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Session – 1

Session Name: Introduction to JPEG Author Name: Shailendra C. Badwaik Department: Electronics & Telecommunication Subject/Course: Signal Coding and Estimation Theory Cell Number: 9372305856

Session – 1 Session Name: Introduction to JPEG Author Name: Shailendra C. Badwaik Department: Electronics &
Session Objectives At the end of this session, the learner will be able to: Identify the

Session Objectives

Session Objectives At the end of this session, the learner will be able to: Identify the

At the end of this session, the learner will be able to:

  • Identify the need of compression

  • Compare and explain types of compression techniques

  • Synthesize JPEG block diagram

  • State the applications of JPEG in real world

  • Specify the upcoming trends in compression standards

Teaching Learning Material

  • White Board and Markers

  • Presentation Slides

  • LCD projector

  • Video

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Author Name:Shailendra C. Badwaik

Topic Introduction to JPEG College Name:Sinhgad College of Engineering,Pune

Session Plan Time Learning min) (in Content Methodology Learning Aid and Approach Faculty Student Activity Typical

Session Plan

Session Plan Time Learning min) (in Content Methodology Learning Aid and Approach Faculty Student Activity Typical

Time

       

Learning

min)

(in

Content

Methodology

Learning Aid

and

Approach

Faculty

Student

Activity

Typical

Gardeners)

Outcomes

(Blooms +

       

Participate

Analyzing Intrapersonal

  • Need of
    10 compression

Analogies

Facilities

Explain

Analyze

Answer

Interpersonal Verbal Linguistic

 

Comparison of types of

Visual Aids

Facilitates

Instructs

Observes

Listens

Understanding

Intrapersonal

  • 05 compression techniques

Explains

Comprehends

Visual-Spatial

Verbal-Linguistic

 

JPEG block

 

Facilitates

Listens

Understanding

  • diagram
    25 overview

Visual Aids

Video

Instructs

Explains

Comprehends

Observes

Verbal-Linguistic

Visual-Spatial

Intrapersonal

     

PPT

 

Understanding

  • 10 Applications of JPEG

Question

Answer

and

and Tell

picture

Guides Lists

Facilitates

Intrapersonal Visual -Linguistic

 

Upcoming

 

Facilitates

Listens

 
  • trends in
    05 compression

standard

Visual Aids

Instructs

Explains

Comprehends

Observes

Verbal-Linguistic

Understanding

Visual-Spatial

Intrapersonal

 
  • 05 JPEG In

Carve Today’s

Facilitates

Recalls

Understanding Interpersonal

Nutshell

Topic

Answers

Verbal- Linguistic

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Author Name: Shailendra C. Badwaik

Topic Introduction to JPEG College Name: Sinhgad College of Engineering

Session Inputs Need of compression Compression is playing a vital role in data transfer. We can

Session Inputs

Session Inputs Need of compression Compression is playing a vital role in data transfer. We can

Need of compression

Session Inputs Need of compression Compression is playing a vital role in data transfer. We can

Compression is playing a vital role in data transfer. We can begin the session with an activity which will help the learners understand the need of compression

Suggested Activity: Analogies

 

We can narrate some analogies for problems that if compression is not done/available. ‘Invite the learners’ response on what major problems can occur due transfer of large data. Some sample analogies could be as follows:

Making ZIP File: It will be ask to learners about what they do when data could not fit in pen drive and they want to carry intended data. Likely answer will be zip the data and copy in pen drive.

Photo Size : Size of photo of BMP format image is 2 to 3 MB . By saving same photo by extension .jpg the size comes in 200 to 300 KB . Students can do on their at home from MS-paint by saving .bmp image in different file format and can verify its net effect by observing size of different format files.

Uploading Photos on WEB: We find difficult to upload big size photo while sending to our friend by picasa . What picasa generally does is file conversion in compressed form.

RAR HTML files : It is not possible to send HTML files as email attachment. Best way out for this problem is to keep all HTML in a folder and rar(compress) that folder and send mail of rar file(s).

Some of the problems faced without compression are:

Need more bandwidth to send data on network

Channel get busy for more time

Need more memory

Need more CPU speed

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Author Name:Shailendra C. Badwaik

Topic Introduction to JPEG College Name:Sinhgad College of Engineering,Pune

Analogy1 (ZIP File) : Original data may not fit in pen drive or me mory stick

Analogy1 (ZIP File) :

Analogy1 (ZIP File) : Original data may not fit in pen drive or me mory stick

Original data may not fit in pen drive or memory stick but zip data could easy fit in

pen /memory stick. More data one can put in pen drive due to compression.

