12 visualizações

Enviado por savvvvvvvvvvy

Set of notes derived from Cohen-Tannoudji

- Physics 2006 P2-2.pdf
- Quantum Mechanics
- -mnt-target02-343621-541328-www.makemegenius.com-web-content-uploads-education-Waves_and_Sound.ppt
- 8.2 the World Communicates(1)
- Capítulo 3: Quantum Mechanics , J. L. Powell y B. Crasemann.
- Itzhak Bars- 2T-Physics 2001
- The Real World Mod Sci
- Accelerate the Law of Attraction By Constructing A PyramiTroniX Resonator For Health and Well-Being
- january2012-part2.pdf
- Hiroyuki Matsuura, Masahiro Nakano and Katsumi Wasaki- Quantum Circuits,Lots, Interference and Basis of Neuro-Computations
- Quantum Lect 4
- 9702_s13_qp_22
- PHYDEF
- Function Spaces
- 4 Fullpaper UPI 2016 - The Role of Sekaten Traditional.doc
- (08)Nature of Wave
- The Greatest Creator and Humans in Telepathy
- 1st Quarter Exam Science 8 Copy
- Mechanical Waves and Sound.pdf
- N.E. Andreev et al- Beat-Wave Experiments in the Micro Wave Range: Pump Depletion

Você está na página 1de 13

Pre-requisites

1.1

Plane Waves

Consider a single-dimensional sinusoid moving along the x-axis with amplitude A0 . The

magnitude of the wave at position x and time t is given by the function

A(x, t) = A0 cos(kx t + )

(1)

where

k is the wavenumber, and is equal to 2/, being the wavelength of the wave.

k has units of radians per unit distance, an so corresponds to the rate at which

A(x, t) changes over a given distance.

is the waves angular frequency, and is equal to 2/T , T being the period of

the wave. T has units of radians per unit time, and so corresponds to the rate at

which A(x, t) changes over a given length of time.

is the phase of the wave, which corresponds to a shift of the wave along the

direction of propagation.

This formalism is easily generalised to a wave moving in a higher dimensional space by

treating the direction and wavenumber as vectors, termed a plane wave, such that

A(r, t) = A0 cos(k r t + )

(2)

where r is now a position vector corresponding to a point in R3 , and k is the wave vector.

Each component thus maps the rate at which A(r, t) changes over a given displacement

along the corresponding basis vector. The direction of the wave vector is typically in

Mathematical manipulation of planes waves is greatly facilitated by use of the complex

exponential form, whereby the plane wave is described by

U (r, t) = A0 ei(krt+)

(3)

U (r, t) = A0 cos(k r t + ) + iA0 sin(k r t + )

U (r, t) = A(r, t) + iA0 sin(k r t + )

This form is simplified somewhat by modifying the amplitude of the wave to absorb the

phase factor, such that

U (r, t) = A0 ei(krt+) = A0 ei ei(krt) = U0 ei(krt)

Obviously, the plane wave is a real entity and we have generated a function which is

complex. However, once we have performed our calculations in the complex plane, we

are left with the trivial operation of taking the real quantity of U (r, t)

<(U (r, t)) = A(r, t) = A0 cos(k r t + )

As a final word on the topic, in the bulk of this document, solutions to the Schrodinger

Equation are by their very nature complex, and so the imaginary component in this

occurrence has not been introduced as a byproduct, but is in fact an inherent part of

the wave.

