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Engineering Formula Sheet

Statistics

Mode

Mean

Place data in ascending order.


Mode = most frequently occurring value

x
= mean value
xi = sum of all data values (x1, x2, x3,
n = number of data values

(x

Median
Place data in ascending order.
If n is odd, median = central value
If n is even, median = mean of two central values

Standard Deviation

If two values occur at the maximum frequency the


data set is bimodal.
If three or more values occur at the maximum
frequency the data set is multi-modal.

n = number of data values

= standard deviation
xi = individual data value ( x1, x2, x3,

Range

n = number of data values

xmax = maximum data value


xmin = minimum data value

Range = xmax - xmin

Probability
Independent Events
P (A and B and C) = PAPBPC

Frequency

P (A and B and C) = probability of independent


events A and B and C occurring in sequence
PA = probability of event A

Mutually Exclusive Events


fx = relative frequency of outcome x
nx = number of events with outcome x
n = total number of events
Px = probability of outcome x
fa = frequency of all events
Binomial Probability (order doesnt matter)

P (A or B) = PA + PB
P (A or B) = probability of either mutually exclusive
event A or B occurring in a trial
PA = probability of event A
xi = sum of all data values (x1, x2, x3,
n = number of data values
Conditional Probability

Pk = binomial probability of k successes in n trials


p = probability of a success
q = 1 p = probability of failure
k = number of successes
n = number of trials

PLTW, Inc.

( | )

( )

( )
( | )

( | )
( )

( |

P (A|D) = probability of event A given event D


P(A) = probability of event A occurring
P(~A) = probability of event A not occurring
P(D|~A) = probability of event D given event A did not occur

Engineering Formulas

IED POE

DE

CEA

AE

BE

CIM EDD

Plane Geometry

Ellipse

Rectangle

2b

Circle

Perimeter = 2a + 2b
Area = ab

2a

Triangle
Parallelogram
h

Area = bh

a = b + c 2bccosA
2
2
2
b = a + c 2accosB
2
2
2
c = a + b 2abcosC

A
b

Regular Polygons

Right Triangle
2

Area = bh

c =a +b

n = number of sides

a
h

Trapezoid
Area = (a + b)h

h
h
b
h

Solid Geometry
Cube

Sphere

Volume = s
2
Surface Area = 6s

Volume
r
Surface Area = 4

Rectangular Prism
Cylinder

h
Volume = wdh
Surface Area = 2(wd + wh + dh)

Volume = r h
Surface Area = 2

r h+2

Right Circular Cone


h

Irregular Prism
r

Volume = Ah
A = area of base

Pyramid

h
A = area of base

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Constants
2

g = 9.8 m/s = 32.27 ft/s


-11
3
2
G = 6.67 x 10 m /kgs
= 3.14159

Engineering Formulas

IED POE

DE

CEA

AE

BE

CIM EDD

Conversions
Mass

Force

Area
2

1 acre = 4047 m
2
= 43,560 ft
2
= 0.00156 mi

1 kg
= 2.205 lbm
1 slug = 32.2 lbm
1 ton = 2000 lbm

1N
1 kip

Energy
= 0.225 lbf
= 1,000 lbf

1J

= 0.239 cal
-4
= 9.48 x 10 Btu
= 0.7376 ftlbf
1kW h = 3,6000,000 J

Pressure
Length
1m
1 km
1 in.
1 mi
1 yd

1 atm

Volume
= 3.28 ft
= 0.621 mi
= 2.54 cm
= 5280 ft
= 3 ft

1L

1mL

= 0.264 gal
3
= 0.0353 ft
= 33.8 fl oz
3
= 1 cm = 1 cc
1psi

= 1.01325 bar
= 33.9 ft H2O
= 29.92 in. Hg
= 760 mm Hg
= 101,325 Pa
= 14.7 psi
= 2.31 ft of H2O

Defined Units
1J
1N
1 Pa
1V
1W
1W
1 Hz
1F
1H

Time
Temperature Change

1K

= 1 C
= 1.8 F
= 1.8 R

1d
1h
1 min
1 yr

= 24 h
= 60 min
= 60 s
= 365 d

Power
1W

= 3.412 Btu/h
= 0.00134 hp
= 14.34 cal/min
= 0.7376 ftlbf/s

= 1 Nm
= 1 kgm / s2
= 1 N / m2
=1W/A
=1J/s
=1V/A
= 1 s-1
= 1 As / V
= 1 Vs / V

SI Prefixes
Numbers Less Than One
Power of 10
Prefix
Abbreviation
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-6
10-9
10-12
10-15
10-18
10-21
10-24

decicentimillimicronanopicofemtoattozeptoyocto-

Equations

d
c
m

n
p
f
a
z
y

Numbers Greater Than One


Power of 10
Prefix
Abbreviation
101
102
103
106
109
1012
1015
1018
1021
1024

Temperature
TK = TC + 273

Mass and Weight


M = VDm

TR = TF + 460

decahectokiloMegaGigaTeraPetaExaZettaYotta-

da
h
k
M
G
T
P
E
Z
Y

Force
F = ma
F = force
m = mass
a = acceleration

W = mg
W = VDw
V = volume
Dm = mass density
m = mass
Dw = weight density
g = acceleration due to gravity

PLTW, Inc.