Analogy2(Photo size) :

Photos capture from high mega pixel camera are big in size , it take more time to

upload such photos on web some time connection speed creates bottle neck on uploading these photos. Best way is to save such photos by .jpg extension and share on the web. Learners can do practical by saving same image in different file formats and analyze its size.

Analogy3(Uploading Photos on WEB)

Birthday photos learners do upload on pica sa or any social networking web site by

internet. If all learners answer simultaneously, (photos upload at high speed internet connection) Also, some responses could be unheard. (Lost connection and re-upload photos needed) Chaos would cause the teacher to become frustrated. (Internet connection is too slow!!)

512 x 512 pixel color image

512 x 512 x 24bits = 786 Kbytes

Videoconference QCIF (Quarter Common Intermediate Format)

(176 x 144 + 88 x 72 + 88 x 72) x 8 x 25 = 7.6

Mbits/s

Digital television

(720 x 576 + 360 x 288 + 360 x 288 ) x 8 x 25 = 124

Mbits/s

High definition television - HDTV

(1440 x 1152 + 720 x 576 + 720 x 576 ) x 8 x 25 = 497

Mbits/s

Multispectral images (satellite)

(6000 x 6000) x 8 x 6 = 216

Mbytes

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Author Name: Shailendra C. Badwaik

Topic Introduction to JPEG College Name: Sinhgad College of Engineering

Comparison of types of compression techniques  The human eye has the property that when an
Comparison of types of compression techniques  The human eye has the property that when an

Comparison of types of compression techniques

Comparison of types of compression techniques  The human eye has the property that when an

The human eye has the property that when an image appears on the retina, the image is retained for some number of milliseconds before decaying. If a sequence of images is drawn line by line at 50 images/sec, the eye does not notice that it is looking at discrete images. All video (i.e., television) systems exploit this principle to produce moving pictures.

8 bits per pixel to represent 256 gray levels. This scheme gives high- quality black-and-white video. For color video, good systems use 8 bits for each of the RGB colors, although nearly all systems mix these into composite video for transmission. While using 24 bits per pixel limits the number of colors to about 16 million, the human eye cannot even distinguish this many colors, let alone more.

A video is just a sequence of images (plus sound). The JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) standard for compressing continuous- tone still pictures JPEG is defined in International Standard 10918.

JPEG 10918 has 4 parts -

Part 1 - The basic JPEG standard, which defines many options and alternatives for the coding of still images of photographic quality Part 2 - which sets rules and checks for making sure software conforms to Part 1 Part 3 - set up to add a set of extensions to improve the standard Part 4 - defines methods for registering some of the parameters used to extend JPEG For our purposes, though, only the lossy see Fig 0 sequential mode is

relevant, and that one focus the

is illustrated in

Fig.1. Furthermore, we will

Comparison of types of compression techniques  The human eye has the property that when an

Figure 0: Lossless and lossy image

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Author Name:Shailendra C. Badwaik

Topic Introduction to JPEG College Name:Sinhgad College of Engineering,Pune

JPEG as normally used to encode 24-bit RGB video images . Figure 1: The operation of
JPEG as normally used to encode 24-bit RGB video images . Figure 1: The operation of

JPEG as normally used to encode 24-bit RGB video images .

JPEG as normally used to encode 24-bit RGB video images . Figure 1: The operation of

Figure 1: The operation of JPEG in lossy sequential mode

Step 1 (Block Preperation) of encoding an image with JPEG is block preparation. For the sake of specificity, let us assume that the JPEG input is a 640 x 480 RGB image with 24 bits/pixel, as shown in Fig. 2(a). Since using luminance and chrominance gives better compression, we first compute the luminance, Y, and the two chrominances, I and Q, according to the following formulas:

 Step 1 (Block Preperation) of encoding an image with JPEG is block preparation. For the

Figure 2: (a) RGB input data. (b) After block preparation

 Step 1 (Block Preperation) of encoding an image with JPEG is block preparation. For the

Separate matrices are constructed for Y, I, and Q, each with elements in the range 0 to 255. Next, square bl ocks of four pixels are averaged in the I and Q matrices to reduce them to 320 x 240. This reduction is lossy, but the eye barely notices it since the eye responds to luminance more than to chrominance. It compresses the total amount of data by a factor of two. Now 128 is subtracted from each element of all three matrices to put 0 in the middle of the range . Finally, each matrix is divided up into 8 x 8 blocks. The Y matrix has 4800 blocks; the other two have 1200 blocks each, as shown in

Fig2(b).