1.2

1.2.1

Fourier Analysis

The Fourier Series

Consider a function, f (x), which is periodic with period L. If f (x) obeys certain mathematical conditions, it may be expanded in a series of imaginary exponentials (and

thus, trigonometric functions), termed a Fourier Series. We proceed initially with the

complex exponential form, expanding our function

f (x) =

cn eikn x

(4)

n=

where kn = 2n/L. Multiplying each side by the complex conjugate of our exponential

(introducting the dummy variable p) and integrating over a single period of f (x), i.e.

between x0 and x0 + L

x0 +L

f (x)eikp x dx =

x0

x0 +L

Z

cn

ei(kn kp )x dx

x0

n=

The integral of the exponential function on the right hand side of the above allows

for a significant simplification upon decomposition into the corresponding trigonometric

functions, and realisation that the integral of the constituent sinusoids over the period

is equal to zero, since

Z

x0 +L

cos

x0

2n 2p

L

L

Z

x dx =

x0 +L

cos

x0

2(n p)x

L

dx = 0

with the same obviously being true for the sine function. However, if n = p, then the

right hand side simply becomes

x0 +L

dx = L

x0

Z

x0 +L

f (x)eikp x dx =

x0

an Lnp = ap L

n=

where we have introduced the Kronecker delta, pk . Therefore, the coefficients of the

Fourier Series are given by

an =

1.2.2

1

L

x0 +L

f (x)eikn x dx

(5)

x0

x0 +L

|f (x)|2 dx =

x0

x0 +L

f (x)f (x)dx =

x0

x0 +L

x0

|f (x)|2 dx =

x0

Z

X

n= p=

x0 +L

x0 +L

cp cn eikp x eikn x dx

n= p=

cp cn ei(kn kp )x dx =

x0

cp cn np L

n= p=

where the Kronecker delta arises in a manner equivalent to that shown in the previous

section. Subsequent simplification leads us to

1

L

x0 +L

|f (x)|2 dx =

x0

|cn |2

(6)

n=

useful if we consider the scenario where we have two functions, f (x) and g(x), each with

the same period, L, the Fourier coefficients of which are cn and dn , respectively. We

may subsequently generalise (6) such that

3

1

L

1.2.3

x0 +L

g (x)f (x)dx =

x0

dn cn

(7)

n=

We begin this section with the statement that the fourier integral is a limit of a Fourier

series. Consider a function f (x) which is not necessarily periodic. We define fL (x) to

be a periodic function of period L which is equal to f (x) over the interval [L/2, L/2].

As we have shown, fL (x) may be expanded as a Fourier series

fL (x) =

cn eikn x

n=

1

cn =

L

x0 +L

ikn x

x0

1

fL (x)dx =

L

L

2

eikn x f (x)dx

L

2

recursive relationship

2

1

kn+1 kn

=

L

L

2

which we substitute into our expression for the Fourier coefficients, and utilise this in

kn+1 kn =

Z L

X

kn+1 kn ikn x 2 ikn x

e

fL (x) =

e

f (x)dx

2

L

n=

2

As L , (kn+1 kn ) 0, such that the summation over n is transformed into a

definite integral over the continuous variable k. Also note that in this limit, f (x)

fL (x), and so we are essentially approximating our unknow function f (x) by some

analytic periodic function fL (x). Re-establishing the limits of our integral in the above

equation to allow for L , we establish a function

1

F(k) =

2

eikx f (x)dx

(8)

eikx F(k)dk

(9)

1

f (x) =

2

where f (x) and F(k) are termed the Fourier Transforms of one another.

2.1

Introduction

Quantum mechanics divides the world into two parts composed of a system and an

observer, which do not interact, except during the process of measurement. Quantum

mechanics predicts all the information an observer may obtain regarding a system, often represented in terms of a wavefunction. A measurement changes the information

an observer has about the system, and therefore changes the wavefunction of the system.

Applied to a system consisting of a single, structureless particle, the fundamental assumptions of quantum mechanics are;

1. The quantum state of a particle is characterised by a wavefunction, (r, t), which

contains all information regarding a system which an observer can possibly obtain.