Equations of Static Equilibrium


TK = temperature in Kelvin
TC = temperature in Celsius
TR = temperature in Rankin
TF = temperature in Fahrenheit

Engineering Formulas

Fx = 0

Fy = 0

MP = 0

Fx = force in the x-direction


Fy = force in the y-direction
MP = moment about point P

IED POE

DE

CEA

AE

BE

CIM EDD

Equations (Continued)
Energy: Work

Electricity
Ohms Law

Fluid Mechanics

V = IR
P = IV

W = work
F = force
d = distance

RT (series) = R1 + R2+ + Rn

L
L

(Guy-L
Power
P1V1 = P2V2

P = power
E = energy
W = work
t = time
= torque
rpm = revolutions per minute

Efficiency
y
Pout = useful power output
Pin = total power input

B y L

Kirchhoffs Current Law

Q = Av

IT = I1 + I2 + + In

or

A1v1 = A2v2

Kirchhoffs Voltage Law

VT = V1 + V2 + + Vn

or
absolute pressure = gauge pressure
+ atmospheric pressure

P = absolute pressure
F = Force
A = Area
V = volume
T = absolute temperature
Q = flow rate
v = flow velocity

V = voltage
VT = total voltage
I = current
IT = total current
R = resistance
RT = total resistance
P = power
Thermodynamics

Mechanics
(where acceleration = 0)

Energy: Potential
(where acceleration = 0)
U = potential energy
m =mass
g = acceleration due to gravity
h = height

L
L
A1v1 = A2v2

v = v0 + at
Energy: Kinetic

d = d0 + v0t + at
2

v = v0 + 2a(d d0)
K = kinetic energy
m = mass
v = velocity
Energy: Thermal

Q = thermal energy
m = mass
c = specific heat
T = change in temperature

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= dFsin
s = speed
v = velocity
a = acceleration
X = range
t = time
d = distance
g = acceleration due to gravity
d = distance
= angle
= torque
F = force

Engineering Formulas

P = rate of heat transfer


Q = thermal energy
A = Area of thermal conductivity
U = coefficient of heat conductivity
(U-factor)
T = change in temperature
R = resistance to heat flow ( R-value)
k = thermal conductivity
v = velocity
Pnet = net power radiated
= 5.6696 x 10

-8

e = emissivity constant
T1, T2 = temperature at time 1, time 2

v = flow velocity

POE 4 DE 4

Section Properties
Moment of Inertia

Rectangle Centroid
h

x
xx

Ixx = moment of inertia of a rectangular section


about x-x axis

and y

and y

Right Triangle Centroid


x

and y

Semi-circle Centroid

Complex Shapes Centroid

x x
y y
xi = x distance to centroid of shape i
yi = y distance to centroid of shape i
Ai = Area of shape i

x x
y y

Structural Analysis
Material Properties
Beam Formulas
Reaction

Stress (axial)

B
L

Moment
Deflection
= stress
F = axial force
A = cross-sectional area

B
L

Moment

Reaction

= strain
L0 = original length
= change in length

Moment

(between loads)

Deflection

( L L

Moment

E = modulus of elasticity
= stress
= strain
A = cross-sectional area
F = axial force
= deformation

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and

Deformation: Axial

= deformation
F = axial force
L0 = original length
A = cross-sectional area
E = modulus of elasticity

Engineering Formulas

) (at center)

(at Point of Load)

Deflection
(at

(at center)

Reaction

Modulus of Elasticity

(at center)

Deflection

(at point of load)


L

Reaction

Strain (axial)

(at point of load)

Truss Analysis
2J = M + R
J = number of joints
M =number of members
R = number of reaction forces

POE 5 AE 4 CEA 4

Simple Machines
Inclined Plane
Mechanical Advantage (MA)

y (

)
Wedge

IMA = Ideal Mechanical Advantage


AMA = Actual Mechanical Advantage
DE = Effort Distance
DR = Resistance Distance
FE = Effort Force
FR = Resistance Force

Lever
Screw
1st
Class

IMA =

Pitch =
2nd
Class

C = Circumference
r = radius
Pitch = distance between
threads
TPI = Threads Per Inch

3rd
Class

Compound Machines
MATOTAL = (MA1) (MA2) (MA3) . . .

