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I N T R O D U C T I O N T O THE

DEVANAGARI
FOR S T U D E N T S

SCRIPT
OF

SANSKRIT, HINDI, MARATHI


GUJARATI A N D BENGALI

INTRODUCTION T O THE

DEVANAGARI SCRIPT
FOR

STUDENTS

SANSKRIT,

HINDI,

GUJARATI

OF .

MARATHI

AND

BENGALI

BY

H. M. L A M B E R T, M.A.Cantab.
Senior Lecturer in Marathi
in the School of Oriental

WITH
PROFESSOR

J.

(Maharaja

and African

A
R.

Gaekwad's

Studies,

F O R E W O R D
FIRTH,

Professor of General Linguistics

Lectureship)

University

of London

BY

O.B.E.,

in the University

M.A.
of London

GEOFFREY C U M B E R L E G E

OXFORD

UNIVERSITY

PRESS

Oxford University Press, Amen House, London E.C 4


GLASGOW NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE

WELLINGTON

BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS KARACHI CAPE TOWN

Geoffrey Cumberlege, Publisher to the

First

published

1953

PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN

IBADAN

University

FOREWORD

I T is a commonplace of linguistics to a c k n o w l e d g e the debt w e owe to the ancient Indian


grammarians and to couple w i t h it the n a m e o f Sir William Jones. It was he w h o first
set a proper value on the Devanagari and A r a b i c scripts in his dissertation as President
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal on the O r t h o g r a p h y of Asiatic W o r d s in R o m a n Letters.
His chart of suggested symbols for the transliteration of the Devanagari, with the
addition of letters for Arabic and Persian, is the first presentation of what may be called
a phonetic alphabet on such a scale. H e finds the A r a b i c alphabet almost perfect for
Arabic itself:
'Not a letter could be added or taken away without manifest inconvenience. The same may
indubitably be said of the Devanagari system, which, as it is more naturally arranged than any other,
shall here be the standard of my particular observations on Asiatic letters. Our English alphabet
and orthography are disgracefully and almost ridiculously imperfect.'
He aims at using diacritics common in Europe rather than n e w lettersand symbols from
'fluxions' or mathematicsso as to equal the D e v a n a g a r i itself in precision and clearness.
A system of writing and spelling is the foundation of a system of grammar. Meillet
went so far as to say that the foundations of the science of grammar were laid b y the
Indians. F o r all languages e m p l o y i n g forms of the Devanagari script, the writing system
and the spelling carry implications of p h o n o l o g i c a l analysis and statement. T h e y are at
once practice and theory and deserve the first attentions of all students. T h i s is well
illustrated in Miss L a m b e r t ' s w o r k on the D e v a n a g a r i script, and it will be agreed that
the presentation of the phonological patterns, s u c h as 'junctions' occurring in words or
arising out of 'sandhi' in Sanskrit, and other characteristic patterns in the modern
languages, is clear, systematic, and original, and particularly interesting in Bengali.
T h e treatment of conjunct characters in the third chapter of each section is new,
and apart from its intrinsic interest m a y b e taken as an indication of what is lost w h e n
the structure of the Devanagari s y s t e m is superseded b y the usual roman transliterations. In addition to this study of the w r i t i n g system, attention is rightly given
here to calligraphy, for the practice of the h a n d is an obligation no less compelling
than that of the tongue and both are expressions not only of courteous relations but of
disciplined knowledge.
Miss Lambert has consistently applied the A l l - I n d i a R o m a n A l p h a b et to all five
languages in order to make comparison possible w h e t h e r the languages are k n o w n to the
student or not. T h i s treatment could b e e x t e n d e d to the Dravidian languages. B y this

vi

F O R E W O RD

means it has been found possible to make a systematic statement of the various c o n v e n tions governing the use of the Sanskritic writing system for the m o d e r n languages.
T h e Sanskrit and H i n d i sections are published separately in one v o l u m e since they
employ one script and will presumably be more generally required, b u t the appeal of the
entire w o r k is to those w h o s e interests range from India through F u r t h e r India to the
Indonesian Islands following the Sanskritic system of writing.
I have been acquainted w i t h Mis s L a m b e r t ' s work in Indian studies since 1937, first
in Western India and later as a colleague in L o n d o n . It gave m e great pleasure to be
asked to write this brief foreword to her work on a subject w h i c h I have always held to
be of high importance and the results of w h i c h are n o w offered to students of Sanskrit
and the four principal Sanskritic languages of India.
J. R. F I R T H

PREFACE
G O O D writing, the understanding of the w r i t i n g system and the formation of a good
hand, is as important a part of the study of th e written language as good pronunciation
is of the study of the spoken language. Y e t too little time is usually given to the teaching of
writing to students of Sanskrit and of the m o d e r n Indian languages; writing is generally
left for the student to teach himself as b e s t he can. T h e result is that many students
neither have an adequate understanding of th e w r i t i n g system and the difference between
a syllabic and an alphabetic method of representation, nor k n o w h o w the characters of
the script are written and wha t features are important for the formation of a cultured
literate hand. It is hoped that this b o o k will p r o v i d e not only a guide to students learning to write the scripts w h i c h are described in each section, but will also give them a
fuller understanding of the special nature o f the scripts a n d the adjustments w h i c h are
made in the Sanskrit system in order to use it for writing the modern languages of
northern India.
T h e notation used for the transcription of the scripts in this work is the A l l - I n d i a
Roman Alphabet devised b y Professor J. R . F i r t h of the School of Oriental and African
Studies, University of L o n d o n , and u s e d already in several publicationsA. H . Harley,
Colloquial Hindustani, T . G r a h a m e B a i l e y , Teach Yourself Hindustani, and m y o w n
Marathi Language Course. T h e use of this transcription necessitates the use of certain
conventions, particularly that of the representation of the 'inherent v o w e l ' , in final
characters w h e n listing the contents of e a c h section of the w o r k . T h e transcription of
the Sanskrit terms in the Sanskrit section is entirely systematic; but owing to the varying
realization of the characters of the script i n certain positions in word s in the modern
languages, it has been necessary to use in t h e C o n t e n t s of the other sections certain conventions which are discussed in the t e x t . A n e x a m p le of such conventions occurs in the
writing of such Sanskrit terms, used b y grammarians in the modern languages, as
'antasth' and 'uusm', in w h i c h the realization of the 'inherent v o w e l ' of the final character
varies from a short glide-vowel to a full syllable. A s it is b e y o n d the scope of this work
to make a fine analysis of the v a r y i n g realization of such final characters, it is necessary
to establish certain conventions w i t h regard to the transcription of them. T h e s e conventions are of necessity anticipated in the C o n t e n t s .
Some degree of repetition has b e e n inevitable in order to preserve the basic unity of
the description of the Devanagari s y s t e m of w r i t i n g while allowing for specialization

viii

PREFACE

in each of the languages. W h i l e this repetition may at times seem irksome to the reader,
it has the advantage of facilitating comparison of one section w i t h another.
T h e words given in each section to illustrate the writing and reading of the various
scripts have been selected in order to provide examples of every character or combination of characters w h i c h occurs in the language under consideration. S o m e characters
occur only in colloquial forms o r in loanwords from other languages, including English.
I n order to illustrate the use of all the characters, examples are drawn, therefore, from
the whole range of vocabulary, from colloquial forms occurring in m o d e r n speech to
learned Sanskrit loanwords occurring only in literary texts. A n y w o r d w h i c h occurs in
a standard dictionary is a w o r d w h i c h the student may have to read and illustrates the
use of the characters of the script.
T h i s study of the D e v a n a g a r i script owes its inspiration to the suggestion and encouragement of Professor F i r t h , to w h o m m y thanks are first due. B u t a w o r k of this
nature could not have b e e n accomplished without reference to experts in the languages
discussed, and I am greatly indebted to m y colleagues of both the D e p a r t m e n t of India,
Pakistan and C e y l o n , and the D e p a r t m e n t of Phonetics and Linguistics, of the School, for
their co-operation and g u i d a n c e . I am especially indebted to M i s s G . M . S u m m e r s ,
formerly L e c t u r e r in Bengali in this School, for her collaboration in the Bengali section,
without w h i c h the study of the Bengali script could not have been included in this w o r k .
T h e t w o scribes w h o have written the script portions of the book, M i s s W . Westover
and M r . P . Pritchard, mus t also b e given recognition for their careful and accurate w o r k .
Finally I wish to express m y appreciation of the great generosity of the School of
Oriental and African S tudie s for their subvention towards the publication of this b o o k ;
and of the help and advice g i v e n b y the Oxford University Press on all matters concerning its production.
H. M . L.

CONTENTS
page
v
vii

Foreword
Preface
Introduction: The Devanagari Script
Notation
Calligraphy
SANSKRIT

1
2
5
SECTION

Chapter 1 . Arrangement of the Syllabary


Sanskrit syllabary in roman notation
Sanskrit phonetic terms

1 1
1 2
1 3

Chapter 2 . Characters of the Syllabary

1 5

1.

2.
3.
1+.
5
6.

Consonant Characters
i Characters of the vargiiya group
ii. Characters of the antahstna group
iii. Characters of the uusman group, and Vedic \o
Vowel Characters and Vowel Signs
i. Vowel characters
ii. Vowel signs
Modifiers
i. anusvaran
ii. visargah
The Complete Syllabary
Numerals
Punctuation

Chapter 3 . Conjunct Characters


1.
2.
3.

1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3

5
6
8
9
1
1
3
6
6
0
1
2
2

3 3

Construction of Conjunct Characters


3 3
Contexts of Conjunct Characters
3 5
Classification of Conjunct Characters
3 7
Class 1 . Two similar characters joined
3 8
Class 2 . Two vargiiya characters joined
3 9
Class 3 . Characters joined with antahstha characters 1 + 3
i. witn following ya
1+3
ii. with following va
1+1+
iii. with preceding or following ra
1+5
iv. with preceding or following la and \Q 1 + 7
Class 1+. vargiiya characters joined with preceding
or following uusman characters
1+8
i. witn Ja , sa and sa
1+8
ii. with ha
5 0

Transcription of reading examples

5 1

C O N T E N T S

HINDI SECTION
Chapter 1. Arrangement of the Syllabary
Hindi syllabary in roman notation
Chapter 2. Characters of the Syllabary
1. Consonant Characters
Realisation of akar consonant characters
i. Characters of the vargiiy group
ii. Characters of the antasth group
iii. Characters of the uusm group
2. Vowel Characters and Vowel Signs
i. Vowel Characters
ii. Vowel Signs
Realisation of characters in special contexts
3 . Modifiers
i. anusvar and candr-bindu
ii. visarg
1+. The Complete Syllabary
5. Numerals
6. Punctuation
Chapter 3 Conjunct Characters
1. Contexts of Conjunct Characters in Hindi
2. Realisation of Conjunct Characters in Hindi
3 . Classes of Conjunct Characters
Class 1. Two similar characters joined
Class 2. Two vargiiy characters joined
Class 3 . Characters joined with antasth characters
i. with following ya
ii. with following va
iii. with preceding or following ra
iv. with preceding or following la
Class 1+. vargiiy characters joined with preceding
or following uusm characters
i. with J" a , sa and sa
ii. with ha

page
57
59
6l
61
6 2
63
61+
65
67
67
67
69
70
70
73
73
71+
71+
75
75
76
76
77
78
79
79
80
80
81
82
82
83

Hindi prose passage

81+

Transcription of reading examples

85

C O N T E N T S

xi

MARATHI SECTION
page
91
92

Chapter 1. Arrangement of the Syllabary


Marathi syllabary in roman notation
Chapter 2. Characters of the Syllabary
Consonant Characters
,
Realisation of akar consonant characters
i. Characters of the vargiiy group
ii. Characters of the antasth group
iii. Characters of the uusm group, and \e
2 . Vowel Characters and Vowel Signs
i. Vowel Characters
ii. Vowel Signs
Modern forms of Marathi vowel characters
Realisation of characters in special contexts
Realisation of characters of the ca-varg
3 . Modifiers
i. anusvar
ii. visarg
h. The Complete Syllabary
5 . Numerals
6 . Punctuation
Rules of Marathi Orthography

9k

1.

Chapter 3 . Conjunct Characters


1.
2.
3.

Contexts of Conjunct Characters in Marathi


Realisation of Conjunct Characters in Marathi
Classes of Conjunct Characters
Class 1 . Two similar characters joined
Class 2 . Two vargiiy characters joined
Class 3 . Characters joined with antasth characters
i. with following ya
ii. with following va
iii. with preceding or following ra
iv. with preceding or following la
Class k- vargiiy characters joined with preceding
or following uusm characters
i. withr J"a , sa and sa
ii. with ba

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

9 5
9 6
9 6
99
0 0
0 2
0 2
0 3
0 3
0 5
106
0 8
108
1 1
112
1 2
1 2
1 3
118

1 1 8
119
1 1 9
1 2 0
1 2 1
1 2 2
1 2 2
1 2 3
12k
1 2 6
1 2 7
1 2 7
128

Marathi prose passage

129

Transcription of reading examples

1 3 0

CONTENTS

xii

GUJARATI

SECTION

Chapter 1 . Arrangement of the Syllabary


Gujarati syllabary in roman notation

page
1 3 5
1 3 6

Chapter 2 . Characters of the Syllabary

1 3 8

Consonant Characters
Realisation of akar consonant characters
i. Characters of the vargiiy group
ii. Characters of the antasth group
iii. Characters of the uusm group, and \Q
2 . Vowel Characters and Vowel Signs
i. Vowel Characters
ii. Vowel Signs
Realisation of vowels ' e' and ' o'
Realisation of characters in special contexts
Realisation of ' c^a' and ' qha'
Orthography of 'i* and 'u'
3 . Modifiers
i. anusvar
ii. visarg
1+. The Complete Syllabary
5 . Numerals
6 . Punctuation
Rules of Gujarati Orthography
1.

Chapter 3 Conjunct Characters


1.
2.
3.

1 3 8
1 3 9
1 1 + 0
1 1 + 2
1 1 + 3
11+1+
11+1+
1 1 + 5
1 1 + 6
1 1 + 8
1 5 0
1 5 0
1 5 2
1 5 2
1 5 1 +
1 5 5
1 5 6
1 5 6
1 5 6
1 5 7

Contexts of Conjunct Characters in Gujarati


1
Realisation of Conjunct Characters in Gujarati
1
Classes of Conjunct Characters
1
Class 1 . Two similar characters joined
1
Class 2 . Two vargiiy characters joined
1
Class 3 Characters joined with antasth characters l
i. with following ya
l
ii. with following va
1
iii. with preceding or following ra
1
iv. with preceding or following la
Class 1+. vargiiy characters joined with preceding
or following uusm characters
1
i. with Jo , sa and sa
1
ii. with ha
1

5 7
5 8
5 9
5 9
6 0
6 l
6 l
6 2
6 2
161+
6 5
6 5
6 6

Gujarati prose passage

1 6 7

Transcription of reading examples

1 6 8

CONTENTS

BENGALI

xiii

SECTION

Chapter 1. Arrangement of the Syllabary


Notation
Bengali syllabary in roman notation
Calligraphy
Chapter 2. Characters of the Syllabary

page
173
17k
175
177
179

1. Consonant Characters
i. Characters of the vargiiya group
181
Realisation of akar consonant characters
183
ii. Characters of the antastha group
186
iii. Characters of the uusma group
188
Realisation of akar consonant characters in
verbal forms
190
2. Vowel Characters and Vowel Signs
192
i. Vowel Characters
192
ii. Vowel Signs
191+
Realisation of consonant and vowel characters
in special contexts
195
a. Realisation of akar consonant characters
195
b. Realisation of vowel characters in
special contexts
197
Realisation of antastha ya
199
3. Modifiers
201+
i. candra-bindu and anus vara
2 0 1 +
ii. visarga
2 0 6
1 + . The Complete Syllabary
2 0 6
5. Numerals
2 0 7
6. Punctuation
207
Chapter 3. Conjunct Characters

2 0 8

1. Construction of Conjunct Characters


2 0 8
2. Contexts and Realisation of Conjunct Characters
2 0 9
3. Classes of Conjunct Characters
211
Class 1. Two similar characters joined
211
Class 2. Two vargiiya characters joined
212
Class 3 Characters joined with antastha characters 211+
i. with following ya
2 1 1 +
ii. with following va
2 1 6
iii. with-preceding or following ra
2 1 8
iv. with preceding or following la
220
Class 1 + . vargiiya characters joined with preceding
or following uusma characters
221
i. with Ja , sa and sa
221
ii. with ha
223
Bengali prose passage

2 2 5

Transcription of Reading Examples

2 2 6

INTRODUCTION
Tne Devanagari Script
The script traditionally referred to as the Devanagari Script
is used in writing Sanskrit and, of the modern, languages of northern
India, Hindi, Marathi and Nepali. The script used in writing Gujarati
is a slightly modified form of the Devanagari script, and the scripts
used in writing Bengali and Panjabi are related to the Devanagari
script, though this relation is apparent in only some of the characters. The writing system, based on the character representing the syllable, is the same for all these languages. However, in order to use
this system for writing the modern languages, which have each developed in their own particular way from the original Sanskrit, a number
of conventions have become necessary in reading from the script, conventions which vary with the special features of each language. The
realisation of the characters as they are used for writing Hindi,
Bengali, Marathi and Gujarati, and the conventions which have become
established in each language, are described in the various sections
of this work.

Though the Bengali script differs considerably from

the Devanagari script in the form of most of the characters, the


study of it is included in this work because the writing system is
the same as the Sanskrit writing system, and the conventions by which

I N T R O D U C T I O N

this system is adapted for writing Bengali have much in common with
the conventions used in the other modern languages.

An examination

of these conventions makes possible an interesting comparison both


between the writing of these four languages and that of Sanskrit,
and between the writing of the modern languages themselves.
The origin of the name 'Devanagari' is obscure.

The shorter

form of the name is Nagari'(nagarii), which has been variously inter1

preted.

It is thought by some to be tbe name given to the writing of

'tbe people of the city'(nagaram, 'a city'); by others it is said to


derive its name from the Nagar Brahmans of Gujarat.
Notation
The system of roman notation used in this text for transcribing
the Devanagari characters is the All-India Roman Notation^. Three
minor modifications have been introduced in this text in order to
adapt the notation for transcribing both Sanskrit and the modern
languages.
These modifications are :i.

The use of the vowels

('short' i) and

of the vowels

; and of the vowels

and

uu

and

('long' uu ) for the vowels

ii. The use of the letter

rrj instead of

ii

('long' ii) instead


u

('short' u )

and

u .

for representing the

mark of nasalisation known as the anusvar.


iii.The placing of a micron above the letter
and above the letter

1.

See Preface.

in the diphthong

in the diphthong ay ,
av , thus: ay , av .

INTRODUCTION

This mark distinguishes the transcription of the diphthongs from


the transcription of combinations of characters which are realised in certain contexts as

s-y

and

9-v , not distinguishable

in ordinary speech, in the modern languages, from the diphthongs.


Besides these modifications, it is necessary to make certain
additions to the notation in order to represent characters used in
writing the modern, languages but not used in Sanskrit, and certain
modified characters used in Hindi and Bengali. The complete notation
used in the Sanskrit syllabary is this:
Vowels:

and
Modifiers :
1

i
r

ii

rr

uu

ay

ov

11 , for the syllabic consonants.

rrj (representing the onusvara) and


h (representing the visarga)

Consonants:

kh

gh

ch

jh

ji

t*

<i

th

dh

ph

bh

v ;

J*

\ , used in transcribing Vedic Sanskrit


The additional letters used in the syllabaries of the modern
languages are these:
r

and

rh

for transcribing the modified forms of the characters

representing

and

cjh , in Hindi and Bengali, and for

1. For the use of this term, see Sanskrit section, Chapter 1.

I N T R O D U C T I O N

indicating the intervocallic realisation, in certain words, of


the Gujarati character representing
q , x , y , z

and

c[ .

f , for transcribing certain modified Devanagari

characters used in Hindi in writing Persian and Arabic loanwords,


ts , z

and

zh , for transcribing characters of the 'palatal' class

in Marathi, when they are realised with alveolar articulation.


In modern spoken Gujarati and modern spoken Bengali, certain
vowel sounds occur which are not separately represented in the script.
For indicating the contexts in which such vowel sounds occur, the
three symbols

e , o

and

se are used.

The sign of nasalisation,'"' , is used in transcribing the modifier


representing nasalisation when it is realised, in the modern lang1

uages, as the nasalisation of a vowel and not as a nasal consonant.


This roman notation is used for writing all the Sanskrit grammatical terms referring to the syllabaries of Sanskrit and of the modern
languages, the classification of the characters and the phonetic description of their realisation. The names of the languages, the
scripts, and grammatical terms, such as 'sandhi'(sandhi), which are
in regular use in English, are written in their conventional English
form.
The Sanskrit syllabary, as arranged by the Sanskrit grammarians,
is given in the roman notation in the Sanskrit section^, and serves
as a standard with which the syllabaries of the modern languages can
be compared.

1.
2.

See Sanskrit Section, Chapter 2 , 3 . i . a . anusvara.


ibid., Chapter 1.

I N T R O D U C T I O N

Callig^P^Z
The writing of the Devanagari characters should he practised at
first with a reed or bamboo pen. Such pens are still in use in manyparts of India, and in many schools Indian children are taught first
to write on a large scale with a broadly cut bamboo pen. Writing in
this way will train the eye to recognise easily details of difference
and will train the hand to write a standard form of the characters
with the broad and thin strokes in the right place and proportion.
These pens are cut in the same way as a quill pen, except that the
point is cut to slant in the opposite direction from that of the
quill used for English writing with the tilted axis. The English pen,
when cut for the tilted axis, looks like this from the back:
writing thus:
The pen cut for the Devanagari script looks like this from the back:
writing thus:
The pen should be neld in such a way that the thin line, made by the
cut edge, falls from left to right at an angle of k5 degrees from a
line drawn horizontally across the page. The broad stroke then forms
a right-angle with the thin stroke and crosses the horizontal line of
the page at an angle of i+5 degrees. Care must be taken not to change
the angle of the pen during the writing of curved or rounded strokes,
as this will change the shape and balance of the character.
Some of the typical strokes of the script should be practised
Until good control of the pen, held at the right angle, is established before the characters themselves are written. For example.:

I N T R O D U C T I O N

The use of the broad, pen should be continued until a good style
of handwriting is formed; the introduction of writing with an
ordinary pen, and without sufficient attention to the details of line
and form, often interferes with the formation of a good hand.
In the illustrations given below, which may be used as writing
exercises, the characters are grouped so as to show different combinations of strokes, and to draw attention tosimilarities and to small
but important differences. It will be seen that some of the characters
have an upright stroke, others are curved or rounded, without an upright stroke; but all have the head-stroke, though it is not always
written right across the top of the character. The alignment of the
characters is made by this head-stroke, that is, by the top of the
character, though there is an invisible alignment also by the bottom
of the character. For this reason, it is well to practice writing at
first between two lines; if one line is used, the characters should
be written from the line downwards, not on the line.
The general method of writing the characters is this:

first,

the characteristic part of the character, usually on the left side of


the upright stroke; then the upright stroke, if there is one; and
finally the head-stroke. The head-stroke binds the whole character
together, as will be seen when vowel signs and other marks are added.
The general direction of making the strokes is from the top downwards,
and from left to right. But the order of the strokes in some characters, and their direction, differ from this general rule, and where
this is so, the calligraphy of particular characters is illustrated
when these are introduced in the chapters which follow.