2. (r, t) is interpreted as a probability amplitude of the particle, and so |(r, t)|2

gives a corresponding probability density. The probability that a particle is a time

t in an infinitesimal volume element dr is given by

dP (r, t) = C|(r, t)|2 dr

(10)

where C is some normalisation constant and P (r, t) is the corresponding probability density function. Neglecting particle destruction/ creation (as occurs with

photons in relativistic quantum mechanics), the particle must occupy some portion

of space, and so we are free to write

P (r, t)d r = 1

|(r, t)| d r

R3

2 3

R3

R3

(11)

3. The principle of spectral decomposition applies to the measurement of an arbitrary

physical quantity, A, such that;

(a) The result of a measurement belongs to a set of eigenvalues, {a}.

(b) Each eigenvalue is associated with an eigenfunction, a (r). If (r, t) = a (r),

then a measumrent of A at time t will yield the eigenvalue a.

(c) Any (r, t) can be expanded in terms of the eigenfunctions of A

(r, t) =

X

a

ca a (r)

(12)

eigenvalue a1 is subsequently given by

|ca |2

P (a1 ) = P 1 2

a |ca |

(13)

which is readily obtained when one implements the fact that the eigenfunctions for a mutually orthonormal basis.

(d) If a measurement of A yields a, then the wavefunction of the system immediately after measurement is given by a (r).

4. The Schr

odinger Equation describes the evolution of (r, t)

i~

~2 2

(r, t) =

(r, t) + V (r, t)(r, t)

t

2m

(14)

where the particle has a mass m and is subjected to the potential V (r, t).

2.2

A Free Particle

A free particle is not subjected to any forces, and so we may arbitrarily set V (r, t) = 0,

allowing for subsequent simplification of the Schrodinger Equation to

~2 2

(r, t) =

(r, t)

t

2m

Plane waves are potential solutions to the above, of form

i~

(r, t) = Aei(krt)

(15)

(16)

(r, t) = i(r, t)

t

(r, t) = ik(r, t) 2 (r, t) = k 2 (r, t)

and recombining to form the Schr

odinger Equation

~(r, t) =

~2 k 2

(r, t)

2m

~k 2

2m

By use of the de Broglie relations, E = ~ and p = ~k, we obtain

=

E=

p2

2m

(17)

(18)

which is simply the kinetic energy of the particle, as we would expect given we assumed

no external potential.

We note that a plane wave represents a particle whose probability distribution is constant

throughout space

|(r, t)|2 = | (r, t)(r, t)|

|Aei(krt) Aei(krt) | = |A2 |

which is not a proper solution to the Schrodinger Equation as this is not square-integrable

by virtue of

Z

dr =

odinger Equation is linear, the principle of superposition applies, i.e. that

if a set of functions satisfy the equation, then a linear combination of them is also a

satisfactory solution. As such, a linear combination of plane wave solutions is also a

solution

(r, t) =

ak ei(krt)

(19)

~k 2

2m

It is hoped that the reader recognises (19) as being a three-dimensional equivalent to

k =

Z

1

(r, t) =

(2)3/2

g(k)ei(krt) dk

(20)

R3

Such a wave function is called a three-dimensional wave packet, and may represent

any square-integrable function. For the sake of simplicity, we take the case of a onedimensional wave packet, whose wavefunction is given by

1

(x, t) =

2

g(k)ei(kxk t) dk

(21)

A Brief Example

We may gain some insight regarding the physical form of a wave packet by considering a superposition of a finite number of plane waves. In this case, we will take 3,

k

, and amplitudes 1, 12 , 12 , respectively.

with wavenumbers k0 , k0 k

2 , k0 + 2

Then, using these in (22), we obtain

1 i(k0 + k

g(k0 ) ik0 x 1 i(k0 k

x

x

)

)

2

2

+ e

(x, 0) =

e

+ e

2

2

2

g(k0 )

k

(x, 0) = eik0 x 1 + cos

x

2

2

(22)