Wheel and Axle

Gears; Sprockets with Chains; and Pulleys with


Belts Ratios

Effort at Axle
(

Compound Gears
B
GRTOTAL = ( ) (

Effort at Wheel

Pulley Systems
IMA = Total number of strands of a single string
supporting the resistance
IMA =

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GR = Gear Ratio
in = Angular Velocity - driver
out = Angular Velocity - driven
Nin = Number of Teeth - driver
Nout = Number of Teeth - driven
din = Diameter - driver
dout = Diameter - driven
in = Torque - driver
out = Torque - driven

Engineering Formulas

POE 6

Structural Design
Steel Beam Design: Shear

Steel Beam Design: Moment

Spread Footing Design


qnet = qallowable - pfooting

Vn = 0.6FyAw

Mn = FyZx

Va = allowable shear strength


Vn = nominal shear strength
v = 1.5 = factor of safety for shear
Fy = yield stress
Aw = area of web

Ma = allowable bending moment


Mn = nominal moment strength
b = 1.67 = factor of safety for
bending moment
Fy = yield stress
Zx = plastic section modulus about
neutral axis

Storm Water Runoff


Storm Water Drainage
Q = CfCiA

Q = peak storm water runoff rate (ft /s)


Cf = runoff coefficient adjustment
factor
C = runoff coefficient
i = rainfall intensity (in./h)
A = drainage area (acres)
Runoff Coefficient
Adjustment Factor
Return
Period
Cf
1, 2, 5, 10 1.0
25
1.1
50
1.2
100
1.25

Water Supply
Hazen-Williams Formula
L
hf = head loss due to friction (ft of H2O)
L = length of pipe (ft)
Q = water flow rate (gpm)
C = Hazen-Williams constant
d = diameter of pipe (in.)
Dynamic Head

Rational Method Runoff Coefficients


Categorized by Surface
Forested
0.0590.2
Asphalt
0.70.95
Brick
0.70.85
Concrete
0.80.95
Shingle roof
0.750.95
Lawns, well drained (sandy soil)
Up to 2% slope
0.050.1
2% to 7% slope
0.100.15
Over 7% slope
0.150.2
Lawns, poor drainage (clay soil)
Up to 2% slope
0.130.17
2% to 7% slope
0.180.22
Over 7% slope
0.250.35
Driveways,
0.750.85
walkways
Categorized by Use
Farmland
0.050.3
Pasture
0.050.3
Unimproved
0.10.3
Parks
0.10.25
Cemeteries
0.10.25
Railroad yard
0.20.40
Playgrounds
0.20.35
(except asphalt
or Districts
Business
concrete)
Neighborhood
0.50.7
City (downtown)
0.70.95
Residential
Single-family
0.30.5
Multi-plexes,
0.40.6
detached
Multi-plexes,
0.60.75
attached
Suburban
0.250.4
Apartments,
0.50.7
condominiumsIndustrial
Light
0.50.8
Heavy
0.60.9

qnet = net allowable soil


bearing pressure
qallowable = total allowable soil
bearing pressure
pfooting = soil bearing pressure
due to footing weight
tfooting = thickness of footing
q = soil bearing pressure
P = column load applied
A = area of footing

dynamic head = static head head loss

PLTW, Inc.

Engineering Formulas

CEA 5

PLTW, Inc.

Engineering Formulas

CEA 6

Equivalent Length of (Generic) Fittings

Hazen-Williams Constants

555 Timer Design Equations


T = 0.693 (RA + 2RB)C

y y

T = period
f = frequency
RA = resistance A
RB = resistance B
C = capacitance

Boolean Algebra
Boolean Theorems

Commutative Law

Consensus Theorems

X 0 = 0

XY = YX

X1 = X

X+Y = Y+X

X X =X

Associative Law

X(YZ) = (XY)Z
X+0=X

X + (Y + Z) = (X + Y) + Z

X+1=1

DeMorgans Theorems

X+X=X

Distributive Law

X(Y+Z) = XY + XZ

(X+Y)(W+Z) = XW+XZ+YW+YZ

Speeds and Feeds


(

fm = ftntN
Plunge Rate = fm
N = spindle speed (rpm)
CS = cutting speed (in./min)
d = diameter (in.)
fm = feed rate (in./min)
ft = feed (in./tooth)
nt = number of teeth

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Engineering Formulas

DE 5

CIM 4

Aerospace Equations

Propulsion
(

Orbital Mechanics
)

Forces of Flight

L
L

CL = coefficient of lift
CD = coefficient of drag
L = lift
D = drag
A = wing area
density
Re = Reynolds number
v = velocity
l = length of fluid travel
= fluid viscosity
F = force
m = mass
g = acceleration due to gravity
M = moment
d = moment arm (distance from
datum perpendicular to F)

FN = net thrust
W = air mass flow
vo = flight velocity
vj = jet velocity
I = total impulse
Fave = average thrust force
t = change in time (thrust
duration)
Fnet = net force
Favg = average force
Fg = force of gravity
vf = final velocity
a = acceleration
t = change in time (thrust
duration)

NOTE: Fave and Favg are


easily confused.
Energy

= eccentricity
b = semi-minor axis
a =semi-major axis
T = orbital period
a = semi-major axis
gravitational parameter
F = force of gravity between two
bodies
G = universal gravitation constant
M =mass of central body
m = mass of orbiting object
r = distance between center of two
objects
Ber oullis L w
(

PS = static pressure
v = velocity
y
Atmosphere Parameters
K = kinetic energy
m =mass
v = velocity
U = gravitational potential energy
G = universal gravitation constant
M =mass of central body
m = mass of orbiting object
R = Distance center main body to
center of orbiting object
E = Total Energy of an orbit

PLTW, Inc.

Engineering Formulas

T = temperature
h = height
p = pressure
density

AE 5