46-49.


Naville. Figurines egyptieimes de I'epoquc archaique, \\., in the Recueil de
travaiix relatifs a la philulogie et a rarcheologic egyptiennes et assyricnnes, xxii.
Angers, 1896, pp.

l8-20,

13,

1900, pp. 65, 66,

pi. i.-iii.

Naville, ib. .x.xi. 1899, pp. 212-216, pi. ii. iii. These vases may be compared
with those found at Abydos.
See G.\rstang, El Arabali, pi. xix. K 178.
MacIver & Mace, El A7?irali and Abydos, pi. xlviii.
and notice of J. L.
^

Myres,

pi.

225.

35

pi. v. B loi (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford); Abydos,


(Musees royaux de Bruxelles), and p. 26; ii. pi. i.x. 188, and p. 27,

Von

Bissi.ng, Altdgyptische Gefiisse />

iigyplisclie

Aftirah
*

pp. 72-75.

Petrie, Diospolis,

liii.

fur

!b.

i:prache,

and Abydos,

xxxvi.

Museum

124,

and

fig.

ztt Gise, in

the ZcitsdiHfi

MacIver

&

Mace, El

pi. ix. 5.

QuiBELL, Hierakofipolis,

Oxford).

1S98, p.

i.

x.

Pe.'rje, Abydos,

ii.

i.

pi. xviii.

xWui.b) (Ashmolean Museum


and p. 25.
B loi, and p. 33 (Ashmolean Museum)
18 (see

pi. vi. 70, 71, 73,

Limestore >'ErRiE, Diospolis, pi. v.


iXaqada p!. Ix. 21. ai.d p. 46 (bought at Gebelein, University College, London).
*

Ca'.cic":

QuTBELL

&

Green, Hierakonpolis,

ii.

pl. Ixiv.

5,

and

p.

50,

tomb 153

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


potamus

which

museum

merits

Athens, where

at

Collection.

It

carved

is

extremely polished.
block

the head

Fig.

13S.

special

The

forms

it

in

attention

black

beast

is

part

belongs

it

of

177

the

and white

Di Demetrio

granite,

and

is

scarcely disengaged from the

only has been treated with some

Figures of Hippopotami

the

to

in Clay,

The

detail.

Glazed Pottery, and Stone.

University College, London, and Ashmolean Museum.

whole

effect

is

heavy and

without

character.

to

curious

this

(Ethnograpiiical

thickset,

Professor

piece, does

but nevertheless

Wiedemann, who drew

not

hesitate

Museum, Cambridge). Alabaster

to

attribute

PiTi^E, Abydos,

it

is

not

attention
to

it

ii.

pi. x.

the
226,

and p. 27, a specimen in quartzite in the MacGregor Coilerilon, Tamvvorth (3,334).


Three similar pieces belong to the Randolph Berens Collection at the South
Kensington Museum.

12

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

178

Naqada period'

(Fig.

and

139).

impression

this

is

confirmed by

comparison with the figures of lions belonging to the primitive

by Dr.

period which were discovered

The

type

lion

specially

is

were discovered by Mr.


are

in

and

ivory,

low,

and

the

that

they

formed

Fig.

Ouibell

show

over

Hippopotamus

139.

in

University

London.

College,

Gebelein, where there

These

Ballas

the

movement
'

iii.

lions

lions

down,
It

the

head

considered

is

by Dr. Petrie, and are now


They were probably found at

in

to regular

and

limestone are of a t>'pe

already one sees

but

which

Nagada

Z.u

They

a vast prehistoric necropolis, which un-

is

of the head

Wiedemann,

pieces

Ballas.

Other specimens, almost

fortunately has not yet been subjected

excavation.

earliest

Black and White Gr.\mte.

contemporaneous, were purchased


at

lying
back.

the

game.^

of a

part

The
tomb at

in

animal

the

twisted

tail

Petrie at Koptos."

interesting.

Periodc^

is

in

found

in

in

two

almost

of
all

scientific

similar to

them

the later

the Orieni'ilistisdic Litteraturzeitttng,

1900, col. 86.


*

Petrie, Koptos,

pi. v.'5,

and

p. 7

(one of these cx the Aslimolean Mu.seum,

Oxford).
'

Petrie, Naqada,

pi. vii.

Qj^^,

P'- 'x-

^'-,

16

17,

and pp.

14, 35, 46.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

Another example of uncertain provenance

ones^ (Fig. 140).

more massive, and

The

limestone.-

with

Menes,

crystal, of

179

is

royal

has

disengaged

scarcely

tomb

from

is

block of

of Naqada, apparently contemporary

two

yielded

the

figures of lions
one of rock
crude work, recalling the earlier pieces^; the other of

140.

Fig.

Small Figures of Lions.

University College, London.

ivory,

which

in

the

sculptor

has

details, carefully indicating the ears


'

Petrie, Naqada,

lb.,\A.

\x.

pi. Ix.

endeavoured

to

render

the

and mane.^

24-26.

23.

^ De Morgan, Recherches surles origincs, ii. fig.


700, and pp. 193, 194. There is a
second e.xample, probably also from Naqada, in the MacGregor Collection (No. 533).
* De Morg.a..\, Rechcrclies sur les origines, ii. figs.
699^ and b, and pp. 192-194.
Von Bissing, Lcs origincs de VEgypte in I'Anthropologie, ix. 1S98, pi. iii. 8, and
A similar specimen is in the collection of Mr. Hilton Price, London.
p. 249.
See Hilton Price, Noles upon some Pre-dyitastic and Early Dynastic Antiquities

pom

Egypt

stpwrately,

p.

in the writer's
5,

fig. 5/^,

Collection (No. 504).

and

collection,

p. 10).

in

There

is

ArchcEologia,

Ivi.
1899 (published
another specimen in the MacGregor

PRIMITIVE ART

i8o

The

ivory

discovered

lions

EGYPT.

IN
one

in

of

the

tombs

private

which surround the tomb of King Zer, show a further improve-

ment
spots

with

in

On

form.

one of these Professor Pctrie notices two

marked above the


on

Mesopotamia

he also

This

eyes.

Eg}'ptian work, but

peculiarity

points out

that the

position

t
Fig.

141.

identical

those

with

peculiarity

to

The

carvings.^

of

is

prehistoric

two

that

Amelineau,

Petrie, Royal Tombs, ii. pi.


Amelineau, Les notivelles

extenso, Paris, 1899,

pi.

curved at the end,

the

Abydos, had previously produced a

of
tail

over the back and

be observed

excavations

that

of the

Figures of Lions.

define the outline of the muzzle (Fig.


.

in

of

this figure, twisted

in

Small

met

not

is

observed

frequently

is

xxxi.

vi. 3, 4,

in

is

final

relief clearly

141).
in

lion in

and

lines

The

same
ivory,- and
the

tombs

at

also a head

p. 23.

fouillcs d' Abydos,

1895-6,

Compte rendu

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


on which the two

There

is

an

of special

is

h'nes

of the muzzle are more clearly defined.^

example of

larger

This

interest.

i8r

size

which

in

this

peculiarity

a limestone statue discovered

by
which reproduces the principal characteristics
of the small figures (Fig. 142).
One would gladlv assign it to
is

Petrie at Koptos,

Fig.

142.

Limestone Statue of a Lion from Koptos.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

the age of Zer, and this date would equally apply to the
hippopotamus at 'the museum at Athens. These specimens are,

however,

not

sufficiently

abundant

to

enable

with

us

to

307,

where they are

fix

certainty the appearance of a type.-

Amelineau, Les noiivelles foiiilles d'Abydos,


quoted as figured on pi. xli.
'

Petrie, Koptos,

pi. v. 5,

and

p. 7.

f)l.

.^lii.

p.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

i82

Randolph

the

In

South Kensington

Berens

Museum,

now deposited

Collection,

two large

there are

granite and in alabaster found at Abydos.

an art

far

more powerful than

and they should be attributed,

think, to the

the

in

black

bear witness to

first

temple

d}'nasty.

of

Osiris

at

yielded a series of ivory lions

143.

in

the

that of the great lion of Koptos,

The excavations carried on


Abydos during the winter 902-3

Fig.

lions

They

at

Ivory Carvings of a Dog' and of a Lion- from Abydos.


Brussels Museum.

of excellent workmanship.

them

to a

Dr. Petrie, from the style, attributes

Two

date later than that of Zer or Menes.

are lionesses, and, strange to say, they are wearing

the

intend thus to

artist

animals?
'

Petrie,

thinites

in

Abydos,

ii.

pi.

iii.

that

indicate

Another has the eyes


22,

p.

inlaid
24.

of

collars.

them
Did

they were domesticated


with chalcedony.^

Capart,

Aiitiquitcs de

I'epoqne

Bullethi dcs Musees royMiy des arts decoratifs ei industriels

the

a Bruxelles, iii. 1904, p. S3, fig. 2.


' Capart,
ib. p. S3, fig. 4.
' Petrie, Abydos, ii. pi. iii. 231^, and
in chalcedony
29.
:

p.

24.

Lionesses

26 and 28.

Eye

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


The excavations

at Hierakonpolis

remarkable figure of a
opportunity to discuss
antiquities.

we must

To

lion

in

led

which we

shall

have

connection with the earliest Egyptian

in

conclude our examination

notice an

the discovery of a

to

terracotta,

183

example

of figures

of

lions,

glazed pottery, which also comes

in

from Abydos.^
Figures of dogs are

by glazed pottery

later

the

more archaic

type,

figures discovered at Hierakonpolis

Fig.

and the

They must

numerous.

less

two principal groups

into

144.

be divided

represented

and Abydos,-

Figures of Dogs.

type represented by ivory carvings, which already

suggest a resemblance
earliest sovereigns of

to

the

the
first

lion

figures

dynasty^

have a collar round the throat (Fig.

of the

(Fig.

143)-

time of the

These dogs

144).

Petrie, Ain'dos, ii. pi. xi. 246, and p. 28.


OuiBELL, Hierakonpolis, pi. xx. 13 and p. 13 (monkey) ii. p. 38 (monkey?).
Petrie, Abydos, ii. pi. vi. 67, 08 (?), and p. 25.
' De Morgan, Recherches sur les origines, ii. figs. 698 a and d, and p.
192.
Von BissiNG, Lcs origines de I'^gypt, in f Anthropologic, ix. 1898, pi. iii.
Petrie, Royal Tombs, ii. pi. v'x.a, xxxiv. 21, 22, and
figs. 7, 9, II, and p. 249.
Abydos, ii. pi. ii. 13, iii. 22 (M usees royaux de Bruxelles), and p. 24.
p. 37
There is also a specimen in the MacGregor Collection, Tamvvorth (No. 534).
'

i.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

i84

There are two breeds of dogs


mastiff,

to be distinguished

a kind of

strong and powerful, which was employed in lion-hunting^

and also a breed of large running dogs, of slender


pendant

head much

ears, the

like

our modern

build, with

foxhound, and

with a coat either black and white, or white and reddish brown.It

is

to

now

in

class of animal that the dog belongs which is


by an ivory carving discovered at Hierakonpolis,
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford^ (Fig- HS) also two

this

represented
the

rough fragments

in

Fig.

145.

clay,

which Mr. Quibell recognizes as

dogs.'*

Part of an Ivory Figure of a Dog.


Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

They
with

are

specially

European

examples of

figures

''

(Fig.

ii.

pi.

from the analogy they present


144).

These are almost

all

the

which have been found.

this species

Petrie, Abydos,

Fig.

interesting

ii.

13.

Quibell, Hierakonpolis,

i.

pi.

.xi.\-.

6,

and

68 of this book.

See Lenormant, Fr., Sur

a la chasse et a la giierre,

in

les

the

ani?naux employes par

les ancieits iHgyptieiis

Cuniptes rendus dcs seances de

I'

Academie des

October 31st, November 7th, 14th, and 28th, 1870. Reprinted


in Notes sur tin voyage at Egypte, Paris, Gauthier-Villars, 1870.
^ The feet were carved separately and
are now missing.
It is the dog of
pi. xii. 7.
which a portion only was published by Quibell, Hierakonpolis,
The same breed is found, especially at Beni Hasan, under the twelfth dynasty.
See Newberry, P. E., Befti Hasan, i. pi. xx\. See on the dogs of Egypt,
besides Lenormaiit's article, quoted in tlie preceding note, Birch, The Tablet 0/
Antefaa //., in the Transactions of the Society of Biblical ArchcEology,\\. 1875,
pp. 172-195, pi. and fig.
^ Quibell & Green, Hierakonpolis, ii. pi. l.xiii.
7, 10, and p. 50.
* Reinach,
S., La sciilptttre en Europe avant les influences grcco-romaines,
sciences de Paris,

i.

fig.

366, p. 125.

11-14,

and

p. 522.

Hoernes, Urgeschichte der

The

figure,

bildendeti

Hierakonpolis,

Ixiii. 7,

Kunst

appears

i?n

to

Eiiropa^ pi xv.

me

to

rep.-c.";';nt

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

i8s

In the temple at Hierakonpolis, as in that of Abydos,


enormous numbers of figures of apes were found, in stone and
ivory, and also in glazed pottery, white and brown, light green,

and blue or purple.

The most

curious

pieces

are blocks of stone from Abydos,

barely roughed out, and of which the head

By

cated (Fig. 146).

only

with a projection bearing a vague resemblance


a

monkey.

Fig.

remarks that

Petrie

Found

being

its

he says,

for its likeness to a


in

"

preserved.

been kept,"

this

clearly indi-

"

in

the

to

flint,

head of

was the cause of

likeness

Natural Flints roughly worked to

146.

is

the side of these there was a natural

rese.mble Baboons.

the temple of Abydos.

The

great

natural

flint

seems

as being like a quadruped,

baboon.

No

other

have

to

and [another]

large flints were

found

the whole temple area, and these must have been brought

mile or more

from the desert.

rudest figures of baboons that

As they were

we know,

it

placed with

the

seems that we have

here the primitive fetish stones picked up because of their likeness

to

sacred

animals,

and

perhaps

venerated

any

before

compared with those discovered at the station of Argar, in


Spain see Siret, H. & L., Les premiers ages du metal dans le stid-est de VEspagiie,
Anvers, 1SS7, pi. xvii. 1-3, anc^pp. 123, 124; also with those discovered at Cncuteni.
See BuTZURE.ANo, Gr. C,
jI'- sur Coucoute7ti et plusieurs autres stations de la
a bull, and should be
:

Moldavie du nord,
et

in the

Compte rendu du Congres

d'archeologie prehisioriqucs, tenth

pp. 299-307

and

pi.

ii.

17,

session,

at

i?iteniatiotial d' anthropologic

Paris,

in

1889,

Paris,

1891,

l8.--Information contributed by the Baron de Loe.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

i86

images were attempted."

artificial

with which we

From

the

The

figure.-

species of

there

monkey

this

subject

another very

is

here represented

is

on the ground, the fore-paws resting

seated

extremely numerous,

Figures of this class are

knees.

deal later.

will

c}'nocephalus,

on

not insist on

will

temple of Hierakonpolis

the

rough stone
the

We

which touches on the purpose of these figures

point,

always copied from the same type, sometimes summarily, sometimes worked with

which

and a regard

observation

careful

One group

quite remarkable.^

is

small apes seated in front of a large one.^


are in glazed potter)', except one, which

We

must

inspired

monkey who
one

arms,'' the little

artist

tenderly in her

head round and looking back

its

Or,

there

again,

ground.

In

this

of a

manner on a small square

baboon

rendered with

walking,

much

where

spirit^ (Fig-

The head of an ape


Museum, Oxford, appears

in

to

base.''

the

gait

ape seated,

the

is

example the

last

has completely separated the paws, which rest

natural

of

remarkable

to

her young one

holds

fore-paws touching the

artist

ivory' (Fig. 147).

Hierakonpolis and Abydos, and

at

turning

with a gesture of alarm.


its

All these statuettes

in

is

primitive

the

These were found

represent a

detail

mention, as exceptions to these, another kind

monkey which
degree.

for

gives the figure of two

There

in

is

also a figure

been

has

a perfectly

seized

and

HZ)-

now

pottery,

have

formed

in

the
part

Ashmolean
a more

of

specimen than the numerous examples just quoted

finished

in

glazed pottery.^

Petrif, Abydos,

OuiBELL

ii.

pi.

i.v.

190-196, p. 27.

&

Green, Hierakonpolis, ii. pi. x.xxii. i, and p. 43.


^ Petrie, Abydos,
pi. liii. 7-9,
I, and p. 25 ; ii. pi. vi. 50-61, 64, 65, and p. 25
ix. 197, 202, and p. 27; x. 217-219, and p. 27; xi. 233, 235, 238, 247, 248, 253, and
xxii. 11, 12.
Quibell, Hierakonpolis,
pi. xxi. 10, 11
p. 28.
Petrie, Abydos, ii. pi. vi. 49, and p. 25.
^ lb. ii. pi. xi. 12, and
p. 24.
^ lb.
Ouibell, Hierakonpolis,
ii.
pi. iv. V. 41, and p. 25 (glazed pottery).
-

i.

i.

i.

pi. xviii.

(stone).
pi. iii. 16, and p. 24 (ivory).
and p. 25 (glazed pottery).
Greex, Hierakonpolis, ii. pi. Ixii. i, and

'

Petrie, Abydos,

lb.

'

Quibell

ii.

pi.

i.

&

vii.

ii.

86,

p. 49.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

Ktr.S3.

Fig.

147.

Figures of Monkeys.

187

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

i88

Representations
use

in

the

in

of

Maclver

sometimes grouped
frequently

they are simply formed


friable

Diospolis and

that

it

is

are

148.

difficult

was

already

proved

by the

These animals are

Most
mud, and so

unbaked

of

Occa-

preserve them.^

to

At

which have been baked.

found

Abydos other

Fig.

as

were

rows of four on the same base.

in

one or two

calves

Amrah.

at El

extremely
sionally

and

cows,

cemeteries,

prehistoric

of Mr.

discoveries

bulls,

where

pieces have been discovered,

Figures of Cattle and Pigs.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

the animal intended to be represented" (Fig. 148) cannot always

Two

be identified with certainty.


glazed

in

feet

bound

We

pottery

pieces one

calf lying

in

rapidly

&

Mace^,

pass

in

El Amrah

Prehistoric Cemetery at

review the representations of the


atid Abydos,

El Amrah

pi. ix.

in

1-3,

Egypt

of Excavations, in ^fa?l, 1901, No. 40, p. 51, and fig. 2, p.


^ Petrie, Diospolis, pi. vi. B
109 (?). Abydos, i. pi.

6, 9, 10, and p. 41.


Preliminary Report

50.
Iri.,' J.0-42,

and p. 25 pi. ix. 204, and p. 27 (ivory calf).


^ QuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,
pi. xxi. 5 = xxil. 7 (glazed
i.
Abydos, ii. pi. ii. 30, and p. 24 (ivory, hollowed in form of a
pieces of the eighteenth dynasty and later).
pi. vi.63,

ivory, the other

down, with the four

together.^

will

MacIver

MacIvek,

represent

and

p.

26

pottery).
flat

Petrie^

dial, similar

to

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

189

pig^ (Fig. 148), the jackal,- the antelope,^ the bear,^ the hare/* and,
camel, which up to the present has been considered

finally, of the

an animal introduced into Egypt at a very recent

Two

camels'

konpolis,

the

lower
t^.^

in

heads were discovered at Ab}'dos and

terracotta,

lip

period.''

leaves

where

no doubt

the
as

characteristic
to

its

Hiera-

movement

identity

(Fig.

of

149).

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

190

According to the theory

promptly, leaving practically no trace.

M.

of

Zippelius,

it

appears

that

was

it

same

the

with

the

horse.^

Small figures of birds make their appearance with the com-

mencement of

the primitive

The specimens discovered


and lead." The hawk

period.

are in quartz, glazed pottery, stone, bone,

most frequently represented, without

the

is

were mummified,

in

the

position

so

feet,

though

as

found on

often

it

Egyptian

monuments,

more especially on the stelse of Hierakonpolis.^


number have been discovered at Hierakonpolis ^ and

fair

The

Abydos.''

body, as

feet

occasionally

are

figure found

the limestone

in

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford."


have

been

by the models of birds found

the

&

QuiBELL

Gree.v, Hierakonpolis,

head of an

the
the

in

pi.

li.

time

the

at
this

and that the

indicate

did

artist

The proof appears

l.xii.

2,

to

judge

to

the temple of the

Does

age.'

not venture to depart from the model

in

attributed, even

that the\' were copied from a fixed t3'pe,

considered as

dynasties,

first

very remote

under

Koptos, now

at

Medum,

at

pyramid of Sneferu, which Petrie


of their discovery, to

back

These representations appear

modified during

little

folded

and

p.

49,

where

it

to
is

Petrie, Abydos, ii. pi. x. 224, and pp. 27, 49


(read Zippelius instead of Zippelin).
Zippelius, Das Pferd i?/i Pharao>ie7ilande,
in the Zcitschrift fur Pferdekunde titid Pferdeziicht (Wiirzburg), xvii. 1900,
125-127,

pp.
-

tlie

133-135. 142-144,

Petrie,

Naqada,

with the

Oxford,

ass.

pi.

149-151-

Ix.

14,

15,

18-20,

exception of 20, which

is

and
at

p.

46 (Ashmolean Museum,
London).

University College,

Diospolis, p. 26.
^

QuiBELL, Hierakonpolis^

lb.,

xxiii.

\.

pi.

xxi.

14,

xxii.

i.

pi. xlvi. 7,

14,

15.

u.

Quibell

&

Green, Hic7-akonpolis,

ii.

pi.

(beads of glazed pottery in form of birds).


Petrie, Abydos, i. pi. liii. 6 (limestone) ii.

pi. vii. 79-83 (glazed potter\'), 84


199 (limestone) the base is hollowed to allow of the
figure being placed on a staff or at the top of a standard.
See p. 27 xi. 242
'"

(quartz)

198

pi. ix.

(?),

See also Petrie, Diospolis, pi. vii. (no precise description


in the text).
There is a specimen of uncertain provenance in the MacGregor
Collection (No. 3,813), and three others of unusual dimensions in the Randolph
Berens Collection, deposited at the South Kensington Museum.
^ Petrie, Koptos, pi. v. 6, and p. 7.
"
" Glazing of No.
PrTRiE, Medum, London, 1892, pi. xxix. t-5, and p. 9, 35
3,
a clear light purplish blue, with dark purple stripes, is also early, and cannot be of
(glazed

pottery).

the eightieinh dynasty, nor hardly of the twelfth.


that these are contemporary with
figures

known"

(1892).

think probably, therefore,

the decease of Sneferu, and the oldest small

SCULPTURE AND PALNTING.


found

be

in

small

way

the admirable

from

figure

191

which shows

Hierakonpolis,^

which the hawk was represented when

in

the artists were not forced to adhere closely to a model.


Finally, the excavations at Hierakonpolis yielded a statuette,

which

unique,

is

pottery

(Fig.

of a

pelican,

perhaps a turkey,

or

in

glazed

50).

tomb

In the great

Naqada M. de Morgan discovered a


mouth for suspension. On

at

series of fish in ivory, pierced at the

Z?.

Fig.

150.

Figures

of Birds

and of Griffins.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and University College, London.

examples

several

supply the

are carefully inscribed on

lines

details.^

Another

in

fish

glazed pottery comes from

The same excavations have

Hierakonpolis.^

also

the model of a basket in steatite decorated with

QuiBELL, Hie7'akonpolis,

pi.

\.

.xviii.

the surface to

(schist),

p.

contributed

fish,^'

and from

(Ashmolean Museum,

38 " Found in the temple, but not in main deposit, it is doubtless


of later date than the rest, and has been put in this place by error, as a fragment
O.xford)

ii.

p.

of a diorite bowl with the

name

QuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,

'

De Morgan,

Capart, Aotes sur


Rev2ie de

Rccherches
les

of

Khufu

pi. xxi.

i.

stir

origines de

les

incised.

15, xxii.

origines,

16,

V^gypte d'apres

''

I.

p. 8.

figs.

701-713,

and

p.

193.

les fouilles recenles, in the

V Universitc de Briixelles, iv. 1898-g, p. 128, note 4 and fig. (separate


A similar fragment was discovered at Abydos. Petrie, Royal

Tombs, ii. pi. iii. , 10, and p.


OuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,
Jb.

."

and

ii.

reprint, p. 28).

pi. xix,

XX.

7,

21.
i.

and

pi. xxi. 16, xxii. i8.

p. 8.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

19^

Abydos come

the excavations at

figures of crocodiles

glazed

in

pottery.^

Figures of scorpions in carnelian are frequently found at the


close of the primitive period (sequence dates 70-So;

found

large

in

made

numbers

Figures

of

They

period.^

Abydos," both

serpentine,

(Fig.

151).

are

found,

frogs

stone and

animal

University

at

which

in

Egyptians

in

fair

suspension,

We

will,

figures
th''^

these

of

the

supposition
in

figures

Chapter

III.

for

used as
several

that

Amulets of

fish, birds,

Dtospolis,

scorpions,

p. 26, tigures a

crocodile

52.

Petrie, Dtospolis,

QuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,

and

p. 27,

XX. 10 (haematite); xxi. 4

pierced

religious purpose.