By evaluation of the argument of the cosine, we see that |(x, 0)| is maximal when

x = 0. This is due to the fact that at this value of x, the three waves which form our

wave packet interfere constructively; as x moves away from x0 , the waves gradually

dephase with one another and being interfering destructively, leading |(x, 0)| 0

k

when the phase shift between eik0 x and ei(k0 2 )x is . We take the interval of

x x

x

the wave packet to span x0 x

2 , + 2 , and find the values of

2 , x0 + 2

x and k which satisfy this phase shift condition

k0 +

k

2

x k0 x

=

2

2

k0 x kx k0 x

+

=

2

4

2

kx = 4

By this, we see that the smaller the width, k, of the function |g(k)|, x must

complement this by increasing to satisfy the above equation, i.e. the more diffuse

the function |(x)| becomes (the distance between the two nodes of (x). As a

point of note, we see that (21) is periodic in x, and therefore there exists a series

of maxima and minima. Such a scenario is a result of a superposition of a finite

number of plane waves; in the limiting case where we take an infinite number of

plane waves, periodicity is lost over the real numbers, and only a single maximum

exists.

At some instance in time, say t = 0,

1

(x, 0) =

2

g(k)eikx dk

(23)

1

F[(x, 0)] = g(k) =

2

(x, 0)eikx dx

and is given by g(k) = |g(k)|ei(k) . We further assume that k << k0 . We may expand

(k) in a Taylor series about the point k0 , i.e.

d

+ ...

(k) = (k0 ) + (k k0 )

dk k0

We are only interested in the function in a small interval about k0 , and so we discard

all second order and higher terms in the above expansion, leaving us with

Z

d

1

(x, 0) =

|g(k)|ei(k0 ) ei(kk0 ) dk eikx dk

2

Arbitrarily setting x0 = d

dk k0 , the above reduces to

1

(x, 0) =

2

1

|g(k)|ei(k0 ) ei(kk0 )x0 eikx dk =

2

Noting that we may add the term eik0 x eik0 x to our product of exponentials without

altering the function, and realising that this allows for a factorisation

Z

1

(x, 0) =

|g(k)|ei(k0 ) ei(kk0 )(xx0 ) eik0 x dk

2

Removing the exponentials which are not functions of k from the integral

Z

ei((k0 )+k0 x)

|g(k)|ei(kk0 )(xx0 ) dk

2

which is in a form more amenable to analysis. Primarily, we wish to reiterate that this

(x, 0) =

function is the equivalent of a Fourier series, in which we are essentially taking an infinite number of plane waves to recreate our wavefunction (x, 0). We initially consider

the case where |x x0 | is large, leading to the integrand oscillating substantially in the

interval of k. Qualitative analysis of this function reveals that the integral over k will

then lead to |(x, 0)| 0. In other words, if x is far-removed from x0 , the waves which

form (x, 0) rapidly become out of phase, and interfere destructively. Alternatively, if

x x0 , the integrand barely varies at all, and subsequent integration yields |(x, 0)|

tending towards its maximum value.

We are now in a position to allude to a particularly important relationship, which

will form the majority of the next section. When x moves away from x0 , |(x, 0)|

decreases. We see that |(x, 0)| actually equals zero when the integrand undergoes a

single oscillation over the interval k, i.e. when the exponent is equal to one

k(x x0 ) = 1

(which is equivalent to saying the position is equal to the wavelength). Denoting the

width of the wave packet by x, we see that the above relation gives a lower bound to

the exponent

9

xk 1

(24)

which is nothing more than a classical relation between the widths of two functions

which ae Fourier transforms of one another.

2.3

allows us to derive some physical restrictions to what may be known about a system.

Given a plane wave of the form ei(k0 x0 t) , by use of the de Broglie relations (E = ~0

and p = ~k0 ), we see that the energy and momentum of the system are well-defined and

unrestricted, in that k0 and 0 may take any real value. We may view this in a different

manner by spectral decomposition; if we have a particle defined by the wavefunction

(x, 0) = Aeikx

then in saying the particle has a well-defined momentum p is equivalent to saying that

eikx characterises a momentum eigenstate with eigenvalue p = ~k. Since k may take

any real value, there are an infinite number of eigenvalues which one may realise upon

measurement of the state; as in classical mechanics, all values of the momentum are

physicall realisable.