I N T R O D U C T I O N

Examples of Devanagari characters, showing the order in which the


strokes are written:

Examples of similarity and difference between characters:

SANSKRIT

SECTION

C H A P T E R
ARRANGEMENT

OP

THE

SYLLABARY

When the characters of the Devanagari Script,

, are

arranged in the traditional order, they constitute a series of syllables which may be regarded as the basis of the Sanskrit phonological
system. Each character represents a syllable, and is called -*A"ql
(gksorom).
3"*$HloHl

The series of characters in the syllabary is called


(vornsmala) , and consists of:-

Pourteen vowel characters,


Two modifiers and
Thirtythree consonant characters.
The syllabary used in writing Vedic Sanskrit includes one more consonant character.
In reading aloud from the script, a vowel character is realised
as a syllable consisting of a vowel, " ^ T ^ :
-

(svarah) , and a consonant

character is realised as a syllable consisting of an initial consonant,

oEn3p=JJT

(vyojijonam) followed by the vowel

o .

This vowel,

when realised with a consonant, is generally referred to in English


textbooks as the 'inherent' vowel.

The term 'modifier' is used here

to refer to the two signs which indicate some modification in the


realisation of the character with which they are written. These two
signs are usually referred to individually, as the 'anusyarsh' and
the 'visarggh' , as there is no Sanskrit term which is used to refer
to them together.

12

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

Each character is referred to, for instance, in spelling, as the


syllable which it represents, and the particle
example,

^fl^TTT

(kara); for

(akara) , ^cf^R(ikara) , c^cfTI? (kakara) , rTorTTT (takara).

The roman syllabary given below corresponds in arrangement and


classification with the Devanagari syllabary.

As the consonant

characters are discussed first in this work, the table of consonant


syllables is placed first in this syllabary.

CD

i>

0s

Voiced

CQ

Voiceless

CONSONANTS with

1
Velar

2
Palatal

3
Cacuminal

5
Labial

Unaspirated

kg

ca

.t?

ta

pa

Aspirated

kha

cha

tha

tha

pha

da

ba

Unaspirated
Aspirated

Nasal

gha

jha

dha

dha

bha

rja

jia

na

ma

ys

ra

la

va

sa

sa

Semi-vowels
Fricatives
Aspirate

VOWELS, associated with


consonant-classes

ha

Lateral

MODIFIERS

k
Dental

I
a

Nasal

ii

ay
-m

rr

.1

Aspirated

11

-h

uu

av

A R R A N G E M E N T OF T H E SYLLABARY
The character represented "by va

13

in the roman table is usually

realised with labio-dental articulation in reading from a Sanskrit


text.

The retroflex lateral consonant

Sanskrit.

T_a occurs only in Vedic

The vowel 'syllabic 11 does not occur in Sanskrit, but the


1

character representing it is traditionally included in the script


syllabary.
The main feature of the syllabary is the arrangement of the consonant characters in groups according to the position and the manner
of articulation of the sounds which they represent.

The following

Sanskrit phonetic terms are used by grammarians in the description of


the characters as they are classified in the syllabary:
i. The consonant characters are placed in three groups:

characters

representing syllables with an initial plosive consonant, that is,


a consonant articulated with 'contact',

^-q(spar/ah,'touch')j

characters representing syllables with an initial semi-vowel, that is,


'neither a consonant nor a vowel', "=H-ri:lF3T (antahstha, 'standing
between'); and characters representing syllables with an initial
fricative consonant, vjo^H*"^ (uusman, 'heat').
ii. The five positions o f articulation are: ct)<c^( (kanj;hya,'velar')
or t ^ ^ ^ o i t ^ T

( jihvamuuliiya ,' root of the tongue');

(talavya, 'palatal');

T^j[Z=Zf

(muurdhanya,' cacuminal'!) ;

(dontya, 'dental') and 'SHV&O^ (osthya, 'labial').


articulation is described as

cTToToZT

cfl ^"U.

Labio-dental

(dantavs^hya).

1. This term refers to the area of the roof of the mouth with which
contact is made by the tongue. Consonants of this class are also described as 'cerebral'. As the retroflexion of the tongue is an important feature in the pronunciation of consonants of this class in the
modern languages, the class is described as 'retroflex' in the roman
tables of those languages. Cf. Hindi, p. 5 9 .

SANSKRIT

14

SECTION

iii. The manner of production of the sounds by which the characters


are realised is described in the following terms, and in each class
of plosive consonants the characters are arranged in this order:
voiceless, unaspirated - -M vf]^

(aghosa ),

voiceless, aspirated

- SfJ^STfar

(aghosa),

voiced, unaspirated

- "^TtWrT

(ghosavat^),

voiced, aspirated

nasal

1.
2.
3.'
h.
5.

y(alpaprana )

^TtTcr^ (ghosavat) ,

H^l VI 1^1
CM

(alpaprana)

^T^TTfW

(mahaprana)

^ T ^ l l fo^5 (anunasika 5) ,

'without sound', or 'voiceless'.


'with little breath', or 'unaspirated'.
'with big breath', or 'aspirated'.
'with sound' or 'voiced'.
'nasal'.

(mahapra:na3)

C H A P T E R
CHARACTERS

OP

THE

2
SYLLABARY

The characters of the script are described in this chapter in the


same order as that in which the syllables are placed in the roman
syllabary: Consonant Characters, Vowel Characters and Vowel Signs,
and Modifiers.
The general style of the characters varies from period to period
and from region to region. In the older editions of Sanskrit works
some characters are found that are now supplanted by newer and more
widely used forms; and there is sometimes a marked difference in the
style used in printing books in Bombay, Calcutta and other parts of
India. The most commonly used of the alternative forms of some of
the characters are given below, among the characters of each group.
The calligraphy of any characters which are not written according to
the general order of strokes given in the Introduction is illustrated when the characters are introduced.
1. Consonant Characters.
The consonant characters of the syllabary represent syllables
consisting of an initial consonant followed by the vowel
ant characters realised with the vowel

a . Conson-

are described as ^ c f t K

(akara). If a character is to be realised as the consonant element


only of the syllable, this is shown by writing the mark known as
f^TTPT-

(viramah) at the foot of the character. The writing of this

mark with a character is illustrated below, after the first table.

16

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

Characters written with the viramgh are described as ^tyr^rT (hslants),


'ending in a consonant'.
i. Characters of the vorgiiys group ( ofTffcr ) .
The twentyfive characters of this group are arranged, as in the
roman table given above, in five classes,

(vergah), representing

the five positions of 'contact', ^Cf^f: (sparJsh), used in the articulation of the plosive consonants.

Each class consists of five charact-

ers, arranged in order according to the manner of production of the


consonant of the syllable which they represent.

k9-v9rg9h

35

3>

k9

kh9

gh9

C9

Ch9

Dh9

J19

th9

3h9

dhg

n9

ca-varggh

-|;9-V9rg9h
9

t9-varg9h

t9

r
th9

d9

ph9

b9

*r

pg-varggh

P9

The Bombay form of the character for


35 and

7^

bh9

jhg

mo

is T > and the forms

are found in older books printed in Calcutta.

The Bombay

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
form of the character for

no

is

17

The Bombay forms of these

characters are used in Hindi writing, but the Hindi forms are not
used in Marathi writing, or in Sanskrit books printed in Bombay.
Calligraphy.
All the characters in the above table are written in the way
described in the introductory notes on calligraphy, except the
following three characters:

jh9

*J

*b

jo

*R

to

\>

1
r

\r

\j|

\jf

ri

rT

The writing of the viramoh to indicate the realisation of a consonant character as a consonant without the vowel

is illustrated

by these characters:

<*5

k-

^
t~

c-

^
t-

p-

When writing words, which may be of one or more characters, each


character is written and completed with the head-stroke before the
next character is written.

In the reading examples which are given

below, words which are usually written with the modifier known as
fof^'f:

(visargeh)^ are written in the form in which they occur in

various contexts without this modifier.

The visorgah is written with

reading examples after the modifiers have been discussed.

Verbal

roots, in the form in which they are given in grammars and dictionaries, are included in the examples in order to illustrate the writing
of characters with the viramoh.

1. The first stroke in these characters is written from right to left.


2. See below, under 3. Modifiers, ii.
c

SANSKRIT

18

SECTION

Reading examples
1. One character words

2. Two character words


TT5

**<5

^FT

xbti

vrfs

TfiZ

"W

^fcT

^"T

TO^T

3*T

TTUT

Three character words

3.

TTTT5R

^PTrT

xTCPR

HSR

TcT5F)

cfi-qe

3qv3foR

7Turop5

3^*1

-<Tc5cfi

cf^xf

TT^OFI

i+. Four and five character words

"B^rTxr

M^^fflT

'TCTT

cRSFR

*T*TH*T

"q3^*T

eFPTO

* W * B * i r R

ii. Characters of the antahstha

^
ya

ra

vSFTCR

^ " ^ ^ r p r

group ( *5yrl*.)

^jJJ*
la

SRFR

Bombay form

va

la

Calligraphy
la : Hindi form ^

Bombay form

^ ^ ^

^7>

These four characters are associated with four of the vargah, as


indicated in the roman syllabary, and with four of the vowels, thus:
T{

, ya, associated with the ca-vargah, and the vowels

, ra, associated with the

and

ii

, and the syllabic

and rr^"

Cn , la, associated with the ta-vargah, and the syllabic

and 11

of
> va, associated with the pa-vargah, and the vowels u and uu
1. Transcription of examples is given on p.51.
2 . 'standing between.' 3 . This stroke is written from right to left.
U. See below, under 2 . Vowel Characters.

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
These characters are all described as
cf

olpgprang

and

ghossvet.

, though associated with the labial class, is. realised with

labio-dental articulation, and described as


Reading examples
1.

19

3[-<^|

(dantovsthys).

One character words

5f

*T

rT

2. Two character words


o^cf

^TM

cRf

qoT

3.

WtT

c=5^T

STc5

TC

TO

^^*

^5

Three character words


^

c*opJT

*T*T^

TSfc55

5*13

^f5T

S^TT

WW

cTC*T

cT^R

*P*cT

h. Words of four or more characters


cTCRTT

Z(V(cl^

*RcT*T

iii. Characters of the uusman

J9

S9

SFPTSoWW

tT$^*??T

group (\53"5EpT )

S9

h9

Calldgraphy
Jg : Hindi form
ha : i.

An older form of

$|

|>

Bombay form
or

is

5j

ii.

41

IT

f
This form is illustrated

later under Conjunct Characters-^.

2.

3l

, a form still used in joining this

character to certain other characters.

1 .

<$

Transcription- of examples is given on p 5 1 o


'heat'
3. See Chapter 3.

2o

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

The first three characters of this group represent syllables


consisting of a fricative consonant with the vowel
described as 9ghos9 and mohaprang.

The fourth character is realised

as an aspirate followed by the vowel


and mehaprar).

9 , and is described as ghosevot

The uusmen characters are associated with the classes

51 , j"o , with the C9-V9rg9h;

thus:

9 , and are

, 89 , with the T 9 - v 9 r g 9 h ;
The character

|T

, so , with the -[Q-Yorgoh;

and

, he , with the ko-vergeh.

is the last consonant character in the syllab-

ary used in writing classical Sanskrit.


one more character is used, oS

, \B

consonant followed by the vowel

9 .

Calligraphy of 55

OO

Reading examples

Or

In writing Vedic Sanskrit

, realised as a retroflex lateral

06

55

1. One character words

2. Two character words

Tsre

^sr

^Rr

PI

^TST

^7rT

T^r
1#

3- Three character words


bi^t
^T5T^

^ C T
n

5R

^TOcS

opre

H^ST

*pt*t

ttrst

$*5f5

t p ^

-*sth

k Pour, five and six character words


3"5R*T
^Tc^lTH

^ T ^ H
=ToTSr^P*>lT

TfSR"^
H ^ T ^ R ^

5p>^"H

"STTFT^

^TT^T^^T

1. Transcription of examples is given on p. 51.

^TcTTT^
^*m?T*T

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

21

2. Vowel Characters, with corresponding Vowel Signs.


A vowel which constitutes a syllable is written with a vowel
character; a vowel which is part of a syllable with an initial consonant is written with a vowel sign added to a consonant character,
x.

Vowel Characters.
There are fourteen vowel characters in the V9rr|9mala:

w 5
o

3 in

ii

%
Syllabic

The character
form, ^Tf

uu

% K

rr

11

ay

9v

, and the other characters based on the same

, Wl" and

, and the characters ^

of

and

, have these alternative forms:

<3T 3ff <2*t #


o

S R ^ R ^ ^
r

8v

rr

11

Both forms of these vowel characters are used in Hindi writing;


only the Bombay forms are used in Marathi writing.

55ft

, o , is 3* .
1

The order of writing the strokes in vowel

characters is illustrated by these examples:


9
9
M
a

*>

*>

oy

*
5

M\

An older form of

ii
1

1. See below, under 3.Modifiers,i.note c.

22

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

The vowel characters are referred to as "swoftlT > a-kara, smooiT ?


a-kara, J j ^ B T ^

i-kara, and so on. They are related to the five posit-

ions of articulation as shown in the table of the roman syllabary.


The vowel

11

does not occur in Sanskrit words, but the character is

traditionally included in the syllabary for the sake of symmetry.


The first ten vowel characters represent five pairs of 'simple'
vowels, each pair consisting of a character realised as a 'short'
vowel, f^^oT , (hrasva) and a character realised as a 'long' vowel,
^t ^
7

, (diirgha).

The remaining four characters represent vowels

which are described as 'compound' or 'conjunct', ^T^rf) > (sarrjyukta-'-).


In the system of modification and combination of vowels known as
'sandhi', ^f^r:

, (sandhih), as in the formation of compound words,

derived words, and the joining of final and initial vowels in consecutive words in a phrase or sentence, the vowels are grouped thus:
Simple vowels
TJUT'*

(gunah)

(vrddhih)
Examples :
2

^rpri^

ii

uu

rr

ar

al

ay

av

ar

al

nagaram

'TI^Tf^oB

nagarika

cftio/HpJof)

kalpanika

diva
bhuuti
?5

kr
kip

1.
2.

op><v^HI

kalpana

See above, Ch.l., and below,3. i. for the modifier represented by rrj.
See below, ii, for the vowel signs used in these examples.

CHARACTERS OF T H E

SYLLABARY

23

Reading examples of words with vowel characters;1


1. One character words

TJ

2. Words of more than

5\

35

ne character

51

^ft

^ ^ ^sr
if 3^r

3<T

w
-STt^

i^i

3$^

3Tc5

ii. Vowel Signs


Each of the vowel characters, except

a , has a correspond-

ing vowel sign which may he added to a consonant character to represent a syllable consisting of an initial consonant followed by one
of the vowels

a - av .

As the vowel

is realised with every con-

sonant character unless it is either marked with the viramah or has


one of the vowel signs added to it, there is no sign for this vowel.
The vowel signs, added to the consonant character

5RT
f
% %
ka

ki

kii

ku

kr

krr

kl

kll

ke

kay

ko

kav

oft , are:

kuu

1 . Transcription of examples is given on p 5 1 .


2. See note on the vowel 11 under Vowel Characters, above.
0

'

SANSKRIT

24

SECTION

Calligraphy
The order of writing the strokes when a vowel sign is added to a
consonant character is illustrated in the following examples:
ka

cb

cbl

ku

cb

kii

cb

3>
<*>l

bhi

ko

oh

ki

!<*>

dhi

I'M

fa

ft

ke

ft

obi

When the vowel signs are added to consonant characters which


have an upright stroke, the superscribed signs are placed above the
upright stroke, and the subscribed signs are written at the foot of
that stroke.

When vowel signs are subscribed to rounded characters

they are written below the mid-point of the lowest curve, thus:

chu

pxn

d^u

djiuu

du

huu

Special forms

ru

ruu

An older form of

is

The vowel sign of 9f


representing

if

with ^

used to represent

"5^

dr

Jr

^-, and of

^
hr

is

is not written with

The character

is written with the superscribed stroke

when it is to be realised before another con-

sonant character without an intervening vowel. This stroke is placed


over the vowel character

5fJ

, as in

Pis+^irl

, nirrti .
2

Mark of 'separation'.
When an initial

or sflT

the preceding word, the mark


1 .

See C h . 2 , l o i i i .

occurs after certain final vowels in


, known as 3T3"3T$|":

2. See C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s 3.iii a-

(avagrohah)^ is
3

'separation'.

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

25

written after the vowel in which the final and initial vowels are coalesced, to indicate the presence of two words in the piece.

The mark

is written once when the initial vowel of the second word is

*5T , and

twice when the initial vowel is

yo - ay am

^\

te - api

yo-yam

, as in these examples:

te- pi

sada - atman

sada

Reading examples^
1. One character words

*'

ft

X
2. Two character words

V*

ft? ^
3Tt
3.

fcT

Three character words


jjfacr

fa^to

^Tf^r

5*nfr
f^TTcI

t?or

sttct

^ft^R

5u^t=T

facj^T
^ftcr

^fre^r

^ r e

^rf^

irtW

^ff^SBT

|o5cl"

U. Four, five and six character words


?of)Tfo>R
^RI*T%

1.

{jfttofc^r

^frf^^T

?5^TTftf5F

^ f i ^ ^ T

a f o ^ T ^

f^"^f%oHT
OTjftf^SFjT

hUiP|F>
*sfa^ftl'+>

, tma , the characters CT and T


combined.
See Chapter 3
Class 2. iii. 2. Transcription of examples is given on p. 51.
n

SANSKRIT

26

SECTION

3. Modifiers
The two modifiers, known as

^ T * J iPfl I T :

(onusvarsh) and "fcf^'^f";

(visorgsh), are signs which may be added to a character to indicate


a modification in the realisation of the character.

They are placed

in the syllabary after the vowel characters, and, as they cannot be


written alone, they are written-with the character ^

They may,

however, be written with any character.

anusvareh, ^"|T ITT

io

This modifier is written as a dot above the character of which


it modifies the realisation, thus:
*

I
orrj

arr)

#>
kQirj

kairj

irrj

iirrj

urrj

kirrj

kiirrj

kurrj

orrj

uurrj

em

eyrrj

kuurrj

kerrj

koyrrj

avrrj

% % #
korrj

kevrrj

Calligraphy
The Qnusvareh is generally added to the character after the vowel
sign has been written and before the headstroke is written to complete
the character.

It is placed above the middle of the character, or

over the last upright stroke if there is one, and to the right side of
any superscribed vowel sign, for example;

kgrrj

oh

Ob

eft

gang

4||

4jj

itf

dhirrj
1.

f$

'after-sound'.

3
girrj

\i\

bhirrj \M

ftj
R

hsnj

fSf

gerrj
rorrj

|T

Jj

Jf

*i

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

27

The anusvarah is written with a character in various contexts,


and is realised in various ways according to the context.
a. When a word of which the final character represents the formative particle

occurs in any position except at the end of a line

of verse or a sentence, the character

is omitted before an initial

consonant character of a following word and the formative particle is


represented by the anusvarah. This formative particle is usually written as

only at the end of a line or a sentence. For example:

yetarrj vibhuutirrj yogarr] ca. ..

yetam

vibhuutim

yogam

b. The anusvarah may be written with an initial or. medial


character followed by a vargiiya character.

In this context it is

realised as the nasal consonant of the class to which the following


character belongs.

"J - q

Examples:

purrjkha (punkha)

lirrjga (linga)

parrjca (panca)

varrjch (vajich)

sirrjj (sip.3)

kuirj^ha (kun^ha)

arrjda (an^a)

pirrjd^a (pin_qa)

51
Jarrjti (janti)

irrjdu (indu)

3%
barrjdhu (bandhu)

karrjpa (kampa)

arrjbu (ambu)

kurrjbha (kumbha)

arrjka (arjka)
VW

jg " J

q -n

rrj - m

re usual, method of representing a homorganic nasal


is that of combining the appropriate nasal consonant character with

28

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

the vargiiya character that follows it, that is,

with characters

of the ka-vargah, \>f^ with characters of the ca-vargah, and so on.


This method is used also when the formative particle

occurs before

an initial vargiiya character in a sentence, where consecutive words


are joined in sandhi.
illustrated later .

Formative particles, such as *lf~cl

^-("!

The calligraphy of such combined characters is


, -anti, and

, -ante, are usually written by this method and not with the

anusvarah.
The anusvarah is sometimes written to represent -n
compounds formed from the prefix
with R

or T

* e.g. H*T(T

or -m , in

^T*T > sam-, and words beginning


N

sannata, and

TTHf^"

sammati.

c. When the anusvarah is written with a character preceding a


character of the antahstha or the uusman group, the realisation of it
varies according to the position of articulation of the character
which follows it, and also with the custom of speakers in different
parts of India.

The anusvarah preceding an antahstha character is

realised as follows:
Before

If ,

ya , as

rj , m , n

^PTt'T
Before

T >

ra , as

Before

oT ,

la , as

^ ,

va , as

; e.g.

or

; e.g.

sarjraga, samraga, sanraga or savraga


rj , m , n

^fo/i^T
Before

sarjyoga, samyoga, sanyoga or sayyoga

rj , m , n

or

or

; e.g.

sarjlaya, samlaya, sanlaya or sallaya

rj , m , or

^fo|sanvada,

; e.g.

samvada or savvada

1. See Chapter 3, Conjunct Characters, Class 2.b.

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

29

The anusvarah preceding an uusman character is realised thus:


Before J[ ,

Ja , as

n , m , n , or v; e.g.

