Você está na página 1de 47

Chain Surveying

Dr. Mazen Abualtayef


The lecture was prepared by Eng. Heba Hamad, The University of Palestine and modified by
Dr. Mazen Abualtayef, The Islamic University of Gaza

Surveying

Chapter 3

Content
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Equipment used in chain surveying
3.3 Processes in chain surveying
3.4 Mapping details using chain surveying
3.6 Chaining obstacles

3.1 Introduction
Common Methods for Measuring Distances are:
Pacing
Taping

Tachometry which requires angle-measuring


instrument (Theodolite) and rod (Staff).
EDM (Electronic Distance Measurement) using
light and infrared waves like total station and
measuring from few meters to tens of kilometers.

3.1 Introduction
Measuring Methods
Type
Pacing

Relative Precision
1/50 to 1/200

Use
Reconnaissance

Land surveys

Taping

1/1,000 to 1/5,000

EDM

0.04 to 1/300,000 All types of


surveying

3.2 Equipment Used in Chain


Surveying
Measurement of Lines:
Chain
Tapes

Invar Tapes: Nickel-steel alloy

3.2 Equipment Used in Chain


Surveying
Making Right Angles:
Optical Prism
Cross Staff

3.2 Equipment Used in Chain


Surveying
Others:
Ranging Rod
Arrows
Pegs

Plumb bobs
Clinometers
Abney Level

3.3 Processes in Chain Surveying


Two types of measurements are performed:
ranging and measurement of lines
setting out of right angles

3.3 Processes in Chain Surveying


Take the following points in mind when doing
measurements:
the measurement should be in a straight line.
the tape should be reasonably pulled to
minimize sagging or over-stretching.
systematic way should be followed to count
the number of times the tape is used.

3.3 Processes in Chain Surveying


Ranging and Measurement of Lines:
Level Ground
Uniformly Sloping Ground
Uneven Ground

3.3 Processes in Chain Surveying


A. Level Ground

Forward Ranging
Rod

Rod

A1

A2

A3

A4

3.3 Processes in Chain Surveying


B. Uniformly Sloping Ground

d L sin
H L cos

H L d
2

3.3 Processes in Chain Surveying


C. Uneven Ground

3.3.2 Setting Out Right Angles


Two cases are to be considered:
- Dropping a perpendicular from point C to a
line AB
- Setting out a line at right angles to another
line AB from a given point C on this line

3.3.2 Setting Out Right Angles


Dropping a perpendicular from point C to a line AB

Method 1

3.3.2 Setting Out Right Angles


Dropping a perpendicular from point C to a line AB
Method 2

3.3.2 Setting Out Right Angles


Dropping a perpendicular from point C to a line AB
Method 3
C
E

3.3.2 Setting Out Right Angles


Dropping a perpendicular from point C to a line AB
Method 4
C

3.3.2 Setting Out Right Angles


Setting out a line to AB from C on the line
Method 1

3.3.2 Setting Out Right Angles


Setting out a line to AB from C on the line
Method 2

3.3.2 Setting Out Right Angles


Setting out a line to AB from C on the line
Method 3
Pythagoras

5m

3m

4m
A

3.4 Mapping Details

In chain surveying, the topographical and manmade features are located and mapped
By measuring with the tape the lengths of a
series of selected reference straight lines,
called chain lines.
And then locating points on the ground
relative to these lines.

3.4 Mapping Details


Methods of Locating Ground Details
Method of Ties
Method of Offsets

3.4 Mapping Details


Before performing any field measurements, the
surveyor should:
Visit the area to be mapped
Notice the shape of the area
Notice the existing details
Draw reasonable sketch

3.4.1 Choice of Chain Lines


Well-conditioned triangles (Angles 30 120)

3.4.1. Choice of Chain Lines


As close as possible to the buildings

3.4.1. Choice of Chain Lines


At least two stations can be seen

3.4.1. Choice of Chain Lines


Minimum Number of Lines

3.4.1. Choice of Chain Lines


Provide check line possibility

3.4.1. Choice of Chain Lines


Avoid obstacles

3.4.2 Booking the Measurements

3.4.2 Booking the Measurements


Considerations to be taken:
Begin each line at the bottom of a fresh page
Dont rely on memory
Proceed from the bottom to the top
All details must be sketched roughly to scale
All other chain lines should be recorded
Offset are not Drawn and ties are drawn
Names should be recorded

3.4.3 Plotting the Details

3.4.3 Plotting the Details

The plotting of details proceeds according to:

Choose the appropriate scale


Using Pencil, Begin plotting offsets and ties
Check the details
All details are then inked

3.4.3 Plotting the Details

When plotting the details, Try to do the following:

Make the north to the top of the sheet


Center the drawing in the middle of the sheet

3.6 Chaining Obstacles


Chaining Obstacles:
Vision is obscured, chaining is possible
Vision possible, chaining prevented
Both of vision and chaining prevented

a) Vision obscured, chaining possible

b) Vision possible, chaining prevented


1. Closed Obstacles (Pond)
a. The Parallel Method

b) Vision possible, chaining prevented


1. Closed Obstacles (Pond)
b. The Capital Letter A Method

b) Vision possible, chaining prevented


2. Linear Obstacles (River)
a. The First Method

From the similar triangles EDF, FGH

HG FG

FD ED
HG

CG FG
EC FG

River

b) Vision possible, chaining prevented


2. Linear Obstacles (River)
b. The Second Method

JG FH

River

b) Vision possible, chaining prevented


2. Linear Obstacles (River)
c. The Third Method

B
G

EG EC

EF ED

River

D
E

EC .EF
EG
ED

C
A

c) Both chaining and vision prevented


Random Line

GA
GD FC
FA

HA
HE FC
FA

c) Both vision and chaining prevented


Prolonged Line

c) Both vision and chaining prevented


A-Method

MN 2 CD