74-76, and p. 25

pi. vi.

are

they were

that

provisionally that several of these

had either a magical or a

\.

by the

form present the same characteristic.

now admit

sequence date

be

S, sga or

'^^^^

represented

still

descriotion, representing crocodiles, frogs,


Petrie, AbydoSy

may

This

similar

150).

animal

have already seen

body of the

the

or

'-^,

tt

dynasty was

of animal

therefore,

in serpentine,

primitive

bands.

gold

hunting scenes^ (Fig-

admitting

We

amulets.

the

at

Naqada.'

at

London

College,

the twelfth

number

schist palettes

haematite,

curious figure of a feline

discovered

animal

identified with the weird


sajf,

crystal,

glazed pottery (Fig. 151).

in

ornamented with two

is

rock

commencing

we must mention

In conclusion,

specimen

they were

are of frequent occurrence at Hierakonpolis' and


in

creature with a bird's head,


is

the temple of Hierakonpolis, and are

in

materials

various

in

and glazed pottery''

pi. iv.

pi.

i.

xxii.

xviii.

(serpentine), 16 (crystal), 22

4 (glazed pottery);

ii.

pi. xxiii.

xix. 5

(glazed beads)

xxxii. (haematite).
*

Petrie, Naqada,

QuiBELL, Hicrako7ipolis,
Petrie, Abydos, ii. pi.

xi.

pi. Iviii.

240, 245 (glazed pottery).

University

Diospolis,

i.

26 (sequence date 65).

p.

pi. xviii. 10,

il, 14.

x. 214 (glazed pottery)


72 (glazed pottery)
Several stone specimens in the Petrie Collection,

vi.

London, and three examples


South Kensington Museum.

College,

in

the

Randolph Berens

Collection, deposited at
^

Petrie, Naqada, pi. Ix. 13.


Chabas, Eticdes sur Pantiquite hislarique,

Lectures historiques

Paris, 1873, pp. 399-400.


Histoire andenne, Paris, 1892, pp. 116, 117, and

Maspero.
fig.

67.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


are found

jackals, lions, etc.,

among

193

the

antiquities of classical

will

quote what Dr. Petrie

Egypt.

As we

are speaking of amulets,

has said with regard to a class of objects which are


of

bulls'

bull's

heads

head.

The oldest form of amulet found is the


The origin of this form was a puzzle until an

example was found

Fig.

151.

at

on

xAbydos,

which the

muzzle form of the lower end

and

a bull.

continues

degraded.

It

use

in

begins
till

left

at

no doubt that

late.

early,

have continued,

as

must be

it

sequence date 46, or

sequence date Gj, when

form, apparently continued from

had disappeared
to

and

College, London.

this,

blue marble with beads of the twelfth dynasty, so

have lasted on as

front

flat

Figures of Frogs and of Scorpions.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and University

copied from

the form

in

"

it

is
it

But the connection with the

earlier,
is

very

found

in

may even
bull's

head

while the idea of such an amulet seems

we

find

w$ll-made

bull's

head amulets

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

194

about

of carnelian at

the

dwindhng

gradually

the

in

fifth

Dr.

size."

in

the

of

close

such continued to be used

prehistoric

and

and continues

"

Looking

head

amulets

large

bronze

hang

up

Majorca
1897,

buildings

{Rcviie

in

archcologiqiie,

Gold

bull's

head

in

Cyprus

Mykenae, and

at

present

are

cows' skulls are

hung on houses

and

Malta,

in

to

found

amulets

and

and

heads

bulls'

138).

bull's

Spain,

in

on

this

pan graves,"

"

West, we find bronze

the

to

dynasties,

compares with

Petrie

the painted skulls of bulls discovered in the

fact

and

[era],

sixth

trees

fruit

and Algiers,

Sicily

in

to avert the

evil eye.

The whole

bucrania

is

opened

subject of

by

these

prehistoric bull's head amulets."^


Fig.

152.

Bull's Head A.mulet in

Ivory.
Berlin

ivory

Museum.

very

Museum
clearly that
'

it

is

Petrie, Diospolis,

in

Mati, 1902, No.

ii.

pi.

xiv.

Negadah,

On

intended for a

and

281,
in

p.

14,
p.

26

p.

30.

17,

Naqada,
B,

pi.

pi. Iviii.

8-16;

shows

14,964)
152).

i.

pi.

H.

4,

5,

and

p.

Alterti'oner der ''new race"'

the Zeitsc/irijt fiir iigyptischc Sprachc, xxx\v. 1896,

the subject of bucrania in Egypt see

in

Prehistoric Egyptian Carvings,

Abydos,

Schaefer, Xene

(No.

head (Fig.

bull's

specimen

fine

belonging to the Berlin

Wiedemann, Zu

fig.

6,

p.

23;
aus
180.

Petrie's neiien Fiinden,

rendu de
a M. G. Maspero siir trots
petites trouvailles egyptologiques, in the Recueil de travaux relatifs a la philologie
et a Varcheologie cgyptiennes et assyriennes, .\i. 1889, p. 98. Lefebure, Lcs Huttes
de Cham, in the Museon, xvii. 1898, p. 350 et sec/. Rites cgyptietis : Construction
et protectioji des edifices {Publications de rEcole des lettrcs d' Alger : Bulletin de
correspondance africaiiie), Paris, 1890, p. 20 et seq.
Naville, The Festival
Hall of Osorkon //. in the great temple of Bubastis, London, 1892, pi. i.v. 9, and
Daressy, Catalogue general des antiquites cgyptiennes du Musee du Caire
p. 21.
Ostraca, pi. v. No. 25,019 (revers), and p. 5. Maspero, La Pyramide du roi Ounas,
in the Recueil de travaux relatifs d la philologie et d Varcheologie egypticnnes et
assyriennes, iv. 1883, p. 48, line 4^3 and the variants in La Pyratnide du roi Teti,
ib. V. 1884, p. 29, line 242.
Capart, La fete de frapper les Anou, in the Revue de
in

the Orientalistische Litteratiirzeitimg,

Hierakonpolis,

i.

ib. col.

331.

ii.

1S99, col. 182-184; Conipte

Golem ischeff,

l.ettre

rhistoire des religions,

xliii.

1901, pp. 252, 253 (separate reprint, pp.

4, 5).

SCULPTURE AND PAIXTIXG.


These

bull's

head amulets bear

to note the

sufficient

Mykenean ornament,

general aspect to a

analogy^ (Fig.

195

resemblance

to render

in

their

interesting

it

153).

European prehistoric remains have furnished a large number


of figures representing " animals back

to

back, with the bodies

united at the croup, so as to present the appearance of a single

body terminated by two heads, forming a pendant."'"


Most frequently these are small bronze pendants, formed of

Fig.

two

bulls,

there

is

back

to

Bulls He.\d A.mulets.

153.

back

as

scarcely an important

M.

Salomon

Reinach

museum which does

remarks,

not possess

some of them. Similar figures are also found in primitive Egypt,


more especially on the cylinders. They will be found in our
Fig.
14 (M 560), and also upon a palette with figures in relief
which we shall deal with later.
The Hilton Price Collection,
London, includes three curious ivories representing these double
bulls, where the
feet are not indicated.
Like some of the
1

'

Perrot

&

Chipiez,

primitive, I'art myccnien,


-

Histoire
fig.

de Pari datis

Reinach, S., Zrt sciclpture en Europe avnnt


and figs. 320-327.

pp. 113-115,

V atiUqtiitc

vi.,

La

Grece

223, p. 546.
Ics itifiiiences greco-rontai7,.es

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

196

European

figures,

they have a tenon in the

suspended^ (Fig.

to permit of their being

In certain

tombs of the

One

tusks.

is

Fig.

154).

earliest primitive period,

sequence dates S3 ^^^ 44> there


or

middle of the back

always

solid,

is

between the

found a pair of ivory horns

the other

hollow.

They

are

Double Bull's He.\d A.mulets.

154.

Hilton Price Collection.

sometimes quite undecorated, ending


that

end

for

a groove and

suspension
ring.

In

sometimes

this

in

at

point,-'

and pierced

the pointed end there

case there are

two

eyes,

indicating a beard engraved on the surface of the horn


'

Hilton Price, Some Ivories front Abydos,

in

the

at
is

and

lines

in

some

Proceedings of

tlie

The block of our


Society of Biblical Archecology, xxii. 19CO, p. 160 and plate.
Fig. 154 has been lent by the kindness of the Society of -Biblical Ar.;h39ology.
-

Petrie, Diospolis,

pi. vii. 2,

and

p.

48.

p.

21.

MacIver

&

Mace, El Ajnrah and Abydos,

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


instances the eyes are represented

and

this

human

is

the most

head,

by beads.

197

Occasionally, also,

interesting form, the horns terminate in a

worked with

On

care.

the top of the head there

a ring for suspension- (Fig. 155).

is

The

precise purpose of these objects

Fig.

155.

Magical Instru.ments

is

(?)

difficult to

i.\

determine.

Ivory.

University College, London, and Ashmolean Museum.

Dr. Petric supposes that they formed part of the equipment of a


sorcerer, or

The horns remind him of the belief


who imagine that white men

medicine man.

of the negroes of the Gold Coast,

can by enchantment catch the souls of the


Petrie, Xaqa'/a,
-

Hilton Price,

dgyptische Sprache,

and

Enrt,

pi. Ixi. 34,

35

I'-uo objects
.v.vxv'i.

in

horns,

and pp. 19, 21, 47.


prehistoric tombs, in the Zcitschrift fiir

pi. l.xiv. 81,

from

1899, p. 47

Dynastic Antiquities

natives

and

fig.

from Egypt

Arclucolog- X, hi. 1899 (separate reprint, p.

2,

Notes upon some Predynastic


in

and

the
fig.

ivriter's
i).

collection,

in

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

198

and convey them thus


them.^

for

toil

In

the

can gain

sorcerers

ivory horns, and

work

in

large

number

their

to

their

Congo

them

souls,

the white men,

to

to

make them

negroes believe that the

human

possession of

sell

own country

certain

enclose

them

in

who make them

They imagine that a


are men who have been

country on the sea coast.


of labourers at the coast

procured

When

manner.

this

in

one

of the natives goes there for purposes


of commerce,

he

frequently searches

anxiously for his dead relations.

The

man whose

over

soul

slavery

to

is

die

will

thus

given

rapidly

or

in-

stantaneously.-

would gladly connect with

belief the

Werner
old

this

custom observed by Alice

in British

woman

Central Africa.

An

carried round her neck a

hollow ivory ornament, about

3 inches

length and in the form of a round

in

peg, pointed at the top, with a slight

groove by which

it

could be suspended.

This object, which exactly corresponds

Magical Instrument
MADE OF Horn, from Katanga.

Fig. 156.

to

the

by

this

woman

ivories,

her

life,

was called
or her soul.

Naturally, she would not part with


colonist

University College, London.

Egyptian

of

tried

in

vain

to

buy

it

it

her.^'

This interesting ethnological comparison appears to be confirmed by an object said to


recently

instrument

is

made

of horn

the deep grooving formed


indicate that
It is

come from Katanga, which I have


The magic
to acquire (Fig. 156).

had the good fortune

now

it

the patina which covers

by long use

London.

P^TRiE, Naqada, p. 47; DiospoUs, p.


Frazer, The Golden Bough, 3nd ed.
lb.,

2nd. ed.

iii.

p. 407,

note

4.

21.
i.

as well as

the suspension holes,

dates back a very considerable

at University College,
'

in

it,

p. 279.

number of

years.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

199

tombs of Naqada contain

cla\-

models of boats, sometimes decorated with paintings (Fig.

157).

of

Certain

We
an

the

prehistoric

have already seen that one of these boats was painted


unsophisticated

figures

representing

by

times

at

Professor

intended

to

rowers.^

small

Petrie,

clay

these

represent

Fig.

on

fashion

The

figures-

(Fig.

or

pap\Ti

of wood, but

boats built

tightly

bound

i.\

shows

in alabaster,

this

method of

Similar
'

boats

According
those

to

not
of

period

in

in

use

Egypt.^

from the royal tombs of Abydos, distinctly


construction.^

have been discovered

in

the

excavations

at

pi. l.^vi. i, and


Petrie, Xaqada, pi. x.x.xvi. 80, 81 ^z and b, and pp. 13, 41
De Morgan, Rechcixhes sur les origines, ii. p. 91, figs. 235-237, p. 90.
Scmaker, Netie Alte?-lumer dcr " nnu race " aics Negadah, in the Zeitschrift

fiir iigypl'schc

'

made

such as were

together,

were

they

O.xford.

p. 48.
-

represented

Clay and Ivory.

throughout the whole of the historical

specimen

that

in

human

small

also

15^).

show

paintings

Ashmolean Museum,

reeds

with

crew was

Models of Boats

157.

edge

the

Sprache,

x.x.xiv.

1896, pp. 159, 161,

Er.max, Life in Ancient Egypt,


Petrie, Abydos, i. pi. ix. 4.

p.

479

et seq.

fig.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

200

They

EI Amrah^ and at Ab\'dos.-

also occur frequently in

great find of ivories at HicrakonpoHs.

The shape

of one of these

specimens strangely recalls the Venetian gondola'' (Fig.


presence at these various sites

very great
again,

A
us an

more
clay
idea

importance.
in

We

of
shall

157).

boats in clay and ivory

The
is

have occasion to refer to

of
it

detail.

model of a house, discovered


of the

the

habitations

of the

at

El

Amrah,

gives

primitive Egyptians, and

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


A

tomb discovered

model of a

at

Diospolis

contained

fragments of

enclosure, with figures of two

fortified

201

men

looking

over the wall' (Fig. i6o).

We
the

to

chapter

in

the

159.

our examination of the

and we should

round,

drawing and

primitive

Fig.

omit

now completed

have
carved

pieces

must,

principal
to

study

however, not

Clay Model of a House discovered at El A.mrah.

mention the carvings


on

We

painting.

proceed

ornamental

handles of knives,
pottery and stone.

art

low

in

reliefs

on fragments of

We

shall

see

in

on

relief

the

furniture,

the

described
slate

in

the

palettes,

on

and on vases

in

following chapter that

Mace, El Amrah mtd Abydos, pi. x. 1-3, and p. 42. See, on the Iiouses of the
The Sources and Groivtii of Architecivre, in the Journal
of the Royal Institute of British Architects, third seriei', viii. 1901, pp. 341-343,
and figs. 1-4.
Petrie, Diospolis, pi. vi. B 83, and p. 32 ('Aslimolean Museum, O.xford).
primitive age, Petrie,

'

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT

202
this art

developed greatly at the commencement of the historical

and that

period,

The
already

produced masterpieces of extraordinary power.

it

primitive drawings and

known

decoration,

upon the

to

In

Mr. Green not

Upon

the

Fig.

it

of drawings, the

classes

in

personal

on the vases, and principall}'

chapter

this

and the paintings of a

rocks

met with them

have

palettes,

slate

pottery.

examine two

We

us.

on the

paintings are to a large extent

only remains for us


graffiti

prehistoric

engraved on

to

the

tomb discovered by

from Hierakonpolis.

far

of

rocks

i6o.

Clay

the

Arabian

and

Libyan

mountains

Model of a Fortified Enclosure.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

there has been observed

and copied, although unfortunately

in

a very incomplete fashion, a series of drawings of men, animals,

and boats

in

a style identical with that of the pottery marks and

the paintings on decorated pottery.'


'

Wiedemann, Lcs

tnodes d' cnsevi;lisscme7it dans la necropnle de NegadaJi et

la qucstio7i de I'origine

otigtnes de VEgypte,

du

ii.

peiiple egypticn, in

p.

222,

and note

De Morgan, loc. cit. i. p. 162 et seq.


Une excursion a Berenice, in the Reciieil des

quoted

This has led to the legitimate

De Morgan,

RcchercJies stir les

where the following works are


and figs. 487-492. Golenischeff,

i,

travaicx relatifs a la philologie et

a Varcheologie cgyptiennes et assyrie?ines, xiii. 1890, pi. iv. 17, pi. vii. 62.
Petrie, Ten Years'' Digging, 1881-91, London, 2 id ed. 1893, p. 75, fig. 57:
"To judge by the weathering of the rock, it seems probable that they were
begun here long before any of the monuments of Egypt that we know. The
usual figures are of men, horses, and boats, but tliere are also camels, ostriches,
and elephants to be seen."

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

203

conclusion that they also belong to the

primitive age.
These
drawings are frequently mixed with representations accompanied

by hieroglyphic

however,

some

in

those

there

no

is

more recent

of

possible

M. Legrain

at Gebel-Hetematt,-

Silsileh noticed

by Dr.

between the

date.^

some

Some

which closely resemble those

me

which appear to

graffiti,

in

pottery marks in Fig.

at

belong

to

Their analogy

particularly remarkable.

is

of these animal figures are arranged in squares, as on the

red pottery with white paintings.

may

quote

copied by

graffiti

Petrie.'

The most important


the

some

In

must

to the primitive period, will be found in Fig. 161.

with

extremely

is

it

doubt.

specially noteworthy in this respect

as

cases

a clear line of demarcation

and

primitive graffiti
cases,

and

inscriptions,

establish

to

difficult

Certain curious representations

This remark should

perhaps indicate the use of the horse.

be taken

in

conjunction with

M.

theory of

the

Zippelius,

to

which we have recently alluded.

One

of

these

apparently

seems

to

merits

harpoon

special
into

notice.

an animal's

be stretched on the ground, with

already fixed in
that

graffiti

thrusting

of an

it.

In this representation

ivory tablet

discovered

in

the

another

see an

man

hide,

is

which

harpoon

analogy with

tomb of King Den

Setui, of the first dynasty.^

Wady Hammamat,

In
Nile

has

Valley with

noted

several

graffiti

road which connects

the great

the coast of

the

which

Red

also

Sea,

seem

to

the

M. Golenischeff
belong to the

primitive period, notably representations of the ostrich, and even


'

The

primitive graffiti can be distinguished from those of the historic period

See Schweinfurth, G., Aegyptische


Die Umschan, vii. 1903, p. 806: " Diese
Tierbilder versetzen uns im Geiste in jene Zeiten, da die Urbevvohner von
Aegypten und Nordwestafrika ahnliche Zeichnungen in die Felswande
einkratzten, die in den Sandsteintalern Oberagyptens haufig angetroffen werden
und von deren hohem Alter die braunliche Patina Zeugnis ablegt, mit der die
Linien bedeckt erscheinen, wahrend datierte Inschriften aus der Zeit der 5. und
6. Dynastic (bei el Oab), die z. T. iiber die iilteren hinweg eingeritzt wurden,
aussehei. a.'s wi'ren sie von gestern, wie Prof. Sayce bezeugen kann."
De Mokcan, Rechcrches sur les origines de V Rgypte, i. fig. 487, p. 162.
^ Petrie, Ten Years' Digging in Egypt, p.
75, fig. 57.
* Fetme, Royal Tombs, ii. pi. vii.
Abydos, i. pi. xi. 8.
1
by

the

patina

Tierhilder

ah

which covers them.

Kieselartefakte,

in

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

204

^
^in^

//////

,r-A^

,,

,j

I?)

'^J^

f?i^^j^/fr

^w

Fig.

The

i6 I. -Graffiti

from

thf.

!-^>

Rocks of Upper Egypt.

Oran.
from the south of the province of
three figures at the bottom are

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


1

man

We

lassoing an ostrich.

which occurs here, although

and

the primitive boats,

it

also

mention a boat

not absolutely identical with

is

it

must

should perhaps be attributed to the

The quarries of Silsileh have


number of similar graffiti, personages,

Ancient Empire.^
a large

conclusion,

In

etc.-

we must mention

and more especially of a boat which

the

is

also

furnished

animals,

ships,

of El

graffiti

Kab,

an exact counterpart of

tomb of Hierakonpolis, which we

of the

those

205

shall

presently-

consider.^
It

is

scarcely necessary to mention that similar graffiti have

among

found

been

among

widely from

peoples differing

and even

the Australians,^ the Bushmen,'"'

prehistoric graves."

the Egyptian graffiti

each other

the French

in

most striking resemblance exists between

and those

the south of the province of

in

The comparison,
Oran here the identity is almost absolute.
vases (Fig. in),
on
the
engraved
designs
when extended to the
is exceedingly striking, and we find here a new proof of the close
;

connection between the primitive Egyptians and the Libyans.'

M. Zaborowski has attempted


constitute

the embryonic forms

"

demonstrate that these

to
"

of hieroglyphic writing.'^

graffiti

What

have already said on the subject of primitive hieroglyphs will

we

GoLEMSCHEFF,

'

Iiiscriptio)is

(ill

Ouady

Hatnfnaifiaf, in the

Mcmoires dc

Section oricnlale de la Socle tc impcrialc russe d'archeologle (ia Russian),


pi. V.

1-3, pi.

hi

Egypt:

Prehistoric

Rock

January ist, 1898, fig. 7, with four photos.


3 Green, Prehistoric Drawings at El Kab,

Drazulngs,

in the

of Biblical A?-chcEology, xxv. 1903. pp. 371, 372, with


* Grosse, Les Debuts de PArt,
pp. 125 et seq.
^

Grosse,

lb.

p.

138 et seq. and

l-'Afrlque, Paris, 1897,


^

See,

la

1887,

-xiii.

Antiquities

ii.

among

Comptc rendu

pi.

iii.

others, L. Capit.\.\, L.

viii.

the

Graphic,

Proceedings of the Society


pi.

and

fig.

Christoll, Fred., A/c sud de

V Anthropologic,

xi. 1900, p. 78 et seq.


H. Breuil, Les gravures sur les parols
grottc de Combarelles, in the Revue de lEcole

in

&

des grottes prehlstorlqiies, la


d'anthropologle de Paris, xii. 1902, pp. 33-46.
'
Bonnet, Les gravures sur roches du

d'ethnographle,

in

1889, pp. 149-158

and

fig.

sud Oranals, in the Revue


Compare fig. 6 with our Fig. ill;

Ouelques personnages ont les bras leves dans I'attitude de I'admiration


priere.
GsELL, Les tnonuments antiques dc I'Algerle, i. Paris, 1901,
The ram bearin^^ the disc on his head, fig. 13, p. 46,
pp. 41-54, and figs. 10-14.
may be compared to our Fig. iii, Am 19.
s
Z.\BOROWSKi, Origlnes afrlcalnes dc la civilisation de Vancienne gypte,
in the Revue sclentlfique, fourth series, .\i. 1899, pp. 293, 294.

p.

155

ou de

"

la

PRIMITIVE ART

2o6

how

probably be sufficient to show

EGYPT.

IN

small a foundation there

such an explanation.

for

The

moreover, the earliest of which

graffiti,

may

probably date

back to palaeolithic times, show points of resemblance with the

we have already seen, are more especially


met with on the vases of the black topped, and of the red polished
pottery marks, which, as

pottery.
that

It

however, with the scenes on the decorated pottery

is,

compare the paintings

should

vv-e

discovered

in

the

1899 by Mr. Green at Hierakonpolis.'

in

In the course

of the second season of excavations in this locality, a

neighbourhood reported

living in the

that, at

tomb

prehistoric

workman

the e.xtreme south-

cast of the prehistoric cemetery, there were walls with traces of

The tomb had unhappily been

painting.

years previously, but

which had been judged valueless by the


possible to date

date

least,

it

sequence

to

62,.'

The tomb was


with

render

pillagers, to

tomb, approximately at

the

two or three

pillaged

nevertheless contained sufficient pottery,

it

mud

mortar,

entirely constructed of bricks, plastered

millimetres

The

thick.

walls were

over

finally

washed over with yellow ochre or whitewash. Some of these


walls were decorated, and at the present time one of the sides,
happily the

longest, has

The lower

condition.^'

of about 27 centimetres.
the scenes

The

by a

decoration

its

in

fairly

good

This lower part was separated

line of red ochre, of a

from

width of about 2 centimetres.

task of copying these invaluable representations was extremely

and we cannot be

pillagers,

His work
primitive

various

in

artist,

sometimes effaced
on

which

it,

the action of time

sufficiently

which he brought

for the care

ground,

damaged by

the wall being

difficult,

the

retained

part was painted blue-black to a height

places was

rendered

&

OuiBELL
lb.

'

lb. p. 21, pi. l.xviii.

ii.

p.

54

and

in

once

Mr. Green

difficult
in

red,

by
had

doing so stained with red the yellow

more drew the

Green, Hierakonpolis,
;

more

who, having made his sketch

he

to

to the execution of the work.

attentive study of all the details, Mr.

grateful

and by

ii.

p.

note, by Professor Petrie.

20 et

After

figure.

Green came

to

an

the very

seq. pi. lx.\v.-l.\.\viii.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


important conclusion that the

any

to arrange his figures in

artist

apparently did not attempt

definite order

room

are inserted where he found

207

the different scenes

them, after finishing

to place

the larger objects, such as the ships.

We

now examine these representations somewhat closely


The first objects which strike us are the six large

will

(Figs. 162, 163).

boats which occupy the greater

and which

of the space,

part

remind us of the boats on the decorated pottery, and also of the

The

which we have already described.

terracotta models

difference

which distinguishes these boats from those painted on the vases


is

that

we

more of the

no

see

parallel

lines

At

the lower edge and descend vertically.

the cable for tying up the boat

over a small erection.

constructions

serve

hinder cabin
to

is

In

two

the centre

On one

cabins.

notice

slight

drawings the

the

of

seen surmounted by a post, a kind of small mast,

which emblems are attached.