^T"5T
Before "5T >

sa , as

sgJ"8 sm/s, an/a or avj"a


n , m , nasalisation of the vowel, or vj e.g.
haviirjsi, haviimsi., haviisi or haviivsi

Before

sa , as

n , m , n , or v; e. g.

^FI^IR

sansara, samsara, sansara or savsara,

or as nasalisation of the vowel, as in

Before

^ ,

"f^f^TT

hirjsa, himsa, hivsa or hisa

ijf^f

punsi, pumsi, pusi

rj , m , n , or v; e. g.

ha , as
"f^^"

sinha, simha, sinha or sivha


^ " l * > sayha

or as nasalisation of the vowel in


The sign

is sometimes written above a character preceding an

antahstha or an uusman character to indicate realisation by nasalising the vowel of the syllable instead of by a nasal consonant,
This sign is called ^ - J - H f^cp>

following the vowel.

(anunasika ),
1

and it is usually written, in preference to the anusvarah, in the


'sacred syllable'

\Q*

, (orrj)

Reading examples
a. fifr W

b. ftr
|

ift

^cr

-qff

<Tf

^*t

^TCTCT

ami
1.

"^r

i%i^cr

^TTH

^Tcnri^Tr

HoflH
^ t t

"*?wf^r

^PFCRN
s

3?fcr*r

^Tffc T

'nasal'.
2. See above, under 2.i.
3 . For transcription of
examples, see p. 52. . The lines a, b and c correspond to the notes
given above under 3 i .
L. Gitagovindakavyam, sarga 3 > v . 6 o

SANSKRIT

30
ii. visargah , fcfH'fc

SECTION

The visargah is written as two dotsj placed vertically, after a


character.

ah

ah

ih

cfr

cBT: fcB:

kah

kah

kih

iih

uh

uuh

rrh

eh

ayh

oh

avh

kiih

kuh

kuuh

krh

keh

kayh

koh

kavh

Calligraphy
The visargah is usually added to a character after every other
stroke has been made, including the head-stroke.
e

-g- ch

ch)

cfit

CWT:

The realisation of the visargah varies in different parts of India


a. It may be realised as strong aspiration following the realisation
of the character with which it is written, for example
JFFOT
devah

malah

kavih

guruh

kaveh

gunayh

bhanoh

gavh

It is realised in this way when it occurs medially, as in


^:^q*T^

, duhkham; or as the doubling of the following consonant,

as in r P T i ^

tapahsu, tapassu.

b. . It may be realised in final position as

following the vowel of

the character with which it is written, and a very short repetition


of the same vowel after

h , as illustrated by this transcription of

the examples given above:


devah

malah

kavih

1. 'emission of breath'

guruh

kaveh

gunayh

bhanoh

gavh

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
Reading examples
ofi:
7J-CTT:

3*

^ffT:.

^ftrj

TT|:

f^h

f ^ '

^gfo
^r^fq-rT:
.^P ^T*
^mtf^rTTi
:

^ife ^gfr

31

TO^t

^rerr^

^rw-.
^fcTtsf^oR:

%
ffi
w : o t > w t

cP^fsTT:

^rffcr^tfrrW^cr^^T^

U. The Complete Syllabary


The complete syllabary, arranged in the traditional order, is
given on the following page. The characters are further arranged in
a .table in which the vowel characters, and the two modifiers added to
the character

, are placed in order at the head of a series of

columns consisting of every consonant character in the Qkarg form,


each consonant character with each of the vowel signs and each of the
modifiers.6 These two tables together show the order in which the
characters are placed as initial characters of words in dictionaries.
Characters with the onusvaroh are, however, placed before characters
without the onusvarah but followed by another consonant character.
1. For transcription, see p.52.
2. BhagavadgTta,ch.10,v.1a.
3. ibid., ch,10,v.U.b.
h. GTtagovindakavyam, sarga l,v.8.
5. ibid., sarga 1.3,v.7.
6. Cf. the series of characters with
vowel signs given above under 2.ii.

S A N S K R I T

32

S E C T I O N

*
3?

at
5

3
%

55
5. The Devanagari numerals
Hindi forms:

^
1

=1

Bombay forms: ft
1

6,

vs

<3
5

*o

C
8

1 0

1 0

Punctuation

In prose writing, the end of a sentence is marked with a vertical stroke of the same height as the characters.

In verse, the first

line of a stanza or couplet is closed with one vertical stroke, and


the complete stanza or couplet is closed with two vertical strokes
and numbered as illustrated in the verse examples given at the end of
the next chapter.

C H A P T E R
CONJUNCT

CHARACTERS

Consonant characters may "be combined to represent two or more


consonants realised without any intervening vowel.

A character

formed by combining other characters is called a conjunct character,


H^TblT5HH ( ssrrjyuktakssrsm).
y

1, Construction of Conjunct Characters.


Characters may be combined in various ways, according to the
form of the characters to be joined.
i. The second character may be subscribed to the first:

k- ko

kka

rj- ka

nko

tt

v 9

ii. If the first character has an upright stroke, this stroke may be
omitted, and the first part of the first character is joined to the
second character by the head-stroke, thus:

n- da

ndo

g- gs

The characters o F " ,


characters in the forms

ggo
and ^
of ,

t- ps

tpa

n- mo

nms

are usually joined with following


* F and

^.

Some conjunct characters may be formed by either of these two


methods, for example:

C- C9

j-

CCS

v3T ^
j - J9
V

^ o r w f
j J9

SANSKRIT

34

SECTION

Some conjunct characters are formed by a combination of methods


i. and ii. ; for example:
d- dho

ddha

d-bho

dbha

iii. If the first character is a rounded character, with no upright


stroke, it is usually written in full, and the second character is
joined with it in a modified form, for example:

t~ y

ty

n_

"y

&

m o

me

iv. Some characters are written in a special form when joined with
other characters, for example:

/- ve

JVG

r- ths

The characters

rtho

g- ro
jjf

(Hindi form) and

ing k-so , and the character

gre

J"- re

/re

(Bombay form), represent-

, representing

j-ji9 , have been in

eluded in the syllabic series from a very early date, though no conjunct characters are included in the syllabary.

Calligraphically

these three characters are not formed by joining two distinct charact
ers, but they are considered in this work under the appropriate
classes of conjunct characters because they represent syllables consisting of two consonants and the vowel

9 .

If any characters are not modifiable, and therefore cannot be


combined, by any of these methods, the realisation of them without an
intervening vowel is indicated by writing the first character with
the viramsh, thus

^5

t- k9

3~

k 8

d 8

^
d 9

<i- bre

ci^T

dbr9

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS

3 5

Characters combined with other characters in this way do not form


conjunct characters in calligraphy, but they are included in this
chapter because they complete certain series in the classes of conjunct characters.
Three, four or five characters may be combined to form a conjunct
character, for example:
rT

~Q

* X

7^

t - m - yo

tmyo

ST

*v*

b - dh - va

bdhva

"grf

r - s - \ - ya

rstye

The general rules already given for the order of strokes in writing a character apply also to the conjunct characters.

The vowel

signs are added to the character before the headstroke is written.


Examples:

ktyu

oj-

o|-

stvi

I*-

\J

VR^|

RJYAIRJ

2.

o|- ^|
r

IVc!

f?r|

\rM\

VTIJF"

Contexts of Conjunct Characters.

Conjunct characters occur in the following contexts:


i. In words, such as

iccha

<HfiT:

<%PT:

WfT^

agnih

ksiprah

brahmen

^
Jlokah

strii

ii. In junctions arising from grammatical processes:


a. In words formed by the addition of suffixes to verbal roots,
such as
bhaj-ta

bhakta

gam-ya

gamya

labh-tva

labdhva

36

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

b. In derivatives of various kinds, such as

diva

dayvyam

Juura

Javryam

c. In words formed "by the addition of prefixes or suffixes to


other words, as in

ut-tama

uttama

dur-guna

ut-gamah

durguna

vi-adhih

udgamah

abhi-asah

vyadhih

abhyasah

vac-maya

vanmaya

iii. In compound words, in which the final character of one part of


the compound word, if it is a halanta character, is joined with the
initial character of the following part, as in

sat - masah

sanmasah

Jriimat - bhagavat - giita

rc - vedah

rgvedah

/riimadbhagavadgiita

iv. In pieces consisting of two or more words, in which a conjunct


character is written joining the final character of one word, if it is
a halanta character, with the initial character of the following word.
For example:

Jreyo

hi

qT^TccF>

jjianamabhyasa j jjianaddhyanam
c ^ ^ T r * T P T T - * H I Pel

vijisyate,

^ ^ T ^ c R H II

ft

II

dhyanatkarmaphalatyagastyagacchantiranantaram. 12.
1. Bhagavadgita, Ch.l2.v.l2.

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS

37

The process of joining characters illustrated in ii. to v. above


is known as 'sandhi' 'of consonants" '.

The examples in ii.a. and ii.b.

illustrate the process of 'internal' sandhi, and those in i i . c , iii.


and iv. illustrate that of 'external' sandhi.

3 . Classification of Conjunct Characters.


The conjunct characters are arranged in this work in classes
according to the combination of consonants which occurs when the conjunct character is realised in reading.

The conjunct characters,

when arranged in this way, fall into four classes.


Class 1. Two similar characters joined.
Class 2 . Two vorgiiys characters joined.
Class 3 . Characters joined with sntshsths characters in various
combinations:
i. Characters joined with
ii. Characters joined with ~3[
iii. Characters joined with
a. preceding

"<[ >

or b. following

iv. Characters joined with


2

a. preceding oT^

or b. following oT

Class h. vargiiys characters joined with uusmen characters:


i. Characters joined with
a. preceding

ST ,

or

; or b. following

, "Cf or^T

ii. Characters joined with


a. preceding |J ; or b. following |*
1. Compare reference to 'sandhi' of vowels, in Chapter 2 , 2 . i .
2. The Vedic character oo" , X
included in this class.
s

SANSKRIT

38

SECTION

Class 1. Two similar characters joined^.

R4

M
-kks

M
-gghs

-ggs

-kkhs

"SSI

-CCS

-cchs

-tts

-tths

1
"tt

-dds

jjhs

-ddhs

-nns

<s><s{

-pphs

"PPS

-bbhs

-bbs

-mms

ocf
3

-lis

-yys

-SS&

-vvs-^

Alternative forms

-sss
UU|

-CCS

- DJs

> T

The characters

-jjhs

and

-sss

&

-nn

-lis

do not occur in this series.

The

second and fourth characters in each vsrgsh are formed by combining


the slpsprans characters with the corresponding mshaprans characters.
Reading examples .
SOF^t:

snf^r

^tNt*

^b^rstz:

"q%oRr
3TTIT

^Pm

3^*T

*rs$PT:

^arfrk

^fto

(f^5T)

ftgfrr^

o7|
ff|T

^FTtf:

$MI^

faquui

"r^aT
ftrT

^TT

^f^:

(^^5^]

ftWoT:

^TS|s

cT^^

^TCTO

^gfaBT*

1. Conjunct characters which do not occur- initially are indicated by


prefixing a hyphen in the roman transcription.
2. This character occurs only in the grammatical term given in the
reading examples.
3. This character occurs only in combination with preceding T .
U. Transcription of examples is given,on p.52.
N

CONJUNCT
Class 2.

CHARACTERS

Two vergiiy characters joined.^

i. ghos and ghosovst characters, excluding nunasik characters:


vsrgsh

ko - CO

- Z
ko -\t?
- cT
ko - to

Wi - T
ko - P

CO - t

-kto

-tko

-tkho

-go;

-d^g

-gdh

-a^gh

-kto

-tko

-ktho

-tkho

-gd

-dgo

-gdh

-dgh

-kpo

-pko

-kph

-pkho

-gba

-bg

-gbh

-bgh

-pcho

-pco

-djh

-^.DO

-b jh

-b jo

tt
2
-tto

-tto

-tthe

-ttho

-dd

-dcje

-qdh

-ddh

-tP

-Pt

-tpho

-pfho

-db

-bo;

-dbh

-bdh

-tpo

-pto

-tpho

-ptho

-dbo

-bd

-dbh

-bdh

- T
- po

- H
to - po

-tcho

-{co

Z - rT
- to

-ktho

-gjh

-kcho

-kco

CO - p

ghosovst

ghos 0

1 . Many of these conjunct characters occur only in external sandhi.


2. This combination occurs in the character combining ~g , <=p and
.

SANSKRIT

40

SECTION

ii. Characters of each vsrgsh joined with a preceding or following


nunasik character of the same vorgoh.
a. onunasiko character preceding.

f
-nke

-nkh

TO

TO

-nt

-nt

-mpa

f
-ngho

^3T
-jice

-jicho

-P-J

-njh

-nta

-nth

-nd

-ndh

TO

-n<l

h 9

-mb

-mpha

-mbh

Alternative forms

Tig
-jijh

-i].t

- I

lt

n 9

TTJJ
-ncjh

"^TA

These characters, representing a preceding homorganic nasal


consonant, are usually written in preference to the nusvarsh placed
on the preceding character, of which examples have been given above^.
The following examples illustrate the contexts in which the nusvarsh
may be written, and in which it is not written:
^TcT^cr

ft^rfrt:

pstsnti^

1^n%.

vinsnjtih or vinntih3

^Trt
lsbhsnte^

njte or nte^

b. nunasik character following.

-cji

jn

^
~th:n

The character

-djhn

-tn

?
-thn

-dn^ -dhn

-pm

-bhm

3T is not calligraphically a conjunct character,

and is found, from an early date, included in the syllabic series of


characters^.
In realisation, however, it belongs to this class of
1. See above, Ch.2,3.i.b.
2. Verbal forms.
3. Non-verbal forms.
k. The combination (J - *f more usually becomes 5T in sandhi.
5. See above, Ch.2,l. iii.
x

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS
conjunct characters.
"beginning with

41

In the order of words in dictionaries, words

are placed between words beginning with

and

those beginning with^T^T.


iii. Characters joined with a preceding or following onunasiko
character of a different vorgoh:
a. onunasiko character preceding.

R '

-nbho

^
-nko

-ngo

-nco

-n jo

-nphe

Most characters may occur joined with preceding

-nbho

, on account
*T .

of the frequent occurrence of formative particles ending in


^

, no , also may occur with many characters in external sandhi.

b. onunasiko character following.


-UT
-ita

sR

-no

kne

-T
-me

-bhno

-kno

W
-khno

gno

koM

71?

-kmo

-khmo

-gmo

-tmo'

-dme

-dhmo

ghno

-ghmo

-pne

-cms

"9

-bno

-bhno

-jmo

-dmo

iv. Two onunasiko characters of different vorgoh.

g*r
-nno

-nmo

*pt
-nno

-nmo

-nmo

?r

-mno

mno

Alternative forms of the conjunct characters in iii. and iv. are


formed with

" O T , e.g.

" U T T -g^o

VTTf

-bhno

T^Jf

-rang

-ipio .

1. It i s more usual to write ^of before characters of the co-vorgoh.

SANSKRIT

42

SECTION

Reading examples
i.

ciicmh

oTT6FTB^TH

^3$rh

i^t^r-

^CTfe

^Tf:

fi^T

^TT^T

ITFR

iii. a.

^ f T ^ f o

1.
2.

^mr

^TTFtfrt

f^HT*?.

^F>*T

<jfu&

^FrD

IfTfa T
ftirw
taring

b. ^arcr

5^T5F5T

%^TfrT

?r#q

iv.

^rr-sF^t^r

STTf^

^STTf

^S^fW:

^f^SSFfvT:.

^F^fT

^ ^ T : B ^ W

TpSJcfi

^=3R

KVTT

^ S T :

^STlfc*

^TI^R

^J?:

^rfrt
W W

tst^^t^

oB^o^TtTT

TTf:

-q-fferT:

cRTO:

^Tlfrt

^ ^ f e r r r

- s p ^ ^ f T ^ -

^SJT

ll.a. ^ | f :
^RT:

w ^ f c w

m f ^ R

^f?^ft

f^TT*T:

^ngj: ^iRf:

WTTO:

^f^T:

^FiR

^ T ^ :

WlfrT

ff*T

TcT

For transcription of examples, see p . 5 2 .


Examples illustrating
characters which could occur in sandhi arising from the sequence of
words in a sentence are placed between hyphens.
The first character represents dvi . See Class 3ii

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS

43

Glass 3 Characters joined with ntohsth characters.


i. Characters joined with following

^5
kyo

khyo

,gy

ghyo

-dj

-djiy

s
-gy

-ty

-t y

TO

cy

-chy

jyo

jhy

ty

thy

dy

dhy

n y

nyo

TO
py

-phyo

hy

hhy

my

(yyo)

-ry

vy

ly

TO

TO

/ye

hy

sy

-sys

Examples of conjunct characters of Classes 1. and 2. with 3.i.

5qr
-nny

-tty

-tmy

-pty

-gdhy

-dhhy

-hjy

Reading examples.

3^*F?frf

oFjq-^^

^I^FT

^ f r

HvqT^

#^^T:

W c S ^

W ^ F T

^arrS^T

*T-pT:
f%^T

f ^ T T

rT^fcTH.

^ T E W

^F*T
% ^ W

W
X

cZTFHT

^<TO
^TTfTc^R.

1. See under Class 1,


2. The superscribed stroke in this character
represents r preceding another consonant.
3. For transcription
see p. 53.
k- The first character represents Jla . See below
under iv.b.
5. NTtisatakam, verse 3.a.

SANSKRIT

44

ii. Characters with following

SECTION

5J* .

TO
khvo

kve

-tvo

-thvs

TO

gvo

ghvo

-nvs

TO

-d^vs

f
-djivs

-nvo

-bhvo

-mvo

dvs

-chvs

CVS

jhvs

TO

TO TO
dvs

-thvs

tvs

dhvs

nvs

ocj

-tvo

-pvo

TO
yvs

TO

TO

Ivo

(-wo)

-rvo
and ^ do not occur in this series.

hvs

svs

svs

preceding another

character occurs in oXXJ" , -vne, ?T > -vne , 9T , vrs " and


4

, vis .

Examples of conjunct characters of Classes 1. and 2. with 3.i. and ii.


TO

o^f

-ttvo

-rvvs

TO

^
-cchvs

-ktvs

TO
-dvys

-bdhvs

TO

-gdhys

Reading examples.^

oT^p
^ff^cT

^ ^ T

1.
2.
U.
6.

^"?r^T
"HMI

Tf|T

Tf*T

5F53T^T*i;

o^oTr ^ T F ^ T

^
ft*5R

"^TWr W ^ t T

r^rftrT
^F*ft:

3%5f
^TPJcft

%TTfcT

^c^T--

^Hl"

TTToWT

VJI;cUh

For the superscribed stroke in this character, see below, in iii.a.


See -vvs in Class 1.
3. For this form of J"s see Ch. 2,1. iii.
See below, under iii.b.
5. See below, under iv.b.
For transcription of examples, see p.53. 7. The initial characters
in these words represent gro and pro .
8. From BhagavadgTta, Ch.6,v.kl.a.

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS
iii. Characters joined with preceding
a.

45

or following

preceding another character.


To represent

preceding another character a stroke is super-

scribed on the character before which

is to be realised.

This

stroke is called "V^T: , rephoh, the name given to the character ^

repheh in this form may be written with any character, but it does
not occur with

or

-*

-rko

-rco

-r^o

-rts

-rpo

-ryo

Some of the characters, particularly


S>[ , [ ,
repheh.

Xf ,

-r/o
,

TTf ,

\jf ,

-rho
?T >

C$ >

^" , ax-e frequently doubled when written with

This practice is found in Hindi writing, but is not usual

in Marathi writing.

**f ^

-rgge

and

-rjjo

Examples:

-rtte

-rddho

-rmms

-ryye

-rvve

Characters written with vowel signs and repheh:

bF
-rka

f&
-rki

-rkii

-rku

-rke

-rkey

-rko

-rkev

and with repheh and onusvaroh:

ciF

f<l

-rkairj

-rkirr)

^
-rkiiirj

-rkuirj

fc
-rkerq

<fc
-rkeyrrj

-rkevm,

The repheh is placed above the upright stroke of a character, or


above the raid-point. It is always written to the right side of any
other superscribed stroke, as shown in the examples given below. It is
written also with the vowel character

|J . as in the word

1, repho, 'rough'; rephoh, 'a rough sound'.

Pl^fci: .

46

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

Characters with rephoh are written as shown in these examples:


rki
rke

<*>

ft

t*

rkii

ebl

rko

o^l

rkiir]

Kl
*T

rkovrrj

ft

In Bombay writing 'the character representing


written as

is sometimes

-rho

, though the use of this stroke for rephoh is more rare-

ly used in writing Sanskrit than in writing Marathi.


b.

following another character.


To represent ^

following another character, a diagonal stroke

is placed against the upright stroke of those characters that have


one, or beneath the mid-point of the lower part of a rounded
character.

SB

gr

kr

5
-tro3

HI

-cjr

5T

-ghr

-nro

-chr

tr

thr

<*
jr

dr

ST

dhr

-nr

sT

pro

br
bhr
mr
vr
Jr
sr
hr
Examples of conjunct characters of Classes 1. to 3.ii. with 3.iii.

TO

TO

TO

-ktre

-tpr

-rty

5?T
-dry

-rdhv

rdr

-ntry

-rdhny

1. See above, Ch.2,2.ii. Vowel signs.


2. This combination occurs in the character joining
and
.
3.
S and ^ are combined in the character representing^ "5f , Z and"^" .
k. For this form of
, see Ch.2,1. iii.
s

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS

47

Reading examples''"
a. rp:

^ T ^

^TT-

OPFFQ"

cFF>fc

3>f&

fl^T

SRRF^oR

W&fr

^
^TT

3Tl

^ c T

JFF^FEW

^T^T:

^^flT

^ H ^ R

iv. Characters combined with preceding

7l1*?cT

^ofa

^ J :

^Tft^PT

3$R*T

TTft^

-qrPSETc^T

cT or following

a. '(FT preceding another character.*

-Ike
TOT

-Us
b.

TO

TO

c h

TO

TO

TO

-lge

-lpe

-lpho

-Ibe

-lbhe

-lme

TO
-lse

Vedic
-Ihe

-Ihe

oT following another character.

