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j
~a.lw.o..v) ~ ~:
l~ ::
BT C B J..V
_.
j
j
(0
S~~Q
~aIA\
cmanM<;
L<,.,
62.
~ dW O~ ~ ~J.V
~~~ ~
au,:
d.~
&2:
GnU\ ~ :
M.., 4. 9
J eTCB ~,~,ctz
V
~:: f (r, S,t)
K::.
J.x
dlNteJOf<\
~=
~=
.  
it (C'.s,t)
f3
C('. S \ t)
~o..bUlV\~ ~ ~a1. ~
0.
QY\R.l~ ~~ ~ J
S~ca<aQ :
(t'l() d~ &. 1.
= \J1
K:::.
~ W ~ruv
(~q.1.hlRS3)
de d~ cit
4.\0
cmovocc.1M .'
JSf
 4  4 
4.11
\~rnQ ~~ \A\i
In+e.~ ~oSS
tW.Ct ~Q
.!to
~~
dtj
(n')a..l4..{eW
~~~~
~
1<' ::
S5 TC B t 1J] dr Js
1)
~
4.12
ffiU.:
')(':)<2
<it~ 8OJ1A
X= ~LIr)XI
~lta.t
('=
1\ da.K} l'.=  1
.+i (l+r)X:2
\
.I
f &r
1
\n.tt~i
~ <2loeJ
t
dinaWn
S~ d.f::
1.=
WI~f
~~~:
c _
f _~ dt d~
r wa [( t
4 W 2.
rp2. .. lJJ t\ ?O
'l1oRJ1V ~~
 I
~ ~~ ~
Ga.\JCS
_f[~ ~~ Jds
Wi ~ 
Ptl8~~ ~ ~ ~ ~dao~
~  ~~_ fOVru;
\~ bw k:t ~toO\cL.fl\QJ Q.o~' &aVJ
fo.ltW
Ae ~~
64
Sample point (Koordinat Gauss point) dan faktor pemberat
(sample points) ri
(weight factor) Wi
..
a.oW\.b~

1D .
~ <VlA)&.oJ ~WU
2. DOF
~~!...~r'
'PI
=
\( 2.::
?3
r33
t
P!>2.
\'4 ~ + Pi .:z.
= f" +
P13
P4 = F21 + f2..3
Ps = f31 + P.'2
Pe, = P4t 4 P2.'2.
rLH.
>oF :: I
66
X. f
'=
X;1..
==
X32::: X 33
X4z.
::)(4 ~
cist
e.~
,.
.~
R"
Rt2.
4
R21
R22
Pt ,
P41
Rill
5 ~31
R32.
t<23
tt~
G R.41
R42
R43 R'l4
P2t _
~I
t<.,~
too&.
Kt'l
R)4
SOfftwb
POF STUtlcJURJ
P2.2
P~2
P42
Sit
'S
p\2.
::
G
1
u
3

IIt
4
I
2.
~~ do.A.l ~~ 8O{j0l ~
~
~ Q'()~:
PI
'P33
=
+
1\\3
 T~\
S~I
)< 4
:><6
~4o +
~
:;:
T41
~ 1.5
P1
U
F2..
1.
f'4
"XI
S3~
')(42
'X 2.
~~
T3\
S~2. X,
, I<J
4"
~ 2
+ ~~)'Xt
"'
>
.,
~ ~~I
  ..
+ TotJ
0< 3
+ $.42. Xf.
t32.
142
14~+
....~ X .2..
" ?\ 1
>34 \, r '&1
T33+S~~
'
P;
1'\5 \
~ 1<4
+ T4'2. ~
\ ~
2
+ S~,
~?
?(\~ +
(T4?
1<.302 \
P4'2
S +1 ~ (2.
PA.. =
143 "X4~
(T'1'~ +S,..')X2. +
i
'/.2
,\
1<5
("~3+ S33)X\
Pc9. =
.? :;0<. ,
+ T~2 'X'"
u
X;"b
+ 1~
1'\12.
"
~\::
P.3'/. ~~
    .
Tt3
Tl4
'~(+t<ll
Tl2.tRl1.
T2~
'.t\.f
T 21 +~\
T2~r~2Z
.  .
53' : 5:32
(~
, S42
..... 
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S4l
~\4
R,~
~l?
x;
RtV Xq
Pr;
Vb
X5 ~
...
  ,
,t >1) _ _
S1.'i
_
1'
~'"

fi
daM i>()Ud~ ~~
,
PI
P2.
TS} ~S~~
2.
14~ts.. ~
T4CI i ~
S4Z
Xz
s:Z?
SZCA
~22 t R'4t1
Xf,
P,
~'8'
x;) )( 4 ~ l( b ;' 0
T4'+S~"
$32
126
duia.r
cbfoJ. ~
J tF c tOdV
It ::
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a)<.~
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l.: f
t=1
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u
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~~~ol
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~(l}I\
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~,
~~
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~ 4 rrw&LlQ
BJ
oX3
61uss roW
R:tnc90 V'I't) <9 1
(() ,774; O(774)
III
&w b.UJW
4
~= .~ "h ~~
~;l
~X
t:JJ '"
dx
'Fc'
?Jt..
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~t~
;:,~
'Or
'CJ.b
'05
,if\,
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~r ~ ~
'dx
'Os
+*CI+r)O5)~'1
(IT 51 J'b'
= 1. (IHi
4
1,112
 0,277J
:::J:=  I, "387
KUG
1=
Kuu
/<:.umnj
~
O.05t!