This

also

is

boats a

man

seated,

is

met with on the

In the stern of one

drawings of boats on the decorated pottery.


of these

from

start

bows we

on the deck some palm branches

cast a shade

as

which

the

working a long

ending

in

relating to boats,

we

oar,

an oval blade, which acts as rudder.

As we have hitherto studied all the objects


may refer to a very serious objection which
this subject,

Basing

and which,

his

think,

is

refuted

by

has been raised on

successive discoveries.

remarks on the drawings of boats on the decorated

by M. de Morgan and Dr. Petrie, and also


on the specimens at the British Museum and at the Ashmolean
Museum, M. Cecil Torr considered that " the long curved lines,
pottery published

which have been considered as representing


rampart

of a

indications

that

the

straight

so-called oars, indicate a species of glacis

can

be

rampart

observed
;

in

this

row indicates

and, finally, that

the

ships, are in reality

shorter

that the

the

lines,

the

gap which

approach

to

the

objects considered as cabins are

in reality small

towers placed on the two sides of the entrance

to the rampart."

M. Loret has resumed M.


'

ix.

Cecil Torr's arguments, but modifying

Cecil Torr, Sur quclques prckndus navires cgyptieus,

1S98, p. 35.

in

I'

Anthropologic,

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

20S

his conclusions to

so-called

some

and greater awkwardness


the

sign

^^^

(I

with

represent,

vessels

believe," he says, " that these

less

the

in

dexterity

circumference of the Koin

all

be able to view at one glance

represents

Fig.

The

buildings.

fortified

the

drawing

the

lines

are

of

part

that a spectator facing

palisade, interrupted in front of a gateway,

two

in

perspective, the .same thing as

The curve

^>,

"

extent.

it

the

would

intended for a

which opens between

presence of the palms on the slope

Paintings on the Primitive Tomb of Hierakoxpolis.

162.

are accounted for quite naturalh', and also the standard bearing

the

emblem

Kom."by these scholars are of


to mention them here, in

or totem of the tribe inhabiting the

Somie of the arguments employed


great importance,

it is

very desirable

order to refute them as far as possible.

To

begin with, there

is

one

important to note.

fact

It

is

the

discovery of a drawing on a vase of a sailing vessel (Fig. 91),


the

general

form of which resembles closely one of the repre-

sentations of the Hierakonpolis tomb.^


'

-'

Kdin or Tell
LoRET,

Le

mound,

mot

(1

the Revue Egyptologique,


^

Compare

hillock.

"^ o

'^^

P^^ns,

1902,

p.

7. E.xtract from

x.

the hieroglyph of the boat in Lepsius, Denhniile/*,

Y\.

18,

where

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


Torr and Loret object

above and

found

are

that,

209

although gazelles and

below these

so-called

ostriches

vessels,

fish

and

aquatic animals are never represented.

On

point

this

is

it

84 and 93, where the


crocodiles, and fish.
"

lines, if

of the

boats

are

in fact, are

P.mntings

163.

figured," they say,

and not from the lower

hull,

on one of the boats

Fig.

refer

to

our

Figs.

by hippopotami,

surrounded

"and the

vertical or

they represent oars, should start from the upper

The oarsmen,
said,

necessary to

Rowers are never seen

oblique
line

only

part."

not represented

but as we have just

the Hierakonpolis tomb, there

in

is

on the Pri.mitive Tomb of Hierakonpolis.

managing the rudder. Again, it may be admitted, without


any way disproving the identification of these drawings, that

sailor
in

Even

the vertical lines are not oars.

was inclined

An

argument of

far

who has found

Petrie,

where

tions,

to consider

it

is

to represent a ship.

of Seti

I.,

at

at that date

them rather as

greater importance

these

same

impossible

to

lines

in

is

the

prow
'

De

by Dr.

Egyptian representa-

In fact, in one of the halls of the temple

Abydos, there

rises well

in

supplied

doubt that they are intended

is

a very careful

bark of the god Sokaris, and the prow, which

Kunst,

M. de Morgan

fishing tackle.^

above the caoin.

SeeSxEiNDORFF, Etne

drawing of the
is

very high,

neiie A?'l cigypiischer

Aegypttaca, Festschrift fiir Gevrg Ebers, p. 125,

Morgan', Reclicrches sur

ies origines,

ii.

is

p. 91.

14

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

2IO

with

actually

decorated

we

on the primitive boats.^

find

of

series

lines

It

a curious

is

those

recalling

fact

that
the

that

sacred bark has three oars with broad blades, acting as rudder,

such as

seen on one of the prehistoric representations.-

is

The

temple of Denderah also presents a bark of the god Sokaris, of

where the

later date,

As

lines

we speak

palm branches placed

to the

place where the pilot

is

of have almost disappeared.^

in

the

bows,

the\-

shade the

seated.*

With regard to the emblems placed on a post above the


cabin, we must agree with Dr. Petrie and M. de Morgan in
considering them to be signs indicating either the proprietor of
the

boat,

the

or

tribe,

the

port

of

Petrie,

sailing.'

this

in

connection, recalls a storv told bv Strabo of the sign of a ship

Standards

Fig. 164.

lost

in

the

Red Sea

o.\

the Primitive Boats.

when exposed

in

the

market-place

at

Alexandria it was recognized by a mariner of Gades (Fig. 164).


In the space unoccupied by the boats various figures are
represented, principally relating to hunting wild beasts, which
are lassoed, or caught in a trap shaped like a wheel.

The trapped

animals are gazelles of various kinds (Fig. 165), and this drawing
recalls the decoration

of a cup discovered

by Mr. Maclver

at

1
Petrie, Archceo logical Notes, in Cal'lfield, The Te?nple of the Kings at
Abydos, London, 1902, pp. 15, 16, and pi. vi.

3
^

See Fig. 91.


Mariette, DenderaJ}, iv. pi. 64 (after Petrie).
Budge, A History of Egypt,
PErRiE, Naqada, p. 48.

origines,

ii.

figs.

p.

71 et seq.,

is

for the sign of the tribe to


*

i.

where

thoroughly discussed. De Morgan, Rechcrches stir les


The author believes rather that it is intended
240-264, and p. 92.

the question of barks

De Morgan,

which the proprietor of the vessel belongs.


les origines, ii. p. 93, and fig. 247-264.

Rccherches sur

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


Amrah, now

El

in

upper part of the


attacks a lion

(?).

left,

Another personage

is

the

to

various

of

antelopes

on,

birds,

one

possibly

recognize equidas

be perfectly

in

in

man

would

it

the

be

Farther
rash

to

here and there, and

are scattered

bustard.

On

brandishing a ckib

drawing a bow.

which

kinds,

attempt to identify precisely


also

Museum, Oxford.^

University

the
wall,

21

It

very tempting to

is

the figures on the right

and to do so w^ould

accordance with the observations we have already

made.

On

Fig.

one of the boats, above the stern cabin, there are two

165.

G.\ZELLES

caught

ix

a Tr.\p and Religious

Representations.

(?)

Painted tomb of Hierakonpolis.

human figures roughly


women are standing, their arms

sketched

small

above the boat three

raised in the attitude characteristic

of dancing.

The most
line
left

interesting scenes are depicted under the boats in a

immediately above the painted base of the

we

see a

man

holding a cord, which

of three crouching captives,


the head with

his
'

mace.

whom

This

is

MacIver & Mace,

is

tied

On

the

round the necks

preparing to smite on

he

is

an

important

loc. cit. pi.

wall.

xv. 17.

representation,

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

212

which gives us the prototype of the monuments of the Ancient


Empire, such as the bas-reh"efs of W'ady Magarah or of Sinai,

where the king of Egypt brandishes

enemy.

whom

of
is

In

front

holds

in

his

mace over a vanquished

of this group there are two personages, each

hand the sceptre which

his

age

in the historic

the attribute of divinities and of the king, and which does not

appear

in

any other

capacity, except in the hands of shepherds.^

Immediately afterwards one comes


of a

man

stand on their hind


figured

We

feet.

engraved on

the

group a

religious

It

(?)

group consisting

by the neck while they

have already spoken of a similar

ivories

Hierakonpolis (Fig. loS).


this

to a strange

standing, holding two lions

is

discovered

especially

scene,

in

to avoid

difficult

temple

the

of

recognizing

in

when one compares

it

with analogous representations of the Aegeo-Cretan people.

Continuing the examination of the wall to the


antelope caught

an

then, a

by a

another antelope which


the position

in

lasso

man, who appears


is

to

be

we

right,

see

hunter has disappeared)

(the

dismembering with

his

hands

lying on the ground with the feet

tied,

we know already on the two pieces discovered at


Ma}- we not recognize in this scene

Hierakonpolis and Abydos.


the capture of the victim by
it

Abydos,-

at

and

then

means of the
the

dismemberment

probably before a religious symbol.


exactly what
I

am much

is

''

(Fig.

It

the object in front of the

inclined

to

recognize

would confirm an hypothesis which

work

lasso, as Seti

in
I

is

the

animal

of the
to

difficult

man who
it

depicted

I.

is

pillar

put forward

in

identify

sacrificing.
fjl,

which

a former

164).

V. ScHEiL, To7nbeaux thebains, le Tombeau d'Apoiii, in the Memoires publics


paries membrcs de la Mission archeologiqiie frajifaise dii Cairc; v. p. 610, and [)1. ii.
- Mariette,
Fouilles exeaitees en Egypie, en Nubie et an Soudan, Paris,
On comparing the text of Unas, 423, and Teti, 242, with these
1867, ii. pi. 50.
scenes, I am disposed to recognize the hunting of Apis quoted on the Palermo
stone.
See Maspero, review of Pellegri.ni, Nota supra una Iscrizione Egizia
Naville, La pierre
del Museo di Palerrno, in the Revue critique, 1899, p. 4.
de Palertfio, in the Recucil de travau.x; xxv. 1903, p. 71. Schaefer, Ein
Bruchstiich altiigyptischer Annakfi, Berhn, 1902, pp. 21, 23.
^ Capart,
La fete de frapper les Anoic, in the Revue de I'histoire des
religions, xHii. 1901, pp. 266, 267. Spiegelberg, Der Stabkiiltus bei den Aegypten,
'

in the

Recueil des travaux, xxv. 1903, p. 190, note

3.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


Following

scene of dismemberment

this

and three women

(Fig. 26),

We

would also point

men

of

figures

sceptre

{})

find

walking,

two groups

a reproduction

crouching on the ground.

on another wall of the tomb, two

out,

the

Both carry a

progressed.

we

we have already given

of combatants, of which

213

of painting

style

staff

curved at

having already

the top, and also the

forked at the base.^

The information given on the subject of the colours employed


The ground, as we have already stated, is yellow
ochre or white. " The blacks are a blue-black, and do not seem
is

as follows.

pounded charcoal.

to be

All

the boats, except one, have been

painted white, over which a wash of bright green,


structure,

probably

exception

is

a boat

which

stern,

was drawn

many

pounded
with

high prow and

in

first

red

ochre

instances overlapped

this

by a blue-black spot on

we attempt

to

this."

of

hunting

comparatively low

outline of the figures

The eyes were put

outline.

in

the pupil being represented

recapitulate, in

scenes,

in

The

put.

depicted on the paintings and


consist

granular

been

the white of the dresses has in

with a thick pasty lump of white

If

The

painted blue-black.

is

had

malachite,

of

few words, the scenes

we should say

graffiti,

navigation,

Hierakonpolis, of religious scenes.

We

and

that they

possibly,

as

at

must remember that on

the decorated pottery, independently of the skeuomorphic designs,

we have only found representations of

We may

why

ask

the

primitive

similar character.

Egyptian inscribed

such

scenes on the rocks, on the sides of tombs, and on his earthen-

ware vases?

Was

The

has

question

important

a propos
primitive

evidence
interest

pdnturcs

this

wc

artistic

been solved, at least

et

dcs gravurcs dc I'dgj

Egyptian culture, we
on

if

recently

imperative

in

by M. Salomon Reinach on L'Art

article
lies

he obeying an

and perhaps

subjecl,

linger over
'

OuiBELL

lb. p. 21.

l:i

&

it

for a short

it

will

magic

du reuuc?

The

not

time.

GRt:.N, Hierakonpolis,

ii.

pi. Ixxix.

txlitthropologic, xiv. 1903, pp. 257-266.

an

et la

contributes

believe,

craving?

part, in

invaluable

be without

PRIMITIVE ART IX KGYPT.

214

M. Salomon

Reinach

expresses himself on the subject

thus

of the art of the cave-men

To

"

begin with,

have established

what has long since been observed, that designs borrowed from
also what
the animal world are by far the most numerous
;

me

appears to

and fishermen

these

and

for food

may

be

tribes of hunters

These un-

be classed as undesirable.

animals include the great feline

tiger,

by

animals being desirable, while others which

were not thus used


desirable

may

the animals represented

be new, that

to

termed exclusively such as are used

tribe,

such as the

lion

the hyena, jackal, the wolf, a;id various kinds of snakes,

etc.

of this fact an important deduction

is

that the troglodytes, in drawing, in

From the establishment


arrived at the knowledge
and

painting,

fix

visual

their

companions admiration

their

merely seek to occupy their

did not

in sculpture,

leisure, or to

memories

in

The

dexterity.

their

for

from

order to gain

severe

choice which presided over their artistic activity implies for this

same

activity

some object

alleged up to the

it.

painting

or

They knew what they were doing


They were not idlers and dreamers, in-

present.

and why they did


scribing

those which have been

than

less trite

any

no matter what,

silhouette,

familiar

following the fancy of the moment."

Availing himself, therefore, of the contributions of ethnolo<;y,


the
as

French scholar
established

simple

and of

and
all

recalls the

fundamental principles of magic,

by Frazer's grand work.

logical

ideas serve

The

manipulations.

the

as
first

that

is

its

which have once been

contact, but

continue to act on each other as


In the

first

case

we have

of

all

" like

if

imitative

have

produces

in

"

still

the

like,

things

ceased to be

the contact

magic

very

ceremonies,

cause"; and second, that

or that an effect resembles


in

two

magic,

In

basis

so,

persisted."

second, sym-

Imitative magic consists in representing a being,

pathetic magic.

an object, or an action with the object of bringing into existence


the being or the object which is represented, or to provoke the
action

which

is

sympathetic magic

imitated,
;

perhaps

at

times

independently of

sympathetic magic, on the contrary,

combined with imitative magic.

Frazer, T/w Goldcfi Bough,

i.

p. 9,

2nd

ed. 3 vols. 1900.

is

always

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

When we

existence

into

we

that

believe

view

of

or

with

dealing

are

upon

magic,

imitative

man

sentation

has any influence on the being which

owing

entirely

is

it

nothing of the

is

the

to

fact

something which has emanated

would be the case with


"

One

with

which

is

taken

that

into

account
figure."

reflection

in

while

for

the repre-

represented,

mirror or

is

forbidding

the

in

water.

to inspire people holding

is

and which certain forms


in

is

if

representation

this

dread of being represented

widespread

human

In fact,

sort.

actually

from that being, absolutely as

of the consequences of this idea

this belief

the

his

mentality.

we

it,

primitive

there

eas\',

figure in order to bring

act

to

not

is

primitive

of

speak of drawing an animal

animal

that

arc considering the distinction

from the point

regarded

as

we

case

In the

215

effigy, a fear

in

of religion

have

painting or sculpture of

These general ideas of the fundamental principles of magic


among primitive people need development but this branch of
;

study would lead us

from our subject.

far

Frazer's work,- requesting the reader to forgive

can only refer to

my

being unable

him more completely the proofs of my assertion.


French primitive man, according to M. .Salomon Reinach,
must have drawn and inscribed figures of the desirable animals

to lay before

upon the walls


the

like,

or

of

the

of multiplying the

of

with the object

caverns,

" It is

species.

procuring

the expression

very intense religion, consisting of magic

of a very crude but

practices having for their sole object the supply of daily food."

An

interesting

confirmation

method of viewing

of this

'

the

matter has been supplied by the researches of Messrs. Spencer

and Gillen among the aboriginal

tribes

Australia"

of Central

"These tribes," as M. Reinach relates, "periodically celebrate a


ceremony called iiiticJiiuma, differing according to the various
clans, but
ticular

'

'

species,

whether animal or vegetable, which

Reinach, La sculpture en Europe avant

p. 260.
-

having the immediate object of multiplying the par-

Fr.azer,

loc. cit.

i.

p.

les

is

the totem

influences grcrorotnaines,

295-297.

Frazer, The Golden Bough, 2nd ed.


Reinach, loc. cit. p. 265.

3 vols

Macmillau, London, 1900.

PRIMITIVE ART IX I^GYPT.

2i6
of the

Describing the ceremonies of the emu clan, they

tribe.

fSpencer and Gillen) state that certain of the clan

let

their

blood drop on a surface of three square metres until the

impregnated with

well

When

it.

own

soil is

the blood has dried they take

and charcoal, and on the area reddened


by the blood they paint the sacred image of the cnui totem
pipe-clay, yellow ochre,

with yellow and black circles, which

represent

either before or after they are deposited.

that

men

the

of the

come

clan

It is

the

bird's

round

this

crouch and sing

to

eggs
figure

chorus,

in

while the chief, or master of the ceremonies, explains the details

we have an
image

Having been told the object of these rites,


example of the magic use of a painted

drawings.

of the

incontestable

to induce the multiplication of the model."

Sometimes these

figures

are

on the sides of rocks

painted

women and children. Among


these representations there are animals, human heads, and the
imprints of the footsteps of women of the mythological period

in places

which are

strictly taboo for

of Central Australia."

the troglodytes

for

with
but,
is

M. Reinach,

Certainly," says

of

the

" it

reindeer

age totem

of the Aruntas of Australia

those

short of wishing to renounce

more reasonable

at

to search for analogies

among

the

agricultural

Now

the

representation in
for

the

that

Egyptians,

permit us to maintain or to
^

Reinach,

loc. cit. p.

with

studied

the
in

upset this

the

of

have

to that of the

Aruntas, as studied by Messrs. Spencer and Gillen."

we have

or

show whether the

clearly

primitive

tribes

Gaul

food, to the exclusion, as

was similar

the

it

the depths of our

religious condition of the troglodytes

Do

time

present

people of

already remarked, of carnivora, will

manifestations

identical

among hunting

than

caves, of animals suitable

to postulate

cults

attempt at explanation,

all

France.

of to-day
historic

would be rash

numerous

artistic

preceding pages,

theory?

Can we, on

262.

&

Gillen, The Native Tribes of Ce?itrnl Australia, London, 1899,


figs. 124 and 132.
See, on the subject of the ititichiuma cereirionie!? the work
by Dl'rkheim, E., Sur le totcmisyne, in the Amice sociolo^iqice, v. 1902, pu. 82-121.
Compte rendu by S. Reinach in r Anthropologic, xii. 1902, pp. 664-9.
*

Spencer

Reinach,

loc. cit. p.

263.

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.


coming
religious

The
Eg\'pt

close of this chapter, say that the representations

to the

Egyptians

primitive

of the

condition was
patina which

As we have

" will

remote age

The

themselves to
possession

in

fresh

of a

religious object,
It

flotilla

tribes

Upper

which they must be

to

their

Aruntas"?
attri-

already said, animals and boats are most

of

Their object was to ensure success

and

to the primitive hunting,

tions.

whether

prove

covers the graffiti of the rocks of

frequently found represented.

with a numerous

clearly

similar to that of the

to the

testifies

buted.

217

possibly to

also

for fishing,

nomad

localities
flotilla.

or even

hunters

in

the

the tribe

suppl>-

for warlike

could

Nile Valley,

if

expedi-

transport

easily

they were

These boats possibly had also

and were used

in

magical ceremonies.^

should be remembered, with reference to this subject, that

Egyptian divinities are frequently represented in barks,


and that the sacred barks play an important part in Egyptian

the

by Salomon Reinach, Le navlre da cholera, in


G. A. Dorsey, The Dzvamish Indian Spirit
Boat and its use, in the Free Museum of Science and Art, Department of
Archccology, University of Pennsylvania, Bulleti}t, iii. 1902, p. 227, with five plates.
Coinpte re7idH by Dr. L. L[aloy], in VAnthropologie, xiv. 1903,] pp. 349-351M. Salomon Reinach quotes an ivory boat of the prehistoric age, belonging to a
private collection at Munich, in which, instead of men seated, there are birds.
He adds " I have often questioned whether the boats on the vases publislied
by M. de Morgan, which Mr. Cecil Torr has attempted to identify as enclosures
with ostriches, are not intended for funerary barks where the large birds repreThe part played by the ostrich egg in the ancient
sent the deceased persons.
the personages on
religions of the East would be in favour of my hypothesis
^

See the curious

I'Anthropologie,

xiii.

article

1902, p. 788.

the vases in question might be interpreted, moreover, as mourners, either male


or female.
I must also say that the birds are not depicted as in the boats, but

above them, a fact which is scarcely explained by any other interpretation which
has been adopted on this subject." Review of Weigher, Der Seelejivogel in der
alte7t Litteratur tmd Kunst, L.&i'psic, 1902, in ih.e: Revue Archcologique, 1903,11.
It must be remembered that the bark of the god Sokaris, already
pp. 378-9.
mentioned, is ornamented at the prow with bird figures. I think that when
ostriches and gazelles are placed above as well as below the boats, it is because
the artist has distributed his smaller figures in the vacant spaces after drawing
the principal ones. On the subject of the part played by ostrich eggs, I will add
to what 1 have stated in the chapter on personal adornment that Wilkinson
infers that they were suspended in the temples of the Egyptians as they still
are in the churches of the Copts.

Marshall, James, Sotne points of rcsetnblance

betweeii ancient nations ,^f the East and West, in the Proceedings
of Biblica. Arclur.ology, xiv. 189 1-2, p. 6.

of the Society

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

2i8
religion.'

It

cult in the

assembled

in

certain

under certain circumsacred

localities

to

the

same way that the Australians celebrate the iitticJiiiivia


which are always the same.- Greek authors

certain localities,

in

relate

ually

how numerous barks


went

The
it

to .suppose that,

pcrmi.s.sible

is

the tribes

stances,

laden with entire populations habit-

to Bubastis to celebrate the feast of the goddess.''

ideas of death entertained by

comprehensible why

easily

primitive people render

all

the walls of

tombs were inscribed

with scenes analogous or identical with those found on the rocks,


the purport of which savours of magic.

If

the living multiplied

made

paintings and sculptures of useful animals and

representa-

tions of boats with a utilitarian object, the deceased,

who

tomb

would have

of the

lived a life scarcely different to that

living,

in

his

a similar desire to benefit from the result of these representations.

The tombs

Egypt were extremely small, and could scarcely


Thus the walls could not suffice
contain the contracted corpse.
in

the representation

for

were, therefore,
provisions,

his

find,

and

necessary

sides

and

this

with

painted

are

of scenes

drawn on the

we

that

is

it

for

and

boats

have

reason

the dead.

that

The

animals.

already

for

They

of the jars which contained


so

many

plants

mentioned, are

vases

that

aloes,

we

which

pots, and still retain in Egypt to the present


day the property of averting the evil eye. As to the dancing
scenes which we believe we ha\e recognized, they would be
explained by the funerary and magical nature of primitive dances.
We will speak of them in a special chapter.

are cultivated in

Certain figures of the Hierakonpolis painted tomb, moreover,

confirm

the

religious

nature of these representations, and they

we suppose, the ceremonies of the


When Pharaonic Eg\pt makes its appearance

reproduce, as

'

in the

paintings

See, lor e.xample, Lefkbure, Rites c^yptiots: Consh-uction ct protection des

edifices, p.

86 ^/

sc(i.

&

Spencer

herodatits,

loc. cit. fig. 24, p. 171, and fig. 33, p. 195.


See Wieue.man.x, Herodots zwcites Bitch init

Gillex,
ii.

60.

ErUUitcru7igen, Leipzic, 1890,


^

cult.^

On

the subject of

tlie

p.

253 et

saclilicken

seq.

cult of the pillar T,

am

struck with the frequent

LLi

appearance of
loc. cit. passim.

tiie

pole in Australian ceremonies.

Inde.x,

"Pole."

See Spencer

&

Gille.x,

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

219

and sculptures of the tombs of the Ancient Empire,


also scenes

doubt

is

but

arc

things

that

navigation

of

seems

Here,

where

no longer possible, we are certain of the reason of these

They

representations.

the deceased

for

occur repeatedly.

still

it

Figures of animals and

changed.

httle

exist solely for the purpose of procuring

the realization of the objects depicted on the

tomb. The religious formulae which accompany


show the Egyptian of historic times employing
magic methods in order to ensure to the deceased a peaceful
and happy existence, methods which in reality are only the development of those employed by his primitive predecessors. No
doubt this is the explanation of numerous primitive sculptures.
We have mentioned models of boats, and also of animals.
of

walls

the

these scenes

On

In Egypt it
As we have

M. Salomon Reinach.
that

are

represented.

of the undesirable animals


frog,

may

point a grave objection

this

lion, jackal,

is

be made to the theory of


not only desirable animals

seen, there are also

figures

the hippopotamus, crocodile, scorpion,

monkey, and even the

with the body

griffin

of a lion and the head of a bird.

The answer which meets this objection appears to us a simple


The primitive Egyptians, when we first know them, are
already advanced to such a degree of civilization that we may

one.

be

justified in

supposing

that, in addition to

magic formulas, the

object of which was to secure a supply of food, they also possessed


religious beliefs of higher development, such, for

animal

cults.