~%
kl

gls

mlo

vie

-chle

5?T or 3 r T
Jle

pie

-<|lo

ble

bhle

his

Most of these characters may be written either by method i.


by method ii., described earlier in this chapter.^"
1.
2.
3o
h.

ftsfo;

For transcription, see p.53.


For oT joined with entohstho characters, see i. to. iii. above.
Vedic o"5 is included in this class.
See above, 1. Construction of Conjunct Characters...

48

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

Examples of conjunct characters of Classes 1 . to 3 * i i i . with 3 . i v .

rfj
-tplo

-tkl

Reading examples.
^F^T

SWT

xrc^J

-Ibhy

^1^BH"

JPTFT

^c*TW

T^^T

f^>-

^Tcb:

-cchlo

^|pr

'fR^r

T%*JTE: T T ^ - ^ q :

^^T:

tcRitf^rf^r

*T^

IIW

Class 2|. vorgiiyo characters joined with preceding or following


uusmon characters.
i. Characters joined with
a

>

7T > T

preceding another character.

The following characters occur in this series, some occurring


only in external sandhi.
*r

FJ

-Jks

*r

TO

s-

1.
3.

J"ne

-sks

sko

-Jcho

-J*c

T3f

skho

-sjo

TO

J"pe

Jm

TOT

sthe

TO

TO

-sn

FT

TFT
sto

-?P8

stho

sno

-sphe

7
spo

-sm
TO? TO

sph

For transcription, see p . 5 k .


2 . Vairagyasatakam, v . 6 2 .
These characters may be written with either
or &f .

sm

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS
b.

or

following

The f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r s
only in e x t e r n a l
Js

another

character.

occur i n t h i s s e r i e s ,

-k/o

-n/o

so

*
~t

-kso
The c h a r a c t e r

TO

TO

-nso

-pso

-nso

-pso

TO
-nso

S 8

-tso

has been i n c l u d e d i n the s y l l a b i c

an e a r l y d a t e , and i s n o t c a l l i g r a p h i c a l l y
the order of words i n d i c t i o n a r i e s ,
p l a c e d ^after words b e g i n n i n g w i t h

stro

?t

f
~?t

r 9

v 9

words beginning with

In

are

h.

c^T TFT

ksi^o

-ksm o

-stvo

-tstho

HTO

TP?

7 ^

stryo

-tsmyo

-rsty

-rtsnye

kso

T^T

from
3

f}

TTO
Calligraphy:

series

a conjunct c h a r a c t e r .

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s of C l a s s e s 1. - 3. w i t h C l a s s

"?

TOT

-n/o

kso

occurring

TOT

or

"R

some

sandhi.
s

*
so

49

, Bombay form -

f.

fcj

-tsno

$J

Reading e x a m p l e s ^
a. W * T * k

f^RoT

3^C=T
^ C R ; *tW

fi^T

^f>TT

T^ferT

S T F ^ TcT5q"

^cT
f^rfcT:

1. Bombay form.
2. T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n u s u a l l y becomes g".^jf
3. C f . n o t e on $T , C 1 . 2 . i i . b .
k. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 5^.
s

^ft

SO

S A N S K R I T

S E C T I O N

ii.

onunasiko c h a r a c t e r s

joined with preceding

a.

and If .

b.

p r e c e d i n g *tj , ^

following

^.

Reading e x a m p l e s .

and ? f

"j?" or f o l l o w i n g

-hno

hno

-rjho

-nho

-hmo

^fjfrt

^f|:

|^

ffTfPST

Tn^fTrT:

^W^^I^HI-^^^^^T^f^TrTr

f^^wmsTT^I^r^sRWfR;

1, For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 5 h .
Uo BhagavadgTta, c h . l , v . 2 6 .
6

ibid.,

ch.5?v.8.

2
5o
7 .

[PTfTrT:]

\\^\\
II w i

^SF*Tu%

R i g v e d a , 1.
3. i b i d . ,
i b i d . , ch.3v. 2 5 .
NTtisatakam, v . l i 8 .

TRANSCRIPTION

T r a n s c r i p t i o n , o f R e a d i n g Examples
Chapter 2 .
1. i .

do
ke

bh];
chsd

pd dhsn
jhsg jcj

gsmeke
dhe"|;ok

dho
bho

jeget
kp"(;

chedonm
gemonem

to
jo

cei]k
bhjk

pnnm
p"(;hnem

ye

leve
lobh

jl
yev

khsre
dhore

yemevot

/ere
set

seh
Jo^he

sorele
y/s

ved
ly

bo

jhsr
jhsro

co
kh

oth.
uuh
ed
iiset
2 o i i <

duuro
gyre
pitr
otu

v/
ks

p|hk
khjk

dsmsth
pdk

vere
ran

j"|;hr
nsysn

c|

hs
/s

' ron
phl

v"|;h
rsth
d^emsr
l"|;bh

kh

rs
hr

/path
hrk

kp"|;vecenm

jhs
hy

kh

csrsne
vcr

pdkml

jshst
-vys
s e p h e l e srs

is
ut
edho
i i J
1
vm
uuhenem
nii
kr

bhuu
chi

b h i i to
kr/
mem
iiti

go
n

ddh dem
gh"|; gn

smy
per/

vs
jhss

ii

eke
uche
okh
rsobh

gey
nev
ram
pevl
duugi
etev

sr
hoy

uu

in
ot
evm
rn
rc
oyn
evsdhm
da
bhii

ji
/rr

cor
tin
kip
drcjh
b h i i t i hrdi
rtu
iti

J*eve
bhss

bshel
/lbh
rbhs h s t s k

de/eroth
/ke^em
svys
kslshsm
/ssnsm
j e l o c e r e s noved/ekm
shgmnm
kmolovdn
2 i.

c{
jh

khoc
pc]h

th
blo
r"|;

dhsvol
bhsvst

grlm

t
ke/o

kl/
/r{

ghn
chg

gh"|;k
ksthsm

lo

bhsysm
cpl

no
tho

n"|;nm
ksthsnsm
bhsnonem
jenopode
dhonmd
jhnjhnm
jhi\ jhsr^sm

vsysnsm

l . i i i o s

po
cho

phsn.
bot

methon
gr|k

re

lvn
legate

mo
gho

kcj m"(;h
ph"|;o poth

l.ii.

terole
nskhere

pho
bo

/t/s
d//tm
v

rr

d
y/o
rdh
uucjh i h e
us
udon
rnm
yssmss
upkrnem
gov
/ii

dos
pur
guru
uuru

pey
dr
/rt
phen
vrtha
rsi

me
hi
dhrt
mvl
/i/u
enii

duu
hr
ruuc|h
krrt
setu
ii"Le

52

SANSKRIT

bhuusita
kumarii
vidhatru

SECTION

vijesa
upaya
vaybhava p i t r r n p a v r u s a r u c i r a
jhatiti
thalinii
rirusita
avsadhi
kaykeyii
ayhika
c^halin
surabhi
khacjika
he^ate

bhavmika
jhirika

ekakin
hrsike/a
itihasa
kav/aleya
visuucika
pavranika
devanagarii
anunasika
avpanisada
upajiivika
avpade/ika
upanive/ika
avpanayika
ko-pi
rte-pi
ya J"o-paya J*a
3.i.
kin] marrj sukharrj harirr) mrtair) tanum, shorn evarrj rsiinarrj
cjirnba panjcju
layrrjgam
djiumdhi
jrrnbh
jharrjjha
kirrjcit
kavmteya
sarrjyamana
sairjvat
mairjsa
janjyu.
sainruuc|ha
samliina
arrjhati
tamahair) h r d i
sairjgatamani Jarrj bhr/air) ramayami
kirn v a n e - n u s a r a m i
t a m i h a kinj v r t h a
vil9pami
3 . i i . kgh
chgh
t
jhah
ayh
oh
uuh
rh
navh
sah
gunah
dhrtih
bahuh
n i t eh
nrpayh
viduh
Jrn^ih
purusah
manahsu
hivihsu
dhenubhi h
vi/esatah
amjata h
arrjtahkaranam
samaduhkhasukhah
Junah/epah
jagatohitah
mato-dhikeh
tejorrj-Jsh
behevoirj-buvegah
yogomayasomavrteh
garrjgataranjgahima.fiikaraj'iitalan i
jayadevapanjcjitakaveh.
pan_cjitanarrj sama je-parrjc(ita mavnarr) b h a j e y u h
n

bhuya eva mahabaho


Jrnu. me par amain vacah.
sukhair) duhkharrj b h a v o - b h a v o bhayarrj cabhayameva ca
v a h a s i v a p u s i v i j a d e vasanarrj jaladabharrj h a l a h a t i b h i i t i m i l i t a y a m u n a b h a m
k e j a v a d h r t a h a l a d h a r a r i m p a jaya j a g a d i i / a h a r e
m a d h a v i k a p a r i m a l a l a l i t a n a v a m a l a t i jatisugarrjdhav
munimanasamapi m o h e n a k a r i n i i t a r u n i i k a r i n a b a m d h a v
Chapter 3
Class 1 .
thakknrah kakkha^a
drggocarah
vagghi
tinnatin
uccayh
iccha
rajjuh u j j h a t i
pa^tika
la^ho
ua^din sed^ha visani^a
visnr|
uttom u t t h i t a
u d d e / a h buddhih b h i n n a p i p p a l a h phupphuiisah abfcmh
abbhogah sammatih sarrjmohah Jayya u l l e k h a h
tacchrnu
sannaddh
duj/iila (duh/iila)
J a t a y u s s u (J"atayuhJ"u) j a s s a r a j a h
Jubharrjllokan
Class

2.

i.
v a k c a l a v a k c h a l am p r t h a g j a n a h vagjha"|;iti
v a k ^ i i k a s"|;kon
s a t k h e t a k a m vagc^ambarah khac^gah v a g d j i s v k a t e dvid^ghora b h a k t i h utka"|;a
uktham
utkhata
hrdgata
sadguna
dagdha
udgha"(;aka
vakpa^u
vakphalam k a k u p k h a l u p r t h a g b h a v a h kakubguruh kakubghora s a t . c a r a n a h
satjchavih sad^jah s a d ^ j h a ^ i t i
apcarah k a k u p c h a v i h kubja k a k u b j h a ^ i t i
sacjdevah sacjdha s a t p s t i
f/up-tiika
^atphana sacjbahu kakup"|;hakkurah
abc|imbha
Jabdah

sacjbhaga
labdha

kakubcjhavkate

bhagavadgiita

utpanna

sarrjyukta

satphalah

adbhuta

g u p t a udbodhaka
udbhavah
madbhakta
buddhiyukta
sacchabdah

TRANSCRIPTION

53

ii.a.
gijkgh Jgijkhgh lirjggm sgijghgh s s j i c s y a h vajicha g p j i i r g h j h g n j h a
ghui\t9h k9i\th8h pgi\cjitgh ^huijdjiih g n t g h p g n t h g k g s u n d g r g indhgh
ksmpgng gumphgti
sgmbgndhgh argmbhgh pgrjktih
grunddha
b.
yacjia jnangm he-|;h:nati hedjiinati rgtngm m9thna b u d h n a t i papmgn
tgjpeys
sgjijjia
sgrrjjjia
vi/esgjjig
jijnasu
i i i . a.

udgrjbhih

mghankgvih

drunphuh

drunbhuh

b.
r k i p rugrig g r b h n a t i
Jsknoti
cgkhnutuh
agnih
vighng
mrcjnati a p n o t i
sbnabhgh rukmii^ii
vagmin vgcmih
gjmgh kudmglg
atmgn
pgdma
dhmatg
drbhmgs
dgdhmgv
iv.

diijnaggh

vaijmgyg

dvirvnalgh

S9i\masgh

jgnmgn

rgmiiati

rrmatg

C l a s s 3.
i.
vekygm k h y a t g vgyragygm J l a g h y g udgrjygj'gh c y u t g vapchyg j y o t i s
ujjhygti
kapQ^ysn!
J"a-|;hygm
jad^ygm
gvadhyg
puipram
tyajyg
pgthyg v i d y a dhyangm k s n y a
apyg
riphygte
gbyonih
gbhyasgh
sgvmygm dhgyrygm gmuulyg
vyuudjig
dr/yg
mgmisygh r g h g s y g
hygs
sgynygsyg
sgnnyasgh sgrrjnyasgh c i n t y g buddhya t g j j y o t i s
vgydggdhygm mahatmygm
bhgktya kgvbjygm sghrdbhygh b h g g g v g n v y g k t i b
evgmetgdygthatthg
guhygmgdhyatmgsgrrjjpitgm
g j p g h sukhgmaradhygh s u k h g t g r g m a r a d h y g t e
vijesgjjigh
i i . k v g c i t pgkkvanngm akhvoh p g v e d g h l g g h v i i u c c h v a s g h u j j v g l g u j j h v g
Igf/vgh y g d n g t v a sgcjvidhg
drcjhvgm J"rr|ygn t v s r i t g
prthvii
udvigng
dhvgnih
g n v i t g apva gbvahgngrrr r i b h v g n cgmvoh y v a g u l i i s g r v g s g r v v g n g l v g h
i i j v g r g h v i / v s s v g k k g t e g n u s v a r g h h v e v i h v g l g vidhvgrrjsgh dvgndvgh
tgttvgm
dugdhva I s b d h v a u k t v a davna e t g d d h v a v l i n a t i

gravida prarjvg/gh

tygktva--tmgj"uddhye
p u i p r g k r t a r r j l l o k a n u s i t v a J a j v g t i i h sgmah
i i i . a , tgrkg h muurkhs vgrggh v g r g i i y g d i i r g h g Jarrjgg c g r c a m u u r c h i t g
arjungh n i r j h g r g h
dardhygm v g r i p h k g r t r v y g r t h g durdgyvgm grdhg mgnurnamg grpgr^gm d u r bglg ggrbhitg
uurmih kgrmmgn dharmikg p g r y g n t g pgrygrrjtg s u u r y g h d u r l g b h g
puurvg
ssrw

hrsh g r h g t k i i r t i h hrnij*m uurdhvm v s r j y

dgr/gnsm

rrniurdhni
rmiurdhnyadhayatmgngh n g y r r t i i
durbuddhsyryuddh
Jvetsyrhsysyryukte
v e d s y j n a d h y a y s n s y r n
dangyrng C9
b , vikrmh agrhah J i i g h r g p r a i j r a t r i i krcchr vgjrgm
psv^rgh
f g t r u h drgvygm
dhruv prytnh premna brniv b h r a t r ngrnrg v r s j s h J u j r u u s a
srgjva
h r g s v g hrsv
h r s y hirrjsrg Jraddhg ardr
ardr
d a r i d r y g m daridrygm
srrjhriir]
etgcchrutva
digvrtm
sgtjtrirrjjg
ytprmai]m
jmbvamrle

SANSKRIT

54

SECTION

iv.
u l k a phslgta s v s l p
lpspran g u l p h i t ulb
prggslbhg
hlj"bdh
hlsndhih
V9lh
praglbhym
j"[hu
mi'Lhuse
klej"h gl9V pl9V9 p i p l u h
bling k s k u b h l a b h s h m l e c c h s h
vlinati
J"lokh
Jles9h
sihlsh
hladste
ucchlskh
utklej"h
utplsv
psresarrj

cetarrjsi p r g t i d i v s s g m a r a d h y g
bghu ha
prssadsrrj kirrj neturrj v i / s i
hrdsy
prsnne
tvsyysntsh
svymuditcintamnigune
vimuktsh
snklph k i m s b h i l s s i t s i r j

k l e J k l i l m
pusysti

ri9 t e

C l a s s h.
i.a.

aj*crym

pr/nh

Jm Jru

pusksl

bleskm

srstih
krsn
jyes-f/h
sthyuutg
puspsm nisph! uusman Jlesma ssrrjskrtg s k h s l i t b h r o s j
stsbdh
sthitih
strii
ntshsth s n i g d h 9 sprs ); s p h u u r t i h bhgsmg J"res"|;htvm / c y u t drstjva
drrjs"|;ra varsney
nmoste-stu
-

b . p r a k j i r s s prtynj"irs tajijuka t a n / u k a S9"|;/astr9 rpj*te kssrsm


tirysnsu s e t s s s t i h ksetrsjji
dikssm l i ^ s u v s t s s h
sugnsrti
sugrjj;srti ksma
J"lksn u t k s i p t bhsksy mtsyh t s t s t h ! k s v e t pkrtsn k a r t s n y s m
v i b h r s s t o / c h s n n krmphlprepsurlbdhh nbhhspr J"m d h a r s t y s m
etstksetrsm
ii.

g r h n a t i v s h n i h h n u t e brahmen p r a n h s s t s h pranghsth i s t . a n b h a n h i

gnimii^e purohitsrrj yjnsy d e v s m r t v i jsirj / hotarsrrj rtndhatmm


gnih p u u r v o b h s r r s i b h i r i i d ^ y o n u u t s n s y r u t / s devarrj eh v s k s s t i
ttrapJytsthitanparthh p i t r r n s t h pitamshan
acaryanmatulanbhrantrrputranpvtranskhirrjstth
s s k t a h krmi|yvidvarrjso y s t h a k u r v s n t i b h a r s t
kuryadvidvarrjsttha-sktJcikiirsurloksngrhm
nyv k i r r j c i t k r o m i i t i y u k t o msnyet t s t t v s v i t
p Jysn J r n v s n s p r / n j i ghr nn J n s n g s c c h s n s vpn J* vs n
a j j i a k i i r t i h palsnsirj brahmanarrj dansrrj bhogo mitrsmrksnm c
y e s a m e t e sc[guna n p r s v r t t a h korthstesairj p a r t h i v o p a / r s y e n

HINDI

SECTION

C H A P T E R
ARRANGEMENT

OF

THE

SYLLABARY

The Devanagari S c r i p t i s u s e d i n w r i t i n g H i n d i ( ^ P ^ t
arrangement of t h e c h a r a c t e r s
Sanskrit arrangement.

in the syllabary

is

) and t h e

t h e same a s

Some of t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e u s e d o n l y i n

S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , b u t most o f

them may b e f o u n d i n l i t e r a r y

Some of t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e m o d i f i e d f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g s o u n ds
i n P e r s i a n and A r a b i c
The s c r i p t

writing
texts.

occurring

loanwords.

is usually referred

t o as

sn^TsTtST

can be u n d e r s t o o d by a c h i l d ' .

Each c h a r a c t e r

( e k s o r ) , and t h e s y l l a b i c

is

'character-series').

the

series

called

(balabodh) ,

is called

cflffHIo'JI

^'T^lT

(vornomala,

The t e r m s u s e d b y H i n d i grammarians t o r e f e r

the s c r i p t a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e u s e d i n S a n s k r i t ,
i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r s

i n Hindi d i f f e r s

t h e s e terms a r e u s e d i n t h i s

section

Sanskrit

r e a l i s e d w i t h the vowel

of t h e c h a r a c t e r s

the difference

between the

in

^SPqjR'^

(oksorom),

foTTT'R:
'SFrTYfSr

Ch.l.

Hindi.

this

(okser)

(viramoh) ,

fcfTPT

(viram)

(antahstha),

3T^cT**T

(antasth)

c h a p t e r shows t h e arrangemen t

the Hindi s y l l a b a r y i n roman n o t a t i o n .


1. See S a n s k r i t ,

tran-

SWGJIT

The t a b l e g i v e n b e l o w i n t h i s

Hindi

o ,

terms

u s e d i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g terms u s e d i n
Sanskrit

to

realisat-

i n t h e H i n d i f o r m , and a r e

scribed in accordance w i t h the r e a l i s a t i o n


The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e

but as the

somewhat from t h e

system i n r e s p e c t of c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s

section:

'that

of

The s o u n d s o c c u r r i n g i n A r a b i c

58

HINDI

SECTION

and P e r s i a n l o a n w o r d s , and t h e i n t e r v o c a l i c r e a l i s a t i o n of
characters r e a l i s e d i n i t i a l l y as
t h e roman n o t a t i o n a s

c|e

and

cjhe , a r e r e p r e s e n t e d

in

follows:

q , for the v o i c e l e s s uvular p l o s i v e ,


x , for

the

the v o i c e l e s s

velar

5f5

fricative,

j , f o r t h e v o i c e d v e l a r f r i c a t i v e , TT
z , f o r t h e v o i c e d d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e , yT
f

, for the v o i c e l e s s l a h i a l

fricative,

r , rh , f o r t h e r e t r o f l e x f l a p p e d c o n s o n a n t s
N a s a l i s a t i o n of v o w e l s i s shown by t h e s u p e r s c r i p t

and

~ .

As t h e D e v a n a g a r i s y s t e m of w r i t i n g i s s y l l a b i c ,

and t h e

charact-

e r s i n t h e s y l l a b a r y r e p r e s e n t s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g e i t h e r of a v o w e l
or of a c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d by t h e v o w el
each consonant w i t h t h i s vowel.
consonant c h a r a c t e r ,
'inherent'

shows

T h i s v o w e l , when r e a l i s e d w i t h a

i s u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d to i n E n g l i s h t e x t s as

the

vowel .
1

The s e r i e s of v o w e l s
u

o , t h e roman t a b l e

and ' l o n g '

includes

'short'

'short'

ii

'short'

o t h e r words i n w h i c h t h e

'short',

i s made i n s p e e c h .

vowels are w r i t t e n as

'short'

or t h e

Ch.l.

or t h e

'long'

or ' l o n g '

the

distinguishvowel,

and

' l o n g ' vowel i s w r i t t e n ,

but

In t r a n s c r i b i n g e x a m p l e s,

o r t h o g r a p h y , and n o t i n r e l a t i o n t o
1. See S a n s k r i t ,

'short'

some

vowe l and o t h e r s w i t h

There a r e c e r t a i n p a i r s of words w h i c h a r e

ed i n meaning by t h e w r i t i n g of t h e

'no d i s t i n c t i o n

and ' l o n g '

uu . T h e s e p a i r s of v o w e l s o c c u r i n H i n di w o r d s ,

words b e i n g a l w a y s w r i t t e n w i t h t h e
'long' vowel.

these

in accordance w i t h Hindi

' l e n g t h ' of s p o k e n v o w el

sounds.