0,61.6
ClrtJ'l::) Il
T(~) ~
0
0,768
 0,277
0(616
()
()
0 5':3"1.(
0,717
(')
0,760
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OV
is::
*CIHi)U, .. ~ (lr,}.Jz
l'
l' S
fJl,S
QVlolqg tUt
IJt
~/'
9U
?)f'
'Os
*
dlw)
(Hi)u3 _}(I+f<)Uq.
t
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l'
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lit
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~ IT'rOJ1Gtx
CeJ
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10160
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73
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0
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LL
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0
0
7691.:,
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 . EJAYlbo'l
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Of
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~~ ; ~ ~\'Jr ~ONV\1>OJV. T~ 0W0J [:lJ
TOJItu!tQVl
urt; ~ MM! 1)
'ale. ~ ~~
(ba.S'li rrno no
= [0,1,0. o.,q;o.
VsJ
~ ilN)~~
ettohA.
Q~a avdo?
L.)l,
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\<UQ
~~
da.htt1u
~I :: t(ltV'jl\+S) 
tv2. ::
W?> ::
(rI')(I+S)
(lr)(lS)
~ ~:
~ Cltf' ):,.s)iC,Sl)('+f)
k)4 ':
15
NS ~ ~ ((Sl)((+(')
~
x~ e
S.Q.hU'le~tt '.
~t 9( ~
l=1
t (s+rs+
~.:
S2\S'2.r ~\
+ (lrtSr.$)X~ +((rStr~)X3 +
+ (  s  rSf s'2.+S2.r)'<4
Idlay)
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t.) dan
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if
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1
~:=
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fNA cMGA.lI\ W ~~
J::: C~ 0 I
z 0,5 J
(lr)~2.
4
4 (1 +r)
ZC2s2srl~5
POt 1\1
cmo..lAaJ
~3 +
J
r~ = 1
76
bJ
t)r
(1\\
:= .1.
~ ~ q~
t "J J =
l?OthV..i
Lb:TS
0, 37~
0.20:;
~ fI:=
a. \() S ~ ICV'I\ z.
cmo..nu:x
hl~
~()W
[K1;:
lo",
0,5)
fa<= S~ :: O,b
3
OS6 )
\1 ?J7S
"" ,'!>1S
[
J.(),\52]
0 6cW
cl.()..t'\ 'lJ.. = C1 3
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u..t&..
9~
&.tr dt.W...tuM.~
[e,1 :: [Al[rl CN J
OX(O
KU\
urtt..
tun
~~
~~
,7
 ~hI.IAa.\1 ~f\O.l
b~
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CuJT
 \ht.UQ
rt::: O,t;;
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Sf ~ 0,5
:. [0;0.
om; O.
mrY'
~ dMl~ h.Atl F
~."
b)
bAJA :
19,5)
Sa :: &:x 10'
~
:: b.4
'0=
dOIl\
(o.C))
cm~
Ict/CIr\2.
(4,0)
 ~~0iV1 crt\1Atl
t ~~
~OL
lX~
~0Aj~~
CM
~ ~~ ~ ~ t'~ ~ 0crlaJ 2.
 tru.a.
ex : : 0,02
E8 c:iON\ 2)C'4'= 0
do..t\J
(tIS:; '2. J
c)
u
7Z
()roJA ~ ~o..lI\
~
<
<l"OOJT'l tu
~CVW\b(MI,
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00cc~ ud. ~ 3
~~ S!Ch1\~
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__ _~a 1
s
?:
1...
Theory of Elasticity
THIRD EDmON
s. P. Timoshenko
PROFESSOR EMERITUS OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS
J. N. Goodier
PROFESSOR OF APPLIED MECHANICS
STANFORD UNIVERSITY
1ifW'AfIl16,
McGRAWHILL
CLASSIC
TEXTB@K
REISSUE
NEW YORK
I ST. LOUIS I SAN FRANCISCO I AUCKLAND I
COLORADO SPRINGS I HAMBURG I USBON I LONDON
MILAN , MONTREAL I NEW DELHI I OKLAHOMA CITY
SAN JUAN
I sAo PAULO I SINGAPORE I SYDNEY
I
I
BOGOTA I
MADRID
I PANAMA
TOKYO
I
CARACAS
MEXICO
I PARIS
TORONTO
chapter I 1
Introduction
Elasticity
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
Stress
Ps
Fig. I
INTRODUCTION
13
.0211
Fig. 2
uniformly distributed over any cross section mm. Hence the intensity
~f this distribution, i.e., the stress, can be obtained by dividing the total
tensile force P by the crosssectional area A.
In the case just considered. the stress was uniformly distributed over
 the cross section. In the general case of Fig. 1 the stress is not uniformly distributed over mm. To obtain the magnitude of stress acting
on a small area &A, cut out from the cross section mm at any point 0,
we observe that the forces acting across this elemental area, due to the
action of material of the part B on the material of the part A, can be
reduced to a resultant &P. If we now continuously contract the elemental area &A, the lilnitipg value of the ratio &P/ &A gives us the magnitude of the stress acting on the cross section mm at the point O. The
limiting direction of the resultant &P is the direction of the stress. In
the general case the direction of stress is inclined to the area &A on which
it acts 'and we can resolve it into two ~omponents: a normal stress perpendicular to the area and a shearing stress acting in the plane of the area &A.