The monuments

of ancient

Egypt

example, as the
afford sufficient

proof of the existence of such cults at the commencement of

Egyptian history

to enable us to recognize, in the

the goddess Thueris

^
;

in

the crocodile, the

scorpion, the goddess Selkit

in

hippopotamus,

god Sebek

the

in

the frog, the goddess Hekit

in

The figures of the hippopotamus are perhaps intended to enable the


See Prisse
deceased to enjoy the pleasure of hippopotamus hunting.
D'AvENNES, Histoirc dc Vart cgypticn, atlas ii. pi. x. At tlie British Museum there
is a statue in breccia of the goddess Thueris in hippopotamus form, which was
but as doubts
at first attributed to the Saitic period, then to the archaic ag'i
'

have been raised as to its authenticity, I have not dared to make use of it as
a proof. See Budge, A History of Egypt, ii., Egypt under the Greal Pyramid
Builders, fig. p. 5, Britisli Museum, No. 35,700.

"

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

220

Sekhmet

the lion, the goddess


the god xAnubis

god Mentu,

the god Thot

in the ape,-

The

etc.

god Atum

or the

in

in the jackal,

the griffin, the

cults of these divinities apparent!)- did not

developments

exist at this age with all their later

the fact that these Egyptian

but

see in

of the historic age were

divinities

represented by these animals, the proof that from primitive times

they had been the object of a

cult.

If

were possible

it

me

for

to

enter here into details of theories relating to fetishism such as


is
it

practised

by the negroes of the coast of Guinea, or of totemism,

would be easy to make


animals,

these

and

on which

existence

desirable.

the

of

Thus

the

it

boats

of

how

could happen that

it

entire

tribe

well-being

depended, became actually

theory proposed by M. Salomon

among

finds a striking confirmation

Models

clear

was supposed that the

it

Reinach

the primitive Egyptians.

frequently occur

Egyptian

in

tombs of

Pharaonic times, and also models of houses have been found.

The primitive tombs have yielded representations of servants,


women, and of dwarfs, whose presence may be explained in
the same way.
The servants are given to the deceased to
accompany him in the other life, and the numerous statues of

of

servants found in the mastabas of the Ancient


the

to

persistence

of

Wives

custom.

this

Empire bear witness


accompan\'

their

husbands, and a statuette discovered at Naqada, with a model


of a

bed,-^

representations

similar

recalls

Dwarfs and deformed persons served


did the buffoons for the living

as

sentations on the

The

religious

next

world.'^

The

On

to

and

Pharaonic times.

amuse

here,

indicate

figures of captives,
difficult

the subject of lions

the

deceased,

the

the

again,

tombs of the Ancient Empire confirm

texts

would be more

of

repre-

this view.

importance of dwarfs

in

the

which we have previously mentioned

to

explain

and apes see

if

also

the

foundation

Lefebure,

rites

of

Kiies egyptietts

Constructioti et protection des edifices, p. 52 et seq.


^

The

figures of apes are

perhaps intended to provide the deceased with pet

See Lepsius, Denkmdler, ii. 13.


Petrie, Naqada, pi. xx.xvi. 83, and p. 41.
Maspero, ^r une formule du Livre des Pyrajnides,

animals.
'
*

mythologie et darcheologie egyptiennes,

ii.

pp. 429-443.

in

the Etudes de

SCULPTURE AND PAINTING.

221

tombs, of temples, and of houses amongst the primitive people

come

not

did

our

to

These arc victims

presence.^

monument, and Egyptian

It

New Empire furnish


may be considered

house,

Egyptians

not

surprising that

dead

the

succeed in entirely

Theban tomb

primitive

the

many

contribute so

say of

primitive

all

tomb, between

the

The tomb

difference.

temple

the

their

temples

objects similar

This coincides with the conception

to

temple, and

the

be no essential

to

of

us with a conclusive proof of this.-

to those found in the tombs.

of the

for

guardians

as

representations on a

Abydos

of Hicrakonpolis and

sacrificed

civilization did not

The

banishing this custom.


of the

and indicate the motive

aid

nations

of

the

which there seems


house of the

the

is

probably either the house of the living

is

god or the tomb of the dead god.

Unfortunately

briefly indicate these points, without

entering into the develop-

we can only

ments which are not directly connected with our subject.

The

results of

that of radical

sculptures and

our investigations

differences

paintings

chapter tend to show

in this

there are scarcely

any between the

of the primitive Egyptians and those

of Pharaonic times.

The

following

monuments,

show

will

this

manner

we can

that

the

in

that

if

but the

same manner

follow

it

primitive

the

to

the style

step
art

by

Pharaonic

earliest

of art productions was

was effected

transformation

transformed,

introduced,

devoted

chapter,

step.

in

so gradual a

New

elements were

was only changed by them

as that in which

nation itself alters by

frequent admixture of foreign blood.

MTo-nseur],

E.,

review of Sebillot, Lcs travaux publics et les tnines datts


de tons les pays, Paris, 1894, in the Bulletin de

les traditions et les superstitions

Folklore,

ii.

fasc.

iii.

iv.

1893,

p.

177,

where the bibliographical indications

The same primitive beliefs may


Le but de ces sacrifices est de procurer

relating to this point are to be found.

also

explain certain animal figures.

a la

"

construction un g(5nie protecteur.''


-

les

Maspero, Le tombeau de Mentouhikhopshouf,

in

the

inembres de la Missioji archeologique fratifaise au Cairo,

Mcmoires publics par


v.

fasc.

3,

pp. 435-468.

222

CHAPTER

V.

THE EARLIEST PHARAOSIC MONUMENTS.

DURING

the winter of 1893-4, in the course of excavations

on the

site

of Koptos, Petrie and Ouibell

of the temple

number of stone monuments " quite apart from


They comprised three
anything known in Egyptian work."
discovered

human

statues

We

any metal

possible to

we have seen
assign them

owing

that,

The

characteristic

Min.

The

by a

slight

attitude

gro(;ve in

front

the

position

is

to

hold

Min

it

in

first

in

the

Egyptians to the

god

to

and are marked only


the knees are scarcely

project

arm

right

a whip,

the

joined,

and behind

of the

representations of the god

of being raised
fist

and

period

personage standing

assigned by the

legs are parallel

discoveries,

150).

The arms, roughly worked,

indicated.

body

represent

statues

three

to recent

position in the classified series

their

from the primitive

remains, extending

The

and a

lions,

tool.

Egyptian dynasties (Figs. 142 and

the

three

have previously had occasion to speak of the lions and

the bird, and

of

size,

life

and are entirely hammer-worked, showing no trace of the

bird,

chisel or of

is

considerably

over

but

differs

little

from

the classical period


it

is

from

that
;

of

instead

hanging down the

side.

clenched, and a hole pierced through the hand shows

some kind of emblem, possibly the


The only garment indicated is a girdle formed of
material wound eight times round the body one end

that the figure should hold

whip

itself.

a piece of
falls

down

the

right

side,

broadening

Petrie, Koptos,

to

p. 7.

the

base (Fig.

166).

THE EARLIEST PHARAOXIC MONUMENTS.


On

this

end

there

arc

various

indicated

designs,

by

223

outlines

more deeply hammered, and which probably are an attempt

at

rendering embroidery.
In

the

first

statue

166.

Fig.

the

designs

are

stag's

head fixed on

Statues of the god Min discovered at Koptos.

Ashmolean Museum,

O.Ktbrd.

of which enters the mouth of the animal


two pteroceras shells.

a Stake, the top

below

On

this are

the

second statue there are also two

two saws of
poles,

the

saw-fish

of

the

Red

Sea,

ptv=;roceras

and,

shells,

fiually,

on the top of which are ."xed emblems identical

two
with

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

224
the

which

sign

Min, and

the god

reproduction (Fig.

On

used

the

of

the sign engraved upon a slate


Amrah, of which we have given a

EI

at
62,).

the third statue the designs are

poles with

name

writing the

for

recalHng

discovered

palette

on was

later

Min emblem

are

The two

more complex.

separated, as in the preceding

specimen, by the saws of saw-fish, the teeth of which are in this

worked with a

case

knotted pole

two

is

is

a drawing of an ostrich.

pteroceras

large

elephant, a hyaena

(?),

whose

hammered.

and an ox, the

In addition, there

indefinite
feet

figure,

then

an

of which are placed

167).

have already had occasion to notice similar figures on

decorated

the

an

shells,

on small triangular objects^ (Fig-

We

of being

joined to one of the Min emblems, and below

the other there


are

instead

flint-knife

pottery,

where we

placed on

are

feet

men hunting animals

find

a succession of triangles, apparently

On

intended to represent mountains (Fig. 88).

sculptured ivory from Hierakonpolis elephants

We

standing on these triangles (Fig. 109).


these archaic statues with

the

primitive

a fragment

of

are likewise seen

may, then, connect


even though

remains,

they are manifestly intended for a representation of an Egyptian


-divinity.

Without insisting here on the deductions which have

been drawn from the presence of these statues at Koptos, we

may

say, in

those

passing, that they provide a powerful

who wish

Red
With

statues,

age

is

east coast of Africa, on

the exception of Professor Petrie, the discoverer of these

the only scholar

who

has attempted to determine their

Professor Steindorff, of Leipzic.

Petrie, Kopios,

fbeen found, but

it is

pi.

iii.

much

iv. and pp.


mutilated.

Judging from

Petrie, Koptos, pp.

8, 9.

7, 8.

It

The head

shows

'

\\.\\

on the

of one of the statues has

that the

god was bearded. The

ib. pi. v.

London, 1899, p. 12.


Steindorff, Eine neue Art dgyptischer Kunst,
fur Georg Ebers, pp. 130, 140, notes ,41.
Sixteenth Dynasty,

their style

Petrie,

4 (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford).


History of Egypt from the Earliest Times to the

See Petrie,

face has suffered most.


*

the borders of

Sea.-

he attributed them to the prehistoric period.^

to

bring the dynastic Egyptians from the land

to

of Punt, situated on the


the

argument

ed.

in

Aegypiiaca, Festschrift

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.

Fig

225

the god Min.


167, Hammered Designs on the Archaic Statues of
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford

(i

and

2)

Cairo

Museum

(3

and

4).

IS

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

226

them

contrary, in a recent article, considers

This divergence of opinion cannot be ignored.

the dynastic race.^

Hierakonpolis an

At

statue

archaic

discovered, which had

Koptos was

man

Mr. Green, this represents a

the

hangs down the

a large cloak,

which reaches

figure
left

side.

to

According to

town.

standing, the

The

leg slightly

left

the

and the right

breast,

tionately long,

from

those

to

used as the threshold

The knees are summarily indicated

horizontally on

laid

similar

been

ancient

of a gateway in the wall of the

advanced.

work of

as the earliest

arm

left

is

dispropor-

arm,,

clothing consists of

the knees, fitting close

to

the

and supported by a broad band, which, passing over the

As

shoulder, leaves the right side of the chest uncovered.


statues of Min, the right

in the

hold a sceptre or

Museum, Oxford,

woman

(Fig.

The

staff,-

hand

original,

is

pierced horizontally to

now

in

Ashmolean

the

gives rather the impression of the statue of a

i68).

The same excavations


of two very important

at

Hierakonpolis led to the discovery

monuments, which have been the means

of dating a whole series

of similar objects dispersed

various

in

museums, and about which there had been much divergence of


opinion.

These objects

consist

on which figures of men and


low

fragments

M. Heuzey, the learned

relief

Museum,

of

animals

insisted

on the resemblance

fragments and the monuments

of slate

custodian
of

palettes,

sculptured

are

style

of Chaldean

very

in

Louvre

of the

between

these

M. Maspero

art.

observed points which were completely Egyptian, and believed


that for one of the fragments he could assign a date during the
rule of the

and

his

Libyan kings of the twenty-second dynasty (Sheshonk


Dr. Budge, the keeper of the Egyptian

successors).

department of the British Museum,


be

to

offered

Finally, Professor

we have already mentioned, came

to

Egypt
the

as

presents

kings

of

Steindorff, in the

the

conclusion,

them
the

article

after

and Development of Egyptian Art, in ihe Journal of the


London, June 21st, 1901, p. 594.
QuiBELL & Green, Hierakonpolis, ii. pi. Ivii. pp. 15, 16, 47.
Petrie, The Rise

Society of Arts,
-

his turn considered

Mesopotamian works imported into


by the Mesopotamian princes to

eighteenth dynasty.

'

in

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.

227

minute examination of the entire group, that these objects were


indeed Egyptian, but of the prehistoric age.^
It

polis

was

at

this

time

Ouibell

that

two pieces of the same

furthermore,

on one

characters

royal

Fig.

68.

them

of

name.

discovered

was

inscribed

Unfortunateh',

Archaic Statue discovered

.\t

Hierakon-

at

They were

class.

complete, and
hieroglyphic

in

name does

the

not

Hierakonpolis.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

known

correspond with any of those


of later date, and

at

the

to us from the royal

present time opinion

as to the e.xact position that should be assigned


'

sur

still

is

to

lists

divided
It

it.-

is,

M. de Morgan arrived at the same conclusion. See De Morgan, Recherches


ii. pi. ii. iii. fig. 864, and p. 263 ei seq., where M. Jequier compares

les origines,

them with the knife-handles shown


-

Petrie, History of Egypt

in

our Figs. 33 and 35.


the Earliest Ti?nes^

from

etc.,

5th ed.

1903,

FoucART, Les deux rots incoiiiuis d' Hierakonpoli'i, in the Comptes


rendus de V Academie des inscriptions et belles lettres, 1901, pp. 241-249. Naville,
pp.

7-9.

Les plus anciens monumejits egyptiens,


1903, pp. 206-208, 218-220.

iii.,

in

the Recueil de travaux,

etc., .x.xv.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

228

who

nevertheless, incontestable that this king,

Nar-Mer

called

is

by general agreement, belonged to the earliest period of Egyptian

He

history.

deposited several objects in the temple at Hierakon-

among them

polis,

a great slate palette and an

head, both decorated with scenes

with an instance of
use to

become

common

in

low

relief,

enormous macewhich supply us

objects diverted from their ordinary

Their discovery dispelled

ex-votos.^

to the age of similar objects,

doubt as

all

and henceforth they must be dated

from the close of the prehistoric times, or the commencement


of the dynastic era.
It is

impossible to give here a detailed description of these

interesting pieces, as

it

would be necessary
solution

of which

difficult

questions,

the

pages

nor can

attempt to indicate the

^;

history of primitive
of these objects.-^

would

occupy many

facts relating to

the

Egypt which have been drawn from the study


must content myself with giving

illustrations

adding some remarks on the analogies which we

of them, and
notice

extremely

to raise

between these pieces and those of primitive times or of

the historic period.

Basing our selection on the


our

list

style,

we should

place

first

on

a fragment at Cairo (Fig. 169), published by Professor

Steindorff.'

It

represents a boat similar to those

known

to us

Capart, La fete de frapper les Anon, loc. cit. xliii. 1901, pp. 251, 252.
Naville, Les plus miciens momi?nents cgyptiens, iii. loc. cit. p. 223.
' Legge, The Carued Slates from Hierakonpolis and elsezvherc, in the Pro1

ceedings of the Society of Biblical ArchcBology, x.xii. 1900, 125-39, ^^i'^ "'"^ plates;
New Carved Slate
Attother Carved Slate, ib. pp. 270, 271, with one plate;
Steindorff, Eine neue Art agyptischer
loc. cit. xxvi. 262, 263, with one plate.

Kiinst, in Aegyptiaca, Festschrift fiir

Georg Ebers, pp. 122-141.

J.

L. M[yres],

review of Legge, Cari'ed Slates from Hierako?tpolis and elsewhere, in the


Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxx. 1900; Anthropological Reviews
and Miscellanea, pp. 15, 16, pi. B, C, D. Capart, La fete de frapper' les Anou,
in the Revue de Vhistoire des religions, xxii. 1901, where an almost complete
bibliography will be found of the great palette of Hierakonpolis. M. Benedite,
in a

work on the new

group.
publics
pi. XI.

palette at the Louvre, gives a

Benedite, Une noiivelle palette en

par V Academic

summary study of the whole


Monuments et memoires

schiste, in (he

des inscriptiotts et belles lettres, x. 1903, pp. 105-122 and


antithetische Gruppe, in the Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich

See also Jolles, Die

deutschen Archeologischen Institut, xix. 1904, p. 37 et seq.


^ Newberry
Garstang, A Short History of Ancient Egypt, London, 1904,

&

pp. 14-19.
<

Steindorff,

loc. cit. fig. p.

124.

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


from the prehistoric remains.

one of which
already on

is

This

^^,

the bird

is

rekhyt,

surmounted by two signs


which we have met with

with relief decorations from

a vase

what may be a pictographic inscription

in

Steindorff, with

exist

229

Hierakonpolis,

(Fig. Ti).

perfect accuracy, noted the

Professor

resemblances which

between the boat here represented and those figured

in

the earliest hieroglyphs.

fragment at the Louvre and two

Fig.

169.

others

at

the

British

Fragment of a Slate Palette.


Cairo Museum.

Museum belong

together,

and united form almost a complete

In the centre there

palette^ (Fig- 170).

is

a round cavity, in-

tended apparently to contain the green paint by means of which


the divine statue or the king officiating in the temple was painted.

Surrounding the cavity are traced hunting scenes.

and

left

animals of the desert


resistance.
*

To

the right

of the palette, two bands of huntsmen are chasing the

The type

at the top there

Heuzey, J^gypte on Chaldce,

inscriptions et belles

lettres,

is

a lion offering a vigorous

of lion gives us at least


in

y^

clue to the date

the Comptcs rendii^ de I'Acndemie dis

1899, pi. of p. 66,

and pp.

62, 63.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

230

The working

of the palette.

mane

of the

recalls very exactly

the figures previously described of lions contemporary with the

kings of the

dynasty (Fig.

first

141).

The

eyes of the hunts-

men, as Steindorff remarked, are hollowed to contain a bead,


All the men represented wear the
as in the prehistoric figures.
tail

attached to the girdle, and most of them have one or two

ostrich feathers

their

in

Their weapons are characteristic

hair.

of prehistoric times.
If

it

were possible to verify the hypothesis which

ago on the subject of the two

several years

the upper end of the palette,

we should

put forward

figures inscribed

in this palette

on

have one

of the earliest instances of the use of hieroglyphic writing.-

Here, again, we see standards formed of a pole, on the top

emblem

of which an
the

primitive

is

fixed, recalling

age (Fig.

The

164).

the ensigns of boats of

figures of animals,

similar

to those on the decorated pottery, resemble also other pieces


which are more accurately dated, especially a palette discovered
at Hierakonpolis, the top of which is decorated with two running
jackals, the silhouette of the

two animals following exactly the

outline of the palette.

In

is

other

this

the

constitute

palette,

essential

the

also,

part

of the

appears

central

cavity

piece.

Here our attention

to

attracted by the weird figures of feline animals with enormously

long necks,

which we have already seen on the Hierakonpolis

ivories (Fig. 108),

and which we

shall

meet with again.

scenes

real

and imaginary creatures, as

various

There

animals represented here are somewhat surprising.

same mixture of

The

in

is

the

the hunting

depicted on the walls of tombs of the twelfth dynasty^

1 One
of the British Museum fragments is figured, with reference to the
shape of the bow, in Schurtz, Urgeschichte der Kultur, Leipsic, 19CO, p. 345,
with the astounding description, " Assyrische Jagdszene."
dii Musee
2 Capart, Melanges,
2, Remarque sur line des palettes archa'iqiies
Budge, A
Brita7t7iiqiie, in the Recueil de travatix, etc. xxii. 1900, pp. 108-uo.
History of Egypt, ii. 1902, p. 1 1, where the author is not acquainted with
Max Muller, W., Nachtrag ztc Louvre, O, in the
the preceding work.

Orientalistische Litteraticrzeitimg
3

OuiBELL

ou Chaldee,

& Green,

loc. cit.

1899,

part of a similar palette

iii.

1900, col. 433.

Heuzey, .gypte
ii. pi. xxviii. and p. 41.
and pp. 66, 67. A fragment of the lower
the MacGregor Collection at Tamworth.

Hierakotipolis,

is

pi.

in

of p. 66,

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.

iX

-^^

Fig.

170. Slate Palette with Hunting Scenes.


Louvre and British Museum.

231

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

232

171 and 172).

(Figs.

Captain
jackals,

Mr. Quibell, from information supplied by

Flower, identifies
dogs,

a leopard,

a wild bull, a giraffe,

Fig.

171.

gazelles,

antelopes,

ibex, ;oryx, stags,

vulture (more probably ,an ostrich),

and two

fantastic creatures.

One

of these

Slate Palette with Representations of Animals (Recto).

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

is

griffin

with a hawk's head, and

out of the middle of

on

its

hind

feet,

the

its

back

with birds' wings rising

the other, a jackal

body surrounded with a

(?),

girdle,

walking
appears

THE EARLIEST PHARAOXIC MONUMENTS.


to be playing a flute

a zoological
of animals,

point

(?).

Dr. Petrie remarks^ on the interest from

of view

some of them

are no longer to be found

Fig.

172.

233

presented

of species
in

by these representations
which

at the

present

day

Egypt.

Slate Palette with Representations of Animals (Verso).

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

M.
'

Bcnedite

has

Petrie, The Rise

Society

of Arts,

published a palette

recently acquired

and Development of Egyptian

xlix. 1901, p. 595.

by

Art, in ih& Jourfial\o/ the

PRIMITIVE. ART IN EGYPT.

234

him
is

in

in

Egypt

closely

the

for the

allied

figures

to

Louvre Museum

(Figs.

173 and 174).

It

Hierakonpolis palette, especially


whose outlines form the contour of

small

the

of animals

173. Slate Palette (Recto).

Fig.

Louvre Museum.

the

object,

four jackals

the

two

first

this difference,

but with
(?)

instead

that in this case there are

of two on each face.

Here appears

time a curious design treated very awkwardly

giraffes

facing

palm

tree.

We

shall

find

this

for

namely,

motive

THE EARLIEST PHARAOXIC MONUMENTS.

developed on a palette of which there are fragments

brilliantly

at the British
If

235

Museum and

we attempt

at Oxford.^

to characterize the style of these last palettes,

174. Sl.\te P.\lette (Recto).

Fig.

Louvre Museum.

which show so much similarity


say with M. Heuzey
'

"As

to

Bexedite, U)ic notiveUe palette en

puhlicz par
pi. xi.
^

V Academie

Legge.

Heczey,

See

p.

the

ornamentation, we shall

the style,
schiste,

is

it

in the

64.

in

every respect

Momunents

des inscnptions et belles lettres

228, note 2.

loc. cit. p.

in

x.

1903,

et

pp.

Memoires
105-122,

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

236
such as

we have

but

full

of energy, which attempts to render movement, and at

the

same time robust forms with

human

figures,

defined from the

but also

in

first,

a realism which

salient

muscles, not

monuments
figures

the

of

the Egyptian

Pyramid

had been shown

Fig.

175.

crude

only

in

those of animals even of the lightest

and most agile species, such as the ibex and antelope.


can be farther from

is

tim.es,

style,

as

and

if

it

exists

Nothing
early on

any one of these

to us separately, without an}- indication

Fragment of a Slate Palette (Recto).


Cairo Museum.

of

its

origin,

to Chaldaea, or Assyria, or

is

it

bordering on these, that we

small

fragment

included in this
cavity there

is

at

the

same category

British
;

Museum

part of a recumbent animal, and

second fragment at Cairo

differing very little

it."

should

also

be

here at the top of the circular

ostriches identical with those of the

one of the countries

should have assigned

is

below are two

two preceding

pieces.

carved with representations

from those on the preceding example.

Instead,

THE EARLIEST PHARAOXIC MONUMENTS.


however, of being scattered
of

the

rows

palette,

the

in

are bulls

first

This decoration

rams.^

haphazard fashion over the surface

in

animals are regularly separated

the

knife-handle in Fig. 35,

in

the second, asses

the

recalls
in

figures

into

in

which Petrie recognized

"

these

must also be compared the Hierakonpolis

duced

in Fig. 109.

Below the

with

on the

the regular
-

With

ivories

repro-

third register there are trees almost

Fragment of a Slate Palette (Verso).

176.

Cairo

identical

three

the third,

of animals

Egyptian style of the tombs of the Ancient Empire."

Fig.

237

Museum.

which appear

those

in

the

hieroglyphs of the

beginning of the fourth dynasty.'^

The
'

strongest

Durst

&

proof

that

Gaillard, Studlcn

schafes, in the Recueil de travaiix,


2

Petrie, Naqada,

Lepsius, Denknuilcr,

p. 51.
ii.

7.

the

iiber die

x.xiv.

Cairo

fragment

should

be

Geschichte des dgyptischcn Haus-

1902, p. 46.

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

238
attributed

to

Pharaonic

with primitive pieces,


face,

is

Egypt,
in

the

notwithstanding

where we see hieroglyphic

The animals a

with pictography.

treated

its

analo^-ies

on the second
writing, combined, it is true,

representations

lion,

a scorpion,

and a hawk

an archaic manner, destroy, by means of a hoe, the


crenellated walls on which they are perched (Figs. 175 and 176).
in

This system of pictography


the

Ashmolean Museum

Fig.

is

seen again on a fragment at

here standards, from each of which issues

Fragment of Slate Palette (Recto).

177.

Ashmolean Museum,

human

arm,

seize

the captives.^

O.xford.