ARRANGEMENT OF T H E SYLLABARY

59

Hindi S y l l a b a r y i n Roman N o t a t i o n

1
Velar

Voiceless
Voiced

P l o s i v e s

CONSONANTS w i t h
Unaspirated

ka

Aspirated

Palatal

Retroflex

kh

cho

Unaspirated

go

Aspirated

gh

(rj)

Nasal

tha

th

ph

c|2

do

jha

dha

dh

bh

na^"

no

s^

yo
Voiceless

Voiced

Labial

(p)

Semivowels.

k
Dental

va

Fricatives
z

Aspirate
VOWELS

MODIFIERS

Nasal -

ii

rrj

and

Notes on t h e s y l l a b l e s marked

sent t h e uvular p l o s i v e ,

of

av

Aspirated - h '
1 - 7 i n t h e above

1. The c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s y l l a b l e

2.

ka

table:

i s modified t o repre-

qa .

The c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e t w o s y l l a b l e s a r e m o d i f i e d t o
r e p r e s e n t t h e m e d i a l and f i n a l

r e a l i s a t i o n of these

characters

60

HINDI

SECTION

as f l a p p e d s o u n d s , w r i t t e n as
3.

The c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g
single characters
characters,

r
no

and
and

rh
jio

in the

transcription.

are not w r i t t e n

i n H i n d i , "but o n l y i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h

as
other

i l l u s t r a t e d below i n Chapter 3 .

h. The two c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g

no

and

S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , and do n o t o c c u r
5. The c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t e d by
dental a r t i c u l a t i o n ;
6. These s y l l a b l e s

vo

so

occur only

in

initially,

i s usually realised with

or, i n i t i a l l y ,

as a b i l a b i a l

plosive.

a r e w r i t t e n by m o d i f y i n g o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s

r e p r e s e n t s o u n d s somewhat s i m i l a r i n
xa

with the character f o r

kho ;

ye

with the character for

go ;

7. T h is v o w e l , s y l l a b i c

fe
za

labio-

which

articulation:
with the character for
with the character for

, o c c u r s o n l y i n a few S a n s k r i t

pha;
jo

loanwords.

C H A P T E R
CHARACTERS

OP

THE

2
SYLLABARY

The c h a r a c t e r s of t h e D e v a n a g a r i S c r i p t u s e d i n w r i t i n g Hindi
are t h o s e g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n , w i t h t h e t e r m s w h i ch a r e u s e d
by Hindi grammarians i n r e f e r r i n g t o them and t o t h e sor.nds which t h e y
represent.

The method of w r i t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s i s t h a t d e s c r i b e d

t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n , and i n t h e n o t e s on t h e c a l l i g r a p h y o f
c h a r a c t e r s as t h e y a r e g i v e n i n t h e

special

tables.

The c h a r a c t e r s , and t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f them i n r e a d i n g H i n d i ,


d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r under t h e same h e a d i n g s a s i n t h e
section:

Consonant C h a r a c t e r s ,

in

are

Sanskrit

Vowel C h a r a c t e r s and Vowel S i g n s ,

and M o d i f i e r s .
1

1. Consonant C h a r a c t e r s .
The c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s
characters,

'ontesth

are arranged i n three groups:

characters,

and 'uusm' c h a r a c t e r s .
2

ant c h a r a c t e r s , a s t h e y a r e g i v e n i n t h e s y l l a b a r y ,
s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g of an i n i t i a l
by t h e vowel

^T^RTT

consonant,

. Characters r e a l i s e d

'vergiiy*

The c o n s o n -

are r e a l i s e d

or s e m i - v o w e l ,

as

followed

i n t h i s way a r e d e s c r i b e d a s

( k a r ) . The r e a l i s a t i o n o f a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r w i t h o u t

this

vowel, that i s , as the consonant e l e m e n t of the s y l l a b l e o n l y ,

is

i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s c r i p t by w r i t i n g a d i a g o n a l s t r o k e , known a s

the

1. See S a n s k r i t , C h . l . f o r t h e u s e o f t h i s t e r m .
2 . See S a n s k r i t , Ch.2.
R e f e r e n c e s are g i v e n throughout t h i s chapter
t o t h e d i v i s i o n s and s u b - d i v i s i o n s w i t h t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g numbers
i n Chapter 2. of t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .

62

HINDI

foTTW ( v i r a m )

SECTION

a t t h e f o o t of t h e c h a r a c t e r t h u s , of) , k -

cT , t -

The r e a l i s a t i o n o f akar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i n r e a d i n g Hindi


differs

i n some r e s p e c t s from t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s

Sanskrit.

The f o l l o w i n g n o t e s may be r e g a r d e d a s g e n e r a l

guiding

p r i n c i p l e s t o w h i c h r e f e r e n c e may be made l a t e r , when t h e


are d i s c u s s e d i n
a.

A final

in

characters

detail.

akar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d w i t h

zero-

v o w e l , e x c e p t i n a few S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s .
b.

A final

okar c h a r a c t e r formed by c o m b i n i n g two o r more c o n s o n a n t

c h a r a c t e r s , or a f i n a l
3

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d e d by a

c h a r a c t e r w r i t t e n w i t h the onusvar r e p r e s e n t i n g a n a s a l
a n t ^ , i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d w i t h an
c.

conson-

o-glide.

A m e d i a l okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l ,
w i t h an o - g l i d e ,

or

i n c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s , a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , when s u c h

a c h a r a c t e r o c c u r s a s t h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r of a word o f t h r e e or
more c h a r a c t e r s and t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s w r i t t e n w i t h one o f
the vowel s i g n s 5 .

Other c o n t e x t s are g i v e n l a t e r , when t h e

c h a r a c t e r s are d i s c u s s e d i n
d.

detail.

When an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t h e f i n a l
verbal base, i t

c h a r a c t e r of a

i s usually r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel,

or w i t h an

o - g l i d e , b e f o r e t h e a d d i t i o n of f o r m a t i v e p a r t i c l e s c o n s i s t i n g
a consonant c h a r a c t e r w i t h a vowel

of

sign.

In t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e x a m p l e s of Hindi w o r d s , f i n a l

okar

c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l , or w i t h an - g l i d e ,

1. See S a n s k r i t , Ch.2..1.
2. kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h
z e r o - v o w e l , a s d e s c r i b e d below i n n o t e s a. - d . , a r e , h o w e v e r , n o t
w r i t t e n w i t h t h e v i r a m , which i s u s e d m a i n l y i n w r i t i n g c e r t a i n
Sanskrit loanwords.
3 See b e l o w , Oh.3.
h. See b e l o w , 3 i . n u s v a r ,
5. See b e l o w , 2 . i i .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
are t r a n s c r i b e d w i t h o u t

63

o , and m e d i a l okar c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d

t h i s way are w r i t t e n t h u s , k'

, t'

, p'

in

, for guidance in reading.

Characters which do n o t o c c u r i n an i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n are i n d i c a t e d by


a hyphen p r e f i x e d t o t h e s y l l a b l e i n t h e roman
i.

transcription.

Characters of t h e v o r g i i y g r o u p .
The f i r s t group o f c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s c o n s i s t s of

c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d a s s y l l a b l e s w i t h an i n i t i a l p l o s i v e
f o l l o w e d by t h e vowel
e s , or cT ^

e .

twentyfive
consonant

These c h a r a c t e r s are p l a c e d i n f i v e

( v e r g ) , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f a r t i c u l a t i o n of

consonant i n t h e s y l l a b l e t h e y r e p r e s e n t .
the Sanskrit s e c t i o n .

the

The c h a r a c t e r s a r e g i v e n i n

Of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s ,

class-

, no

and

\5f . . . j i o

do not occur i n Hindi w o r d s , and o c c u r i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s o n l y i n


combination with o t h er c h a r a c t e r s . 2

The c h a r a c t e r

only i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s i n l i t e r a r y H i n d i .

UT

, 1 ^ 0 , occurs

The c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n a s

'Bombay' forms are a l s o u s e d i n H i n d i w r i t i n g * b u t l e s s


than t h o s e g i v e n i n t h e t a b l e s .

frequently

Some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e m o d i f i e d

t o r e p r e s e n t c e r t a i n s o u n d s i n P e r s i a n and A r a b i c l o a n w o r d s and t h e
i n t e r v o c a l i c r e a l i s a t i o n of

qo

ye

The c h a r a c t e r s

and

?
z

<5

T i
f

<J o c c u r o n l y i n i t i a l l y ;

and

never i n i t i a l , b u t may be m e d i a l o r

5
-rh
5

and

are

final.

Reading e x a m p l e s . 3
1. One c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , r e a l i s e d a s a c o n s o n a n t w i t h t h e v o w el
I?

rT

*t

1. See S a n s k r i t , Ch. 2,1. i .


2. S e e b e l o w , Ch.3.
3. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p a g e 85.

o .

64

HINDI

SECTION

2. Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , t h e f i n a l c h a r a c t e r r e a l i s e d w i t h

xrtit

*TC

^3

^FT

3*r

*5?T

* r

^ts

w=t

Tf^r

yrc

zero-vowel.

xR3

^TS
^

3. Three c h a r a c t e r words
*TTR

*fi*Tf

*Tv5R-

=c^oF>

**p=>

W T

^^sp
SRCR

TTvyTST

^rf

T^rW

^T^T

h. Four c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h
or w i t h an - g l i d e , f i n a l

R3RrT

ii.

5r^=T

characters with

TcTflB^r

zero-vowel

zero-vowel.

SECTS

xpj^cjvT

Characters of the ntssth group.


There a r e f o u r c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s g r o u p , r e p r e s e n t i n g

c o n s i s t i n g o f an i n i t i a l s e m i - v o w e l w i t h t h e v o w e l
e r s are g i v e n i n the S a n s k r i t
When t h e c h a r a c t e r s

U(

syllables

The c h a r a c t -

section .
1

, y and

, v , o c c u r i n i t i a l l y ,

w i t h one of t h e v o w e l s i g n s , t h e y a r e r e a l i s e d a s c o n s o n a n t s
"by a v o w e l .

or

followed

When t h e y o c c u r m e d i a l l y i n a p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y a r e

r e a l i s e d w i t h a f o l l o w i n g v o w e l , t h e y a r e r e a l i s e d a s c o n s o n a n t s . When
t h e y o c c u r m e d i a l l y i n p o s i t i o n s i n w h i c h an kar c o n s o n a n t
i s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l , or f i n a l l y ,

they are r e a l i s e d as semi-

v o w e l s , f o r m i n g a d i p h t h o n g w i t h t h e v o w e l of t h e p r e c e d i n g
Examples:

The c h a r a c t e r

1. See S a n s k r i t ,

^3=FT

cTop

SHJ

ymn

vk

bhsy

syllable.

lv

i s o f t e n r e a l i s e d i n i t i a l l y or m e d i a l l y a s
Ch.2,1.ii.

character

b .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
Reading e x a m p l e s .

65

2.

Two c h a r a c t e r -words, t h e f i n a l

err

character r e a l i s e d with

Tior
is^r

3.

3"

One c h a r a c t e r word.

m
^

^TOT^T

TR^T

T^yf

cRSR

*Rc*

h. Pour and f i v e

words and t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i n f i v e

iii.

SRIXf

wzrt

*oRore

FT^R

"^T

ifflSR j]yf^
in four

character

character words, r e a l i s e d

final

qr^ors

zero-vowel.

*R*R

characters with

^ S ^ R

with

zero-vowel.

Sc^Ff

^CTic*

*M<HMH

C h a r a c t e r s of t h e uusm group,.
This group c o n s i s t s

of t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s which are r e a l i s e d

f r i c a t i v e consonants f o l l o w e d by the vowel


r e a l i s e d as an a s p i r a t e f o l l o w e d b y
in the Sanskrit s e c t i o n .

o , and one w h i c h

o . These c h a r a c t e r s

The c h a r a c t e r

, so

some S a n s k r i t loanwords u s e d i n l i t e r a r y H i n d i .
i n o r d i n a r y s p e e c h as
is

* R

character words; second characters

ETrTc^

OT"

character r e a l i s e d with

sr^H

z e r o - v o w e l or w i t h an e - g l i d e ,

Wf

Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , t h e f i n a l

STSoT

zero-vowel.

I?

Jo . The l a s t

character

are

is
given

, occurs only
It i s often

i n t h e Hindi

as

in

realised
syllabary

, he .

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 85.
2 . This i s t h e o n l y o n t e s t h c h a r a c t e r w h i c h o c c u r s as a word.
3 . See S a n s k r i t , C h o 2 , l i i i .

66

HINDI

SECTION

I n words c o n s i s t i n g o f okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s
i s a t i o n of
a.

When

^
^

, ho , v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o i t s p o s i t i o n

combination w i t h t h e vowel

it

is

(ee), a s

When ^

pahor(p8ehr)

occurs as a f i n a l

character i t

in

as

in

rohon(rffihn)

consonant

i s g e n e r a l l y r e a l i s e d in combination w i t h the

cR^

^SRT(?

toroh(tora)

Xf^
yoh(yeh)

TJf

voh(voh)

soho

1. None of t h e uusm c h a r a c t e r s

o c c u r s a s a word.

Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , t h e f i n a l

character r e a l i s ed with

srer

TO

TH

vowel

Examples:

Exceptions:

jagah(joga)

examples.

<3?h

lahoson(leehson)

c h a r a c t e r f o l l o w i n g an okar

of t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a r a c t e r a s ( a ) .

if^T

3. Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ,

^TTJ^

*6*r

5f

the f i n a l

*R*F>
^B^qif

%z

35STTrT

vR?T

f?5F>cT

f^foT

s e e p.85.

TT^T

STR

*TC)T

^FcT

^cT5T

TOT

or w i t h an

zero-vowel,

o-glide.

H^Tc^cT
H^R^fi

*R

zero-vowel.

^TTR

characters r e a l i s e d with

second c h a r a c t e r s w i t h zero-vowel

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,

zero-vowel.

character r e a l i s e d with

U. Four c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , f i n a l

*T*RS

is

c^'H'T

Johor( Jfflhr)

$vFT

and

often realised

2.

real-

i n t h e word.

of the p r e c e d i n g c h a r a c t e r

a s p i r a t i o n accompanying the vowel

Reading

the

o c c u r s m e d i a l l y p r e c e d e d by an okar c h a r a c t e r ,

f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r ,

b.

only,

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

67

2. Vowel C h a r a c t e r s and Vowel S i g n s ,


i . Vowel C h a r a c t e r s .
The vowel c h a r a c t e r s u s e d i n w r i t i n g H i n d i a r e t h e same a s t h o s e
given i n the Sanskrit s e c t i o n ,

omitting the characters

syllabic

rr

and s y l l a b i c

and

11 . The c h a r a c t e r

S a n s k r i t loanwords u s e d i n l i t e r a r y H i n d i .
usually placed f i r s t

in the syllabary,

okar, a k a r , i k a r and s o o n .

representing
occurs i n

The v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s a r e

and t h e y a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s

The Bombay forms o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e

sometimes w r i t t e n i n H i n d i , b u t t h e f o r m s g i v e n i n t h e t a b l e a r e more
usual.
The g e n e r a l r u l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f okar c o n s o n a n t
c h a r a c t e r s s h o u l d be a p p l i e d i n r e a d i n g a l l e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w ,
u n l e s s s p e c i a l n o t e s are added.
Reading e x a m p l e s .

1. Words c o n s i s t i n g o f v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s

msft

^rnr

^rrat

5TT

only.
vsm

Words c o n s i s t i n g o f v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s and okar c o n s o n a n t


^ T ' , ' TO* .. 3 5 3
sfrsR
%<zr

^pr

i^r
^vFf

OT"

i$

far
^ f r

^ft5

characters.

^TTTT

^nr
^ri
tt
vafrsnc
>afocr

f^cf

^ f t

i i . Vowel S i g n s .
The vowel s i g n s u s e d i n w r i t i n g H i n d i , c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h t h e
vowel c h a r a c t e r s and w r i t t e n w i t h t h e o k a r form o f t h e c h a r a c t e r ^ ,
are g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n . 3

1. See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 2 . i .
3. See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 2 . i i .

Each c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t s a

2. F o r t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 85.

68

HINDI
syllable
to

consisting

SECTION

o f a c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d b y one o f t h e v o w e l s

v . The v o w e l s i g n s a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s HT^TT

*T ^Rt H i "511
Reading

( e k i i matra

examples.

1. One c h a r a c t e r

, ' t h e s i g n of

(matra) , as i n

e.').

words.

"5F7T

%
^

Two c h a r a c t e r

words.
fte

*McT
3.

Three c h a r a c t e r
^ t f t

words.

gsjp

^f^aft

%)ciw

spRm

^ r

B3>T

^^TT

^W^fr

Words o f f o u r or more c h a r a c t e r s .
realisation

o f kar c o n s o n a n t

an - g l i d e ,

if

given above.

Numbers i n b r a c k e t s

(|^T

indicate the

characters with zero-vowel,

Most words o f more t h a n f o u r c h a r a c t e r s


character

of the f i r s t

or with

part,

a r e compounds

i f kar, i s

realis-

zero-vowel.

TYTCT

^R^yftT

^nrmm

^TyT^5f>

<5?5TT<7TT

^feqT^T

%TT*ft

s^Jtf^q

^JTTS

ttarnft

ITTSRN*

^mTifr

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e x a m p l e s , s e e p . 8 5 .
2. A S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d , w i t h f i n a l d^h .

g*TTf

t h e words a r e n o t t o be r e a d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r u l e s

in which t h e f i n a l
ed w i t h

(Jr^nr

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

69

The f o l l o w i n g r u l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e a l i s a t i o n
c h a r a c t e r s i n words w h i c h h a v e v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s
some g u i d a n c e f o r r e a d i n g from t h e s c r i p t ,
guide i s a knowledge o f t h e s p o k e n
a.

When a m e d i a l okar c o n s o n a n t
i s f o l l o w e d by a f i n a l

b.

i.

p'na

provide

though the only

character,

reliable

i n a t h r e e c h a r a c t e r word,

or w i t h an - g l i d e ,

lor'ka

lok'ra

it

is

usually

e.g.

per'da

sod'rii

When a v e r b a l b a s e e n d s i n a n kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r ,

formative p a r t i c l e s which c o n s i s t
a vowel s i g n

sokii.

or w i t h an - g l i d e ,

of a consonant c h a r a c t e r

sk-na

sk-tii

and p r e - f i n a l

the r e a l i s a t i o n

bol
of

bol-ta

c h a r a c t e r s b e i n g kar c o n s o n a n t

of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s

i l l u s t r a t e d in the following

bol-te
the

characters,

v a r i e s according to the
This v a r i a t i o n

form
is

examples;

H*T*BcTT

"SRSRS&T

^T*T*HHT

sm jha

smjh-ta

smjh-kr

sm'jhana

, h , f^"

i.

, hi

and j ^ " , hu

are r e a l i s e d as

follows:

, p r e c e d e d by a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r w i t h a vowel

i s r e a l i s e d as a s p i r a t i o n
-s-

with

Tm*FTT

Medial
Medial

before

t h r e e or more c h a r a c t e r s ,

of t h e f o r m a t i v e p a r t i c l e s w h i c h a r e a d d e d .

somsjh

this

e.g.

When a v e r b a l b a s e c o n s i s t s

final

consonant

language.

character i s r e a l i s e d with z e r o - v o w e l ,

c.

and s i g n s

c h a r a c t e r w i t h a vowel s i g n ,

r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel,

rej'mii

of okar

of

the vowel

of t h e p r e c e d i n g

WJ$m

ft^cT

^ T r T

%e>cTT

cahna

mihnot

tuhmst

behtsr

sign

syllable.
# ^ c l
sohbot

70

HINDI
ii.

SECTION

M e d i a l f^T , p r e c e d e d by an akar c h a r a c t e r , may b e r e a l i s e d

c o a l e s c e n c e w i t h t h e v o w e l of a p r e c e d i n g okar c h a r a c t e r a s
M^cHI

e.g.

p a h i l a or p e y h l a
iii.

srf^T

Sff^T

b a h i r a or b o y h r a

b e h i n or bayhn

Gt|?r

e.g.

Reading e x a m p l e s ,
under 1. i i i
f^fit

*afc%

3.

t h e above n o t e s ,

and n o t e s a.

SfT^t

of^TST

^fcTT

-gsrf

and b .

f cPTT

ifecft

b.
c.

illustrating

WfT^T

*r?ft5

*ri%7T

TOO*-

W W

<P*TK*T

TO?*TT

"qfw^r

s^^tt

^rfft

Modifiers.

The m o d i f i e r s ,

^c^^gT^"

(onusvar)

and [o|^fT^ ( v i s o r g )

are

both

2
used in w r i t i n g Hindi.

T h e s e a r e g i v e n i n the S a n s k r i t

section,

i.

onusvar.
Both forms of t h i s m o d i f i e r a r e u s e d i n H i n d i , t h e f i r s t f o r m ,
a s i n 55T > b e i n g c a l l e d t h e o n u s v a r , and t h e s e c o n d f o r m , a s i n 35T ,

3
t h e c e n d r a b i n d u . The a n u s v a r i s u s u a l l y w r i t t e n ,
the c o n d r e b i n d u , w i t h c h a r a c t e r s
am.

am

im

iirrj

uirj

in preference

t h a t h a v e any s u p e r s c r i b e d
uuirj

eirj

eym,

orr)

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n of e x a m p l e s , s e e p . 86.
2. See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i . and i i .
3 . 'moon and d o t ' .

to

stroke.
ovrr)

in

ovh.

p o h u r - n a or p o v h r - n a

(uusm c h a r a c t e r s ) .
^ R J

as

"CHpr^TT

bahut or b e v h t

a.

ayh.

M e d i a l 2 , p r e c e d e d by an akar c h a r a c t e r , may b e r e a l i s e d

c o a l e s c e n c e w i t h t h e v o w e l of a p r e c e d i n g okar c h a r a c t e r

in

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

71

The onusvar and c o n d r a b i n d u a r e r e a l i s e d i n Hindi a s f o l l o w s :


a.

As t h e n a s a l i s a t i o n of t h e v o w e l o f t h e c h a r a c t e r w i t h whic h i t i s
written.

The c o n d r o b i n d u i s p r e f e r r e d f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g a n a s a l i s e d

v o w e l , e x c e p t when t h e c h a r a c t e r h a s a s u p e r s c r i b e d s t r o k e ; e . g .
iff or $

ha

or f

ft

muh

thii

hey

me

Reading examples.'''
ttZ

fz

3for

*n>

b.