3
There are two kinds of external forces which may act on bodies. Forces
distributed over the surface of the body, such as the pressure of one body
on another or hydrostatic pressure, are called surface forces. Forces distributed over the volume of a body, such as gravitational forces, magnetic forces, or in the c,ase of a body in motion, inertia forces, are called
body forces. The surface force per unit area we shall resolve into three
components parallel to carteSian coordinate axes x, y, z, and use for these,
components the notation X, Y, Z. We shall also resolve the body force
per unit volume into three components and denote these components by
X, Y,Z.
We shall use the letter (J' for normal stress and the letter., for shearing
stress. To indicate the direction of the plane on which the stress is act'ing, subscripts to these letters are used. We take a very small cubic ele
4 I THEORY OF ELASTICITY
ment at a point P (Fig. 1), with sides parallel to the coordinate axes.
The notations for the co~ponents of stress acting on the sides of this
element and the directions taken as positive are as indicated in Fig. 3.
For the sides of the element perpendicular to the y axis, for instance, the
normal components of stress acting on these sides are denoted by (T".
The subscript y indicates that the stress is acting on a plane normal to
the y axis. The norm~ stress is taken positive when it produces tension
and negativ:e when it produces compression.
The shearing stress is resolved into two components parallel to the
coordinate axes. Two subscript ~etters are used in this case, the first
indicating the direction of the normal to the plane under consideration
and the second indicating the direction of the component of the stress.
For instance, if we again consider. the sides perpendicular ~ the y axis,
the component in the x direction is denoted by 1',,: and that in the z direction by 1'".. The positive directions of the components of shearing stress
on any side of the cubic element are taken as the positive directions of
the coordinate axes if a tensile stress on the same side would have the
positive direction of the corresponding axis. If the tensile stress has a
direction opposite to the positive axis, the positive directions of the
shearingstress components should be reversed. Following this rule, the
positive directions of all the components of stress acting on the right side
of the cubic element (Fig. 3) coincide with the positive directions of the
coordinate axes. The positive directions are all reversed if we are considering the left side of this element.
4
Components of Stress
From the discussion of the previous article, we see that for each pair of
parallel sides of a cubic element, such as in Fig. 3, one symbol is needed
Fig. 3
INTRODUCTION
I 5
o~y
Fig. 4
From
(1)
6 I THEORY OF ELASTICITY
Components of Strain
INTRODUCTION 1 7
a,~
.P
v+ dUb
uL~.L~q;c
rJ.A'
'1"
r,
I,
dy
~i
I,
1,
I,
.l..JB'
~
\.U+~d:Y
Fig. 6
au
Ea:
= ax
'Ya:J/
au
ay
av
ay
au
'Yu = az
Eu=
av
+ ax
E.
aw
+ax
'YU&
aw
az
av
= az
aw
+ay
(2)
It will be shown later that, having the three unit elongations in three
perpendicular directions and three unit shear strains related to the same
directions, the elongation in any direction and the distortion of the angle
I THEORY OF ELASTICITY
between any two directions can be calculated (see Art. 81). The si
quantities Ez , , 'Yfl. are called the components oj strain.
6
Hooke's Law
E1 [(I'll 
E.
E1 [(I'.
v(I':
+ CT.)]
 v(I'z
+ (1',,)]
(.
which have been found consistent with very numerous test measuremen1
In our further discussion we shall often use this method of superpoBitu
INTRODUCTION
z
6
u~
J'
iT
(6)
(a)
Fig. 7
(e:
= tan (! _
4
1) = 1 + E"
2
1 + E:
E (0'~ 
E,,= 
(1
= (1 +E v)O'
vO',,)
+E v)O'
we find
1) =
tani  tan
= _1__~
1 + tan! tan 1
1 +1
4
2
2
2(1 + v)O' . 2(1 + v).,.
1'= , E
=
E
2
(4)
Thus the relation between shearing strain and shearing stress is defined
by the constants E and v. Often the notation
E
G = 2(1
is used.
+ v)
(5)
.,.
'Y=a
INTRODUCTION
11
The elongations (3) and the distortions (6) are independent of each other.
The general case of strain, produced by three normal and three shearing,
components of stress, can be' obtained by superposition: on the three
elongations given by Eqs. (3) are superposed three shearing strains given
by Eqs. (6).
.
Equations (3) and (6) give the components of strain as functions of the
components of stress. Sometimes the components of stress expressed as
functions of the components of strain are needed. Th'ese can be obtained
as follows. Adding Eqs. (3) together and using the notations
= Ez + Ell + E,l
(Tz
+ +
(Til
(Til
we obtain the following relation between the volume expansion e and the
sum of normal stresses:
1  2v
e=e
E
(8)
(Tz
till
(Til
p
e = 
(T:
= (1
+ v)(l
(Tv
= (1
+ vH1  2v) e + 1 +
V Ell
(T.
= (1
)IE
E
v)(l __ 2v) e + 1 +
V E,l
__ 2r) e
+1+
vE
V E
(9)
)IE
(1
+ v)(l  2J1)
(TJI
(Til
= ~e
(10)
+ 2GEz
= ~e + 2GEJI
= ~e + 2GEIl
(11)
12
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
Index Notation
The notation already introduced for components of force, stress, displacement, and
strain is one that has become well established in many countries, particularly for
engineering purposes. It will be used throughout this book. For the concise representation of general equations and the theorems derived from them, however, the
alternative ~ndex notation is advantageous and is often encountered. The displacement components for instance are written 'Ul, 'Us, 'Ua, or collectively as 'Ui, with the
understanding that the index i can be 1, 2, or 3. The coordinates themselves are
written Xl, XI, X" or simply Xi, instead of X, y, z.