However, consider (22), in which (x, 0) occurs as a linear superposition of momentum

eigenfunctions, with coefficients g(k). This allows us to interpret |g(k)|2 as the probability of finding a system in the eigenstate eikx , and so is a probability density for the

eigenstates of the system. The probability, dP (k), of obtaining an eigenvalue in the

interval [~k, ~(k + dk)] is therefore given by |g(k)|2 dk. Rewriting (22) in terms of the

momentum

(x, 0) =

1

2~

ipx/~

(p)e

dp

Z

|(x, 0)|2 dx =

|(p)|

dp

1

|(x, 0)|2 dx

C

which is the probability of the particle being found in the interval [x, x + dx] at t = 0.

dP (x) =

dP (p) =

1

|(p)|2 dp

C

10

which is the probability of the particle having a momentum in the interval [p, p + dp].

Now, returning to our inequality (23), we rewrite

xp ~

(25)

Therefore, consider a particle

whose position probability is defined by some region x about x0 , so that x represents the uncertainty in our knowledge in the position of the particle. Then, if one

were

to measure the

i momentum of the particle at the same time, a value in the interval

h

p

p

p0 2 , p0 + 2 , the uncertainty in the momentum being given by p. We may

therefore interpret (24) as the impossibility of being able to simultaneously decrease the

product of the uncertainties in both the position and the momentum of a particle below

~, i.e., we cannot know both the position and the momentum to an arbitrary degree of

accuracy. This relation is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation.

There is no analogous phenomenon within classical mechanics; the limitation expressed

in (24) arises from the fact that ~ is not equal to zero; it is only because ~ is extremely

small by macroscopic standards that we do not encounter the physical consequences

of this inequality on the macroscopic scale. Reiterating what was said in the previous

section, there is nothing inherently quantum mechanical about (24) as it merely expresses

a general property of Fourier transforms, numerous examples of which exist within

classical physics, e.g. we cannot simultaneously know the position and wavelength of

an electromagnetic wave with infinite accuracy. As such, Heisenbergs Relation does

not arise from some strange physical phenomenon, it is merely a byproduct of some

well-defined mathematics which manifests as some bizarre principle when applying to

physical reality.

2.4

A plane wave ei(kxt) propagates through space with a Phase Velocity, V (k), given by

k

We may draw physical insight from this by considering the case of an electromagnetic

V (k) =

wave, the phase velocity of which in a vacuum is independent of k and equal to the

speed of light, c. In a dispersive medium, on the other hand, the phase velocity of a

wave is moderated by the index of the medium, n(k), such that

V (k) =

c

n(k)

V (k) =

~k

=

k

2m

11

which we see is similar to the phase velocity of a wave in a dispersive medium. When the

waves which form a superposition have unequal phase velocities, we shall see that the

velocity of the maximum point of the wave packet, xmax (t), is not given by the average

phase velocity

~k0

0

=

(26)

k0

2m

as one may expect. We begin by attempting to understand a qualitative description of

what happens once a wave packet is allowed to evolve with respect to time. Consider the

k

, angular

superposition of three plane waves, with wavenumbers k0 , k0 k

2 , k0 + 2

1 1

,

+

,

velocities 0 , 0

and

amplitudes

1,

,

respectively.

Then,

for

0

2

2

2 2

arbitrary t

1 i[(k0 + k

g(k0 ) i(k0 x0 t)

1 i[(k0 k

x(0

t]

x(0 +

t]

)

)

)

)

2

2

2

2

e

+ e

(x, t) =

+ e

2

2

2

g(k0 )

k

x

t

2

2

2

Thus, we see that the maximum point of |(x, t)| is given when the argument of the

cosine is equal to zero, i.e., when

k

x=

t

2

2

xmax (t) =

t

(27)

k

which differs from the value given in (25). This deviation from expectation has a physical origin which may be demonstrated by an analysis of the constituent waves. At time

x = 0, t = 0, we see that all three waves will be at their maximum value and so reinforce

constructively to give xmax . The three waves will emanate from this point, and dephase

as we move along x, owing to their differing angular velocities. However, we have just

seen that the phase velocity is dependent upon k, and so the maximum of the wave

k

2

characterised by k0 +

will propagate along the x-axis quicker than the other two.