^ft

Trff

sarcbw

TTT5T

crt^TT

i^RT

A%~*r\

As t h e n a s a l c o n s o n a n t o f o n e o f t h e v o r g .

-qj^^rr

The onusvar w r i t t e n on

a character preceding a v o r g i i y character i s r e a l i s e d as the nasal


consonant of t h e same c l a s s a s t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r , or a s
when t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r

i s of the ce-varg.

The c a n d r a b i n d u

i s not usually w r i t t e n t o r e p r e s e n t a nasal consonant.

When t h e

onusvar i s r e a l i s e d a s a n a s a l c o n s o n a n t b e f o r e a f i n a l
character, the f i n a l character

tt^t
ponkh

okar
2
i s r e a l i s e d w i t h an o - g l i d e .

$iz
kon^h

#>^pr
porantu

hindii

sambandh

kanjuus

In w r i t i n g S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , t h e r e i s an a l t e r n a t i v e and more
f r e q u e n t l y used method o f r e p r e s e n t i n g n a s a l consonants i n t h i s
c o n t e x t , by combining c h a r a c t e r s .
2

as a n a s a l c o n s o n a n t b e f o r e a f i n a l

When, t h e o n u s v a r i s r e a l i s e d
okar c h a r a c t e r , t h e f i n a l

c h a r a c t e r i s r e a l i s e d w i t h an a - g l i d e ^ .
1 .

3.

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 8 6 .
See a b o v e , 1 . n o t e b

2. S e e S a n s k r i t ,

Ch.3,3*Class

2.ii.

72

HINDI

SECTION

I n some w o r d s , t h i s m o d i f i e r may be r e a l i s e d a s i n a. or a s i n b .
The r e a l i s a t i o n a s i n b . i s more u s u a l when t h e c h a r a c t e r w i t h t h e
onusvar i s o k a r .

e.g.

3>T^)
ok

or

onk

reg

or rang

R e a d i n g Examples."''
^ftcr

wi*r

sf^rt

w*r

^Htr -q-^ar
Rfar fr

z z

^r^r

#etc

3"sft

^55*

c . When t h e a n u s v a r i s w r i t t e n on a c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g one o f t h e
entosth

or

uusm

characters,

a s i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s and l e a r n -

ed words u s e d i n t h e l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e ,

i t i s r e a l i s e d in various

w a y s . Among t h e s e v e r a l ways o f r e a l i s i n g t h e o n u s v a r i n t h i s
p a r t s o f India2, t h e u s u a l

t e x t u s e d by s p e a k e r s i n d i f f e r e n t

Hindi p r a c t i c e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g
onusvar b e f o r e

7J[ , X , ^

as the n a s a l i s a t i o n

sonyog
or s a y o g

, !^

and

examples:

15" , r e a l i s e d a s

o f t h e vowel o f t h e s y l l a b l e ,

n , or

e.g.

sonrag

sonlegn

s o n fay

ahinsa

sinha

sarag

salagan

saJay

ahisa

siha

anusvar b e f o r e

o f , r e a l i s e d as

usually r e a l i s e d as

somvad (sambad)
1.
3.

con-

m , the character

in this context,

varamvar (barambar)

o T being,

e.g.

but

kuvarii

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 8 6 .
2. S e e S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i . n o t e
The l a s t c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s word r e p r e s e n t s 7T combined w i t h T f .

c.

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
ii.

73

viserg.
This m o d i f i e r i s r a r e l y u s e d i n w r i t i n g H i n d i .

I t o c c u r s i n some

S a n s k r i t loanwords u s e d m a i n l y i n t h e l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e , and i n a few


Hindi words. When w r i t t e n w i t h a m e d i a l c h a r a c t e r ,

it

is

r e a l i s e d e i t h e r as s t r o n g a s p i r a t i o n a f t e r the s y l l a b l e
hy the c h a r a c t e r w i t h whic h i t

usually
represented

i s w r i t t e n , as i n r e a d i n g l e a r n e d

words from a l i t e r a r y t e x t ; o r ,

i n l e s s formal r e a d i n g , as the

d o u b l i n g of the c o n s o n a n t of t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r ; f o r
^:^cT , duhkh

or

dukkh

'CRT: o f t ^ T , entohkoror^

When the v i s a r g i s w r i t t e n w i t h a f i n a l
strong a s p i r a t i o n f o l l o w i n g the f i n a l
l e a r n e d words such a s

syllable,

or

ntokkoror^

i t i s r e a l i s e d as

for instance,

^J*T* p u n s h , jcj ^)"^TrTt , v i f e s ' t s h

may be d i s r e g a r d e d , a s i n
I+. The Complete

character,

example:

or

in
it

, ch .

Syllabary.

The arrangement of t h e c h a r a c t e r s

of the Hindi s y l l a b a r y i n the

t r a d i t i o n a l order i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t g i v e n , i n t h e S a n s k r i t
o m i t t i n g t h e vowel c h a r a c t e r s
a l l t he vowel c h a r a c t e r s , e x c e p t

and ^

section,

. 1 The t a b l e i n w h i ch

, and t h e m o d i f i e r s added t o t h e

c h a r a c t e r ![ are p l a c e d a t t h e h e a d o f a s e r i e s of columns

consist-

i n g of e v e r y c o n s o n a n t i n t h e kar f o r m , w i t h e a c h of t h e vowel
and each of t h e m o d i f i e r s ,

i s c a l l e d i n H i n d i t h e ^T^^<c|^l

k h s ^ i i , the 'twelve c h a r a c t e r s ' .


s c h o o l s by c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g t o
1.

See S a n s k r i t , Ch.2,h.

, barh-

This table i s often recited


read.

signs

in

'

HINDI

These two t a b l e s

show t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e c h a r a c t e r s

p l a c e d as the i n i t i a l
t h e same a s t h e order
characters

characters
1

o f words i n d i c t i o n a r i e s ,

in Sanskrit.

o f words b e g i n n i n g w i t h

Hindi

is

modified
the

characters.

Numerals.

The n u m e r a l s u s e d i n H i n d i a r e g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t
Both t h e

are

which

Words b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e

are p l a c e d i n the s e r i e s

corresponding unmodified
5.

SECTION

'Hindi'

f o r m s and t h e

section.1

'Bombay' forms a r e u s e d i n modern

printing.
6. P u n c t u a t i o n .
In p r o s e w r i t i n g ,

t h e end of a s e n t e n c e i s marked w i t h an u p -

r i g h t s t r o k e o f t h e same h e i g h t a s t h e u p r i g h t s t r o k e o f a c h a r a c t e r .
Other p u n c t u a t i o n marks a r e u s e d a s i n E n g l i s h .

This system

i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e H i n d i p r o s e p a s s a g e a t t b e end o f t h i s
The s y s t e m of p u n c t u a t i o n u s e d i n v e r s e

1.
3.

See S a n s k r i t ,
See S a n s k r i t ,

Ch.2,5.
Gh.2,3.ii.

section .

i s t h e same a s t h a t

i n Sanskrit3.

2. S e e end of C h . 3 .
Reading examples.

is
2

used

C H A P T E R
CONJUNCT

CHARACTERS

Two or more c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s may b e combined i n w r i t i n g Hindi


t o r e p r e s e n t c o n s o n a n t s w h i c h a r e r e a l i s e d w i t h o u t an i n t e r v e n i n g
vowel.

C h a r a c t e r s formed b y c o m b i n i n g o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s a r e c a l l e d

^^JrFjfisiR

(sonyuktakser )
1

b y Hindi grammarians.

The c o n s t r u c t i o n and

c a l l i g r a p h y of conjunct c h a r a c t e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e S a n s k r i t
ion .

The c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s u s e d i n w r i t i n g H i n d i a r e c l a s s i f i e d

i n t h i s c h a p t e r i n t h e same way a s t h e S a n s k r i t c o n j u n c t
1.

contexts:

In Hindi w o r d s , t h a t i s , w o r d s n o t b o r r o w e d from S a n s k r i t or from


other languages;

ii.

e.g.

<F=gr

C R M %

becca

kyoki

m^t
mokkhii

In S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , e i t h e r w o r d s commonly u s e d i n H i n d i , o r
l e a r n e d loanwords u s e d i n t h e l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e ;

pustok

strii

i i i . I n loanwords from o t h e r l a n g u a g e s ;

1 .

characters^.

C o n t e x t s o f Conjunct C h a r a c t e r s i n H i n d i .

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r i n H i n d i i n t h e s e
i.

sect-

?TW

WWrU

doroxt

hofta

'joined character'.

2 .

See S a n s k r i t ,

e.g.

/obd
e.g.

s^e/on

C h . 3 , 1 .

3 .

ibid.

Ch.3,3.

76

HINDI
2.

SECTION

R e a l i s a t i o n of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s i n H i n d i .

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e a l i s e d i n r e a d i n g a s s y l l a b l e s
i n g of two or more c o n s o n a n t s f o l l o w e d by a v o w e l .

When an okar c o n -

junct c h a r a c t e r occurs as the f i n a l

c h a r a c t e r of a word, i t

r e a l i s e d w i t h an o - g l i d e ,

, g u p t ' , $|| V I > J a s t r ' . l

The r e a l i s a t i o n

as i n

ing.

is

i n modern Hindi of akar c h a r a c t e r s w i t h

vowel i n c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s

in words

gives rise

consist-

usually

zero-

t o a p r o b l e m of

spell-

For i n s t a n c e , when a f o r m a t i v e p a r t i c l e b e g i n n i n g w i t h a c o n s o n -

a n t c h a r a c t e r i s added t o a v e r b a l b a s e e n d i n g i n a f i n a l

okar

ant c h a r a c t e r ,

realised

the f i n a l

with zero-vowel.

c h a r a c t e r of t h e b a s e i s u s u a l l y

T h i s r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e c o n s e c u t i v e c h a r a c t e r s

s i m i l a r t o t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r .

Similar

ed w i t h z e r o - v o w e l b e f o r e a f o l l o w i n g c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r ,

realis-

and i n com-

pound words i n w h i c h t h e f i r s t

p a r t ends i n an okar c o n s o n a n t
3
t e r , and t h e s e c o n d p a r t b e g i n s w i t h a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r .

charac-

C l a s s e s of Conjunct Characters in Hindi.U

A l l the c l a s s e s

of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n i n t h e

Sanskrit

s e c t i o n o c c u r i n H i n d i , b u t i n some of t h e c l a s s e s o n l y a few
the c h a r a c t e r s are used.

Those u s e d i n w r i t i n g H i n di a r e

of

illustrated

by t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n i n e a c h c l a s s , w h i c h i n c l u d e some S a n s k r i t
words w h i c h a r e commonly u s e d i n H i n d i .

loan-

More r a r e l y u s e d l o a n w o r d s ,

some of w h i c h may o c c u r i n l i t e r a r y H i n d i ,

are i n c l u d e d among t h e

examples g i v e n w i t h each c l a s s i n the S a n s k r i t


1.

is

problems

a r i s e i n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , where an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s

3.

conson-

section.

In t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e x a m p l e s , t h i s g l i d e i s n o t i n d i c a t e d i n
words t o which t h i s r u l e a p p l i e s .
2. See a b o v e , C h . 2 , 1 . n o t e s
a. t o d.
3 . Examples of such words a r e g i v e n b e l o w , w i t h e a c h
c l a s s of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s .
U. See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 .

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS
C l a s s 1 . Two s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r s

77

joined.

The s e r i e s o f c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s c l a s s o c c u r r i n g i n S a n s k r i t
given in that s e c t i o n .

s y l l a b a r y occur i n t h i s c l a s s , b u t some o c c u r o n l y i n S a n s k r i t
words u s e d i n t h e l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e .
i s w r i t t e n as

is

Most of t h e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s of t h e Hindi

loan-

The c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t i n g

, the s u p e r s c r i b e d s t r o k e r e p r e s e n t i n g

-rra

when p r e -

p
c e d i n g a n o t h er c o n s o n a n t . The m o d i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s
occur i n t h i s c l a s s , b u t o|-oh , qqa ,
w r i t t e n i n P e r s i a n and A r a b i c

VHVh ,

ffo

, and

and

<J do n o t

\FjT , z z o a r e

loanwords.

A c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t i n g an a s p i r a t e d c o n s o n a n t i s n o t w r i t t e n
i n S a n s k r i t as t h e f i r s t

part of a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s
\o^cj

but i n w r i t i n g Hindi t h e c h a r a c t e r s
are sometimes u s e d .

The c o m b i n a t i o n

, khkh

-mm

and

, "|;h"|;h

may be a l t e r n a t i v e l y r e -

p r e s e n t e d by w r i t i n g an a n u s v a r w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g
in

V4J-41 <3[

or

class,

, as

VS^ft"^ , ummid .

The f o l l o w i n g example s i l l u s t r a t e
s e c u t i v e consonant c h a r a c t e r s ,

H i n d i words i n w h i c h two c o n -

t h e f i r s t b e i n g kar, a r e r e a l i s e d

ordinary s p e e c h i n t h e same way a s c o n j u n c t


snn

bn-na'3

characters:

yusse

us-se k

Reading examples .
pF?f>T

*raR5FT

1. See S a n s k r i t , C h . . 3 , C l a s s . 1 .
3 . Verbal form.
5. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 86.

cR^ft

sf^cft

I ^ W

2. S e e b e l o w , C l a s s 3 . i i i . a .
L\.. Pronoun w i t h s u f f i x .

in

78

HINDI

C l a s s 2. Two v e r g i i y c h a r a c t e r s
The c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

SECTION

joined.

in t h i s c l a s s which occur i n S a n s k r i t

g i v e n in the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .
1

Some of t h e more common c o n j u n c t

c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s o c c u r r i n g i n H i n d i , m o s t l y i n S a n s k r i t
w o r d s , a r e g i v e n b e l o w , w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n of some c o n j u n c t
o c c u r r i n g i n P e r s i a n and A r a b i c l o a n w o r d s .

loan-

characters

Some of t h e e x a m p l e s

given

i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n may be f o u n d i n Hindi t e x t s , i n l e a r n e d
words i n t h e l i t e r a r y
-kto

-tko

ii.

- b j

loan-

language.

3.

-gd

-dg

-pt

-tp

-bd

-db

<Frf
-bz

-qt

9FST
-qb

-qf

-ft

-bt

OXJrj

-xte

are

Most of t h e c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n under i i . a .

in the Sanskrit

section

a r e w r i t t e n i n l i t e r a r y H i n d i , t h i s method of r e p r e s e n t i n g a
homorganic n a s a l c o n s o n a n t p r e c e d i n g one of t h e v e r g i i y

charact-

e r s b e i n g g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r r e d t o t h e u s e of t h e o n u s v a r ,

in

w r i t i n g S a n s k r i t loanwords3. Among t h e c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n i n
S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n under i i . b . , only

"JfT , jji

occur i n Hindi.

i s not c a l l i g r a p h i c a l l y

The c h a r a c t e r

conjunct c h a r a c t e r ,
series.

and i t

f o l l o w i n g vowel^-.

-kmo

-gn

of

I n Hindi d i c t i o n a r i e s , words b e g i n n i n g w i t h

These c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r i n S a n s k r i t

-ghn

-tm

syllabic

gy , w i t h n a s a l i s a t i o n

c h a r a c t e r a r e p l a c e d a f t e r words b e g i n n i n g w i t h
iii.

<?T , - t n

and

i s often included in the

I t i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d as

the

the
this

vj^" .

loanwords:

-dm

-pn

1. See S a n s k r i t , Ch.3>Class 2.
2. The numbers i . - i v . c o r r e s p o n d
t o t h e a r r a n g e m e n t of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .
3. See a b o v e , C h . 2 , i . b .
L. Cf.
gy , i n C l a s s 3 . i . b e l o w .

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS
i v . Of t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s g r o u p , o n l y
occur i n H i n d i , i n S a n s k r i t

, -rjmo and

the f i r s t

H i n d i words i n w h i c h

sok-tii

Reading e x a m p l e s .
W R T

-&cW>-R

fOT

^TovT

^cT

"H|*

^F^H^fl
Class 3 .

^^PFT

dab-ta

characters;

padma

ad'mii

" H I P

OTT

|WT

h^rt

w^zr

TTOF^TT

TT^

olW

oTcST
^ftc

SNF%

| O P R ^llcHI W F T

Characters

Characters

robt

in

* T %

F^RF

i.

consecut-

b e i n g okar, are r e a l i s e d

o r d i n a r y s p e e c h i n t h e same way a s c o n j u n c t

Jokti

, -nmo

loanwords.

The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e
ive consonant c h a r a c t e r s ,

79

joined with a n t a s t h

joined with f o l l o w i n g

The s e r i e s of c h a r a c t e r s

characters.

Xf

in this class

occurring in Sanskrit

g i v e n i n t h a t s e c t i o n . 3 Most o f t h e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s of t h e
s y l l a b a r y can be combined w i t h f o l l o w i n g

Xf

, t h o u g h some of

conjunct c h a r a c t e r s occur o n l y i n S a n s k r i t loanwords i n the

is

Hindi

these
literary

l a n g u a g e . Some of t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n may o c c u r
i n a Hindi l i t e r a r y t e x t .

Of t h e m o d i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s ,

occur combined w i t h f o l l o w i n g

ZJ -in P e r s i a n and A r a b i c

1 . Verbal form.
2. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,
3 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 , C l a s s 3 . i i i . b .

see

p . 86.

Jpf

and

loanwords.

80

HINDI

SECTION

Reading E x a m p l e s .
oRt

cqt
OFH^J

ii.

to^TcT

"qT

^3"^Tt T
T

*TT

^ T ^ T

=*rrq"

siTRotrr^r

^pjc^r

Characters

^TTTl"

sq^IT

wfT

^Tors^r

joined with following

"^TTZT

^TT

^m^-

Trgw

o^srr

cT .

The s e r i e s o f c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s c l a s s o c c u r r i n g i n S a n s k r i t
p
given in that s e c t i o n .

Only a few of t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e H i n d i

s y l l a b a r y o c c u r combined w i t h f o l l o w i n g
mainly in Sanskrit loanwords.
i s combined w i t h

cf
3

is

cf , and t h o s e t h a t o c c u r

Of t h e m o d i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s ,

are

o n l y ^cf

Reading e x a m p l e s .

^ocTTsr

" W T T

"H^
iii.
a.

Characters

-3cTR

^OTR

E5#

CTT^T

ivFTT

joined with preceding

f^T

^f%rT

"^TK

or w i t h f o l l o w i n g

*5[ p r e c e d i n g .
Characters r e a l i s e d with preceding

called

r , r e p r e s e n t e d by the

( r e f ) , a r e i l l u s t r a t e d , w i t h n o t e s on c a l l i g r a p h y ,

S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n . ^ These c h a r a c t e r s occur i n Hindi w o r d s , i n


l o a n w o r d s , and i n l o a n w o r d s from o t h e r l a n g u a g e s .
below i l l u s t r a t e
The c h a r a c t e r s

stroke
in

the

Sanskrit

The e x a m p l e s

given

t h e c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s w h i c h o c c u r i n H i n d i .
7T,

d o u b l e d when w r i t t e n w i t h

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,
3 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,

7T
ref

>

*T

3"

are

often

s e e p . 8 6 . 2. See S a n s k r i t ,
s e e p . 8 6 . U. See S a n s k r i t ,

Ch.3Class
Ch.3,Class

3.ii.
3.iii.a.

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS
The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e

81

H i n d i words i n which

consecut-

i v e consonant c h a r a c t e r s , t h e f i r s t b e i n g kar, a r e r e a l i s e d i n
ordinary s p e e c h i n t h e same way a s c o n j u n c t

korta

kor-ta^

srv

characters:

dor'vaza

A few words may b e w r i t t e n e i t h e r w i t h

dhorm

f o l l o w e d by a c o n s o n a n t

c h a r a c t e r or w i t h a c h a r a c t e r w i t h s u p e r s c r i b e d

dor'bar
b.

dsrbar

por'da

dr'maha

parda

ref ; e.g.

dr jii

dsrjii

"5[ f o l l o w i n g .
Characters r e a l i s e d w i t h

following,

r e p r e s e n t e d by a s h o r t

s t r o k e p l a c e d e i t h e r a g a i n s t t h e u p r i g h t s t r o k e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r or
beneath the c h a r a c t e r , are g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .
examples g i v e n below i l l u s t r a t e
occur i n H i n d i .

the c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s

The
which

The m a j o r i t y o f s u c h words a r e l o a n w o r d s from

S a n s k r i t and E n g l i s h .
Reading e x a m p l e s . 3

"3?ff

t $

?foR

*r n
7

srJ

^SPW

^IT

fit*?
iv.
a.

W^FT

T f ^

*P&*no*r

^tfS sHf ^|

F4

ST^FT

*JPT

^ y T

PT

Tffr

TO

^Tg

*W

cffa

^T^T

Characters j o i n e d w i t h p r e c e d i n g

^^cT

gj^f srff H
ttX^T

cvT or w i t h f o l l o w i n g

^*J$

cFT

q% p r e c e d i n g .
The c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s w h i c h o c c u r i n S a n s k r i t a r e g i v e n i n

that s e c t i o n . ^

The c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r r i n g i n H i n d i a r e i l l u s t r a t e d b y

1. Verbal form.
2. See S a n s k r i t ,
Ch.3,3.CI.3.iii.b.
3. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 8 6 .
U. S e e S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C 1 . 3 . i v . a .
G

82

HINDI

t h e e x a m p l es g i v e n b e l o w .

SECTION

Some words may be w r i t t e n e i t h e r w i t h

f o l l o w e d by a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r ,
this class; e.g.
b.

or w i t h a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r

of

f^cyfc^cT or RorcpoT , b i l k u l .

following.
The c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s c l a s s w h i c h o c c u r i n S a n s k r i t a r e g i v e n

t h a t section.-*- The e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w i l l u s t r a t e
which o c c u r i n H i n d i ,
p
Reading examples.

*f35

characters

i n S a n s k r i t and E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s ,

ararao

C l a s s U.

the

in

vorgiiy characters

if^T^T

f r m

^ g ^ r

j o i n e d w i t h p r e c e d i n g or f o l l o w i n g uusm

characters.
i*
a.

or

"^T > "^T

p r e c e d i n g or f o l l o w i n g v o r g i i y

characters,

preceding.

The c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s c l a s s w h i c h o c c u r i n
are given i n the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .

Sanskrit

Those w h i c h a r e w r i t t e n i n H i n d i ,

i n c l u d i n g t h o s e o c c u r r i n g i n S a n s k r i t and o t h e r l o a n w o r d s , a r e
a t e d by t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w .

The f o l l o w i n g c o n j u n c t

indic-

characters

which are not i n c l u d e d i n the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n occur i n H i n d i ,

in

l o a n w o r d s from o t h e r l a n g u a g e s :

S3o
-Jqe

-J"to

-sto

-sbo

H i n d i words i n w h i c h c o n s e c u t i v e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s ,

the

first

c h a r a c t e r b e i n g o k a r , a r e r e a l i s e d i n o r d i n a r y s p e e c h i n t h e same way
1. See S a n s k r i t , Ch. 1 + . 3 , C I . 3 . i v . b .
2 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . h . 3 , C I . k - i . a .

2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,

s e e p. 87.

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS

83

as c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e s e

rosta
b.

"5T ,

or

bos-ta

qismot

of t h i s

c l a s s w h i ch o c c u r i n S a n s k r i t

are g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n " ^ .

Only a few o f t h e s e

characters

The c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h o c c u r a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e

r e a d i n g examples g i v e n b e l o w .

Some a d d i t i o n a l

c l a s s , not included in the S a n s k r i t


other l a n g u a g e s :

us-me 2

"^T f o l l o w i n g .

The c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

occur i n H i n d i .

examples:

"^o^ , x s o , *o%\

series,
, xja

characters

of

this

occur i n loanwords

from

fsa .

Reading e x a m p l e s . ^
a.

gf%oT

^TC
fe^ft

ii.

|[

qTTrT

t<* f ^ r l

Vf$C
^cTfT

g**EoT

^ R * T

S^cTR

f^SRT

^ c = f

p r e c e d i n g or f o l l o w i n g an o n u n a s i k

Only t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s
by t h e s e

'HI ^ 4

of t h i s

class

W W

Ttf5RT

^ T F T

character^.

occur i n Hindi,

illustrated

examples:-

a.

| | preceding

h.

| | following

4-^1^1 u n h a r i i
1. Verbal form.
3 . See S a n s k r i t ,
5. See S a n s k r i t ,

, as i n
^ ,or

sTfirTW

> brahmor; .

*T a s i n ^URT , nhan ,

mharii

, untie ,

, ^FsfST kumhora , <J1=^ , tumhe .

2. Pronoun w i t h s u f f i x .
Ch.3. 3 . CI. 1+. i . b .
U. F o r t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,
Ch.3. 3 . 01^1+. i i . a. and b .

s e e p . 87.

84

H I N D I

Hindi p r o s e

passagel

^TPW

oft? CT^TT *rrW , c^^q

^5T5er ftcft ^

wft

focFt

ftcTT f

^f^r

f , c^f cqf

1 1

S E C T I O N

^ffcr

HT^t 3

gfrTfm

VTiUft

tfgF

^ f a r f o ftcTT ^HT | I

-fen

^TT 7^1 |

hstt

I T

*rfw

1. Hindi S h a b d a s a g a r , p . l , e d . Shamsundardas, p u b . 1916, by K a s h i Nagari-Sabha.

TRANSCRIPTION

Transcription

of

Reading

85

Examples

Chapter 2 .

1. i .

cho

dha

to

kab
phon^

dhan
thon

bht

caph
xam

mogon
hhejon

1 .

i i.

bsc'psn

DOl
nav

phsl
chal

cht
qd

qdm
kthn

ckh

ght
m"|;h

Oht
kf

yazab
xatsm

dhmk
chamak

jsm'gh"];

hr
dhs

das
haq

samajh
sagarh

Japath
hazam

Jsrsr^
semoy

ai

ek

uuth

uupor

yzon

bhii
ke

sav
pii

duudh
hoy
lie
maydan
prthivii

bhat
nav
J*uruu

ae

ka
dho

de
ja
hoyth
gay
dhobii

qitab
keuur

qbr
xabar

psrhst
zxm

phafkan

jhafpa.t

tr
D*ey

chay
bhar

varaii
yzl

dal'kan
macal'pan

saras
fakal

ao

khsl
yam

lyn
yamak

sab

ham
had

kaj

s a r 'kaj"
mas'raf

evr
un
is
iid
ovsodh
gar

c n z
din
poysa

huzuur
rupayye

hal
har
hasad
halaf

ao

vn
lav

k a r ' V9~[
paka^'kar

hoz'rot
hoi'col

ghar
bal
vzn
yavan

bas
ros

yoj"

kas rat
hr'kt

mas'nad
hafkan

vay

caph'kar
prj'vo\

l.iii.

l 8

cspsl
vcn

gar a3
yamal

l a m ' ch
khr V9\

mat'lb
com'rax

2.ii.

kharak
ghtk
pt'jh

vr
jar

colsn
taraf

bdl
yaraz

ab
ojh
idhor

djiab
yem

kr
dhr

2. i .

ghon
gaz

phohn
pkr

jhogor
canak

dhm'kt

tho

Jabar
kalaj

kat'phal

hath
sar
saf ar
taras

xas'lot
sar'dal
ae

ai

orh
uukh
m
ag
or
geii
goe
oyj
ojhar
avr'at
aypan

pay
nav

311
do

le

khul
jhuut
xana

mavj
usa
bhiiti

kara:q
siiar

faqiir
dekhao

ya
hoy

se

ched
rtu
krpa
tsyyar
sunaii

iikh
saii

kha
so
drdh
huii
borii

ve
thii
jhiil
dhoe
jae
dii jie
bahudha

86

HINDI

maz'duur
beinamii
bonav'tii

kam'zor
isiiliye
m u s a l ' m an

SECTION

f'sos
moz'dik
der'vaza
caturaii
bayl'gacjii savdagar
xabar'dar xid'mat'gar

ghariyal
roz'garii

p . 1 3 . k h i r ' k i i duus'ra
it'na
ad'mii kap'ra l o m ' r i i b a v ' l i i
phay'da
dekh-na b a y t h - t i i l i k h - t a
pak'pana g h a b ' r a t i i
pakar-na
cjhalak-na
t e r a h cavdah s u b a h b a y e r a h g a h i r a pahacan ' ( ; h ~
kacaharii
n 8

2 . 1 . a .

may

jo

hii

8 r

n a

nahii
gae
mi\
pac
gav
gaii
dono
voha
akhe
g h u us
bhays
dej"6
davrii
poch-na
bhaiio
ec|ua
lahaga
mahaga
has-na
pahuc-na

meh

os
lit
jauu
kue
adh
bhok
bhvk-na
auuga
jaege
soh

b . p a n d i t arambh s a n g a t t l ^ . o n j i i r p a s a n d bandhan sarjghat


kamp-na
pan jab
jangal
barjcjii
sing
d^imb
andar
angul
Jankh
sangh
pane'mii
khambha
ant
kutumb
manoronjak
n 8 r

Chapter 3 Class 1 .
pakka
huqqa
makkhan
laggii
ghugghuu
baccii
lajja
izzat
jhajjhar
patt
tt
\<\
^ha
patthar
baddal
Juddh
ann
chappar
phupphuus
bhabbhar
kimmat
rayyat
harra
killii
navve
a

c i

n i : i

9<

b u

iccha
patta
d^ibbii
hissa

Class 2 .
i.

bhakti
kubj
ii. ling
arambh
iii.rukminii
i v . janm

vaqt
satkar
daraxt
sadgur^
vaqf
ekbiis
sabz
gupt
utpann
hafta
Jabd
lafz
latf
s a n g h pajicamii
manjha ghar^a
t lA / a n t i
lampat
parantu uparant
jjian ( g y a n )
jijjiasu
ratn
sambandh
huqm
atma
xatm
lagn
umda
vanmay
n8r

C l a s s 3 i
kyo
tyo
karyy

rrmkhy
xyal
gyareh
jyo
zyada
cjyavdjiii
pur^y
pathy
udyog
madhy
nyay
pyarii
byatha
sabhy
ammily
vyakhyan
ava/y
manusy
syal
vyatha

Class 3 ii
pakvann
svamii
Class

xvab
sarv

gvar
sarvv

jvar
iijvar

tattv
kvara

dvara
kvacit

dhvani
J*vas

vi/v
svapn

3.iii.

a. t a r k
f a r q muurkh s u r x
v a r g g d i i r g h rrraryii
xarc
rrraurchit
arz a r j k o r t
garc[ vorr^amala k i i r t i
a r t h urduu arddh
uurf
arpar^ arb garbh dharmm a r y y
sarvv
dar/an vers
kursii
arhit
b.
kram
kram
gram
angrez
t
priy
frak
namr
a b ru
Jram

ratrii
tiivr

patr
chidr
mantr

samudr

87

TRANSCRIPTION
C l a s s 3 i v .
bolki
nrnlk
ql ( e q o l )

phalguri
iltiza
ilmii
kulha^a
ilzam
fsl (fsl)
ixlas
vssl
Juki
klas

ultha
ulmukh

C l a s s h.
i.a.
mujkil
prsjn
pa/cat
ajcsry
csjma
pusksl
krsr^
ras"|;r
pustsk
vaste
vsstr
strii
rasta
hindusthan
snan
spas'];
sphuurti
svssti
svssth
ustad
Jastr
pojcim
ki/tii
iftiha
nisbet
ijq
skuul
s^ejon
VX
0S

b.
baxj"

aksor
Jaxs

ksor
afsos

poriiksa

ksama

laksmii

vats

pratyaks

Hindi p r o s e p a s s a g e
k i s i i j a t i ke j i v a n me u s ' k e d v a r a p r o y u k t
Jobdo ka
otyont
mehettvopuurn^ s t h a n hoy. a v e j y o k ' t a t a t h a s t h i t i ke nusar i n p r a y u k t
Jahdo ka agam a t h ' v a l o p t o t h a v a c y , l a k s y
evam d y o t y bhavo me p o r i v o r t e n h o t a r e h - t a hoy.
o t ' e v a a v r s a m a g r i i ke abhav ma i n Jabdo ke
dvara k i s i i j a t i ke j i i v e n k i i b h i n n b h i n n s t h i t i y o ka i t i h a s u p a s t h i t
k i y a ja s a k - t a hay. i s i i adhar p a r a r y j a t i ka p r a c i i n ' t a m i t i h a s p r e s t u t k i y a gaya hay avr jy o j y o s a m a g r i i u p o l o b d h h o t i i ja r o h i i h a y ,
tyo ty o yoh i t i h a s t
k k i y a j a r a h a h a y . i s a v a s t h a me yah b a t s p a s t
samajh me a s a k - t i i hay k i j a t i i y j i i v a n me Jabdo ka s t h a n
kit'ne
mahattv ka hoy. j a t i i y s a h i t y ko r a k s i t k a r - n e t a t h a u s - k e b h a v i s y ko
sucaru avr samujval bonane ke a t i r i k t vah k i s i i b h a s a k i i s a m p a n n ' t a
ya J e b d ' b a h u l t a ka suucok avr us b h a s a k e s a h i t y ka adhyayan k o r - n e v a l o ka sab s e bo-pa sahayok b h i i
h o t a hay.
vijes'teh
any b h a s a b h a s i y d avr v i d e j i y o ke l i y e t o u s - k a a v r b h i i a d h i k upeyog h o t a h o y .
i n sob d r s ^ i y o s e J o b d - k o j k i s i i b h a s a
ke s a h i t y k i i
muulyavan
s a m p e t t i avr us b h a s a ke bhancjar ka s a b s e ba^a n i d a r j a k h o t a h o y .
n i i

MARATHI

SECTION

C H A P T E R
ARRANGEMENT

OP

THE

SYLLABARY

The Devanagari S c r i p t i s u s e d i n w r i t i n g Marathi ( Ep[r<t


t h e arrangement o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s

) and

i n t h e s y l l a b a r y i s t h e same a s

t h e S a n s k r i t arrangement-'-. Some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e u s e d o n l y i n
w r i t i n g S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , b u t m o s t o f them may be found i n l i t e r a r y
texts.
The s c r i p t i s u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o a s JI c*ST)*T
can be u n d e r s t o o d by a c h i l d ' .

(balobodh) ,

'that

T h i s name i s u s e d t o r e f e r t o t h e

Devanagari s c r i p t t o d i s t i n g u i s h

i t from t h e c u r s i v e s c r i p t a l s o u s e d

i n w r i t i n g M a r a t h i , and known a s

qt^t

c a l l e d 3T~$TT

(ksor) and t h e s y l l a b i c

(vornmala) , ' c h a r a c t e r - s e r i e s ' .

( m o c j i i ) . Each c h a r a c t e r
series

is

i s c a l l e d 6Ju^|<v>|

The t e r m s u s e d by Marathi grammarians

in referring to the characters are s i m i l a r to those used in S a n s k r i t ,


but as t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r s

i n Marathi d i f f e r s

somewhat

from t h e S a n s k r i t s y s t e m i n r e s p e c t o f c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s ,

these

terms are u s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n t h e i r Marathi f o r m , and t r a n s c r i b e d


i n accordance w i t h t h e Marathi r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r s .

The

d i f f e r e n c e between t h e terms u s e d i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n and t h e


c o r r e s p o n d i n g Marathi terms i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e s e
Sanskrit

^3T^IT

(okser)

(viramoh) ,

fotTW

(viram)

(ontohstho),

sS^TT^^r ( n t o s t h )

^ { j j f ^ j^

(ekssrsm),

i^TPR":
^FcT^Sf
1. See S a n s k r i t , C h . l .

examples:

M a r a t hi

92

MARATHI

SECTION

The t a b l e g i v e n b e l o w shows t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t b e M a r a t h i

syll-

abary i n roman n o t a t i o n . As t h e s y s t e m o f w r i t i n g i s s y l l a b i c , t h e
characters i n the syllabary represent s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i ng e i t h er of
a vowe l or o f a c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d b y t h e v o w e l

o . The roman t a b l e

shows e a c h c o n s o n a n t w r i t t e n w i t h t h i s v o w e l , w h i c h , when i t i s r e a l i s e d With a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r ,


texts as the 'inherent

vowel'.
1
Velar

Voiced

Voiceless

CONSONANTS w i t h

P l o s i v e s

i s usually referred to i n English

2
Palatal

Unaspirated

C -,

Aspirated

kh

ch

Unaspirated

3 1

Aspirated

gh

jh
zh- -

ts

Nasal

(p)

Semivowels

3
Retroflex

5
Labial

th

th

ph

a;

dh

dh

bh

v-^

Fricatives
h

Aspirate
Lateral

VOWELS
MODIFIERS

k
Dental

ii

N a s a l - nj , o r

1. - h. S e e n o t e s on f o l l o w i n g p a g e .

UU

Aspirated - h

5. S e e S a n s k r i t ,

Chapter 1.

ARRANGEMENT OF T H E SYLLABARY
Notes on t h e s y l l a b l e s marked 1.. - h.
1. The c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g

co

93

i n t h e roman t a b l e :

, j a and jho

are r e a l i s e d

some words as a l v e o l a r c o n s o n a n t s , w i t h f r i c a t i v e

or

articulation.

1^sa , za

This r e a l i s a t i o n

zha , as shown i n t h e

is

t r a n s c r i b e d as

affricated
and

table.

2. The c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g

na

and

jia

do n o t o c c u r a s

c h a r a c t e r s , but only i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h other c h a r a c t e r s ,


only i n S a n s k r it loanwords u s e d i n t b e l i t e r a r y
3 The c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t i n g
dental

in

vo

single
and

language.

i s usually r e a l i s e d with l a b i o -

articulation.

I I . The c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g

sa

and

syllabic

occur only

in

Sanskrit loanwords.
The s e r i e s of v o w e l s i n c l u d e s

short

i and ' l o n g '

ii,

'short'

and ' l o n g ' uu. These p a i r s o f v o w e l s o c c u r i n Marathi w o r d s , and t h e


characters representing the

'short'

and t h e

a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n r u l e s o f orthography-'-.

' l o n g ' vowels are w r i t t e n


This d i s t i n c t i o n between

the ' s h o r t ' and t h e ' l o n g ' v o w e l s i s p r e s e r v e d i n t h e

transcription

of the c h a r a c t e r s , t h o u g h i n modern M a r a t h i s p e e c h t h e r e i s

often

l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n of words w r i t t e n w i t h t h e
characters representing the
The term ' m o d i f i e r '

'short'

or the

'long'

vowels.

i s explained i n the Sanskrit s e c t i o n .

n a s a l i s e d v o w e l s a r e r a r e i n M a r a t h i and t h e symbol irj


t r a n s c r i b i n g t h e mark o f n a s a l i s a t i o n

Fully

i s used for

only in a systematic

transcript-

i o n of examples f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e s c r i b i n g t h e c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h
is realised.
it is left

In words i n w h i c h t h i s mark i s g i v e n

untranscribed.

1, See b e l o w , end of Chapter 2.

zero-realisation,

it

C H A P T E R
CHARACTERS

OP

THE

SYLLABARY

The c h a r a c t e r s of t h e D e v a n a g a r i S c r i p t u s e d i n w r i t i n g

Marathi,

and t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of them i n r e a d i n g , a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s
under t h e same h e a d i n g s a s t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e S a n s k r i t
1. Consonant

chapter

section:

Characters,

2. Vowel C h a r a c t e r s and Vowel S i g n s ,

and

3. M o d i f i e r s .
The s t y l e of t h e c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n i s
s t y l e g e n e r a l l y u s e d i n H i n d i p r i n t i n g and w r i t i n g .

the

The forms of

the

c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n i n t h a t s e c t i o n a s 'Bombay' forms a r e u s e d i n Marathi


p r i n t i n g and w r i t i n g i n s t e a d of t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g H i n d i f o r m s .
differences

of l i n e and form may b e s e e n by comparing t h e

characters

given in t h i s s e c t i o n w i t h those given in the Sanskrit s e c t i o n .


Hindi s t y l e

The

i s n o t u s e d i n Marathi p r i n t i n g or w r i t i n g .

The method of w r i t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s i s

i n g e n e r a l t h e same a s

t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n , and i n t h e n o t e s on t h e
graphy of s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r s a s t h e y a r e g i v e n i n t h e
section.

Other

When w r i t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s , r e f e r e n c e

calli-

Sanskrit

s h o u l d b e made t o

t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g g r o u p s o f c h a r a c t e r s i n t h a t section."'"

1. R e f e r e n c e s a r e g i v e n t h r o u g h o u t t h i s c h a p t e r t o t h e d i v i s i o n s and
s u b - d i v i s i o n s w i t h t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g numbers i n Chapter 2. of t h e
Sanskrit s e c t i o n .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
1.

Consonant

Characters.

The c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s
characters,

'ontesth'

are arranged in three groups:

characters

given i n the s y l l a b a r y ,
c o n s i s t i n g of an i n i t i a l

a n d 'uusm' c h a r a c t e r s . !

these characters
consonant,

are r e a l i s e d as

or semi-vowel,

o , and t h e y a r e d e s c r i b e d a s 3TBTT

vowel

of a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r w i t h o u t
ant element of t h e s y l l a b l e
s t r o k e known a s fof^fiq"
Sanskrit ,
2

thus,

95

this

only,

(viram)

cR , k - ,

syllables

The r e a l i s a t i o n

i s , as the conson-

i s i n d i c a t e d by w r i t i n g a diagonal

at the foot

cT , t -

that

As t h e y a r e

f o l l o w e d by t h e

(okar).

vowel,

'vorgiiy'

TJ"

of t h e c h a r a c t e r ,
, p - . Characters

as i n
written

w i t h t h i s s t r o k e a r e d e s c r i b e d b y M a r a t h i grammarians a s ' h o l o n t ' ,


as i n S a n s k r i t , b u t i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f w r i t i n g i n Marathi
THT ftS'^t

the w r i t i n g o f t h i s s t r o k e i s c a l l e d
'breaking the f o o t ' ) ,
as

05*1%

(longocjem,

and a c h a r a c t e r w i t h t h i s

stroke i s

somewhat from t h e r e a l i s a t i o n

characters

i n r e a d i n g Marathi

of these characters

The f o l l o w i n g n o t e s may be r e g a r d e d a s g e n e r a l

in Sanskrit.

guiding principles

which r e f e r e n c e may be made l a t e r when t h e c h a r a c t e r s


in

described

'lame').

The r e a l i s a t i o n , of okar c o n s o n a n t
differs

schools

( p a y mo^onem,

to

are d i s c u s s e d

detail.

a. A f i n a l

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r

vowel, except i n a few S a n s k r i t


b. A f i n a l

i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d with

zero-

loanwords.

okar c h a r a c t e r f o r m e d b y c o m b i n i n g two or more c o n s o n a n t

characters3, or a f i n a l

o k a r c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d e d by a

1. See S a n s k r i t , Ch2,1.1 - i i i .
2. S e e S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , l . i o
okar
consonant c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l , a s d e s c r i b e d belo w
i n n o t e s a. - d. a r e , h o w e v e r , n o t w r i t t e n w i t h t h e v i r a m , w h i c h
i s u s e d m a i n l y i n w r i t i n g c e r t a i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s and Marathi
c o l l o q u i a l forms.
3. S e e b e l o w , Ch.3.
i

MARATHI

SECTION

character w r i t t e n with the anusvar


i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d w i t h an
c.

representing a nasal

consonant,

-glide.

A m e d i a l kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r
w i t h an - g l i d e ,

i s realised with zero-vowel,

in c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s ; a s , for

i n s t a n c e , when s u c h

a c h a r a c t e r o c c u r s a s t h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r of a word of t h r e e
more c h a r a c t e r s

or

or

and t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s w r i t t e n w i t h one of

vowel s i g n s .

Other c o n t e x t s a r e g i v e n l a t e r , when t h e

are d i s c u s s e d i n

detail.

d. When an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r

i s the f i n a l

c h a r a c t e r of a

v e r b a l "base, i t

i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel,

-glide,

t h e a d d i t i o n of s u f f i x e s

before

ning w i t h ,

or w i t h an

c o n s i s t i n g of,

or b e g i n -

a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r w i t h one of t h e v o w e l

In t h e t r a n s c r i p f i o n

of Marathi w o r d s , f i n a l

characters realise d with zero-vowel,


without

characters

kar

signs.

consonant

or w i t h an - g l i d e ,

are

, and m e d i a l kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d

way a r e w r i t t e n t h u s , k ' ,

t',

p ' , f o r guidance in reading .

written

in

this

Reference

t o t h e s e n o t e s s h o u l d b e made when r e a d i n g t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n w i t h
the characters throughout t h i s chapter.
occur as i n i t i a l
syllable

characters

i n t h e roman

C h a r a c t e r s w h i c h do n o t

a r e i n d i c a t e d by a hyphen p r e f i x e d t o

the

transcription.
3

i.