In Fig. 3 nine stress components appear. They can be arranged as in the table or
array on the left below.
(1':
"'11:"
'Tli:S
'T;I&;I&
'T;I&"
"':'
'Til
'TIt
'TU
"',,11:
(1'"
'TI/II
'T"II:
'TJ/"
'TJ/'
'TIl
'Til
"'21
'T,:
'T,,,
(1',
'T,z
'TIIJ/
'T,.
'TIl
Tal
'Tn
(a)
Writing 1';1&;1& instead of (1';1&, "'11" for (1'", and 'Tn for (I'll, we have the middle array above.
Here the first suffix indicates the direction of the normal to the side of the element on
which the component acts and the second suffix indicates the axis to which the stress
component arrow is parallel. In the array on the right, above, the suffi.xes are ohanged
to the corresponding numerical indices. To write the nine components collectively we
need now two indices i and i, each being 1, 2, 3 independently. Then all nine components are comprised in
(b)
'Til
with i, i = 1, 2, or 3
The relations (1) which reduced the nine components to six distinct numbers (but we
still have nine entries in the array), can now be expressed as
'Til
= Tii
(c)
(aui
au
+
Taking i
relations
= i = 1 this reproduces the first of (2) in the form of the first of the three
EU
Taking i
au.
iJul.
=
= 1, i = 2 we get from
(e)
En=
ax.
aXI
EU=
(iJu
 l+aul)
ax.
aXI
1
2
EU=
l au.)
(au
+axl ax.
(f)
We observe that 2En,. 2Eu, 2f11 are the same as "},;I&", "}'ZII,."}'"II in (2). Thus EU is half the
reduction of the original right angle between line elements dxl , dxl , at X., XI, Xa.
To express the sum of the three terms appearing in the first of (~) we may write
EU
EU
Ell
or
fii
(I)
i= 1.2.3
But in this notation it is customary to suppress the summation sym bol, and write simply
INTRODUCTION
Eii.
I 13
Use of j (or any other literal index we may introduce) instead of i does not change the
meaning. For this reason such a repeated index is often referred to as a "dummy"
index.
. ,
The six stress components are expressed in terms of the six strain components by
(11) together with (6). To put these together under the index notation we require
the array
100
010
001
This is written ~ii' Evidently this symbol means zero when i ~ i, and it means unity
when i = j = 1 or 2 or 3. It is referred to as the "Kronecker delta." The six
relations obtainable from
i, j, k
= 1 or 2 or 3
(J)
reproduce the six relations (11) with (6). The symbol EU means, of course,. a sum like
in (h). But the reader will see here the necessity of using a dummy index k distinct
from i and j. For instance, to reproduce the first of (11) we take i = 1, j = 1, and
find from (j)
Tii
Til
= ~8I1EU + 2GEll
= ~EU + 2GEll
(k)
Writing 3T for the sum in (h), T is the mean of the three normal stress components.
The stress Til can be regarded as a superposition of the two stress states
TOO
o
o
Til 
and
Tn
T21
Tn Tn
Til
(m)
T23
Tn 
The first, often called simply the mean 8tre8S,. can be represented by T8ij. The second,
called the deuiatoric stress, or stress deuiator, can be represented by Td where
(n)
Similarly we can separate the strain Eij into a mean strain Eid3 or e/3, and a deuiatoric
8train Ei/ where
Ei/ = Eii
3~dii
(0)
= (3~ + 2G)e
(p)
It is a simple exercise to deduce these from Eqs. (jj, or conversely to begin with (p)
and recover (J).
I
If T = p, P
14
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
PROBLEMS
1. Show that Eqs. (1) continue to hold if the element of Fig. 4 is in motion and ha
an angular acceleration like a rigid body.
2. Suppose an elastic material contains a large number of evenly distributed sma
magnetized particles, so that a magnetic field exerts on any element clx dy clz
moment p clx dy dz about an axis parallel to the z axis. What modification wi
be needed in Eqs. (I)?
.
3. Give some reasons why the formulas (2) will be valid for small strains only.
4. An elastic layer is sandwiched between two perfectly rigid plates, to which it j
bonded. The layer is compressed between the plates, the direct stress being (I'
Supposing that the attachment to the plates prevents lateral strain Ea, Ell con:
pletely, fi~d the apparent Young's modulus (that is, (I'./E.) in terms of E and I
Show that it is many times E if the material of the layer has a Poisson's ratio oni
slightly less than 0.5, e.g., rubber.
5. Prove that Eq. (8) follows from Eqs. (11), (10), and (5).
chapter
Plane Stress
Plane Strain
A similar simplification is possible at the other extreme when the dimension of the body in the z direction is very large. If a long cylindrical or
prismatical body is loaded by forces that are perpendicular to the longitudinal elements and do not vary along the length, it may be assumed
that all cross sections are in the same condition. It is simplest to suppose at first that the end sections. are confined between fixed smooth
rigid planes, so that displacement in the axial direction is prevented.