The

forms part has not been recovered entire


the

at

British

Museum.

On

standing on either side of a

The beauty of execution

of which

palette
;

the

largest

one of the faces


palm-tree,

of this group

are
is

two

eating the

this

piece

is

giraffes,

leaves.

admirably described

This same symbol of standards furnished with arms is frequently found on


monuments of the classic period. I quote one e.xample from among a thousand.
^

Lepsius, Dcnkmdler,

iii.

74^/.

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


by

M.

"The palm branches," he


The cluster of

Benedite.

decoration of great elegance.

adds a motive which assumes singular importance


of

the

palette.

simplicity
Finally,

of
in

detail
this

struck with the interest presented

the gigantic animal.


it

Seeking

by the

affected

fragment

its

it

at
in

a
top

the

the midst

remainder of the

impossible

is

by the

"form

sa}'s,

fruit

239

not

to

be

position of the head of

food at the summit of the

tree,

appears to inhale with extended nostrils the appetising scent

Fig.

17S.

Fr.xgment of Sl.vte Palette (Verso).

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

palm branches and of the pollen of the blossom."


body of one of the giraffes a large bird vaguely
suggests that on the painted tomb of Hierakonpolis (Fig. 162).
The other face evidently depicts a field of battle strewn with
corpses, which are being torn by birds of prey.
A lion has
seized one of the corpses by the abdomen, and is attempting
of the

fresh

Above

the

to tear out a
tself to

piece.

being seized,

The
is

inert

body, which entirely abandons

most happily rendered.

The

lion

bears

240

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.

16

241

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

J43
a

resemblance

principally in the lines of the

forehead

(Fig.

141).

wrapped

in

large

Fig.

we

figures

the

to

Above

have

described,

previously

muzzle and the two spots on the


this

scene of carnage,

person

embroidered mantle, recalling that of the

Fragment of Slate
Palette (Recto).

181.

Louvre Museum.

small
a

ivory

prisoner,

heavy stone

The

statuette of

whose
(?)

is

arms

Abydos

(Fig.

122),

are bound behind

hung round

his

pushes before him


his

while

back,

neck (Figs. 177

to

180).

engraved

living standards play a direct part in the scene

on a fragment of

palette

from

the

Louvre.

Five

ensigns

surmounted by emblems of gods, among others of the god Min,.

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


end

a hun:ian

in

an actual

hand grasping

pictographic

constitutes

trampling a

the

a strong cord.
as

inscription,

upper

part

man under

of the

is

also

palette

and about

his feet,

Fig.

1S2.

This
the

is,

243

in reality,

which

scene

vigorously

bull

him with

to transfix

Fragment of Slate

Palette (Verso).
Louvre Museum.

his horns.

This, as Schaefer

was the

first

to recognize,

an instance of a king "Strong Bull" overthrowing


'

Steindorkf, Eine

?teue

Art

iigyptischer Kunst,

Otford remarks that " in the epilogue to the


boasting of his victories, calls himself

enemy.'

"

'

Code

loc. cit. p,

of

is

already

his enemies.^
131,

note

Hammurabi, the

the mighty steer

i.

Mr.

king, in

who overthrows

the

244

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

Fig.

183.

-Slate Palette of Nar-Mer


Cairo Museum.

(Recto).

THE EARLIEST PHARAOXIC MONUMENTS.

Fig.

84.

Slate Palette of Nar-Mer


Cairo Museum.

(Verso).

245

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

246

The type

of the vanquished

enemy should be

hair and the curled beard, as

On

suspended.

observed, also the

well as the girdle from

which the

the reverse of this palette the principal

kaTnata

is

scene

repeated, but this time the place of the animated standards

is

is

occupied, as

the

in

second

walls representing fortified

Cairo

fragment, by crenellated

In the centre of these walls

towns.

hieroglyphic signs give the names of cities (Figs. i8r and 182).

Fig.

185.

Fragment of Slate Palette.


Louvre Museum,

The symbol

of the king, "Powerful Bull," destroying his enemies,

again on the great

occurs

palette

discovered at

where the bull has overthrown with

This palette, with the name of King Nar-Mer,

walls of a town.

discussions

raises
refer
'

loc.

to special

They

will

cit.

See

appendix,

in

Hierakonpolis,

horns the crenellated

his

of

extreme complexity,

works published on

this

for

which we must

subject.^

We

observe,

be found recapitulated in Capart, La fete de frapper les Atiou,


also Naville, Les plus a?icie?ts monuments egyptiens, iii.
the Recucil de travaux,

xxv.

1903,

pp.

223-225.

Weill,

R.,

THE EARLIEST PHARAOXIC MONUMENTS.

247

however, the great lion-like animals with serpents' necks, which


are also found on a Chaldsean

an

says M.

identity,"

cylinder at the Louvre.^

186.

Such

Heuzey, "between two motives, both of

which are of such precision and complexity, cannot be the

Fig.

''

effect

Gre.\t Mace-head of King Nar-Mer.

Ashmolean Museum,

O.xford.

les origines de I'Egyple, in the Revue archeologtqiie, 1902, ii.


QuiBELL & Gree.n, Hierakonpolis, ii. pp. 41-43.
Heuzev, gypie on Chaldee, in the Comptes rendus des seances de
I' Academie des inscripiions et belles leilres,
1899, pp. 66-68 and pi. of p. 6r.
The leopard [?) with the neck and head of a serpent is not without parallel in

Hieraconpolis et
pp. 119-121.
'

Egyptian
in

art.

It

is

the fantastic animal

hunting scenes at Beni Hasan.

named

les

Anou,

loc. cit. p. 264.

which

is

figured

See Newberry, Beni Hcafi, ii. pi. iv. It


See C.apart, La fett

also occurs on the magical ivories of the twelfth dynasty.

de frapper

s^dja,

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

248
of chance.

by very

only be explained

can

It

between primitive Chalda;a

The explanation only

and the

close

Egyptian

earliest

gains in force and emphasis

relations

civilization.

one admits

if

a race originally Asiatic arrived on the banks of the

that

and founded the

earliest dynasties,

of Africa

lations

elements

the

This fact

taken form.

conforming

of

bringing to the black popu-

an

which had

art

simple and rational

is

not only

also to

the laws

which we know of the great currents

that

to

On this
by the human race" (Figs. 183 and 1S4
we find a use of hieroglyphs similar to those of d)'nastic

followed
palette

already

itself,

in

the traditions of humanit}', but

to

of history and

Nile

Eg>pt, and, nevertheless, pictograph}' has not entirely disappeared.

On

the recto, above the head of the barbarian smitten

king,

group

singular

head, a bunch

of

papyrus

unanimous with regard

composed

sculptured,

is

stems,
this

to

and a
is

it

of

by the

human

Opinions are

bird.

intended

to

that

signify

the

god Horus, or the goddess Nekhbet, vanquished or seized

six

thousand

foes,

or

also

perhaps that they overthrew the people

of the north.

There

is

fragment

small

the

in

Louvre Collection,

e.xtremely archaic, representing a group of people on the march,

which was bought

Beyrout

at

by Ary Renan.

doubt that the fragment must be placed with the


class of objects (Fig.

We

Fgyptian

art,

details

by the

Fharaonic monuments.
stand alone

in

this

series

of objects without observing

are found which

The

to primitive

are allied

side of others which

are characteristic

ivories of Hierakonpolis

suppl\-ing a convincing

mind

in

no

earliest of this

and

of

and Abydos

satisfactory succession,

forming a link between prehistoric and historic work.


bear

is

185).

must not leave

what extent

to

There

what we have already mentioned,

We
that

must
before

anything was known of primitive Egypt, Professor Steindorff,


with his perfect knowledge
arrived
^

''

the conclusion

at

Capart,

id. p.

Lettre de

third series,

ix.

Egyptian

of

these

that

art

palettes

and

archaeology,

belonged

to

the

256.

M. Ary Renan a M.
1887, pp. 37, 38, with

G. Perrot,

fig.

in

the Revue archeologique,

THE EARLIEST PHARAOXIC MONUMENTS.


Now

prehistoric period.

that

we

to

the

owing

possess,

Hierakonpoh's
a

discoveries,

palette

name of an
king, we are

bearing the

Egyptian

to recognize

forced

we

witli

Pharaonic monu-

actual

The

ments.

one

that

confronted

are

hesitation

pronouncing

feels in

judgment on these
appears

palettes
to

be

the

that

there

any

given

Egypt
of

slate

me

to

proof

best

was

not

at

moment

in

a sudden

direction

change
artistic

in

We

conceptions.

have

already had occasion

remark

this,

return

to

have

will

when

we

it

formulate

to

to

and we

our

conclusions.

King Nar-Mer, who


dedicated the great
palette of Hierakonpoh's,
also

deposited

temple

mace

of

the

in

head

the

of

colossal

size,

inscribed with scenes

in

low

of

the

Several

relief.

on

this

still

be

personages

palette

may

recognized

the

servant

carrying the sandals,


another on

the

identity

249

PRIMITIVE ART L\ EGYPT.

250

whom

of

The

standards.

not

are

writers

on

reliefs

and

agreed,'
this

men

the

carrying

the

mace-head show a roughness of

workmanship which denotes a less practised hand


187) than that which carved the great palette.-

i86 and

(Figs.

Without entering into a detailed study of the scenes on this


we must notice the three bearded men dancing before

mace,-'

the

who

king,

under a dais placed on a platform,

seated

is

Both before and behind these

which a ladder affords access.


dancers

crescent-shaped

three

objects

these objects make their appearance

have acquired a regular form.

We

represent.

these

"

It

must be content

crescents

"

occur

in

to

are

what they

to say

difficult

is

observe that in

to

When

represented.

the classical period, they

in

the composition of the

the

texts

of certain

titles

officials^

The remains

who has

the nam.e of a

king

any

Among

certainty.''

mace

second

of a

opening

of

dyke

On

we here

In

'

lower

the

Can

one of the canals

angle

bear

see the king pre-

1S8 and 189).

seen the prow of a vessel which recalls


period.

type

perfect

hitherto not been identified with

other scenes

siding over public works (Figs.


*'

more

of

at

the

there

those of the

Naville, Les plus ancicns ^noniiments cgyptiens,

iii.

may

loc.

be

primitive

remains

the

right

be the

this

cit.

.x.w.

are
1903,

pp. 223-225.

QuiBELL, Hicrakonpolis, i. pi. .xxvi. b,


G., La plus vieille Agypte, ii., Lcs mormments cormnemoratifs
Moret, A., Du
dit Sed a Hicraconpolis, in the Sphinx^ v. 1901, pp. 102-106.
Caractere religieiix de la royautc pha?-aoniqHe, Paris, 1902, p. 242, and fig. 71,
Weill, R., Hieracotipolis et les origznes de I'^gypte, in the Revue
p. 240.
^

Fouc-vRT,

archeologique, 1902,

ii.

pp. 121, 122.

Lepsius, Denkmliler, ii. 129. Newberry, Beni Hasan,"\. pi. xxxv. p. 41.
ScHiAPARELLi, Museo archeologico di Firenze, Atitichita egizie, i. pp. 266, 267,
*

369, 468.
*

See Griffith, Hieroglyphs, pi. iii. 36, and p. 64.


G., Les deux rois inco?tnus d^Hieraconpolis,

Fouc.^rt,

rendus des seances de V Academie des mscriplions


Naville, loc. cit. xxv. 1903, p. 218.
^ Quibell, Hierakonpolis, i. pi. xxvi.
^, pp.
nizes,

took

Ma?tual of Egyptian
chapter, p.

des edifices,

353,

note.

p. 32.

Aegyptologie,

p.

425.

place

at

the

Archeology,

Lefebure,

foundation of
5th

ed.

p. 133,

and

230-241.

to,

"digging out the

temples.

See Maspero,
supplementary

London,

Rites egypt-iens

Mariette, Dendcrah,

the Coinptes

M. Maspero here recog-

10.

9,

with sufficient probability, the ceremony of Khebs

ground,'' 'which

in

et belles lettres, 1900, pp.

1902,

Construction et protection
i.

pi.

20.

Brugsch, Die

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


small

of a

distinguishable

found on the top of the

construction

vaulted

palette

slate

similar

251

to

that

reproduced on Fig.

170.

left, some persons are being carried


mace of Nar-Mer, and men wearing a
long tress of hair hanging down their backs are executing a dance.
Dancers with this same tress may be seen on the fragment of

In the middle register, to the

in

palanquins, as on the

a third mace, which


idea of the whole

Fig.

88.

is

too

much

mutilated to allow of an accurate

These maces, which again

design.^

differ

in

Great Mace-head of an Unidentified King.


Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

style from the

Egyptian

theless, to scenes
It

same with

the

is

discovered

classical

which reappear

in

the

royal

monuments, introduce
at

us,

never-

subsequent periods.

numerous

fairly

series

These

tombs of Abydos.

objects

of
arc

small

plaques, of ivory or wood, engraved with shallow lines sometimes


filled

with a blackish paste, showing a great variety of scenes

in

and inscriptions (Fig.

The

igo).

largest of these plaques

the king

whom

Menes, the

first

'

was discovered

in

the

tomb of

scholars are apparently agreed to identify with

King of

the

first

QuiBtLL, Hicrakonpolis,

i.

dynasty,

pi. .x.xvi. a,

according

and

p. 8.

to

the

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

2^2

Fig.

189 Detail

Mace-head
of the Principal Scene on the Great
OF AN Unidentified King.

Block lent by the Egypt Exploratioa Fund.

See Archaological Report, 1897-8,

P-

7,

P'ale.

THE EARLIEST PHARAOXIC MONUMENTS.


historians of the classical period.^

are divided

Fig.

right

'

190.

is

into four

The

scenes and descriptions

superposed registers.

In

the

first

of Small Ivory and Wooden Plaques discovered


THE Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty at Abydos.

curious

representation

of a

primitive

the

at

Specimens

253

in

temple, above

This identification has been questioned especially by Naville, Les plus

aticiens

monuments

egypiiens,

pp. 207, 208, 218-220.

i.,

loc

cit.

xxi.

1899,

08-1 12;

iii.

ib.

xxv.

903,

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

254

which there are


sanctuary with
the

two boats.

a sacred

mace of Nar-Mer

scene

of the

Vaphio

next

the

similar

bird,

to

register

is

another

one of the figures on

the temple

before

is

bull

hastening

ground with two pegs, thus recalling

to the

into a net, fastened

In

The two lower

goblets.

are

registers

occupied by figures of boats and by inscriptions.^

On

another tablet, that of the king Den-Setui, Tor Semti or

we

Hesepui),

The king

find a similar scene to that

is

which access

afforded by a ladder.

is

crescents,"

platform,

to

Before this small pavilion

the king himself again appears, framed


"

on the mace of Xar-Mer.

under a slight canopy, on

seated

in

two groups of three

This scene, as well as that of the

performing a dance.-

Hierakonpolis mace, has been recognized as a representation of

was celebrated throughout the whole

the feast of Heb-Sed, which

fragment of a plaque

duration

of

with the

name

the staff

and mace, and preceded by the standard of the jackal

the

we

find

Sinai.

in

An

Egypt.'"

Here we

Anubis or Apuat.*
closely to

of

history

of the same king shows the king walking, holding

the

first

we

feel that

representations

the classical

on

place

ivory plaque

in

rocks at

the

the

are approaching very

of the Pharaoh, such as

MacGregor

Wady

Maghara,

in

Collection, with the

King Den, is especially instructive on this poinf


Special stress must be laid on the important discovery of M.
Weill, who has succeeded in identifying the king of one of the
bas-reliefs at Sinai with King Mersekha of the first dynasty."

name

of

Petrie, Royal Tombs

ii.

ancieiis nionumeiits egyptiens,


-

Petrie,

ib.

i.

MoRET,

A.,

Du

pi. xi.

14

pi.

ii.,

\\\.a,
loc. cit.

xv. 16,

x.

and

pp. 21,

51.

Naville, Les plus

xxiv. 1902, p. 120.

and pp.

22, 40, 41.

Caractcre religieux de la royaictc pharaonique,

fig.

86, p.

262

Budge, wiio regards the seated figure as Osiris, draws from it curious
conclusions.
See Budge, The Book of" the Dead {Books on Egypt and Chaldca),
London, 1901, i. pp. xxxiv.-x.xxvii. A History of Egypt, i. p. 194-19S.
Dr.

84 xiv. 9, and p. 21.


Spiegelberg, Ein ncues Dciikmal aus der Frilhzcit dcr dgyptischen Kunst,
in the Zcitschrift fur dg\ptischc Sprachc mid Altcrthumskunde, xxxv. 1897,
pp. 7-11, and fig.
^ Weill,
Un nom roval egyptien dc la periode thinite an Sinai, in the
Comptes rendu s de I'Acadeniie des inscriptions et belles lettres, 1903, pp. 160-162
Inscriptions cgyptiennes du Sinai, ii., Lcs bas-reliefs thinites du Ouady Magharah,
M. Naville questions the reading
in \.\\& Revue archcologique, 1903, ii. pp. 230-234.

Petrie, Royal Tombs,

i.

pi. x.

'"

THE EARLIEST PHARAONIC MONUMENTS.


on

Finally

representing

bringing

Fig.

captives,

tribute

and

191.

palette of
note, as

are

various

other

and

possibly

the

vanquished,

their

conqueror.^

rendering

Small Plaque

the

homage

to

these captives and those on

in

the

slate

Glazed Pottery discovered at Abvdos.

Oxford and of the

also

fragments

there

servants,

190

The resemblance between

Fig.

255

British

representation

Museum

of the

is

personage

important to
in

the

long

name of tliis king and also tlie position that he occupies in the dynasties
he reads Khesket, and considers he is not earlier than the second dynasty. See
Naville, Lcs plus anciens 77tonumcnts egyptietis, iii., loc. cit. x.w. 1903, pp. 219, 220.
Petrie, Royal Tombs, ii. p. \\\.a, i, 2, and iv. 4-6, 11, 12, and pp. 21, 22.
A fragment which fits on to that published by Petrie, pi. iv. il, was discovered
See Ameli.neau, Lcs nouvcllcs fouilles d'Abydos, 1S95-6,
earlier by Amelineau.
Compte re7idu In cxtenso, Paris, 1899, pi. xlii. and p. 307, where the fragment is
of the

'

described as being on plat

xli.

It is

now

in the

Brussels

Museum.

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

256

The

mantle on the same piece.

which we notice

hair

strange method of arranging the

on Fragment

two of the Hierakonpolis maces.

on

of the archaic races of Egypt,

Fig.

men

is

of our figure

is

seen also

Petric, in his classification

inclined to see in these figures

192. Private Stel.e from the Royal Necropolis of the First


Dynasty at Abydos.

of the

hill

tribes of the eastern desert (Gebel

Dorkhan and

Gebel Ataka).'

An

object

which

very curious as regards style was dis-

is

covered in the course of Petrie's excavations at


the winter
pottery,
'

1902-3.

It

is

bearing in low

a small plaque or
relief a

Petrie, The Races of Early Egypt,

Institute, x.xxi. 1901, p. 253,

and

pi. xix.

figure

in

the

13, 15.

tile

of a

Abydos during
of green glazed

man

walking,

his

Journal of the Anthropological

THE EARLIEST PHARAOXIC MOXUMEXTS.


the space

An

hand.

staff in his

left

the back, but

inscription, also in relief, occupies part of

unoccupied

writes thus on

been intended to insert

The

dynastic
to the

From

races.

does not seem, therefore, to have

it

a wall, but rather as

in

figure

people,

prehistoric

the

we must

inscription

the hieroglyphic inscription


several

of the

signs

'

for

attribute

him

Egypt.

He

in

devoted to God,' of the

Hemen."

the town of

in

made

and neither of the pure Libyan or

appears to be a chief called Tera-Xeter,

Anu

if

of a low t\-pe, the negroid variety

is

Anu, who are known as an aboriginal people

fortress of the

Petrie

"It has no groove or dovetail on

quite plain

votive offering.

of the

front of the figure (Fig. 191).

in

the subject

is

o/

The reading

of

very uncertain, at least as regards

is

of which

it

The extreme

composed.-

is

rudeness of the modelling recalls the carving in low

relief

on

the private stelse discovered round the royal tombs at Abydos,


of which we give
If

it

objects,

some specimens^

(Fig. 192).

were desirable to characterize


it

in a

few words this series of

might be said that they betray indecision.

appears to hesitate as to the manner


of his figures

the hieroglyphs

in

The

artist

which he should dispose

carved without order, very

are

different from the fine regularity of the inscriptions of the Ancient

These objects betray the awkwardness of the mason,


The
signs without understanding their meaning.

Empire.

who

copies

variants of the

same

of hieroglyphs of the
will strongly

and the publication


announced by Mrs. Petrie.

sign are considerable,


first

emphasize

d}-iiasty,

this fact.

The

contrast

one examines the hieroglyphs on the royal

striking

is

stelai

when

of the

first

dynasty, which have not at any age been surpassed for dignity

and

beaut}-.*
It

was evidently

at this period that the fusion occurred

between

the primitive art and that which the Pharaonic Egyptians

may

have possessed at the commencement of their occupation of the


Xile Valle\-.
'

'

It

Petrie, Abydos,

was
ii.

pi.

at this
i.

v. 33,

time also that the Egyptian style


and

p. 25.

Atheiitcum, October 24th, 1903, p. 544.


Petrie, Royal Tombs, i. pi. xx.\.-xx.xvi.
lb.

d' Abydos,

i.

frontispiece
1895-6, p.

ii.

pi.

xxxi.

ii.

pi. xxvii.-.xxx. a.

Amelineau, Les

nouvelles foiiilles

xlii.

17

PRIMITIVK ART I\

258
declared

first

to impress

itself in

the royal workshops, before

it

was possible

on the whole of the recently acquired and unified

it

Long

kingdom.

1':GYPT.

afterwards, on the private

stelae,

one can detect

same opposition to official Pharaonic art.^


As a t\-pical
example I will quote a stela in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford,
of a person named Hckcncn.
A priest of the double, mentioned on
the

the stela, bears the

name

inscriptions of the fourth

The same

of Pcrscu,

and

name which

dynasties

fifth

which wc have observed

rivalry

carving in relief as existing

Fig.

193.

between the

brtL.A.

occurs

on

(Fig. 193).
in

the

case

of

Pharaonic art

official

of Heke.nen.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

and

that

of

statuary, at

vations

Two

at

private

least

statues were

found

be

the

in

The exca-

dynasties.

this.

found representing a man, one knee on the

somewhat strange

proved possible to preserve, and


'

also

first

Hierakonpolis have furnished us with proofs of

ground, and of a

it

is

type.

now

Of

these

one only

Cairo Museum.

at the

See SciiWEi.NFURTH, Die ncucsicn Gn'iberfujidcn in Ohcr-Aci^yptcn und


SlelliDi^

die

ma\'

individuals,

during the three

dcr

nocli

lehenden

ll'iistcii-Stiimme

211

dcr

altiigyptiscJicn

Bcvolkcni/ig, in the Vcrha7idlu)igcii dcr berliner antliropologisdtcn Gcsellscliaft,


1898, pp. 1S4, 185,
-

De Rouge,

where the author speaks


Rcchcrches sur

les

of

"Bauernkunst" and ''Herrenkunst.

ino7iumcnts qn'oii pent attribtier

premieres dynasties de Mancthon, p. 53. Lepsius, Denknililcr,


Les mastabas de V Ancicn Empire, pp. 299-301, Pari?, 1899.

ii.

S3.

aux

six

MARIETTE^

THE EARLIEST PHARAOXIC MONUMENTS.


The man wears
mode of cutting

hair cut

his

the

hair

short

above the shoulders.

and the short

beard

259
This

resembles,

as

Pctric remarks/ the type of one of the standard bearers on the

great palette of Nar-Mer.

which narrow

.strips

Fig.

The

clothing consists of a girdle to

are attached, which

194.

Limestone

.Statue of

hang down between

.\

the

Liby.\.\.

Cairo Museum.

legs,

a costume which

on the

bas-reliefs of the

is

found on the palette of Nar-Mer and

Ancient Empire.-'

Professor Schweinfurth

draws special attention to the shortness of the neck, which appears


to agree exactly with the length of the head,

'

xliii.

In OuiBELL, HlerakonpoUs, i. p. 6.
Capart, La fete de frappc^- les Anon,
1901, p. 255.

in

the

and the considerable

Revue de

Vhistoirc des religions,

PRIMITIVE ART

26o

development of the

lips.^

From

IX EGYPT.

the ethnographic point of view,

Dr. Petrie considers that the type presents elements other than

Libyan and Negro (Fig.


This
the

194).-

not the case with another crouching statue, of which

is

head only could be preserved (Fig.

scholar

definitely

The short
come from

"

recognizes

the

Negro

while

195.

long

the

trace of colour can

Head of a Libyan

i.\

from

He

and well-formed

are inlaid, and no

Limestone.

0.\ford.

be distinguished.

while travelling he met an individual


type.

face

The eyes

"'

Ashmolcan Museum,

obviously

type.

curly hair and the thick projecting lips clearly

Fig.

in

Negro-Libyan

half

nose are due to Lib}'an blood."

tical

where the same

195),

mi.xed

the

Dr.

Petrie

who was

records

that

absolutely iden-

him that he was from x^merica,


the Southern States, and of Negro-European
learnt from

origin.'