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Author Name: Shailendra C. Badwaik

Topic Introduction to JPEG College Name: Sinhgad College of Engineering

 Step 2 (DCT) of JPEG is to apply a DCT (Discrete Cosine Transformation ) to

Step

2

(DCT)

of

JPEG

is

to

apply

a

DCT

(Discrete Cosine
(Discrete
Cosine

Transformation) to each of the 7200 blocks separately. The output of each DCT is an 8 x 8 matrix of DCT coefficients. DCT element (0, 0) is the average value of the block. The other elements tell how much spectral power is present at each spatial frequency. In theory, a DCT is lossless, but in practice, using floating-point numbers and transcendental functions always introduces some roundoff error that results in a little information loss. Normally, these elements decay rapidly with distance from the origin, (0, 0), as suggested by

Fig.3.

 Step 2 (DCT) of JPEG is to apply a DCT (Discrete Cosine Transformation ) to

Figure 3. (a) One block of the Y matrix. (b) The DCT coefficients

Step 3(Quantization) in this step which the less important DCT coefficients are wiped out. This (lossy) transformation is done by dividing each of the coefficients in the 8 x 8 DCT matrix by a weight taken from a table. If all the weights are 1, the transformation does nothing. An example of this step is given in Fig.4. Here we see the initial DCT matrix, the quantization table, and the result obtained by dividing each DCT element by the corresponding quantization table element. The values in the quantization table are not part of the JPEG standard.

 Step 2 (DCT) of JPEG is to apply a DCT (Discrete Cosine Transformation ) to

Figure 4: Computation of the quantized DCT coefficients

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Author Name:Shailendra C. Badwaik

Topic Introduction to JPEG College Name:Sinhgad College of Engineering,Pune

 Step 4(Differential Quantization) This step reduces the (0, 0) value of each block (the one
 Step 4(Differential Quantization) This step reduces the (0, 0) value of each block (the one

Step 4(Differential Quantization) This step reduces the (0, 0) value of each block (the one in the upper-left corner) by replacing it with the amount it differs from the corresponding element in the previous block. So taking the differential values should reduce most of them to small values. No differentials are computed from the other values. The (0,0) values are referred to as the DC components; the other values are the AC components.

Step 5(Run-length Encoding) This linearizes the 64 elements and applies run-length encoding to the list. Scanning the block from left to right and then top to bottom will not concentrate the zeros together, so a zigzag scanning pattern is used, as shown in Fig.5. In this example, the zig zag pattern produces 38 consecutive 0s at the end of the matrix. This string can be reduced to a single count saying there are 38 zeros, a technique known as run-length encoding.

 Step 4(Differential Quantization) This step reduces the (0, 0) value of each block (the one

Figure 5: The order in which the quantized values are transmitted

Step 6(Statistical Encoding): Here Huffman-encodes the numbers for storage or transmission, assigning common numbers shorter codes that uncommon ones. JPEG seems to be complicated. It produces a 20:1 compression or better.

It is widely used. Decoding a JPEG image requires running the

algorithm backward. JPEG is roughly symmetric: decoding takes as long as encoding. MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group) These are the main algorithms used to compress videos and have been international standards since

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Author Name: Shailendra C. Badwaik

Topic Introduction to JPEG College Name: Sinhgad College of Engineering

1993. Because movies contain both images and sound, MPEG can compress both audio and video. MPEG-1
1993. Because movies contain both images and sound, MPEG can compress both audio and video. MPEG-1

1993. Because movies contain both images and sound, MPEG can compress both audio and video. MPEG-1 output consists of four kinds of frames:

I (Intracoded) frames: Self-contained JPEG-encoded still pictures. P (Predictive) frames: Block-by-block difference with the last frame. B (Bidirectional) frames: Differences between the last and next frame. D (DC-coded) frames: Block averages used for fast forward.

Applications of JPEG :

Internet

Digital Photography

Medical Imaging

Wireless imaging

Document imaging

Pre-Press

Remote sensing and GIS

Cultural Heritage

Scientific and Industrial

Digital Cinema

Image archives and databases

Surveillance

Printing and scanning

Facsimile

Upcoming trends in compression standard

Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is an ISO standard committee with

a mission on “Coding and compression of still images”. JPEG coding standard (1988): DCT (discrete cosine transform) based

transform coding to compress bit-map images. JPEG2000 efforts started in 1996 to use new methods such as fractals or wavelets. The target deliver date is year 2000 and hence the name.