The effect of removing these will be examined later. Since there is no
axial displacement at the ends and, by symmetry, at the midsection, it
may be assumed that the same holds at every cross section.
There are many important problems of this kind, for instance, a retain1 The assumptions made here are examined critically in Art. 98.
Variation of stress
does occur, but in a sufficiently thin plate it can be ignored, like the meniscus on the
column of fluid in the capillary tube of a thermometer.
15
16
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
~+.%
Fig. 8
ing wall with lateral pressure (Fig. 9), a culvert or tunnel (Fig. 10), a
cylindrical tube with internal pressure, a cylindrical roller compressed by
forces in a diametral plane as in a roller bearing (Fig. 11). In each case,
of course, the loading must not vary along the length. Since conditions
are the same at all cross sections, it is sufficient to consider only a slice
between two sections unit distance apart. The components u and v of
the displacement are functions of x and y but are independent of the
longitudinal coordinate z. Since the longitudinal displacement w is zero,
Eqs. (2) give
"17/'
av aw
= az + ay = 0
au aw
az + ax =
aw
E,==O
az
"1= =
y
Fig. 9
(a)
17
7P"YJIJYJ"C;"CCWXCY:,J\VJA;";XCO"C'""W",P;.,,
...
~~~~
y
Fig. 10
or
0".
+ 0"1/) = 0
v(O"s + 0",,)
o"s
and
0"1/
v(O"s
=
(b)
These normal stresses act over the cross sections, including the ends,
where they represent forces required to maintain the plane strain and
provided by the fixed smooth rigid planes.
By Eqs. (a) and (6), the stress components Tu and ",,8 are zero, and, by
Eq. (b), 0". can be found from O"~ and 0"1/. Thus the plane strain problem,
like the plane stress problem, reduces to the determination of O"s, 0"1/' and
"SrI as functions of x and y only.
10
Stress at a Point
Knowing the stress components O"s, 0"1/' T z" at any point of a plate in a
condition of plane stress or plane strain, the stress acting on any plane
through this point perpendicular to the plate and inclined to the x and
y axes can be calculated from the equations of statics. Let P be a point
of the stressed plate and suppose the stress components o"z, 0"1/' "SrI are
~~Z
Fig. 11
I THEORY OF ELASTICITY
~~X
'J
~.
(CT)
Fig. 12
cos Ny
Then, if A denotes the are$ of the side BO of the element, the areas of the
other two sides are Al and Am.
If we denote by X 81ld Y the components of stress acting on the side
BO, the equations of equilibrium of the prismatical element give
X = 1Hz + mTztI
Y = ?nulf + lTztI
(12)
19
+ (u" 
u z)
sin
cos a
(13)
cos
I t may be see~ that the angle a can be chosen in such a manner that the
. shearing stress T becomes equal to zero. For this case we have
Tz,,(COS 2
or
=0
(14)
From this equation, two perpendicular directions can be found for which
the shearing stress is zero. These directions are called principal directions and the correspdnding normal stresses principal stresses.
If the principal directions are taken as the x and y axes, T ZII is zero and
Eqs. (13) are simplified to
u =
Uz
cos 2 a
+ u" sin! a
(13')
This graphical method is due to O. Mohr, Zilliling';"ieur, 1882, p. 113. See also
~~~~
fa)
a6
tOI
.'C
(6)
Fig. 13
ZO
I I H I:.ORY OF ELASTICITY
abscissas U:z: and UlI, respectively. Now it can be proved that the stre:
components for any plane BC with an angle a (Fig. 12) will be reprl
sented by coordinates of a point on the circle having AB as a diamete
To find this point it is only necessary to measure from the point A in tl
same direction as a is measured in Fig. 12 an arc sub tending an ang
equal to 2a. If D is the point obtained in this manner, then, from tl
figure,
OF
DF = CD sin 2a
= ~(u:z: 
UlI)
sin 2a
(15
It acts on the plane for which a = r/4, that is, on the plane bisecting th.
angle between the two principal stresses.
The diagram can also be used in the case when one or both principa
stresses are negative (compression). I t is only necessary to change th.
1 This rule is used only in the construction of Mohr's circle.
Otherwise the rul
given on p. 5 holds.
(a)
21
(6)
Fig. 14
sign of the abscissa for compressive stress. In this manner Fig. 14a
represents the case when both principal stresses are negative and Fig.
14b the case of pure shear.
From Figs. 13 and 14 it is seen that the stress at a point can be resolved into two
parts: one, biaxial tension or compression, the two components being equal and of
magnitude given by the abscissa of the center of the circle; and the other, pure shear,
the magnitude of which is given by the radius of the circle. When several plane stress
distributions are superposed, the uniform tensions or compressions can be added
together algebraically. The pure shears must be added together by taking into
account the directions of the planes on which they are acting. It can be shown that if
we superpose two systems of pure shear whose planes of maximum shear make an
angle of fJ with each other, the resulting system will be another case of pure shear.
For example, Fig. 15 represents the determination of stress on any plane defined by
:Y
Fig. 15
(6)
22
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
I+~rt,
.0;
~
Fig.l6
, produced by two pure shears of magnitude 'Tl and T'2 acting one on the planes zz and
yz (Fig. 15a) and the other on the planes inclined to xz and yz by the angle fJ (Fig. 15b).