A
'

'

comparison should be made between


ScHWEiNFURTH,

first

of

these

loc. cit. p. 184, and fig. pp. 182, 183.


OuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,
pK ii. p. 6 ii. pi. i. and p. 35.
ii. p. 36.
In QuiBELL, Hierakonpolis, i. p. 6, and pL v. vi.
Petrie, The Rise and Develop7nent of Egyptia7i Art, in the Journal 0/
i.

the

the Society of Arts, xlix. 1901, p. 594.

THE EARLIEST PHARAOXIC MONUMENTS.


Museum
dynast}'.
He

statues and one at the Cairo


attributes

on

to

the

this subject

third

which

workmanship," he

.says,

Fig.

may
to

has

i)

which

'SI.

Maspero

made some remarks


"The

consider necessary to give here.


"is

196.

archaic, but

One knows what

still

more coarse than

Bl.\ck Granite Statue.

Cairo

archaic.

(No.

261

Museum.

differences in technique

and

in

st\'le

be presented by works belonging to the same reign, according

whether they were executed

in

the immediate vicinity of the

sovereign, in a large civilized town, or in a locality remote fnom

262

TRIMITIVK ART IX EGYPT.

Fig. 197.

Statuf. of a Princess in the

Turin Museum.

THE EARLIEST PHARAOMC [MONUMENTS.

Fig.

198.5t.\.tue_in the Brussels Museum.

26^

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

264
the

...

court.

any object

necessary to take into consideration the local it\'

is

from whence

it

comes, and the importance of that

when the

time

preceded

royalty did

cities

object was made.

not yet
if

for

b\-

example

them with the

are ruder than

Pharoah

the

and

inferiority that

statue

the

is

they are

by Besh,

a provincial work, and

much

does not so

that

it

is

proof of the want of

were then living

Memphite nome

fact

that

as

It

it

is

between these

and the

in the

impossible better
rival arts

art of the subject,

art

is

it

skill

art,

of the

the

similar

of

in

who

artists

(Fig. 196).

that

of

existed

the masters,

adopt Schweinfurth's

at

was not

commencement

the

of the

transformed except

radicall)*

immediate neighbourhood of the residence of the

in

ruler.

phenomenon might be proved in the history of the


Theban art, when the political power was moved to

Thebes, from Memphis.

Quite

Strasbourg has published

where he explains

its

recentlx-. Professor

(Hoflcunst),

Spiegelberg of

an excellent history of Egyptian

successive developments

struggle between popular art (Volkskunst)


court

lies

remote antiquity

the art

art, to

Our

the logical sequence of the art

population, and

Egyptian occupation,

rise

peasant

tJie

The peasant

expression.

of the primitive

express the dualism

to

the official

importance

indicate

Khasakhmui,

latter objects.

its

"

el-

comparing

in

conclude from their

to

the

perhaps

Kom

or at

of

bas-reliefs

older than

far

be

those discovered in

Thinis-Abydos

executed

carefully

and

dynast}',

not, therefore,

would be a mistake,

it

with the palettes dedicated

or

One must

there.

monuments

its

frequented

Ahmar,

reside

the

localit}- at

Memphis, or the town which

was very obscure before the fourth

it,

astonished

order to appreciate the relative antiquity of

In

it

between

profane

art

art,

by the constant

and the art

of the

and

(ProfankunstJ

religious art (Religosekunstj.-

'

pi.

Maspero, text of Lc nuiscc cgypiicn,


See also De Morgan, Rcchcrchcs

i.

.xiii.

p.
sitr

13.

Ics

The

statue

origincs,

is

ii.

figured on
pi.

iv.

and

pp.^253. 254.
-

Spiegelberg,

Leipzic, 1903.

by the popular

GescJdchte

dcr

include under the

dgyptischcn Kimst im Ahriss dargcstellt,

name

of " profane art

" artistic

works created

religion, following the beliefs of primitive times, in opposition to

the official religion of the Pharaonic invaders.

Fig.

199.

Statue of Nesa,

in

the Louvre.

ART

PRIMITIX'K

266

EGYPT

I\

Cairo Museum, there must be con-

With the statue of the

nected a whole series of sculptures, to which

have alluded at the commencement of

London,

Turin,

Berlin,

Naples, and

of the

give

\\*e

Figs.

the

master-

realistic

and

fifth

specimens

of

b\-

dynasties.^

them

in

197 to 199.

There

another object which should be

is

mentioned,

found

human

the

tended

to

captive

crushed

h a

now seen

in-

represent

weight of the

We

Here

head.

evidentl}'

artist

at

decorated

Hierakonpolis,

with a

door

stone

socket

or

sill

to

fourth

various

Brussels,

Le^'den.,

These lead us on

Paris.

gradual gradations
pieces

museums Bologna,

European

various

in

this

The}' are the archaic statues preserved

book.

b\'

a
the

door.'-'

\-

the

sculptui-e of the
Fig.

St.atue of

2CO.

Ashmolean Museum,

with the excep-

O.xford.

official

d\'nasties

first

Kh.\3AKH.MLI.

of

tion

works of

art.

Up

the

to

the present the royal statues

know

are

only

two

specimens.

sufficient,

the

'

C.\P.ART,

Anzciger,

that

difference

them

between

Steindorff,

by
are

however, to show

wide

existed

us

They

to

Recucil

Uebcr

in the

lie

Fig. 201.

and

ninnu))icnts

cgyptiens,

iigyptiscJic

a7-cliiiisclie

Statue
notice

Statiicn,

in

of plates
the

OuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,

i.

pi.

iii.

and

p.

ii.

p. 36.

ii.

and

iii.

Archiiologisc/ier

Jahrbiich des kaiscrlich dcutschoi archiiologischcn

1S93, pp. 64-66.


-

of Kh.xsakhmui.

Aslimolean Museum, Oxford.

I/istititt, \iii.

THE EARLIEST PHARAOXIC MOXU.AIEXTS.

267

private sculptures a difference analogous to that which

the

have already established

were discovered at

statues

of a

in

king

who appears

carving in

the

Hierakonpolis, and

to

have

reigned

we

These two

relief.

name

bear the

towards the end of

second dynast\- or the beginning

the

of the third' (Figs. 200, 201, 202^.

AL Weill has given a very precise


description

Two

of

these

small seated

statues.

as

massive

statuary

part

of

Ancient Empire.

The

first

statue,

body

and

the

ably

limestone,

the

head,

young,

expressive,

and

The

serious.

part

the other

body
Kh.^sakhmui.

melancholy,

which

statue,

is

draped

in

garment

vvidel}'

open

arm

is

folded over the body, and

the

the knee and holds the end of a sceptre.

great white crown.

with

unconventional

represent

thrown

in

the

The

singularly

the

The

rests

the head

is

on
the

bases of both statues are surrounded

designs engraved

routing

On

on

which cover

hand

right

is

The

flowing

the arms to the wrist.


left

and

attitude

chest, with sleeves

Museum, Oxford.

of

remark-

is

of slate and almost intact.


He.^d of the Statue of

is

costume arc the same as

the
in

the

of

upper part of the

the

missing

is

of

which has been recovered,

Asliniolean

be

to

early

broken,

Fig. 202.

exceedingly unlike the

fragile,

somewhat

statues, of strange

workmanship, so delicate
almost

".

of multitudes

unexpected

with

and

and

the

figures

varied

point,

which

men

over-

positions.

The

of

M.VSPERO, Guide to tlic Cairo Museum, English ed. 1904, p. 244. Naville,
Les plus ana'cns monuiiieiits cgypliens, iii. loc. cit. .\.\v. 1903, pp. 237-239, " of the
third dynasty."
PET-tiE, history of Egypt,
5th ed. 1903, pp. 27, 27*, 28, 28*
'

i.

29,

who

distinguishes two kings, the eighth and ninth of the second dynasty.

OuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,
the middle of the second

i.

"

p. 5

"After

tlie first

dynasty, and probably not before

rRnriTivK art ix kgvpt.

i6S

numbers of the
tablets,

and

slain

front

in

cartouche of the
that the eye

is

enemies arc also recorded on these small


of

the

of

feet

the

Horus Khasakhmui."

painted with

statue

car, a fashion

theory

to

make

the

appearance

These

which are obvious

of

now

traces

on

stone,

the
fact

at

discovery,

the

only

left

few

of the

surface

may

which

be

by examining the

ascertained

200, 201 and 202, taken

from the original

molean Museum.
able

until

photograph taken

time

have

I-'igs.

some

dynasty.-

lines,

the

the

which, according

published

its

sixth

painted
in

the

ago by Borchardt, did

\-cars

not

is

continuing to the

of colour

lines

there

been remarked

has

It

'

an

that

at the
It

is

Ashprob-

study

attentive

of the ro\'al statues of Hiera-

konpolis
light

would

throw

on the question

age

of

the

fourth

the

royal

fresh

of the

statues

dynasty

of
the

at

Museum, and that this


study would to some extent
Cairo

Fig.

20

Pottery Figure of
A Lion.

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford

modifs' the conclusions arrived


at

We

'

have already observed the frequent occurrence of figures

animals

of

by several scholars.

in

the

primitive

period,

and with what perfection

Weill, Hieraconpolls et les origines dc V Egypt, in the Kcvuc archcologir/ne,


ii. p. 123.
QuiBELL, Hierakonpolis, i. pi. xxxi-\.-xli. and p. 1 ii. p. 44.
Borchardt, Ueber lUis Alter des Sphinx bci Gise/i, in the Sitziingsberichte
der koniglich p^retissischcn Akadcmie dcr W'isscnschaftcn zu Berlin, xxxw 897,
'

i(/)2,

PP- 752-755^

Borchardt, Uebcr das Alter der Chefrenstatnen,

(igyptisclie

Sprache ttnd Alterthiutiskunde, xxxvi. 1898, pp.

in tlie Zeitschri/t filr

1-18.

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

270

the character of each kind of animal he repre-

the artist sci/,cd

Beside

sented.

given on Fig.

the

was found enable

it

hesitation

figures of the

according to Dr. Petric and


the

at

Ramasseum,

and

the

who

those

Better

figures

lion

Ouibell, been found at Koptos,

?vlr.

attribute

any

than

this

The

Abydos."-

at

between

Ouibell

Hierakonpolis

the

which decorate a table of offerings

Museum, adds a powerful argument

the Cairo

at

dynasty.'

fourth

the

material and technique have,

Medinet Habu, and

at

comparison made by Mr.


lion

precedes

same

in

any serious

to be assigned without

which

period

the

to

Fragments of

it

The circumstances

red potter}-.

in

is

Hierakonpolis yielded a

excavations at

145, the

magnificent figure of a lion

which

an illustration of which

ivory dog,

fine

statue

lion

Fig.

description,

203

which

to appreciate the vigour with

to

the

support of

archaic

enable

will

this

in

the

piece of

fine

period.-'

reader

work has

been executed.

We

have thus rapidly passed

ments which can be attributed


the

primitive

fourth

Egyptians

to

from

review the principal monu-

in

contemporary

those

Before attempting

dynasty.

movement

in

the

from

examine
some idea of
primitive Egypt dancing, music, and

we should

evidence which enables us to gain

the arts of

with

draw conclusions

to

the collected results of our researches,


the

which separates

period

the

briefly

least

at

poetry.

But before closing


of reproducing
figure,

here

discovered

this

chapter

cannot

resist

the pleasure

three views of the head of a small ivory

during

the

winter

902-3

at

Abydos, and

which gives us a portrait of King Cheops, the builder of the


Great Pyramid at Gizeh

an

article

published

in

'

(Fig. 204).

1901

"

As M. Maspero

Barely

six years

history could penetrate no further than the age

wrote, in

ago Egyptian

when the Great

QuiBELL

&: Green, Hierakonpolis, ii. pi. xhii. and p. 45.


Petrie, Koptos, pi. V. and p. 5. See Ouibell, Hierakonpolis, i. pp. 11, 12.
' BoRCH.ARDT,
Wiedemann, Co77iptc rendu of
loc. cit. xxxvi. p. 5, fig. 3.
Ouibell, Hierakonpolis, i., in the Oy-ientalisiische Littcraturzeitiing, iii. 1900,
'

col.

333; Zur Nagada Periode, ib. col. 85.


Petrie, Abydos, pi. xiii. xiv. and p. 30.

Tlie

Ten Temples of Abydos, ia

Harper's Monthly Magazine, No. 642, November 1903,

fig. 6,

ajid pp. 839, 840.

THE EARLIEST PHARAOXIC MOXUAIEXTS.


Pyramids were
pose
live

their

built.

The

between

bulk

plane of the world

and the remote distance of bygone ages.

hid the primitive

dynasties

a short time ago appeared

ma\'

Colossi of Gizch appeared to inter-

the

the excavator has suddenly

now be

regarded

271

made

in
.

which we

The

from our view."

That which only

to be the starting point of

with

pick of

a breach in the obstacle which

certainty

as

the

result

a world,

of

the

evolution of an entire civilization.


'

Maspero, Lcs premiers temps de riiistoire d'Egyptc d'apres


The Lotus, Alexandria, No. 4, July 1901, p. 1S5.

rccentes, in

Ics dccoitvertcs

CHAPTER

VI.

DAXCING, MUSIC, AXD POETRY.


the origin of
IX sculpture
we
general!}-

ourselves

have found a

magical.

arts of

same

us to the

purpose which was

result.

to

We

must not

complete

and

instances.

t)-pical

An

old historian of

Madagascar informs us

that, "

not day and

night

own

take food in their

houses.

and neither

dance,

to
.

While the

women and

are at the wars, and until their return, the

cease

and

be sufficient to quote some

will

it

painting,

movement dancing,

long delay necessar}'

the

detailed demonstration of this

men

decoration,

utilitarian

study of the

leads

music, and poetr\'


afford

the arts of repose

lie

girls

down nor

The\- believe that by dancing

they impart strength, courage, and good fortune to their husbands.

This custom they observe ver\' religiously."

among the Thompson River Indians of British


Columbia, while the men were on the war-path the women per"

Similarly,

formed dances at frequent intervals.

Those dances were believed

The

to secure the success of the expedition.


their

knives,

sticks

with

Throwing the
off the

dancers flourished

threw long sharp-pointed sticks forward, or drew

hooked

ends

sticks forward

repeatedly

backward

and

forward.

was symbolic of piercing or fighting

supposed enemy, and drawing them back was s}'mbolic of

drawing their men from danger.

The

stick

with

end was the one supposed to be the best adapted


purpose.

The women

alwa\-s pointed their

Frazer, The Golden Bough,


addenda p. 465.
lb.
i.

i.

for

hooked

the latter

weapons toward the

enemies' countr}-."'

this

p. 31.

DANCING, MUSIC, AND POETRY.


Lucien observes

which there

in

"

You cannot

not dancing.

is

/J

mystery

find a single ancient


.

This much

men know,

all

that most people say of the revcalers of the mysteries that they
'

dance them out

"
'

(i^op-y^eladaL

Clemens of Alexandria uses

:.

own

the

same terms when speaking of

So

closeh- connected are mv'steries with

his

"appalling revelations."

dancing amons; savaees,

when Mr. Orpen asked Oing, the Bushman hunter, about


some doctrines in which Qing was not initiated, he said, " Only

that,

men

the initiated

We

know

of that dance

must also keep

these things."^

mind the animal dances of Australia,


and the dances performed at funerals among most savage nations."-^
These dances are almost invariably accompanied by very
primitive

give

musical

rhythm

in

Some

instruments.

to the

wood

etc.,

broadh", one might say that


vibration

a buzzing

or

they are intended

a hissing, in

we

must quote

Bushmen,' and, above

bow,

the
all,

the
"

the

^vra

As an

are intended

to

the celebration of ceremonies

Another characteristic
the

'

chief

accompanied on

drive

is

"

or

"

away
is

and

Schwirrholz,"

Occasionally

so wide.'

the sistrum
is

b\'

instance of
Kaffirs

the

during

spirits

evil

one of these.

that in certain parts of Africa

his

expeditions

band of

New

York, and

by

Lang, Myth, Ritual, ajtd Religion, new edition, London,

Bombay,
-

is

fact

of

bull-roarer

the geographical distribution of which

the instruments

Speaking

produce

to

which the primitive mind

would see something sacred or mysterious.


this

struck in cadence,

which simph' serve to supplement the clapping

Others have a somewhat different origin.

of hands. ^

to

movements, and most frequently they consist

of instrum.ents of percussion, of sonorous

tambourines,

intended

of these are

1899, p. 272.

See, for e.\ample, Kingsley,

Mary

H., Travels in

ll'est

Africa, London,

1900, p. 331^

See, on this subject, the book

Leipzic,

and

by Bucher, Arbeit and Rytlimus, 2nd

De.niker, Les races et les peuples de la terre,


fig.

ed.

1S99.
figs.

70,

71,

pp.

250 251,

135, p, 495-

* Frazer,
The Golden Bough, iii. p. 424, note.
Lang, loc. cit. p. 272.
Cook, A. B., Les Galets pcints du Mas d^Azil, in VAntln-opologie, xiv. 1903,
ScHURTZ, Urgeschichte der Kiiltur, Leipsic, 1900, p. 50 et seq.
pp. 657-659.

and

p. 512.

i3

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

274
"

musicians.
rings,

Each performer,

bangs, or rattles on

regardless of the discordance, blows

his

own

account, interpreting a very

short air which forms the dominant note in this direful din."

Fetish

men

There

is

acquired

are often very skilled musicians.

no doubt that both music and dancing very rapidly


pleasurable

use in

The

magical purposes.

arts

in

we meet with
what

is

no doubt

to

their

utilitarian

rhay not be

in

possible

to

the special instances

determine

precisely

the object of the musicians or dancers.

is

L nder various aspects we have already had occasion


dancing scenes.

to

duced on Fig.

The

her head.
the

in

and

as to the magical character

although

origin,

tiieir

it

addition

various examples which have just been

quoted show that there


of these

5,

pieces of

first

the

Tukh

to refer

statuette repro-

where the dancer has both arms raised above

women

decorated vases have shown us figures of

same position

panied by

may mention

They are sometimes accom-

(Figs. 91, 94).

men who appear

wood together

to beat time to the

a species

dance by clapping

Two

of castanettes (Fig. 92}.

female figures from the painted tomb of Hierakonpolis, also, by


the position of their arms, suggest these dancers (Fig.

At

funerals

the

dancing

execute dances, accompanied by lamentations

to

Professor
of the

Erman, we examine the representations

Ancient Empire, we

162;.

men and women were emplo\'ed

shall at

and

once recognize that

persisted long after the rise of Pharaonic Egypt.-

if,

with

the tombs

in

this

The

custom

terracotta

show the same funerary


in Egypt
the earliest times must certainly be of a nature to modify
an important extent the conclusions in a recent work by

figures discovered

in

the Greek tombs

dancers and mourners, and the appearance of this type


in

to

M.

Collignon.-^

Notes analytiques siir Ics collections etlinographiqiics die Mtisce


{Annates du Miiscc du Congo, Ethnograpliie et anthropologic, Serie
'

fasc.
-

i.

Congovol.

i.

pp. 17, 18.

Erm.-\n,

Life

always present
deceased."
^

dit
iii.),

p.

'
Dancers were almost
245 ct seq.
is, the feast held in honour of the

that

P. 246.

CoLLiGNO.x,

Revue des

Ancient Egypt,
Feast of Eternity

in

at the

De

Vorigi7ic

du

type des pleureiiscs dans I'art grec, in the

etitdes grecques, xvi. 1903, pp. 299-322.

DANCING, MUSIC, AND POETRY.


On

the

earliest

monuments

of

275

Egypt we have
They are

Pharaonic

observed several instances of these religious dancers.


to be seen

maces

on the Hierakonpolis

on the plaque of King Den (Fig.

and

1S6 to 188;

(Figs.

190), to

which the monuments

of the Pharaonic age afford numerous parallels.

Without waiting
the

in

two

bas-reliefs

these

of

to describe the scenes

Pharaonic

of

representations

Egypt,
should

it

for

me

that

hold

our

a series of

men

to

moment

dancing

funerary

of

appears

attention.

tomb of Anta,

In the

dancing, holding

their

205. D.\ncers

Fig.

gazelles'

in

in

Deshasheh,^ there

at

hands short curved

fro.m

the Tomb of Anta,

heads (Fig. 205}.

Dr.

Petrie-

.\t

is

sticks,

which end

Desh.vsheh.

has

compared with

these accessories of dancing certain fragments of decorated ivory

found

at

Hierakonpolis, two specimens of which are

109 among remains of personal property and

Fig.

fact

which lends very special interest

to this scene

Pyramid texts mention the people of the Tuat,

The determination

of this

name

instrument which terminates

an

is

in

f-^

shown
is

composed of an arm
the head of a

in

furniture.

that the

-^''

holdino-

gazelle.

We

whether the dancers of Deshasheh were


not also people of the Tuat, and whether in the Egyptian period
ma\', therefore, question

and

'

Petrie,

In OuiBELL, Hierakonpolis,

Maspero, La Pyratnidc dn roi Pcpi

pp. 148,

1.

Desliaslicli, pi.

245.

xii.

i.

p. 8.

p. 7.
/.,

in tlie

Rccueil de iravaiix,

vii.

1SS6,

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

2/6
the

task

funerary dances

performing

of

The people

them.

Tuat are

of the

was not reserved

for

the inhabitants of the Tuat,

one of the underworlds of Egyptian

mythology

and

^
;

that

in

we should be witnessing the dance of inhabitants of that


mysterious region.
In the Tuat we are inclined to recognize the
modern name of the oasis of Tuat, which is situated, it is true,
case

the north-west extremity of the African

at

a unique example of tribes

not

times

ancient

were

close

in

M. Lefebure,- several

to

migrations no

less

conclusion

to

have

to

be drawn

dead

of

from these remarks would be

the Tuat may originally have

the

Land

the

eighteenth dynasty

We

Manes.^

Isle

field

of reeds,

Double and

of the

must remember that

Libyan dances were

been

perfectly with

fit

M. Maspero's researches as to the Great Oasis, the

and those of M. de Chassinat on the

el

traces

left

etc.).

a real and actual country, and this result would

Deir

in

considerable (Macae and Ma.xyes, Berbers and

that the region of the

of the

is

According

Egypt.

with

appear

Barabras, Xumidians and Nobadae,

The

This

now extremely remote, who

contact

tribes

continent.

as late as

portrayed

still

at

Bahari.^

I find in a recent work a strange piece of information, related by a traveller,


which had not hitherto been given to the world, and which therefore may be of
some importance. Writing of his visit to the royal tombs at Thebes, the author
says
"Tous ces corridors sont remplis de peintures, de reliefs, qui representent
ce qu'il y a dans les livres de Thades {sic), dans le Touat, ou, si vous le voulez,
plus simplement dans I'enfer.
La premiere fois que j'ai oui parler de Touat,
c'etait a Tunis
je voyais un Touareg dont la presence causait un veritable
evenement, meme parmi les indigenes. Sa figure, completement voilee par una
etoffe noire tres epaisse, sa mise, son manteau d'un brun fonce causaient un vrai
rassemblement. Ouelqu'un du pays me dit
C'est un Touareg, c'est un diable
vomi par I'enfer dont il porte le nom
Touareg vient de Touat, qui veut dire
'

'

Je conte cette anecdote qui m'a paru curieuse, sans


responsable de cette etymologic, et je reviens au.x Egyptiens."
enfer.'

,chelles

du Levant, Impressions d'un Fran^ais,

me faire lediteur
Baron du Gabe,

Paris, 1902, p. 84.

Private letter of January 25th, 1903.

Le nom antique de la Grande Oasis et les idees qui s'y


Etudes de fnylhologie et d'archeologie cgypticnnes, ii. [Bibliothique egyptologique, ii.), pp. 421-427. Les Hypogees royaux de Thebes, ib. p. 12
et seq.
Chassinat, Ca et la, iii. in the Recueil de travaux relatifs a la philologie
^

Maspero,

G.,

rattachc7it, in the

et

a Varchcologie cgyptienties et assyricnnes, .xvii. 1895, p. 53.


* Naville,
The Temple of Deir el Bahari, iv. pi. xc. and

that in other festivals the dancing

is

done

also

p. 2

" It is curious

by these Africans, the Tamahu, as

if

DAXCIXG, MUSIC, AND POETRY

277

numerous representations of dances observed and


one which shows women
described "by Professor Erman, there is
reserved for the
whose clothing is merely a loin-cloth, a garment

Among

the

men, and whose hair


of

dressed in imitation of the white crown

is

The dance executed by them

Upper Egypt.i

is

called

"

under

scene
simply a somewhat burlesque copy of the
vanquished
a
of
head
the
of the king raising his mace to strike
great palette of Xar-Mer.
barbarian, such as we observed on the
the
dance, says Professor Erman, is taken from

the

feet,"

and

The name

is

of this

saying of the king,

which

is

on inscriptions accompanying
"

bound

nations

all

beneath his

ordinarily given
this scene, that

together are struck

down

feet."

This curious dance should apparently be


compared with the similar scene on the
painted

tomb

Hierakonpolis

of

162;,

(P"ig.

and we thus acquire one more example of


times
traditions uninterrupted from prehistoric
to the twelfth

down

dy nasty

.-

Fig. 206.

Professor Erman remarks that music conaccompaniments


sisted almost exclusively of

We

to dances.

Under

Ancient

the

KONPOLIS.