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Author Name:Shailendra C. Badwaik

Topic Introduction to JPEG College Name:Sinhgad College of Engineering,Pune

Image Coding Standard Page 11 Author Name: Shailendra C. Badwaik Topic Introduction to JPEG College Name:

Image Coding Standard

Image Coding Standard Page 11 Author Name: Shailendra C. Badwaik Topic Introduction to JPEG College Name:
Image Coding Standard Page 11 Author Name: Shailendra C. Badwaik Topic Introduction to JPEG College Name:

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Author Name: Shailendra C. Badwaik

Topic Introduction to JPEG College Name: Sinhgad College of Engineering

Conclusion Conclusion
Conclusion
Conclusion

Carving Today’s Topic

Carving Today’s

Topic ::

Conclusion Conclusion Carving Today’s Topic Carving Today’s Topic :: 4 2 5 2 1 3 1
4 2 5 2 1 3 1 4 1 2 3 J: JPEG STANSD FOR P:
4
2
5
2
1
3
1
4
1
2
3
J: JPEG STANSD FOR
P: 1. Y , component represent
3
5
  • 2. I and Q represents

  • 3. The output of DCT in JPEG is _ X _ matrix

  • 4. (0,0) values are called and other than it is called

____

and

_____

, ____

E: 1. Total No of blocks In JPEG

  • 2. Name of First Block step in JPEG (Fill upper and then lower boxes)

  • 3. Write name of second block step in JPEG

  • 4. Forth step in JPEG

  • 5. Write Name of last but-one step in JPEG

G: 1. Scanning in case of run-length encoding is

  • 2. Compressing rate achieved by JPEG is (in words)

  • 3. Which source encoding is used as a last block of JPEG

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Author Name:Shailendra C. Badwaik

Topic Introduction to JPEG

College

llege Name:Sinhgad

Name:Sinhgad College

College of

Engineering,Pune

of Engine

ering,Pune

Summary In this session, we learnt to: We will come to know from this entire session

Summary

Summary In this session, we learnt to: We will come to know from this entire session

In this session, we learnt to:

We will come to know from this entire session What do you mean by JPEG ? The

session will focus on : How JPEG compress the data ? Also this will be JPEG block

diagram and Core concept of JPEG map on human eye behavior by JPEG block

diagram’s synthesis. Further applications of JPEG in real world were explained.

JPEG plays an important role in MPEG.

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Author Name: Shailendra C. Badwaik

Topic Introduction to JPEG

College Name: Sinhgad College of Engineering

Assignment Q1: For what JPEG stands for? Q2: What is persistence of human eye? Q3: What

Assignment

Assignment Q1: For what JPEG stands for? Q2: What is persistence of human eye? Q3: What

Q1: For what JPEG stands for?

Q2: What is persistence of human eye?

Q3: What do you mean by pixel?

Q4: Draw JPEG block diagram ?

Q5: Explain block preparation method.

Q5: Explain quantization method in context to JPEG?

Q6: Explain in detail differential quantization?

Q7: Explain with example how run length encoding compress the data.

Q8: Which statistical encoding technique is used JPEG?

Q9: Where JPEG is used?

Q10: Is JPEG used in MEEG ? If so explain in brief?

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Author Name:Shailendra C. Badwaik

Topic Introduction to JPEG

College Name:Sinhgad College of Engineering,Pune

References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JPEG Communication Networks Andrew S. Tanenbaum http://www.w3.org/Graphics/JPEG/itu-t81.pdf Page 15 Author Name: Shailendra C. Badwaik Topic

References

References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JPEG Communication Networks Andrew S. Tanenbaum http://www.w3.org/Graphics/JPEG/itu-t81.pdf Page 15 Author Name: Shailendra C. Badwaik Topic

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JPEG

References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JPEG Communication Networks Andrew S. Tanenbaum http://www.w3.org/Graphics/JPEG/itu-t81.pdf Page 15 Author Name: Shailendra C. Badwaik Topic

Communication Networks Andrew S. Tanenbaum

http://www.w3.org/Graphics/JPEG/itu-t81.pdf

Page 15

Author Name: Shailendra C. Badwaik

Topic Introduction to JPEG

College Name: Sinhgad College of Engineering