In Fig. 15a the coordinates of point D represent the shear and normal stress on plane
CB produced by the first system, whereas the coordinate of Dl (Fig. 15b) gives the
stresses on this plane for the second system. Adding OD and OD l geometrically we
obtain OG, the resultant stress on the plane due to both systems, the coordinates of G
giving us the shear and normal stress. Note that the magnitude of OG does not
depend upon . Hence, as the result of the superposition of two shears, we obtain a
Mohr circle for pure shear, the magnitude of which is given by OG, the planes of
maximum shear being inclined to the zz and yz planes by an angle equal to half the
angle GOD.
A diagram, such as is shown in Fig. 13, can also be used for determining principal stresses if the stress components tT:, tT111 T:fI for any two
perpendicular planes (Fig. 12) are known. We begin in such a case with
the plotting of the two points D and D l , representing stress conditions
on the two coordinate planes (Fig. 16). In this manner the diameter
DDI of the circle is obtained. Constructing the circle, the principal
stresses tTl and tT2 are obtained from the intersection of the circle with the
abscissa axis. From the figure we find
v, = OC + CD = v. ~ v. + ~(v. ; vr +
v.. OC  CD = v. ~ v.  ~(v. ; vr +
=
T",,'
(16)
Tzu'
The maximum shea'ring stress is given by the radius of the circle, Le.,
(17)
11
I 23
Strain at a Point
When the strain components E:, Ern 'YsrI at a point are known, the unit
elongation for any direction and the decrease of a right anglethe shearing strainof any orientation at the point can be ~ound. A line element
'PQ (Fig. 17a) between the points (x,y), (x + dx, y + dy) is translated,
stretched (or contracted), and rotated into the line elementP'Q' when
the deformation occurs. The displacement components of Pare u, v,
. and those of Q are
.
au
au
u+dx+dy
ax
ay
av
av
v+dx+dy
ax
ay
QR = ax dx
au
+ 81J
dy
av
av
= ax dx + ay dy
RQ"
. (a)
SQ"
ignoring the small angle QPS in comparison with 8. Since the short line
QS may be identified with an arc of a circle with center P, SQ" gives the
stretch of PQ. The unit elongation of P'Q', denoted by ES, is SQ"/PQ.
Using (b) and (a) we have
E9
cos 8 (au dx
ax ds
= av, cos 2 8
ax
or
ES
E:
+ ou
iJ,y) + sin 8 (ov dx + ov dY)
ay ds
ox ds
oy ds
+ (au
. 8 cos 8 + av SIn
. 28
 + av) SIn
ay
ax
oy
Ell
sin 8
(c)
or
.1.
.,,9
av
= ax cos
+ uy
~u ddSY) + cos 8 (ov
dx + av dY)
ox ds
ay ds
+ (av
ay 
au).
. 28
ax SIn 8 cos 8  au
ay sIn
(d)
24
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
:x
(~~'l
pI
ds
dy
~%~~dY)
(6)
fa)
Fig. 17
sin [8
+ (1r/2)]
';6+fI'/2
= cos 8, we find
=
av sm
. 2 8  (av
ax
ay  au).
ax sln 8 cos 8  au
ay cos2 8
(e)
The shear strain 'Y6 for the directions PQ, PT is 1/16  1/16+T/2, so
'Y6 =
or
(av
ax + au)
ay (cos2 8 _
sin2 8)
+ (av
ay  au)
ax 2 sin 8 cos 8
+ (Etl 
<I>
Comparing (c) and (f) with (13), we observe that they may be obtained
from (13) by replacing tT by E6, 'T by 'Y6/2, tT~ by E~, tTtI by Er" 'T~ by 'Y~/2,
and a by 8. Consequently, for each deduction made from (13) as to tT
and'T, there is a corresponding deduction from (c) and (f) as to E6 and
'Y6/2. There are thus two values of 8, differing by 90, for which 'Y6 is
zero. They are given by
~=tan28
E~
Eu
The corresponding strains E6 are principal strains. A Mohr circle diagram analogous to Fig. 13 or 16 may be drawn, the ordinates representing
. 'Y6/2 and the abscissas EI. The principal strains El, E2 will be the algebraically greatest and least values of ES as a function of 8. The greatest
value of 'Y6/2 will be represented by the radius of the circle.. Thus the
greatest shearing strain 'Y6 max is given by
'Y6max = El  E2
12
The strains, or unit elongations, on a surface are usually most conveniently measured by means of electricresistance strain gauges. 1 The
1 A detailed account of this method is given in M. Hetenyi (ed.), "Handbook of
Experimental Stress Ana1ysis," Chaps. 5 and 9, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York,
1950.
OL.____
(a)
L=~
25
____ ___
~
(c)
Fig. 18
When the principal directions are not known in advance, three measurements are needed. Thus the state of strain is completely determined
if E~, E", 'Yzu can be measured. But since the strain gauges measure extensions, and not shearing strain directly, it is convenient to measure the
unit elongations in three directions at the point. Such a set of gauges is
called a "strain rosette." The Mohr circle can be drawn by the simple
construction l given in Art. 13, and the principal strains can then be read
off. The three gauges are represented by the three full lines in Fig. 18a.
The broken line represents the (unknown) direction of the larger principal strain EI, from which the direction of the first gauge is obtained by a
clockwise rotation f/J.
If the x and y directions for Eqs. (c) and (f) of Art. 11 had been taken
as the principal directions, E~ would be El) E" would be E2, and 'Y~" would be
1
Glenn Murphy, J. Appl. Mech., vol. 12, p. A209, 1945; N. J. Hoff, ibid.