Ashmolean Museum,

have just mentioned the scene

players

of castanette

Oxford.

vase.

on a prehistoric

Empire we

Steatite

FiGCRE FROM HlERA-

observe

likewise

flutes

and

funerary or religious
harps as musical instruments presenting a
there was found
Hierakonpolis^
In the excavations at
character.
a

Below the mouth

seated figure in steatite (Fig. 206).

small

that art, like the Hungarian gipsies in


they had some national propensity to
La politique rehgieusc des Grecs
Lekebure,
addition,
in
See,
times."
modern
de geographic d' Alger et de
Socicte
la
de
Bulletin
en Libye (extract from the
caractere
trimestres, 1902), Algiers, 1902, vi., Le
4th
and
3rd
Nord,
du
VAfriqne

de la religion libycnite, cote orgiaque, pp. 30-34dances are


As Professor Wiedemann remarks to me, these

in reality

panto-

of theatrical representations.

germ
egyptiennc en
See Benedite, Un gucrrier lihyen, figurine
da
Musec
au
bronze incrusted-argent,conservee
^'^'^^V'^
'^"l^^T!!lTll
(Fondation
et Belles Lettres
Memoires publies par rAcademie des Inscriptions

mimes, the
2

Piot),
3

first

\lso later

ix.

1903, p. \zietsrq.

QuiBE^L

&

Gkee.v, Hierakonpolis,

...

li.

pi. xlviu./',

r
column.
left-hand
,

a hole

pierced

is

be

and a

harpist.^

funerary purpose

the

If

probable that the figure was that of

is

it

off near the bod)',

compared to the stone figures of the


belonging to the Aegean period, which represent

Greek islands
a flutist

may

This

flutist.

KGVPT.

IX

now broken

the two arms,

were outstretched, and


a

art

PRIMITIX'P:

278

questioned, a painted scene at Beni

On

proof (Fig. 207;.

Hasan

were

instruments

musical

of these

might be quoted

the side of the stela, which

is

in

form

in the

of a door representing the entrance intended for the use of the soul,
various people are

pla\-

as an

bringing

The two lower

offerings.

by women engaged

are occupied

on the harp, while three others clap their hands

accompaniment

to the singing; behind, a

a sistrum, while another


certainh- intended

performed

for

wom.an

cadence

is

shaking

away

the

may

evil spirits,

instrument which accompanies

deceased.

It

it.

must have produced

It

many

In

countries an

same character

The

presence of

in

a kind of

instrument

" bull-roarer,"

ethnologists term a

the

order

in

consists of a kind of small

is

in

Egyptian apparatus.

as our

is

suggest a similar use for the other

board attached to a stem, which revolves


performer.

This

songs and music of a religious character,

sistrum, an instrument used at ceremonies of the cult


to drive

Two

in

using a strange instrument.

is

honour of

in

registers

musical performance.

in a

a handle held b\- the

deep buzzing sound.


use which

This

is

of the

what English

is

and Germans a

"

Schwirrholz,"

The

"

Schwirrholz,"

terms which have no exact French equivalent.

says Professor Schurtz,^ consists of a long, thinnish piece of wood,


'

Vart

&

Perrot

f?iyce}iiett,

Chipiez, Histoire

and

pp. 760-762,

lie

fig.

I'afi da/is Vantiqiiite,

357, 358.

vi.,

La

Grece primitive,

Koehler, Prcehistorisches von den

griechischen Inseln,

in the Mittheiliingen dcr kaise/'lich deiitschen archeologischen


Athcnische Abteilimg, ix. 1884, pp. 156-162, and pi. vi. See a stone
sarcophagus with painted scenes, discovered by Paribeiii, near Phrestus, in

Instituts,

YLaro. Altkretische Kultstiitten^ in the


p.

130,

note

I.

''

Hinter

communicated by M.

J.

dem

Archiv fiir Reiigioniuissenschaftcn,

Opfertisch steht ein Flutenblaser.''

de Mot.)

Here

the Attic lecythi, where harpists and

ceremonies.

See Pottier, Etude sur

is

vii.

1904,

(Information

already the origin of the paintings of

flutists

are represented in their funerary

blancs attiqties a representations


fnneraires {Bibliotheque des ccolcs franraiscs d'Athi'ncs et de Rome, fasc. x.x.x),
les Iccytlics

Paris, 1883, specially pp. 73, 74.


-'

Beni Hasan,
pi. xii.
iv. pi. xvi. and p. 5.
ScHURTZ, Urgeschichtc der Kitltiir, Leipzic,
i.

'

1900, p. 50.

DANCING, MUSIC, AND POETRY.


which
or

either

is

of

like

ornaments.

painted

means

shaped

which

it

or decorated ,\vith

fish,

string

fastened

is

whirled round

is

279

the

in

to
air,

the

engraved
end,

by

producing a

buzzing noise.

We

add

must

Fig.

object

the

that

thus

described

is

ne\-er

Musical Instruments, fro.m a P.aixting at Beni H.\san.

207.

emplo\-ed as an amusement, or to respond to any musical requirements.

The

tribes

natural in the
in

the

feasts

who

booming
for

the

use
it

it

consider there

prodiices,

dead, or

onlv the initiated have access.

in

and
other

it

is

something super-

is

principalh' used

ceremonies

to

which

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

28o

am

at

much

very

Hasan

Heni

inclined

the instrament

see in

to

instrument analogous

musical

depicted

this

to

"

bull-

roarer."

W'e must also briefly notice the use of music, in general, for
accompanying and regulating work done in combination. At the

day

present

regulating the
to give a

we still preserve this use for stimulating and


march of soldiers. The Greeks made use of it
Also

rhythmic swing to collective work.

in

reference

we can cite a group in terracotta from Bceotia,


published by M. Pottier, who refers to the careful studies of
Bucher on " work and rhythm."
As an accompaniment to dancing and music the human voice
Thus the
forced to submit to the obligations of rhythm.
is
to

point

this

incantations

funerary songs

or

people,

primitive

of

habitually

by repetitions and assonances, are actual poems.

characterized

The meaning

of these

is

generally extremely obscure, and the

songs of savages which have been noted are not of a

various

nature to give

us

very high idea of the poetic instinct of

primitive people.

On

Empire there

several

are

inscribed

the

monuments

songs which vary

of the Ancient

onl}' slightly

from

these rudimentary poetic efforts.


It

would be

translated

hazardous to attempt to assign a prehistoric


Nevertheless, M.

Eg\'ptian songs.

origin to these

Maspero has

from the Pyramid texts several incantations against

serpents, to which he does not hesitate to assign a \-ery remote


antiquity.

He

prayers and

with

what

Egyptian.

thus

writes

addressed to

of formulas

Many

of

and

serpent

the

terror

"The number of
venomous animals show

on the subject

them are

the

written

in

scorpion

inspired

the

a language and with

combinations of signs which do not appear to ha\e been completely

understood, even

two Pepi.
'

aux

C APART,

For
J.,

my

part,

Sur deux

by the
I

scribes

under

believe that they belong to the

xiii.

Pottier, Les Sujets de genre dans les figurines archaiques de terrc


the Bulletin de corrcspondance hellcnit/ice, xxiv. 1900, pp. 519, 520, and
ii7id

most

recents fclati/s aux anciens liieroglypJies et


Jigurees de I'Agypte, in the Bulletin de la Societe

Bucher, Arbeit

the

livres

attcienties representations

d' anthropologie de Bruxelles, xx. 1901-2, Brussels, 1903, p.

in

Unas and

Rythmics, 2nd ed. Leipzic, 1899.

cuite,
pi. ix.

DANCING, MUSIC, AND POETRY.


ancient

ritual,

and that they date back

Some

Mena.

to

281

time before the

them are evidently cadenced, and were


probably originally the songs of snake-charmers
all of them
may be included, more or less, in the class of what with us is
called gibberish.
'The serpent entwines; it is the serpent that
reign of

of

twines round the

from

the

Cometh

womb

forth

castrated!

Oh, thou that art on thyself, who issuest

calf.

of the

from

thee

may

have now studied

thou hast devoured that which

serpent

Here

Fall, slave!'

from which the others

We

earth

be judged

in

succession

"

have, therefore,

arrived at

the

down

lie

the classes of objects

all

which ethnologists have attributed an

to

descendest,

that

one of the most comprehensible,

is

artistic character.

conclusion

of our

stud}',

We

and

it

only remains for us briefly to sum up the general results which

appear to us to flow from


'

en

it.

Maspero, Pre7)iier rapport a l^Institiit dgyptiett sur Ics fouillcs cxccutees


Egypte de iSSi a iSSj, in the Etudes de mythologie et d' archco log ic

cgyptieimes,

i.

{Bibliotheque

cgyptieniie d'aprcs les

cgyptologiquc,

pyramides de

de rhistoire des religions,

reproduced word for word.

xii.

1885,

la

i.),

pp.

V' et de la

pp.

125,

126,

153,

VP

154.

La

religion

dynastic, in the

Revue

where the same passage

is

282

CHAPTER

VH.

CONCL US IONS.
draw general conclusions from the foregoing
to me that there are two different orders

attempting
IX study,
appears
to

it

which we must take into consideration. In the first


in the second and this it is which
general ethnology

of ideas
place,

has more special interest for us

we

find

From
coveries

at the

it

of Egyptian art as

origin

of the fourth dynasty.

the ethnological point of view the results of the dis-

show that

the artistic

are closely allied

with those

of the last few years appear to

manifestations
of other

the

commencement

Egypt

of primitive

nations

which have been observed

at

an equal stage

In applying to the primitive inhabitants of the

of civilization.

and methods of M. Grosse, in Lcs Debuts


nothing which forces us to modify these theories

Nile Valley the theories

de I'Art, there

is

and methods, at any rate in their main outlines.

In

my

opinion

the evidence of these Egyptian discoveries enables us to establish

the

utilitarian

together
is

in

origin

of those

under the term

almost every case confused

with a magical, purpose.


valuable evidence, as

from

their

most

This

Egypt

enter on the

domain of

or

until

in

historical

But

special conclusions,

rather

affords us

follow the development of

rudimentary form,

they constitute an actual body of doctrine.

we

purpose

utilitarian

with a religious,

In this respect

we can

which we group

manifestations,

" resthetic.''

at

this

most

beliefs,

times
point

and these require

to be exhibited methodically.

At the beginning of this book we showed that at the commencement of the fourth dynasty Egypt had already developed

her language, writing, administration, cults, ceremonies, were


constituted.

Another

fact

which

struck

us

forcibly

all

was the

COXCLUSIOXS.
extreme realism of the
face

us

Egypt with

into
"

which brought

artistic productions, a realism

face with

to

283

alternative

this

was imported

either art

the other manifestations of civilized

all

"

Minerva issuing armed from the brain of Jupiter

was the

previous

of several

slow and

of a

result

come

of the last few years

to

our

aid.

Is

petent pens
give

The

but

categorical

task of replying shall be

am

certainly

will

appears to

us to
to

left

if

In the

We

shall

distinguish in the formation of art, as of the entire

many

references,

commencement

the

mind

the

at

it

will

probably

civilization

contributions from different sources.

Nevertheless, without feeling obliged to give

graphical

the

meantime,

ever arrived at

is

it

not be absolutely on one side or the other.

of the Eg}"ptians,

on

decide

more com-

wc should await

question,

this

the solution

that

discoveries

which are now being carried on, and which

occupy several years longer.

me

it

inclined to think that, before attempting to

answers to

result of excavations

else

the evidence which

they have brought to light sufficient to allow


this question

the

that

is

it

or

evolution, the work

progressive

Here

centuries.

life

should

like

of art in Egypt, as

present time.

sketch

to

it

numerous
the

biblio-

problem of

presents itself to m\-

do not attempt

to

conceal

the

hypothetical character of this outline, which can only be definitely

shown when the origins of Egyptian civilization are completel}'


known and, unfortunatel}', that day is yet far distant.
If we ask anthropologists to what race we should assign the

earliest

very

inhabitants

of the valley of the

commencement meet with

Nile,

we

shall

at

the

a divergence of opinions and a

multitude of contradictions.

I'rom the pal.tolithic period, Egypt

or, rather,

the cleft in the

north-east plateau of Africa, which later was to be partially

by the

allu\-ial

deposits of the Nile

nomadic huntsmen.

The

flints

was

filled

inhabited by tribes of

which formed their

tools

have

been found cither simply utilized by them or chipped into shape.

some of those rude graffiti found on


the rocks, which afford, as wc have alread\' said, such striking
analogies with the graffiti of South Oran, may be their work.
It

We

is

also

ma\"

possible

well

that

suppose that there was originally a population

PRIMITIVE ART IX EGYPT.

284

composed
towards

black

of

Libyan

were settled on

to

these

neolithic

brilliant

At

in detail

analogies which
this

the historic

us,

it

the

of

came

into the valle\-

from

from the

and whose productions we have been

throughout the course of

we have had

this book.

occasion

to

insist

on the

has been thought might be established between

Egyptian

earliest

earliest

borders

Libyan people that we should attribute the


civilization which the prehistoric cemeteries

times

different

from

back

have made known to


studying

creep

"

themselves

perhaps

They would

west or south-west."
is

Mediterranean

the

who

and

continent,

Southern Europe.

It

white races, which

by the

south

the

antiquity

which were insensibly driven

races,

civilization

Many

period.

and that of the Libyans of

of these must have been driven out

and greater numbers, again, must by degrees have


become "Egyptianized" by the Pharaonic invaders entering from

of Egypt,

Under the

another country.

the Libyans on the threshold


at

An

war with them.

of the sixth dynasty


the oases

as

the Nile.

The

far

frequently find

of Egypt, and the earliest kings

account of a journey undertaken at the time

tells

as

we

earliest dynasties

us that the Libyans were established in

the neighbourhood of the

cataract of

first

string of oases extending along the valley of the

Nile to the plateau of Barca remained entirely in the possession

of the Libyans until the time of the twelfth dynasty.

This primitive Libyan civilization of the Nile Valley was


quently

in

communication with the Mediterranean

civilization,

perhaps actually by means of this route along the oases.

Greek

traditions,

referring

to

the

of

relations

Cyrcnaica, need only a passing reference


the maritime nations attacked Egypt,

it

at

fre-

The

Greece and the


later

times,

when

was through the Libyan

frontier that they penetrated into the country.

This fact

is

of itself sufficient to explain the

intercourse so

between the Egyptian primitive civilizaand the Aegean civilization. The relations between these

frequently established
tion

countries diminish after the


'

p. 19.

conquest of the valley of the

Maspero, Histoirc ancic/me des peuplcs de

I'Orient, 6di ed. Paris,

Nile
1904,

CONXLUSIONS.
by

Pharaohs

the

which confirm

facts

when they again

dynast}',

Evans has

Mr.

occur frequently.

twelfth

the

until

285

noticed

These relations also explain the presence


black incised pottery and

have studied
If

we

follow

"

the

alphabetiform

Egypt of the
marks which we

in
"

earlier chapter.

as

we have

by Dr.

originated

as

an

in

Petrie,

brilliant archaeologist, in

hitherto

we

done

the

are forced

sequence dates
agree with that

to

recognizing a decadence in the primiti\"e

civilization

towards the end of the prehistoric period.

not seem

to

We

see

in

me

be any difficulty

to

in

There does

accounting

for

this.

period of trouble and insecurity

the result of the

it

numerous

Crete

in

this theory.^

which accompanies the arrival of bands of invading foreigners.

Were

these invasions sudden, or the result of a gradual

which

tion

many

continued

infiltra-

years, not to say centuries

Did

in\-aders arrive by one single road, or did they come,


some by the Isthmus of Suez, others by the Upper Nile, or, again,
by the desert which separates the Red Sea from the valley
Did the invaders all belong to one and the
of the Nile?

these

same group of

sprang perhaps from one


for centuries

These

am, however,

but which had

race,

are questions

without further evidence than


I

they form part of groups which

did

nations, or

disposed

we

possess.

to

believe

of successive groups, relatively few in

Egypt by

different

publication that

the

texts

have occupied
later.

It

religious

is

vvas

of a

Egypt

in

which,

have

invasions

frequent

in

number, penetrating into


already

E. de Rouge,

said

another

in

that there

are in

Ann, which must


the same manner as the Hyksos did

great

probably to

conceptions

Heliopolis,

believe, with

traces

routes.

been separated

which cannot be answered

the

called

tribe

them that we should

that

had

according to

for

their

attribute

centre

tradition

the

related

those

town of

by

Pliny,"

founded by the Arabs.

Petrie, Methods and Aims in Archceology, London, 1904, p. 163 ct seq.


Professor
Maspero, Histoire ancicnne des peuples de V Orient, p. 16.
Wiedemann writes: "Nach einer spiiten Notiz war Heliopolis eine Griindung der
'

Araber, worunter an der betreffenden Stelle ein semitischer


ist,

dieser

Angabe kunnte sehr wohl

ein richtiger

Stamm

zu verstehen

Kern zu Grunde

liegen,

und

PRmiTIVE ART

286
It

probably also to

is

decadence

in

prehistoric

period should

invasion

this

primitive

the

IX EGYPT.

followed

their footsteps

we have seen

that there

Egypt

analogies

between

vinced certain

and

nothing;

is

was a

tain the belief that there

primitive

historical

in

we

have

sudden cleavage, between

On

Egypt.

that

the

contrary,

the}-

have con-

Pharaonic civilization

that the

that,

which permits us to enter-

them are so numerr)us

writers

the

times

several

Further than

P'gypt.

hiatus, a

Pharaonic

that

These industries did

be attributed.

however, entirely disappear, and

not,

Aiuc

of the

towards the close of the

industries

is

only a

de\elopmcnt of that of primitive Egypt.


think, rather, that

the

to

They are
and sweep away from
Egyptians.

a slow infiltration

periods of

It

its

clearly

is

the

of

At
appears

On

as

in

people,

Nile

possesses

of

which has been recognized

at

Valle)-

Foreigners have

ha\'e

changed the

ne\'er

of

both

in

its

environments.
the

that

principle

this

to

regard

to

art

and

this

it

is

we have

there

is

their

new element which

which requires explanation.


insisted

on the contrast between

and the royal monuments, between the

shown

in

beliefs.

Egypt, and

also

Pharaonic

continue the traditions

to

court and that of the people, between religious

tlie

is

the country which has always rapidlv'

moment, however,

several occasions

the private

higher civilization

of a

and has adapted them

result

and funerary

a given

it is

of the

soil

power

irresistibly influenced

primitive

religious

invaders,

Egyptians were

Pharaonic

point to be noted with regard to this

history.

its

Egyptian population
transformed

the

movements of nations who destroy


before them a whole civilization, but rather

absorbing the invader,


all

of

attributed

not the

power which the

strange

invasions

which had alreadv attained a certain degree

of development.

the

of

of groups of people

a population

into

phenomenon should be

this

character

actual

that

the

primitive

style of the

and profane

art.

Egyptians were not

acquainted with hieroglyphic writing, and that

it

suddenly made

Heliopolis und sein Sonnenkult einer vorhistorischen Semiteneinwanderung in

das Delta ihren Ursprung vevdanken."Oru'Htalisfisc/ie Littcraturzcittttig^ April,


19C4, col. 146, 147.

CON'CLUSIONS.
appearance thoroughly formed.

its

to an official

were brought into


stituted

In

these

cannot

intervene.

enter

and

anthropology

almost alone can

completel)'

con-

But from what

into

complicated

comparative

can merely say that

Pharaonic invaders came from

the

of writing,

pages

final

where

without,

attached

style

official

assert without hesitation.

country were they brought

controversy,

This

complicated system

this

country from

the

we may

this

and

religion,

2S7

from Yemen,

Asia, perhaps

and that they had common origin

philology

apparently

the ancient Chaldeans.

^vith

This theory would explain the analogies which are established

between the

more

One

the Nile Valley.

in

not

of c\'linders, wh'ch

use

especially, the

quickly
did

Pharaonic remains and those of Chaldea

earliest

fact

is

disappeared

very clear

fairly

the Semites

from Asia to the Nile Valley

pass direct

were

the>'

"Africanized" before penetrating into Egypt, properly so-called.

The

the African

map

fauna and

the

of

tion

character

represented

flora

which

of

taken up their abode before penetrating into

The two

coasts

of the

Red

hieroglyphs,

the

in

striking.

is

shows where the Semites must

of Africa

Nile.

by the examina-

been obtained

clearest proof of this has

glance at the
a time have

for

the

valley

of the

towards the southern

Sea,

end, resemble each other very considerably both in climate and

Any

in their productions.

at

occupy a

first

regions

the

languages,

and

which exists

affinity

One

country

they had

the

part

tribes leaving

of these

as

differing

abandoned.

the customs

Yemen would
little

as

on the

situated

regions,

by the name of Punt.


a

country,

foreign

Heuzey,

See
mentaircs

V l^gypte

not

did

land

apri-s

L.,

follow

it
it

Construction
dccouvcrtcs dc

primitive, in the

1899, pp. 53-56.

The Egyptians,

they called

les

the

close

between that country and the south of Arabia.


coast,

have been designated by the Egyptians of the

this

from

population,

study of the
Ethiopia shows

of

naturally

possible

Land

"

antcricurc

M. dc

Sarzec,

Revue d'assyriologic

Note contributed

writing the

in

to

name

of

the determinative sign of

with
the

appears

classical period

ct

by Mr. Otford.

of the

Our-Xhia,
viii.,

Gods," and
notes

coinplc-

Coniparaisons avcc

d'archcologic oricniulc,

v.

2,

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

288
from

derived

the origin of a

it

Also, the Egyptians at

ancient divinities.

with

relations

pacific

represented on

are
race

mixed

as

similar to the Egyptians in physical

is

The

type crossed with negro blood.

between Egypt and Punt


inhabitant of Punt

of an

inhabitants

its

and costume, while the other portion shows the same

type, beard,

tions

when

monuments, they appear

the

most

of their

times maintained

all

and

country,

this

superior race

the

number

certain

tomb

the

in

proof of the rela-

earliest

furnished

is

a representation

b\'

son

of a

Cheops

of

of

the fourth dynasty.^

drawn up towards the end of


dynasty, mentions enormous quantities of objects brought

list

the fifth

of

the temples,

to

gifts

from Punt.

The journey from Punt


road

B\'

was

it

Upper Nubia,

necessary

necessary,

first

of

all,

regions of

desert

the

at

present da\'.
Nile by
Red Sea

reach the

to

the valleys which extend

Wady Hammamat,

Koptos

the

from easy.

far

from

the

In historic times the route most frequently chosen

to the river.

Now

traverse

to

formidable journey even

By water it was
means of one of
was the

Egypt was very

to

is

which unites Kosseir and Koptos.

precisely the site where Professor Flinders Petrie

discovered what he considers to be the earliest remains that can

be attributed
route
to

is

to

the dynastic

long and dangerous.

hordes of

human

race

the

beings attempting

into the midst of tribes already civilized.

which induces

me

represent

to

statues of Min.

the

tumultuous

arrival

return

Semites had

for a

moment

made

long

to

invasion

this consideration

It is

in

dynastic Egyptians as a slow and progressive

To

This

could not have been accessible

It

Egypt

of

our former subject, the Egyptian

stay

on

African

soil

before

covering and following the route to the valley of the Nile.


in

the country occupied

Somalis,
reveal

by the

we may one day hope

the

history

the

infiltration.

Gallas, the Abyssinians,


to

dis-

There,

and the

discover remains which will

of the development of Pharaonic civilization

in the earliest periods of its evolution.

The

invaders brought
'

with

them hieroglyphic writing

Lepsius, Denkmiiler,

ii.

23.

illus-

CONCLUSIONS.
They

by them.

trating the language spoken

2S9
also

brought rehgious

conceptions which were already extrcmel\' developed, and which


constituted
classical

the

the

religion

official

Egypt

of

Their funerary beliefs differed

epoch.

the autochthones, so

and perhaps we may here

planation of the absence

in

the

find

ex-

the ro\'al tombs of representations

and of which

similar to those that corer the walls of mastabas,

wc have

the

at

from those of

at least, as the destin\- of the deceased

far,

was concerned

kings

of

basis

seen the protot\'pc in a prehistoric tomb.

Egyptian

ritual

constituted

is

the

in

same manner. RepreNar-Mer and on the

sentations, such as those on the palette of

plaques of the royal tombs of Abydos, show


already resembled
religious

and

s}-stem of art

that

and with

we

funerary

beliefs

already considerably advanced, and even

which contrasts

art,

far this ritual

which

is

some extent already

to

how

Connected with these

of later times.

in

hieratic

and

this

fixed.

ritual

This

is

find

the

official

such a striking manner with the naturalistic

art of the primitive people.

What was

contact of these two

the result of the

arrived at such dift'erent stages of development

art,

with such contradictory tendencies?

The answer

we have already

is

indicated,

duality

reminded us

We

of
in

of which

art

and inspired

to this question

us to

needless for

insist

of these two systems produced

Professor

Spiegelberg has again

manner by his recent publication.'


more widely the central power exerted

so clear a

shall find that the

influence the

it

The meeting

greatly on this point.


that

and

forms of

more

is

how it came about


mencement of the

the official art in favour.

that under the Ancient


fourth

dynasty the

We

Empire

private

its

can understand
at the

art

is

com-

still

so

and in some measure we shall even be


prepared to justify the remark made by Nestor THote, quoted
in the earlier pages of this book: "We know Egyptian art only
free

in

and

its

naturalistic,

decadence."