As such, after a given amount of time, the maxima from the three waves which were

initially dephased will gradually become in phase as the k0 + k

wave catches up with

2

the other two.

We can arrive at the same conclusion based on (??). We see that to go from (x, 0) to

(x, t), all we need to do is change the distribution g(k) to g(k)ei(k)t , thus

1

(x, t) =

2

|g(k)|e

i((k)(k)t) ikx

1

dk =

2

|g(k)|ei(k) eikx dk

where we have simply used the identity (k) = (k) (k)t and expressed g(k) in polar

form. We differentiate this function with respect to k and evaluate at k0 to yield

12

d

d

d

=

t

dk k0

dk k0

dk k0

Recalling that we earlier defined d

dk k0 = x0 , and substituting in

d

d

d

t

=

x

= x0 + VG (k0 )t

0

dk k0

dk k0

dk k0

where we have defined

d

= VG (k0 )

dk k0

(28)

which we term the Group Velocity, and represents the velocity of the peak of the wave

packet. We may readily find the functional form of the group velocity by differentiating

(17) with respect to k

~k

d ~k 2

=

= 2V (k0 )

dk 2m

m

This relationship proves to be extremely important, as it enable us to recover the classical

VG (k0 ) =

situation for a free particle. In this case, uncertainty plays no role due to ~ being

negligible at the macroscopic level, and so it is perfectly reasonable to speak of a well

defined particle momentum, p0 , corresponding to a well-defined position, xmax (t). In

this case, the velocity is given by v =

p0

m,

cases where x and p may both be considered negligible, the maximum of the wave

packet moves like a particle which obeys the laws of classical physics.

13

- Physics 2006 P2-2.pdfEnviado porlal
- Quantum MechanicsEnviado porderghal
- -mnt-target02-343621-541328-www.makemegenius.com-web-content-uploads-education-Waves_and_Sound.pptEnviado porahmed amr
- 8.2 the World Communicates(1)Enviado porMKB07
- Capítulo 3: Quantum Mechanics , J. L. Powell y B. Crasemann.Enviado porlion
- Itzhak Bars- 2T-Physics 2001Enviado porArsLexii
- The Real World Mod SciEnviado porTimoteo Pereira Tfmp
- Accelerate the Law of Attraction By Constructing A PyramiTroniX Resonator For Health and Well-BeingEnviado porRaymond Ebbeler
- january2012-part2.pdfEnviado porpusa123
- Hiroyuki Matsuura, Masahiro Nakano and Katsumi Wasaki- Quantum Circuits,Lots, Interference and Basis of Neuro-ComputationsEnviado pordcsi3
- Quantum Lect 4Enviado pornewspaper
- 9702_s13_qp_22Enviado porekumararaja
- PHYDEFEnviado porKumiko Isaka
- Function SpacesEnviado porAthan Calugay
- 4 Fullpaper UPI 2016 - The Role of Sekaten Traditional.docEnviado porNovika Lestari
- (08)Nature of WaveEnviado porMohammad Tanweer Akhtar
- The Greatest Creator and Humans in TelepathyEnviado porBaican Cao
- 1st Quarter Exam Science 8 CopyEnviado porMarvin Obra
- Mechanical Waves and Sound.pdfEnviado porRajesh Murugesan
- N.E. Andreev et al- Beat-Wave Experiments in the Micro Wave Range: Pump DepletionEnviado porVasmazx
- Two Scale Numerical Solution of the Electromagnetic t 2007 Mathematics and CEnviado porVishakha Gaur
- Grade 7, Quarter 3.pdfEnviado porJulius Salas
- Waves in Three DimensionalEnviado porAmit Das
- Jet SyllebsEnviado porAkiraSheikh
- Architectural Design Volume 78 issue 4 2008 Paul Bavister -- Mapping the Invisible Landscape- An Exercise in Spatially Choreographed Sound.pdfEnviado poreclairalexander
- unit2topic3_examzone_ms - Copy.pdfEnviado porNusaiba Amin
- 700000599_Topper_8_101_4_4_Physics_2013_questions_up201506182058_1434641282_7292.pdfEnviado pormadina
- Numerical Wave TankEnviado porRida Fatima
- Properties of Waves WorksheetEnviado porKerry-Ann Williams
- 9702 p1 Waves AllEnviado porrajudevis