26 I THEORY OF ELASTICITY
c:
El
cos 2 8 + E2 sin 2 8
32'Y6 = 
(El 
E2)
sin 8 cos 8
EI.
These may be
and these values are represented by the point P on the circle in Fig. 18c.
If 8 takes the value f/J, p. corresponds to the point A on the circle in Fig.
18b, the angular displacement from the E6 axis being 2f/J. The abscissa of
this point is ~, which is known. If 8 takes the value f/J + a, P moves to
B, through a further angle AFB = 2a, and the abscissa is the known
value Ecr+4l' If 8 takes the value f/J + a + fj, P moves on to C, through
a further angle BFC = ~, and the abscissa is EQ+JI+/I'
The problem is to draw the circle when these three abscissas and the
two angles a, {3 are known.
13
27
(O"Y)4
(r:ac:y4
11.
4
r:cy)3
(0:.~}3
3
k
(:;e,Y)
(O"x
2'
fz.xy).l
(r:cy)Z
(0",,)2
Fig. 19
the faces are very small, the corresponding forces are obtained by multiplying these values by the areas of the faces on which they act.!
The body force on the block, which was neglected as a small quantity
of higher order in considering the equilibrium of the triangular. prism of
Fig. 12, must be taken into consideration, because it is of the same order
of magnitude as the terms owing to the variations of the stress components that are now under consideration. If X, Y denote the components
of body force per unit volume, the equation of equilibrium for forces in
the x direction is
(uzhk  (uzhk
+ (T'zu)2h 
(T'zu)4h
+ Xhk =
(T'zuh ~ (T'ZU)4
+X
= 0
If now the block is taken smaller and smaller, that is, h + 0, k +. 0, the
limit of l(O'zh  (uz)a]/h is au:,Jax by the definition of such a derivative.
Similarly [(Tzuh  (Tzu)4)/k becomes aTzu/ay. The equation of equilibrium for forces in the y direction is obtained in the same manner. Thus
auz
ax
+ a.,zu
+X
ay
auu
ay'
+ aT'zu + Y
= 0
ax
0
(18)
28 I THEORY OF ELASTICITY
:Y
Fig. 20
au: + Ur:w =
au"
+ aT:"
+ =
ay
ax pg
 ax
15
ay
(19)
Boundary Conditions
Equations (18) or (19) must be satisfied at all points throughout the volume of the body. The stress components vary over the volume of the
plate; and when we arrive at the boundary they must be such as to be
in equilibrium with the external forces on the boundary of the plate, so
that external forces may be regarded as a continuation of the internal
~tress distribution. These conditions of equilibrium at the boundary
ban be obtained from Eqs. (12). Taking the small triangular prism P Be
(Fig. 12), so that the side Be coincides with the boundary of the plate,
as shown in Fig. 20, and denoting by X and Y the components of the
surface forces per unit area at this point of the boundary, we have
x=
y
14: + mT:w
= mu"
+ IT:w
(20)
in which land m are the direction cosines of the normal N to the boundary.
In the particular case of a rectangular plate, the coordinate axes are
usually taken parallel to the sides of the plate and the boundary condi""'
tions (20) can be simplified. Taking, for instance, a side of the plate
parallel to the x axis we have for this part of the boundary the normal
N parallel to the y axis; hence l = 0 and m = 1. Equations (20) then
become
X = T:w
Y = u"
Here the positive sign should be taken if the normal N has the positive
directIon of the y axis and the negative sign for the opposite direction
29
Compatibility Equatio~s
u,,,
Ez
au
ax
=
av
(a)
EII=
iJy
a + iJ2EII = a2"(zll
2
Ez
iJy2
iJx 2
iJx iJy
(21)
30
I THEORY OF ELASTICITY
at,.
= 2(1 + v) ax ~~
(b)
= v(O'z
+ Uti)
Etl
'YZ1I
E1 [(1
 v2)O'z  v(1
(26)
2(1
+ JI)O"tI]
+ v)
Tztl
+ v)O"z]
(27)
Substituting in Eq. (21) and using, as before, the equations of equilibrium (19), we find that the compatibility equation (24) holds also for
plane strain. For the general case of body forces we obtain from Eqs.