Spiegelberg, Gt'schichte der iigypthchcn Kiinst irti Abriss dargcstellt,


See Wiedem.a.nn, Whickelmann's L'rtheil nber die iigyptische
1903.
Kunst und die P?-ofnnkunst der alien Aegypter, in the JnJu-biicher dcs Vereiits
von Allertluimsfreunden ini Rhcinlandc, l.x.wii. 1S84 (separate reprint, p. 9
'

Leipsic,

et

seij.).

19

PRIMITIVE ART IN EGYPT.

290

Our conclusions are as follows Egyptian art, as it is revealed


at the commencement of the fourth dynasty, appears to
be composed of various elements.
Primitive art, which had its
:

us

to

birth

of centuries,
influences

was

only to

object

their

nature with

represent

development

full

"

Like acts on

The second element

When

reaches

it

survive

religious
in

The

fidelity.

may

be found

in

by the great formula of imitative

like."

the art

is

of the Pharaonic Egyptians,

of which the earliest stages of evolution

express

of this

virtue

possible

serve

object

the funerary beliefs of the Egyptian

in

Empire, entirely dominated


magic,

to

foreign

the principal

art,

all

was intended

it

by

extent affected

This

?).

and magical, should by

utilitarian

funerary ideas which

small

Anu

(Aegean and

of which was
vcr\-

and developed during the course

the north of Africa

in

Egypt

it

is

still

completely elude

thoroughly fixed, and

conceptions of advanced

serves

us.

to

development, which

Egypt, with only very slight modifications, until the

close of the Pharaonic period.

The

struggle between these two forms of

upon each

influence that they exerted

we

official

struggles

in

and the

language and vulgar idioms.

these various

and the reciprocal

other, are similar to those

establish between the popular religion

between

art,

official

The

domains reaches back

religion,

story of the

to the

earliest

period of the Ancient Empire.


I

do not attempt

to conceal

that these last pages

the fact

bear a decisive character very far removed from the uncertainties

which

in

reality

are

greatly before allowing


I

may

moment

arise,
b\'

them

to

in

crowds,

and

have hesitated

assume such a character.

hope

not incur severe blame, after having brought some modest

materials
a

present

to
in

the foot of the scaffolding,


a

if

have indulged

for

dream of a splendid palace which may one day

and of which perhaps they may form a part when

an architect of eenius.

utilized

NDEX
PAGE

Aahmes
Abadiych

Abydos

27
27, 12S
5, 12 1,
38, 42, 49, 57, 58, 68
.

6,

19,

no,

100, loi,

112, 117, 133, 134. 135

32

Aniorgos
Amulets
Ancient Empire

.156

49, 53, 73, 85, 192, 193

39, 42, 52, 53, 55

2,

2CO, 205, 219

136, 144, 146, 149, 153, 159, 160, 169

56, 58,

173, 176, 180, 182, 183, 185, 186, 18S

220, 237, 257, 259, 267, 277, 280, 289

242, 248, 251, 256, 257, 270, 289

Abyssiniaiis

.162,

Accessories of dancing

...

Administration

Aegean

and

civilization

Islands

period

Aegco-Crctan
(See Greek.)
Aftica.
.

art

Aha-Menes
.

Alawanyel/

2 84,

290

212

fantastic

indeterminate

,,

pet

19S

,,

sacred

-134

,,

with long necks

30.

Aloes
Alphabet, Libyan

116, 119,

Creto Aegean

287

155

210
194

60

145

A?nerica

.....

Amen'ean,
South,
of
European parentage

49, 50, 51

.129

71, 72, 78, 79,

no

189, 212, 232,

236

n7

153

Apu at

or

13,46, 285

Argar
Arms of

j-

chairs

Art
decorative

,,

,,

official

260

,,

of

Negro291

movement

64
1S5

136

65
59 et seq., 138
258, 264, 287, 289

154

154

220, 254

185 et seq., 220

Architecture

105, 134, 180, 255

Archa7igel

285

23c

257, 2S5, 290

Anubis

primitive

Anu
Apes
Arab

,,

185

132, 136,

(Bubalis)

21S

Alphabetiform" characters I45etseq.

no, 140
220

275

147

Antelope 21, 48, 69,


iij, n9, 140, 153,
Antelope (Addax)

146

Phoenician origin

IV

182

216

Anta

linear,

Amenophis

Ansai7'iyeh

149

6,

209

82,

....

Anklets

,,

234

(See Feline animals.)

Alligator

102

69, 136, 230, 232

,,

93, 96, 100, 174, 1S2, 199

....
....
....
....

edible

14

Amelineau

Animals, aquatic

,,

99,

236, 237, 268

27S

146,

M. 5-

176 et seq., 202, 203, 210

152,

domestic

52, 69, 71,

126, 129, 136, 138, 140

,,

Aleutians

Alexandria
Algeria

142,

41,

215, 216, 218, 219, 224, 229, 230,

Menes).

(see

Islands

.164

15, 144, 160, 169,

Animals 5, 21,
no, n2, n7,

275
282
165

40, 162, 248, 273,

4,

288

156,

Agathodemon
Alabaster

I,

....
.

British Central

,,

Andaman

190, 192, 193, 199, 200, 209, 212, 221

"

Amon-Ra

16,

272

9.

et seq.

292

Index.

h\DEX.
Bricks
British

Must

Brocatel

Bronze

293

INDEX.

J94

....

Colour

PAGE

213
60

26, 27,

Colionbia

PAGE

Decoration, geometrical

Combatants

the vases

magic

,,

Copts

Cords
Corpse

,,

lo/enges, half black,

"2 et seq.,

155

,,

translormatioii of an

41, 66,
1

45

217

40, 52,

63 64, Oi

239
218

Cow

188

Crescent
Crete

254
149, 164, 285

.146,

Creto-Acgcan (see Acgeo-Cretaii).

Crew
82,

11

112,

1,

117,

132, 140, 142, 153, 192, 209,

Cross-lined pottery

219

35, 108, 140

(See Pottery.)

Crown, White, of Upper Egypt

159

267, 277
of

Lower Egypt

144
164, 1S5
I, 282

....

CucutcHi
Cult
,,

animal

Dcir-cI-Bnhari

De Loii
De Morgan

27, 50, 160,

....

207, 209,

De Mot
.

Cylinders

136, 138, 151, 195,

Cynocephalus
(See Apes.)
Cyprus

59

Den Setui
sepui

Semti,

or

De Rouge

He-

or

203, 254, 275

....
.....

Dancers, male

female

,,

Dancing

17,

,,

139 et seq., 205


22, 63, 108, 109 et seq.

45
42

,,

hammered

247

,,

natural

186

,,

phitomorphic

,,

skeuomorphic

119,

69
48

250, 251, 274, 275


53, 211,

274
211, 218, 254, 270
.

.....
......

272, 273 et seq.

Danga Bohr
Davis

Decorated pottery
(See Pottery.)
Decoration

,,

140
60, 66, 112

50,

138

....
.

59,

113,

136

textile

,,

with the point

62, 74,

16,

59 et seq.

139
59

98

62, 138

zoomorphic
De Villenoisy

59- 74,

267
214
162

De Zelltner

i6o, 189

Di Dehetrio

Diiika

177
121

96

Diorite

DiospoUs

94,

131-

Discs
Divinities,

ubis,
.

223

108, 126

50

74

,,

.....

285

Dcshashch
58, 275
Designs
202
anthropomorphic
59
engraved on the vases 133

geometric 48,

194
284

Cyrenaica

DalicJiour

.210

De.niker

,,

36,

217
278

floral

276

154, 185

47, 112, 115, 134, igi

8,

5,

219, 220

CUMONT

Dagger

et seq.

.111
.172
.160

of the ear

,,

,,

(See Ceremonies.)
Curls

Deformity, anatomical

Denderah
199
122

174,

Crocodile 70,

,,

>,

64

26,

90, 91

Deer

243

;,

contracted

object by

74

.120

198

12,

64

^13

half white

37, 39, 40, 41

Congo
Copper

35.

(See Warriors.)

Combs

et seq.

form of a cord on

in

,,

British

,,

60

I;

i.

176
188, 201

157.

34. 35. 91

Egyptian (see

205

Amon, An-

Atum, Hekit, Horus,

Maat, Mahes, Mentu, Min,

INDEX.

^95
PACiE

Neith,
Nekhbet,
Osiris, Ptah, Sebek, Selkit,

Mut.

Sokaris,

Taurt,

Erm.vn

Thuerisi.
Dogs 95, 102,
Door

....
53,

sill

,,

bull

,,

83 et seq.. 232, 270


200, 266, 27.S

...
.

266

94, 95

195 et seq.

28

...
......
.

Dynasty

secj.,

176,

hair

I.

5,

17, 19, 30, 42, 49,

108,

88, 96,

[72 et

Dyeing the

Dyke

or socket

Double hammer

Duck
Dwarf

Thot,

146,

149, 168,

220

35,

36
250

57,

S5

169,

173

182, 203, 230, 251, 254, 257

Dynasty

II.

III.

IV.

5,

4,
I,

5,

25S,

96, 139, 237,

5,

255, 267

96, 151, 261, 267

18,

25,

28,

42, 93

264, 266, 270, 282


28S, 290

Dynasty V.

VI.

Ensigns of vessels
Equidce
(See Ass, Horse.

Es(/iti//uiiix

Ethiopia

European
Ev.\.NS

52,

Evolution of Clothing
Ex-votos
.

Fan

69
160

Faniliam

69

Feathers

39. 40,

bull's leg

with bird's head

serpent's head

,,

,,

serpent's neck

146,

XIX

55

226

......

14:

....

68,

88,

94,

105,

.....

132, 157, 188, 200, 211,

El Bershch
El Kab ox El Qab
Elephant

78, 82, 102, 140, 143, 202,

88,

207, 20S, 210,

Embroidery.
Enemy, vanquished

223,

57, 159, 223,


.

212, 246,

(See Barbarian, Captives, Prison


Engraving with the point
Ensigns
.121,
(See Standards.)
.

Festival of eternity

Heb-Sed
Fetish
,,

religious

,,

man

214
192

230
247
247
274

-54

90

134. 185

Fetishism

Field of battle

Ear (see Deformities).

and neck

149

276

Emblems

134

,,

162, 164, 176, 188, 190, 226,

i8,

form

51, 70, 99, 192,

97,

135

(See Ostrich.)
Feet of furniture,
Feline animals

268

150

El Ahaiwah
El Amrah 7,

long neck

XXII
Eagle

52

,,

....

196

....228

96,

287

156,285

146,

,,

149,

..

184,

Eancsii

34, 97, 146, 149, 150, 152

XVIII.

203, 25S, 266, 2S8

184, 190, 192, 193, 230, 247, 277, 285

,,

21, 23

Eyes, inlaid 99, 167, 168, 173, 174, 182


197, 260
painted
.213

284

Dynasty XIII.

145,

42, 58, 105, 139, 194

32, 97, 139, 194, 203,

XII.

176. 274, 277

.....
.

230

.211

figures

88, 210,

274
220
239

Figures (see Statuettes).

Fish 80, 102, III, 112,

154

296

INDEX.

297
PAGE

PAt.E

Hebert

Heb-Sed

Hedgehog

71,

Hekenen

Hekit.

Hcliopolis

Hemen

Ibe.K

^54

Ibis

in

Idols,

258
219
2S6

Illyria.

^57

Henna.

Herliaceous fibre

Hel'ZEY

226.

Hierako)ipolis
94, 99,

160

loi,

6,

8,

136,

134,

:35.

47
247

72, 90, 91

56,

54,

36

139,

157,

160

185, 186

163, 168, 169, 173, 183, 184,

189, 190, 191, 192, 200, 202, 205,

143

from

stone,

Islands

63,

113, 121, 148

Hieroglyplis, primitive

(See Magic formulae.)


Indian species of animals
Information

60, 65

Hilton Price
Hippopotamus

'35

(See Eyes,

inlaid.)

Inscriptions, hieroglyphic 136, 248,

112, 12S,

"O,

78,

pictographic

248

.....

(See Writing, Hieroglyphs.)


Insects

Instruments, magic horn

179- 195
103,

III,

1^2, 140, 142, 143, 152, 153

176 et seq., 209, 219

Hissarlik

Hoe
Holmes
Horn

149

238

Horse

ivory

,,

of music

Houses
5.

in relief
13, 192, 210,

Hyksos

....

Jackal

143,

1S9,

149

Jczus

69

on vases

214,

193,

117

Kaffirs

219

Kalnin

229,

247
1S4

Kano
Karia

49

13.

iu8,

121,

45
116
-73
152

40

146

Karnak
54, 217, 229,

283

Karnata

143, 214,

224

Kataiiifii

230

-54
232

Kabylcs

213, 214, 216


130,

275
27

24S

Jequier
Jewellery

135

184, 185

121

incised

of Apis

133,

loi,

168, 169, 172, 174, 180, 183,

Jackal, fantastic

,,

,,

83, 95,

164, 165

1-4. >25

,,

Huntsmen
Hyena

154
68

136, 155, 157, 159, 160, 162,

200, 221

drawn reversed
female, nude

lion

69. 71. 74, 76,

203

,,

56, 57,

27, 47, 50, 51, 52, 55

160, 161

,,

2l5

215,

Ivory box

Hunting

71

Irkutsk
Ivory

278

Isles

212, 217, 224, 237, 242, 248, 251, 270

190, 202,

figures,

Intichiuma

Greek

48, 49, 94, 175, 196

Horus

Human

196 et seq.

273, 278 et seq.

186, 188, 194, 195, 196, 198, 200, 203

Hottcntols

Intaglios of the

143
198

60

(See Equidae.)

Hosi

(?)

256

136

100,

32,

229, 243, 248

,,

102,

54

^57

,,

26

Inlaying

257, 287

14::

Initiation

142 et seq.

280

(See Writing, Inscriptions.)


Hill tribes

164

206

256, 258, 266, 268, 274, 275, 277

151, 203, 205, 208, 230, 23S, 246,

276

172,

6,

Incantations

208, 209, 212, 218, 226, 227, 228, 229

4, 85, 94, 99,

Greek

the

230, 234, 237, 239, 246, 248, 249, 254

Hieroglyphs

232

.78, S3, 132,

54, 55.

Khasakhmui

"9.

155.

70
246
198

105,

264 267

seq.

29S

INDEX.
PAGE

Khebs-to
Khesket

250
255

INDEX.

299

PAGE

Mantle

52, 55,

56 et

l63,

sec].,

Murtar.

H4

Mountains
Mourners

193
106

Miiiiicli

(See Cloak.)

Marble

blue.

,,

Margone
Mariette
"

Marks,

=.4. 17

alphabetilurm

,,

family

,,

geometric

"

146

31

pottery 33,

146

144 et

133,

set].,

203, 206

property

.15, 65, 139, 210

,,

tatoo- (see Tatooing).

,,

tribal

Marseilles

Mas

210

15, 31. 65,

-54

d'Azil

Maspero

163, 226, 250, 261, 270, 276,


121, 207,

Maxycs
Media
.

Mcdinct-Habii
Mcditcrra}ica}i

Mcdum

4,

.....
.

2, 3, 4,

48

264

35 et seq., 45, 109, iio, 117


139, 140

224,

243, 250, 256, 258, 267

274

Mena

ig, 88,

18,

179, 182

Meri-Neith

Mesopotamia

180,

Mutilation

T" et seq.

:74.

119,274

143

34

Muzzle

181, 242

Mycenae

6,

150, 194, ig5

(See Ornaments, Painting the body,


Tatooing.)

.....

MVRES
Mysteries

40
273

254
226

39, 88,

222

144,

16,

136,

Mincopies
.

154

Moba

55

of ostrich eggs
39
(See Fortified enclosure, Houses.)
.

Nekhbet
Nesa

l^'^,

28.39
.

Nile

52
285
276

Nobadae
Nofrit
North- Africa

NiDnidians

Nymphuea
.

of Tuat

Ochre, yellow
red

Okkord
.

Oil

Okapi

254

98,

Niam-Niam

Ohio

144
248

31,

Net

,.

49
257
260

47,

'

Neith

Oasis

219

207,

Nei^'-o-Libyan

54
160

14
.

246, 24g, 251, 254

jVegroid

Oars

et seq.

:8,

259, 277, 289

Navigation
Necklaces

29

226, 242

6
266

5,

Noubkhas

47.

Naples

Nubia
Nubian

Mexican statue

Models

27

220
30, 31

Mersekha

Mississipi

17,

281

Mentu

.5,

Nar-Mer

154 et seq., 201, 202, 203, 205, 211

Min

220

284
I go

121, 123, 126, 132, 136, 138,

Metal

32
217

Naga-ed-Dcr

.110
.270

40,

civilization

,,

Mestem

274, 275

Musicians

Mut

224

126, 131,

5,

ol priestess

280
210

276

or

2 17,

55, 104, 105, 135

Menes

Music

28, 29, 31, 42, 56, 128

....
.....

et seq.,

Mummy

206

163
17,

4,

Mast
Mastabas
Mats

Memphis
Men 26,

PAGE

242

142,
.

120, 207,

276
142

2og

284
276
21, 206, 213, 216
21, 48, 206, 213
243. 287
150, 276,
.

Oran, South

39
290
42
2S8
28

3-

154
27
112

205. 283

300

INDEX.

?02

PAGE

Sardinia

....

Sayce
Scarabaeus

Signature

203

Signs,

143
95 et seq., 136, 212, 213, 226

Sceptre
SCH.-\EFER

254

121, 153. 259.

264

Sistrum
Sketch
Skin or liide

-i/j.

278

273. 27S et seq.

112,

122,

132, 143

280
115

134

Sebek

219

Sedja

247
220

Sekhmet
Selkit

219
287

Semites

28

19, g(\ 98,

108, 144

193, 196, 28 5

164

122,

134, 140, 143. 152

154. -14, 280, 281

facing each other

Servants

Sethe
Seti

or

Sheath

144

30, 34, 40, 43, 56,

209

for projecting

body

51

Sag

of the

102

31,

Seto-n K.-\rr

Sga

67, 71

174 et seq., 220, 249, 255

-125

....

interlaced

on vase

(see

192

the lower part

Karnata).

Sheep, long-horned
Sheikh el Baled

117

....
.24,

45, 49. 11
39 47, 49. 223

glazed pottery

47

Shell
Shells

in

,,

,,

,,

metal
overlapping

47
98

Shepherd

Sheschonk

Ships

88,

69

Shields
Sicilv

226

Sheyk HamddeJi
I

145

12,

Serpents

Sinews of animals

Sea

Scfeth

121

[20

11,

Seciuence dates

35, 50, 115, 116,

Sepa

une.xplained

Simplification

192, 219, 238,

Seats

resembling S, N, Z,

,,

Sinai

,,

243
278

100,

tifinagh

203
60, 124

Scliwirrhnlz
.Scorpion

Libyan and

Silsileh

SciIWEI.NFURril

139
147
132

267

SCHURTZ

Scribe

149

15,

,,

206

55.

panther

203

55,

Skulls, of bulls, painted

56

194

(See Bucrania.)
Slate 49,

Slaves

]]

et seq

226, 228 et

138,

seq.,

267

18,

54
190

Sneferu
Sokaris
Sokar-khabiu

210,
.

Soldiers

217
28

40

(See Warriors.)
Soiiialiland

Song

Songs

115. 162

17
2 So,

281

Sorcerer

197,

Soi/dan

105,

198
106

Sojc/iag

Soul
South Kensington

Spain
39,
Sparrow-hawk
SpENXER & GiLLEN
Spiegelberg
.

197,

177, 182

190, 192
185,

194

143

119, 226, 254,

curved at top

Stake
Standard-bearers.
Standards
88,
(See Ensigns.)
Standards, animated
.

Star

216
289

114, 115

....
....

,,

215,

264,

41, 50. 71

Staff or stick

Stag

69
278

146, 148

Spirals

Spoons
Stacquez

52

257

213, 275
223, 232

223

259
230, 254
250,

08,

190,

238, 242, 246


100, 121

55. 56,

121

Statues

120, 207,

210

,,

archaic

194

,,

royal

47

5,

32,
88,
.

258 et seq.
222 et seq,
266 et seq.

INDEX.

30:
PAGE

Statuettes 21 et seq., 30, 33, 38,

119, 155, 15S, x6o et seq., 270,

Steatite

70, loi, 191,

Steatopygy

Steixdorff
Stela

Stones 49,

76,

91,

TJiebcs

274

Thinis

277

(See Abydos.)
Thiti

127, 160 et seq.

57

56,

224, 226, 228, 248

8,

hard.

Thot

155, 176

...

49, 95, loS, 115, 139

sandstone
Stone-working

....
....
....
....

Stool

Stoppers
Strabo

Straw
Studs
,,

Tliracc

163

53
147

105

Tiger

214

47 et seq.
45. -10

Tiles

115

106,

57.

5^

285

21

...
origin

286

91

of divinity

,,

of the king

,,

religious

246
212

62.73

135

Timiliu

(See Libyans.)

Togo
Tombs.

55

206

et seq., 21S, 221

(See Graves.)

ToRR

207. 217

Torres Straits

Tortoise

Totem

Totemism.
Touaregs

45- 14;

Toupis

Table of offerings

270

Towers
Trap in shape of a wheel

Tablet, ivory

203
216

Taboo

Tails of animals

,230

54,

Tambourine

273

Tatooing

^o et seq.

among

the Greeks

34
164

Malta

at

decorative

et seq.

pre-Mycena:an Greece

in

Tchoiikiclils

16,

122, 131, 133,

255

Tripoli

Tuat

275, 276

2 et seq.,

Tusks

14

Uazu
Unas

3i

40

214, 216

Tunis
Turin
Turkey or pelican

70

224
15

Tribute

;o et seq.

Taurt

207

Tribal marks

Tiikh

276
28

117, iiS, 234, 238

Triangles

Troglodites

220

.210

medical
religious

Teeth

Trees

65

208, 215

114

Sy7ia

65

79. 94, 112

shell

31

15,

....

Symmetry

32

219

Tifinagh

or toggles for cloaks

Symbol

III

Thueris

96

34i 35

Syenite

Thread round the waist

for the ears

Suez
Sulphide of antimony

47
220

94
50,

for leather bottles

Sun worship,

of leather

Thothmes

et seq.,

264
264
27

Thongs

96

soft

,,

200, 258 et seq., 278


185, 186, 192, 266

,,

53, 173,

3"

35.
.

274
40

266
191

48, 198
.

29
280

Tehuti-hetep

48
26

Unger

17

Tel-el- A mama

V-

Unguents

49

Temples
Tendons
Terracotta

(See Pottery.)
Tettiges

221,253, 254
48

176, 189, 207,

274

University College (see London).

Urine
UrcBus.

Utensils for grinding paint

Uzait.

36
143

25.85

29

INDEX.

304

PAGE

PACE

Vaphio goblets

Vases, ivory
,,

pottery, black incised

-54

War

loi

Warriors

loS, 14.9

Water

151

black-topped I22etseq.

,,

,,

with
122

design in relief

et seq.
,,

,,

cross-lined

,,

,,

decorated

108, 140

Il3etseq.
202, 206,

,,

stones

108,

115

[4,

of fantastic forms

,,

,,

126

et seq.

.126

,,

,,

rough faced

white painted (red

140,
,,

stone

96

251

Vt'ihiaks

14,

sailing

(See Bark,

250
20S

Women

^1 J

V/adhnir

154

Volossovo

154
129

108,

112,

128,

2,

I I

177, 277, 285


37. 42
.

7.8

17,

217

200
214

34
2

21,

56,

37, 3S,
57,

119,

39.

40. 45,

51

127,

160

121,

211, 213, 220, 226

162, 175,

135- 139

4. 54,

sonorous

273

144

(See Castanettes.)

"Worshippers of Horus
Writing

[5,

66, 142

88,

142 et

Egyptian
hieroglyph

Vibration

74,

17, 32,

274, 277, 278

Wood

Flotilla.)

Von BissiNG

52

45, 46, 165

21

Wolters

164

213
206

Window

seq.,

Vaulting

222

55

140,
.

Wiedem.ann
Wigs
Wilkin
Wilkinson

et

fantastic forms

....
....

clay

198

paint

,,

97
loietseq.

cylindrical

,,

Vessel

White

267

Whip

seq.,

,,

148, 254,

Siiifuji

et

,,

Vegetable paste

Western

et seq., 201

,,

Veil

206

230
66

....
....

Wolf

108 et seq.

polished)

Weill
Werner, Alice

Wliite\va.sli

hard

of

tion

.....
...

of state

,,

274

in imita-

11

II

.120
.Ill

ripples

,,

99

54. 55-

Weapons

206

14.0,

217
.

I.

85,

4,

seq.,

primitive

,,

(See

Hieroglyphs,

282

288

^S'
Inscriptions,

Marks, Pictography, Signature.)

142, 144

Votive objects

66, 90 et

(See Maces, Palettes.)


Vulture
42
.

seq

Yellow

27,

Ycmoi
129, 14

j-

Z.XBOROWSKI
Wady-el-Sheikh

51

Zer

Hammamat

203, 288

Zigzag

Masarah

212, 254

Zippelius

Pnnled and

boHiui by Hazell,

Watson

li'

144-

205

.42, 49, 180, 182

206

287

>2,

Vimy, Ld., Luiidun and

'^lVYO.;.;c.;,,:.;sji-/

40, 109, III,

120

190,

203

.lylefiiiiy.

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