- Cardamone, S., PCCP, 2014Enviado porsavvvvvvvvvvy
- Object Oriented Programming in CEnviado porumesh_ladha
- ManualEnviado porsavvvvvvvvvvy
- NotesEnviado porsavvvvvvvvvvy
- quantEnviado porlcnblzr3877
- Electrostatics Manual v1.1Enviado porsavvvvvvvvvvy
- Atoms in Molecules - BaderEnviado porsavvvvvvvvvvy
- Atoms in Molecules - BaderEnviado porsavvvvvvvvvvy
- Lessons for the Young EconomistEnviado porDwebey
- Normal Coordinate AnalysisEnviado porsavvvvvvvvvvy

- The N2 MEthod for the Seismic Damage Analysis of RC Buildings (Fajfar 1996)Enviado porJoaquin Ignacio Concha Núñez
- PRC-434G-CSEnviado porsamirsamira928
- Art Lift Slide ShowEnviado porAamir Shahzad
- Conveyor DesignsEnviado porajaykrishnaa
- Unit IEnviado porJackson ..
- Moai Tidal Energy Business Plans 16 July 2012 Completed 3Enviado porJohn Wanoa
- Thorsten Altenkirch- Functional Quantum ProgrammingEnviado pordcsi3
- Tembhu PPTEnviado porPrashant Patil
- E-10 Dual Brake ValvesEnviado porjgomez30
- Weight of Piping MaterialEnviado porraobabar21
- d Sae 0062820Enviado porNguyen Thanh Nghia
- Inflammatory Airway Disease of HorsesEnviado porGita Amalia
- Energy generation from wastewater and MSWEnviado porTU_MTECH_ENV11
- Preparation of High-surface Area Activated Carbons From Paulownia WoodEnviado poryemresimsek
- Vrindavana Dasa Thakura Sri Caitanya Bhagavata2Enviado pormike horvath
- Seborrheic Dermatitis MalasseziaandEnviado porLuButtenbender
- SurfCam SolidEnviado portuanvn76
- diagramas electricos 3200_ 4100_ 4300_ 4400_ 7300_ 7400_ 7500_ 7600_ 7700_ 8500_ 8600_ RXT MODELSEnviado porFranz JW Monteza
- Annexure-XIIIEnviado porArnab_Purkait_4708
- Bearing Fault Detection Using Machinesense Component AnalyzerEnviado porMachineSense
- ch_18_lecture_presentation.pdfEnviado porNoel Mahung Melendez
- Ch 06Enviado porchaitanyachegg
- Rp Project Report SonalikaEnviado porਸਰਦਾਰ Supreet Singh
- Bodybuilding.com - Jim Stoppani’s Six-Week Shortcut To Shred_ Nutrition OverviewEnviado porJVOVC
- Rural Occupational StructureEnviado porDevinder Kaur
- Guntoro (1998) the Effect of Collision of Banggai SulaEnviado porRendyEffendi
- Present Brake SystemEnviado porAshraf Zulkafli
- Aceite de Oliva_Salud CardiovascularEnviado pormdsanchezo8373
- Sample exam 2 phys 1Enviado porJoshua DiCamillo
- dentalresearchpaperEnviado porapi-351688988