(21) and (18) the compatibility equation in the following form:
a2
a2\
1 (ax
ay)
(28)
( ax2 + ay'l) (0': + Uti) =  1  JI ax + ay
The equations of equilibrium (18) or (19) together with the boundary
conditions (20) and one of the above compatibility equations give us a
system of equations that is usually sufficient for the complete determi
31
Stress Function
+ a'l":u =
+ a'l":"
ax + pg =
au:
ax
Bu"
By
ay
(a)
= 0
32
THEORY OF ELASTICITY
called the 8tre88 Junction. l As is easily checked, Eqs. (a) are satisfied by
taking any function q, of x and y and putting the following expressions
for the stress components:
Uz
a2q,
= 
ay2  pgy
TzU
(29)
In this manner we can get a variety of ~olutions of the equations of equilibrium (a). The true solution of the problem is that which satisfies also
the compatibility equation (b). Substituting expressions (29) for the
stress components into Eq. (b), we find that the stress function q, must
satisfy the equation
(30)
x = _av
az
=_
(c)
aV
ay
.2.... (l1z
. V)
.2.... (11f1
 V)
+ M~II
=0
az
az
ay
aTZfI
ay
=0
These equations are of the same form as Eqs. (a) and can be satisfied by taking
11
= a2q,
ay2
11f1 _
= a2q,
az2
~fI 
a2q,
az ay
(31)
acq,
azC
acq,
acq,
+ 2 az. ay2 + ayC = 
(1  II)
(a 2 V
az2
a:a v )
+ ay2
(32)
33
When the body force is simply the weight, the potential V is pgy. In this case
the righthand side of Eq. (32) reduces to zero. By taking the solution q, = 0 of (32),
or of (30), we find the stress distribution from (31), or (29),
". =
pgy
(I"
= pgy
'r." = 0
(d)
as a possible state of stress due to gravity. This is a state of hydrostatic pressure pgy
in two dimensions, with zero stress at y = o. It can exiSt in a plate or cylinder of any
shape provided the corresponding boundary forces are applied. Considering a boundary element as in Fig. 12, Eqs. (13) show that there must be a normal pressure pgy on
the boundary, and zero shear stress. If the plate or cylinder is to be supported in some
other manner we have to superpose a boundary normal tension pgy and the new supporting forces. The two together will be in equilibrium, and the determination of their .
effects is a problem of boundary forces only, without body forces.!
PROBLEMS
1. Show that Eqs. (12) remain valid when the element of Fig. 12 has acceleration.
2. Find graphically the principal strains and their directions from rosette measuremen~
.
~
= 2 X 10'
fa#
= 1.35 X 101
Ea~#
where a: = fJ = 45.
3. Show that the line elements at the point x, y that have the maximum and minimum
rotation are those in the two perpendicular directions 8 determined by
tan 28 = av/ay  au/ax
av/ax + au/ay
4. The stresses in a rotating disk (of unit thickness) can be regarded as due to centrifugal force as body force in a stationary disk. Show that this body force is
derivable from the potential V =  Hp",'(x' + y'), where p is the density and '"
the angular velocity of rotation (about the origin).
5. A disk with its axis horizontal has the gravity stress represented by Eqs. (d) of
Art. 16. Make a sketch showing the boundary forces that support its weight.
Show by another sketch the auxiliary problem of boundary forces that must be
solved when the weight is entirely supported by the reaction of a horizontal surface
on which the disk stands.
6. A cylinder with its axis horizontal has the gravity streBB represented by Eqs. (d)
of Art. 16. Its ends are confined between smooth fixed rigid planes that maintain
the condition of plane strain. Sketch the forces acting on its surface, including
the ends.
7. Using the stressstrain relations, and Eqs. (a) of Art. 15 in the equations of equilibrium (18), show that in the absence of body forces the displacements in problems
of plane stress must satisfy
atu
ax
1 v
ax ax
ay
..
~
PART II
THE FINITE ELEMENT
METHOD
Fixed shaft
P
(a) Frame structure
SEC. 4.2
143
Problem
Bar
Beam
Pl ane stress
Plane strai n
II,
~isymmetri c
lI, V
Threedimensional
Plate Bending
Noratioll:
f ......
au
Strain Vector
[ fxx ]
'"v
[K xxl
[f xx f yy YXy]
lI, V
(f xx fJ'J' YXY]
II ,
v, IV
'"
av
'tT
[f xx ]
1M,,]
['t" xx 't"n T xy]
['t" xx Tn
T xy]
[T xx T yy T xy T:z ]
[K u
Yxy
S Iren Vector
ET
K yy K xy]
au + ax'
av ... ,K x ... =  dx'l'
azw
a;
[M xx M yy
KJ'J'
alw K ... y =
=  qy'i'
M x:l
alw
1idy
144
CHAP. 4
Problem
Material Matrix C
E
El
Bar
Beam
Plane stress
r
v 1
I  v2
0 1 ; .]
v
Iv
Plane strain
E(1  v)
[ v1
 2v) 1 ~ v
+ v)(1
(1
1 o 2v
0
v
Iv
1E(1  v)
(1 + v)(1  2v)
Axisymmetric
Threedimensional
(1
+E(1v)(1
v)
 2v)
v
Iv
2(1  v)
1 v
1  v.
1  2v
2(1  v)
v
Iv
v
Iv
v
v
I  v 1 v
v
v
Iv
1 v
v
v
1 v 1 v
1  2v
2(1  v)
1  2v
2(1  v)
elements not
shown are zeros
[!
Ehl
v
12(1  V2) 0 0 1
Plate bending
Notation: E
of inertia
1 2v
= Young's modulus, v =
2(1 
v)
~]
;v
SEC.
..
4.2
(4.46)
145
T xx
Hole
y, v
x,
t..
z,W
w = 0, EZZ =
146

Txx
I
I.
./
T zz
1<t _ .
.I <t
Tyz.= Tzx = 0
All other stress components
are nonzero
Midsurface
Plate
=0
All other stress components
are nonzero.
T zz
147
<
4
2.
:>
Invers matrix
nxn
1. Blok cell n x n
2. Di cell pertama ketik: @minverse( matrix[A])
3. tekan shift+control enter
Perkalian matrix
1. Blok cell n x n
2. Di cell pertama ketik: @mmult( matrix[A],matrix[B])
3. tekan shift+control enter
Determinan
determinan [D]
nxn
1. Blok satu cell
2. Di cell ketik: @mdetermin( matrix[A])
3. tekan shift+control enter