C h a r a c t e r s of t h e v o r g i i y
The f i r s t

group.

group o f c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s c o n s i s t s

of

twentyfive

c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g s y l l a b l e s w i t h an i n i t i a l p l o s i v e c o n s o n a n t
f o l l o w e d by t h e v o w e l
.
These c h a r a c t e r s f a l l i n t o f i v e ofTf
(vorg),

or c l a s s e s .

The c h a r a c t e r s

1. See b e l o w , 2 . i i .
3 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , l . i .

2.

i n t h e t a b l e g i v e n b e l o w may be
See below, 2 . i i .

Vowel

signs.

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
compared w i t h t h e S a n s k r i t c h a r a c t e r s ,

ko-vorg

i n t h e Hindi

7?

kh

go

gha

c(tsa)

ch

ja(za)

jha(zha)

style.

XT

35

co-verg

Jo-verg

written

97

-jia

z,

th

a;

aha

th

dha

to-vorg
t

na

po-vorg
ph

The c h a r a c t e r s
t h e y are w r i t t e n ,

and

ba

v3T" do n o t

bha

ma

occur i n Marathi words, but

in combination w i t h other c h a r a c t e r s ,

S a n s k r i t loanwords u s e d i n t h e l i t e r a r y
The t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s

, vrf

i n some

language.

and

are r e a l i s e d

in reading

i n two w a y s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e word i n w h i c h t h e y o c c u r , and t h e


vowels w i t h which t h e y a r e r e a l i s e d when w r i t t e n w i t h one of
vowel
a.

b.

the

signs.

The p a l a t a l r e a l i s a t i o n ,

as

co

^3T a s

ja , and

as

jha , i s made u s u a l l y i n r e a d i n g S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s ,

and a l w a y s

when t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s have t h e s i g n s

, ii

The a l v e o l a r r e a l i s a t i o n ,
as

as

of t h e v o w e l s i

1^s ,

\Jf

as

or

za , and ff

zha , i s made u s u a l l y i n o t h e r w o r d s , when t h e s e

characters

ay.

98

MARATHI

SECTION

are a k a r , or when t h e y a r e w r i t t e n w i t h t h e s i g n s o f t h e v o w e l s
a , u , uu , o
c.

or

ev- -.
1

When t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s a r e w r i t t e n w i t h t h e s i g n o f t h e vow61

e ,

t h e p a l a t a l and a l v e o l a r r e a l i s a t i o n s o c c u r i n an a l m o s t e v e n
d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w o r d s , and e v e n may v a r y from t i m e t o t i m e w i t h
changing conventions of speech.
No c o m p r e h e n s i v e r u l e c a n be g i v e n f o r t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e s e
t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s , h o w e v e r , and i n t h e r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s t h e p a l a t a l
r e a l i s a t i o n s h o u l d b e made u n l e s s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e a l v e o l a r

real-

isation i s given.
The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e v a r y i n g r e a l i s a t i o n o f okar
consonant c h a r a c t e r s
a.

in certain

contexts:

As t h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r of a f o u r c h a r a c t e r word:
^rTF>^' dhamaka"!; , r e a l i s e d a s
x

b.

dham'ka !;
-

In a v e r b a l f o r m , t h e r e a l i s a t i o n c h a n g i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o r m ative particle

or p a r t i c l e s

added:

tSTS , i^socjhe , v e r b a l b a s e , r e a l i s e d a s
^TcTfi tpod^hote , b a s e w i t h
^TS^^T

<=f a d d e d , r e a l i s e d a s

it6oc|hete1}S , b a s e w i t h
r e a l i s e d as

tsod^h

i^socjhet

, and e m p h a t i c p a r t i c l e , W

1is6^h ' t e ^ s .

Reading e x a m p l e s .
1 . One c h a r a c t e r w o r d s .
words:

TJ

Four o f t h e v o r g i i y c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r a s

W <3>

1 . See b e l o w , i n t h i s c h a p t e r , 2 . i i .
2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e x a m p l e s , s e e page 1 3 0 .
The a l v e o l a r
r e a l i s a t i o n o f c-vrg c h a r a c t e r s i s i n d i c a t e d by an a s t e r i s k .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
2.

Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l
W\

characters r e a l i s e d with

BTT

3. Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l
q^r

"TO^

eRSfi

T35W>

99
zero-vowel.

T^cT

characters r e a l i s e d with
*r<5Hr

*W&rt

*T^cT

5 ^

VsTfT

*vjTCcr

1+.' Four c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h
or w i t h an - g l i d e , f i n a l

T3wz

'^qsRrT

zero-vowel.

*3mS
zero-vowel,

k w ^ z

*^^rcRrT

*^5R^T

ST*?

zero-vowel.

wjj?iz

erqsFie

^ o f i ^

ii.

characters with

*fTeFR

*ZhW*iZ

C h a r a c t e r s of t h e n t o s t h group."*"
The c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s group g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n a r e

w r i t t e n i n t h e Hindi s t y l e .

yo

The M a r a t h i c h a r a c t e r s

ro

When t h e c h a r a c t e r s

lo
and

realised with a following vowel,

cf

are:

vo

occur i n i t i a l l y ,

or m e d i a l l y

t h e y a r e r e a l i s e d as

consonants.

When they occur m e d i a l l y i n p o s i t i o n s

i n w h i c h okar c o n s o n a n t

c h a r a c t e r s are r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l ,

or f i n a l l y ,

they are

ed as s e m i - v o w e l s , f o r m i n g a d i p h t h o n g w i t h t h e v o w e l of t h e
syllable.

Examples:

yevon
1. See S a n s k r i t ,

vor
Ch.2,l.ii.

bhoy

lov

lov'kor

realispreceding

ioo

MARATHI

SECTION

Readin g examples"'"
1.

One c h a r a c t e r word.

^"

i s t h e o n l y c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s group w h i c h

o c c u r s a s a word.
2.

Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h

^5

or

<q?
3.

*rc

vsz

as

zero-vowel.

c*5*T

*^5r

Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h

zero-vowel.

5T5c^

T^rf

<

cFTO

^T

35R^5

tT65H

^TcT

cPR

WT

ofTST

*xRcT

*^T<?T*

*tt^

3 ^
*^s?f^

*c(^T

h. Pour and f i v e c h a r a c t e r w o r d s . Second c h a r a c t e r i n f o u r


w o r d s , or t h i r d c h a r a c t e r

character

in f i v e character words, r e a l i s e d

with

z e r o - v o w e l or w i t h an o - g l i d e ; f i n a l c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h

zero-

vowel.

^oToRT

opTTrT

TfftZV]

^^cRcf

ZlVtt

^3"cT

*W?QZ

TO^rf
2

iii.

C h a r a c t e r s of t h e uusm g r o u p .
The c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s group g i v e n i n the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n a r e

w r i t t e n in the Hindi s t y l e .

51
Jo

The Marathi c h a r a c t e r s

*T

so

The c h a r a c t e r "Gf

so

f
ho

o c c u r s o n l y i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , and when

r e a d i n g words i n common u s e i n M a r a t h i , i t
except in formal r e a d i n g .
1.
2.

are:

Pinal

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 3 0 .
See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 1 . i i i .

i s o f t e n r e a l i s e d as

i s usually r e a l i s e d with

Jo ,

CHARACTERS

Reading e x a m p l e s
1.

O F T H E SYLLABARY

None of t h e c h a r a c t e r s

o f t h i s g r o u p o c c u r s a s a word.

2. Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l

characters

or, in the l a s t three words, w i t h

5**

TO

*T5T

^e:

^TH

o .

characters

r e a l i s e d with

wm

character words.

characters

fR*T

%*mz

3TcT"qe

The l a s t c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r

or w i t h

zero-vowel.

" & V W

*iw>m;zp

^ T O C K J

or c h a r a c t e r s

r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel

r e a l i s e d with

HTSre

^F^rer

*H^r

Second c h a r a c t e r s ,

i n d i c a t e d by numbers i n b r a c k e t s ,

zero-vowel.

*rc*r

*^nr

final

TO^

and e - g l i d e ;

zero-vowel,

$R

sro*r

WrT

r e a l i s e d with

3 . Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l

h. Four and f i v e

IC

trw*rw

i n t h e Marathi s y l l a b a r y

? J

is
2

o5" , -],Q , r e a l i s e d a s a r e t r o f l e x
Examples of words w r i t t e n w i t h t h i s
Uo5

XFIOS

tJoSH

*xT55cl55

"^["55"

The two c h a r a c t e r s

^?TO5"

^o5gR3"

lateral

**R\3TcT55 (2)

^ 5 5 ^

CJAFOS

SfJoSlToSrT t2) * ^ o o ^ *

55

in the

representing syllables

c o n s o n a n t s w i t h t h e vowel

'properly belong to the s y l l a b a r y ,

oToStr

a r e o f t e n added a f t e r

Marathi s y l l a b a r y , b u t t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s ,
s i s t i n g of two c o n s e c u t i v e

character
* WOFOS

$T and ^"

consonant with

and a r e d i s c u s s e d

con-

, do n o t
later.^

1 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p a g e 1 3 0 .
2. See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 1 . i i i , V e d i c c h a r a c t e r .
3 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p a g e 1 3 0 .
kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s
r e a l i s e d as shown i n p r e v i o u s e x a m p l e s .
h. See b e l o w , C h . 3 . Conjunct C h a r a c t e r s , C l a s s e s 2. and h.

102

M A R A T H I

S E C T I O N

2 . Vowel C h a r a c t e r s and Vowel S i g n s .


1

i.

Vowel

Characters.

The vowel c h a r a c t e r s u s e d i n w r i t i n g Marathi a r e t h e same a s


S a n s k r i t c h a r a c t e r s , u s i n g t h e Bombay forms where t h e s e d i f f e r

the

from

the Hindi f o r m s , and o m i t t i n g s y l l a b i c


characters are u s u a l l y p l a c e d f i r s t
of t h e vowel c h a r a c t e r s

The c h a r a c t e r

11 . The v o w e l

i n the vernomala.

The

uu

, syllabic

section.

, ikar

r , o c c u r s o n l y i n a few

loanwords, used mainly i n t h e l i t e r a r y language


are r e f e r r e d to as akar

calligraphy

are:

ii
^?

and

i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the S a n s k r i t

The Marathi v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s

rr , 1

, ukar

The v o w e l

characters

, and s o o n .

I n a l l r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s which f o l l o w ,

okar c o n s o n a n t

characters

which o c c u r i n words h a v i n g vowel c h a r a c t e r s or v o w e l s i g n s


be r e a l i s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e g e n e r a l r u l e s a l r e a d y g i v e n ,
s p e c i a l n o t e s are

Sanskrit

should

unless

added.

Reading examples-'.
1 . Vowel c h a r a c t e r s o n l y .

$fl

TJ

3Tt

2 . Vowel c h a r a c t e r s w i t h kar c o n s o n a n t
6T

f$

"fc

*^5r^r

1.

35?r

characters.

*TF5

3Tto5

^osi

3TT^

%fi

sffe

affe

W*T

<3tW

sfcrsr

aftos^-

The u s e of vowel c h a r a c t e r s and v o w el s i g n s i s e x p l a i n e d i n t h e


Sanskrit sect-ion, C h . 2 , 2 . i .
2. ibid. 2 . 2 . i .
3 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p , 1 3 0 .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
ii.

103

Vowel S i g n s .
Vowel s i g n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o e a c h v o w e l c h a r a c t e r ,

are added t o t h e okar form of c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s


s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g o f an i n i t i a l
vowels

to

ov .

to represent

c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d by one o f t h e

The v o w e l s i g n s

vowel s i g n s , and s p e c i a l

kii

ki

a r e shown h e r e added t o t h e c o n -

forms,

ku

are g i v e n in the Sanskrit

kuu

kr

ke

In t h e t e a c h i n g of w r i t i n g i n s c h o o l s ,

key

and o^* , i s r e f e r r e d t o a s obi HI


r e f e r r i n g to the uprigh t s t r o k e

(kana).

t h e vowel s i g n s i n %

as

(matra).

ofe

oRt

velanJii,

'left

velan^ii')

(uzovii velanj;ii,
t o as <e^U|

oFvt"

The s i g n s of t h e v o w e l s

%?5ft ( v e l a ^ i i ) , t h e s i g n i n

ft>

(khuun_, p l u r a l

oRT ,

The d i a g o n a l

vsfr

and

, and o f

e r e f e r r e d t o as

and

are r e f e r r e d

^ T ^ t %c7ft"

being

(d^avii

A l l th e vowel s i g n s are r e f e r r e d

khuna.).

In some modern Marathi p u b l i c a t i o n s new forms o f some of t h e


vowel c h a r a c t e r s a r e b e i n g u s e d ,
w i t h th e c h a r a c t e r

%
i

1.

See S a n s k r i t ,

3fr
ii

\3?

f o r m e d b y w r i t i n g t h e vowe l

thus:

<f
u

Ch.2,2. i i .

3j;
uu

to

b e i n g ^vSTcft" %"c^t1*

and t h e s i g n i n

'right velanj;ii').

of^TT,

This term i s a l s o used i n

TT ,

and

kev

the upright stroke

i n any c h a r a c t e r .

superscribed strokes i n the c h a r a c t e r s

with

sectionl.

ko

\3TT and <2rft , and of t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o w e l s i g n s , a s i n

J-|T5f"i

of) . The o r d e r o f s t r o k e s i n w r i t i n g c h a r a c t e r s

sonant c h a r a c t e r

ka

except

<3J
r

Calligraphy.

$
e

&
oy

signs

104

MARATHI

Reading
1.

examples

SECTION

One c h a r a c t e r w o r d s .

ft

*fr

TIT

2. Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s .

fe

oBTq

^t*T

^noT

**fN"
^"cT

^>"^T
*n3>
3.

^\

sft^

^Bfir

Three c h a r a c t e r

sR^tT

ofsfoT

^fa

tc^

%rT

3fa

sfj

f$T5J

UTrft

4nrf

%|

spg

3 ^
^ ^

JJ?>

*#^T
3TfooT

words.

w r a

%ft*r

^frcTR"

*^-ifrT

^fcpfi

^oj^r

*^tmt

%5>

t^s"

m i

-rt\S[

R e a l i s a t i o n of m e d i a l

=ft^5T

f^sFn^

okar c h a r a c t e r s

%TPn~

f^r^flr

i n words w h i c h have
2

characters with vowel s i g n s

in various

a. When a m e d i a l o k a r c h a r a c t e r ,
a final

i n a thre e c h a r a c t e r word,

c h a r a c t e r w i t h a vowel s i g n ,

zero-vowel,

or w i t h an o - g l i d e

positions.

, and

it

precedes

is usually realised
and

w i t h t h e v o w e l of t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a r a c t e r s ,

of
as

form

with

diphthongs

in

ORl^Toft

>$T"*ft

IpSTT

ofJTW

TT^iY

ar/khii

rej'mii

mul'ga

kay'da

hav'^ii

5T*lit

*TT5F>tr

^oR^T

3TcRT

^NTTT

Jeg'^ii

bhak'rii

chok'd^a

o^h'ra

koy'ta

1 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n of e x a m p l e s s e e p . 1 3 0 .
2. Compare t h e s e n o t e s w i t h n o t e s b . and c . above i n t h i s

chapter.

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

ic

The r e a l i s a t i o n o f okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i n words of f o u r or


more c h a r a c t e r s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w .

The

r e a l i s a t i o n v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p o s i t i o n i n e a c h word of

the

c h a r a c t e r s w i t h v o w e l s i g n s , and a k n o w l e d g e of t h e l a n g u a g e

is

t h e o n l y r e l i a b l e g u i d e t o t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of s u c h w o r d s .
Second c h a r a c t e r r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l ,
ttrTcF^i-

%c^^t^T

m^Tr^

Jet'korii

or w i t h an o - g l i d e :

bhan'god^

m w

vel'dod^a

saa^'pataT,

Third c h a r a c t e r r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l ,

or w i t h an a - g l i d e :

rrrwf^r

*rfa<5c^r

*rrg^?fr

tabed/tob

mobad'la

bhatuk'lii

Other c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l ,

or w i t h an o - g l i d e :

ttf^Fs^rr

-qw^nfr

^T^TT^R

palikad/tsa

por'van'gii

sem'zuut'dar

When a s u f f i x c o n s i s t i n g o f ,

or b e g i n n i n g w i t h , a c h a r a c t e r with

a vowel s i g n i s added t o a v e r b a l b a s e e n d i n g i n an okar c o n s o n ant c h a r a c t e r , t h i s f i n a l


or w i t h an a - g l i d e ,

has

as in t h e s e

basat

When such s u f f i x e s

character i s r e a l i s e d with

bas-to

zero-vowel,

examples:

va\

va^ot

va^-tat

a r e added t o v e r b a l b a s e s of t h r e e or more

c h a r a c t e r s of which t h e f i n a l

and p r e f i n a l

a r e okar c o n s o n a n t

c h a r a c t e r s , t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f a k a r c h a r a c t e r s v a r i e s i n t h e way
i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w .
Verbal b a s e of t h r e e

semoz

sam*za

characters:

sam'zat

samaz-to

samaz-til

106

M A R A T H I

S E C T I O N

Verbal base of f o u r c h a r a c t e r s ,
fcTT^ST^

f ^ ^ c ^ T

vir'gheT,

vir'gholuun

Reading

examples

second,

t h i r d and f o u r t h

f^-EToScT

"f^T^To5c5T

vir'ghel.ot

vir'ghaT_-la

1. R e a l i s a t i o n of okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a s i n n o t e a.

^^NFTtfT.

^HcTT

^fe^vST

oRT^fr

^qr^r
2.

'$ 5 %

>3WIT

*^3Ta^

^w^xcfc

W & h
^3TR

ftf^^UT

fia^^rr

above.

^ffe-snajoR

*g5R?ITxr

^ i ^ w

R e a l i s a t i o n of o k a r c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a s i n n o t e b .
ofioo-rr

cfioScTt

f%^T

okar:

"TOTT

fll^npt

WTcTTcT

ft^&OT

^TT^^T

above,
^ 6 # $ 5

\3T^^To5rf

^TSWoScTTrT

R e a l i s a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s
The t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s
palatal
or

ii

xjT

of t h e c o - v e r g w i t h v o w e l
,

\xT and

signs.

, are always r e a l i s e d

c o n s o n a n t s when t h e y a r e w r i t t e n w i t h t h e v o w e l s i g n s
, or w i t h any v o w e l s i g n i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s .

i s e d more f r e q u e n t l y

vowel s i g n s . When w r i t t e n w i t h t h e vowel s i g n o f

of

They a r e

a s a l v e o l a r c o n s o n a n t s when w r i t t e n w i t h

as
i

real-

other

e , the a l v e o l a r

or

p a l a t a l r e a l i s a t i o n may v a r y from t i m e t o t i m e and from d i s t r i c t

to

district.

pal-

The r e a l i s a t i o n

a t a l consonants

of

t h e se c h a r a c t e r s as a l v e o l a r

in various contexts

given below, but the only r e l i a b l e

is

i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e

or a s

examples

guide for reading the majority

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p.131.
2 . See a b o v e , n o t e on t h e v o r g i i y c h a r a c t e r s ,

in

l.i.

of

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

10

words i n which t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r i s a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e l a n g u a g e ,
a. P a l a t a l r e a l i s a t i o n w i t h t h e v o w e l s i g n s o f

cikot

ciid^

bhacii

jii

ii:

bhajii

majhii

h. P a l a t a l r e a l i s a t i o n i n S a n s k r i t and Hindi l o a n w o r d s , and o t h e r s ,


w i t h t h e r e m a i n i n g vowel

signs:

3txT
vac on

niic

colon

ceyn

kocora

jen

me j a

ujeq

ceha

car

juva

c. A l v e o l a r r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s ,
s i g n e x c e p t t h o s e of

ii

^>ft

WR

W*TWT

tsot'nii

tsar

tsom'tsa

KJ

fa I

%J

Kf

^r^t

"OT^r

ZQT[

vezon

semez

cuup

jhela

o k a r , or w i t h any v o w el

ey :

^
tsuuk

titse
KJ

.
zaga

zhad^

The emphatic p a r t i c l e

jeven_

%J

^ft

zhofken^

or

cehera

zhucjuup

"bazuu

dfft

^cfi

tsor

tsevk

<J

<J

^rte

%r

vazel

zor

mazhe

zhop

tT , w r i t t e n a s t h e f i n a l

c h a r a c t e r of a

word, i s always r e a l i s e d a s an a l v e o l a r c o n s o n a n t .

The words

-oftvji

and

and "SffaT

The vowel c h a r a c t e r s

r e a l i s e d r e s p e c t i v e l y as
^

and 3

('short'

ciiz

vowels)

and j

jhiiz
and 35

( ' l o n g ' v o w e l s ) , and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o w e l s i g n s , a r e w r i t t e n i n


Marathi words a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n r u l e s o f o r t h o g r a p h y .

These

r u l e s i n c l u d e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o r t h o g r a p h y of t h e m o d i f i e r known a s

108

MARATHI

SECTION

t h e a n u s v a r ! , and a r e t h e r e f o r e g i v e n i n t h e f u l l
r u l e s of O r t h o g r a p h y ,
3.

after

the m o d i f i e r s

statement

have b e e n

of

Marathi

discussed.

Modifiers.

Both t h e m o d i f i e r s

o c c u r r i n g i n S a n s k r i t are u s e d i n

Marathi,, though t h e r e a l i s a t i o n
in reading

of them d i f f e r s

writing

from t h e

realisation

Sanskrit.
2

1.

onusvar.^
The a n u s v a r i s

a l w a y s w r i t t e n i n Marathi i n t h e form o f a d o t

p l a c e d above a c h a r a c t e r ,

<3T

am

orrj

thus:

t
im

iirrj

SET

5R
karrj

icarrj

kiirj

sign.

The o r d e r o f s t r o k e s

and t h e o n u s v a r i s

uirj

errj

orrj

kerrj

korrj

kiirrj

The o n u s v a r i s w r i t t e n t o t h e r i g h t

kurrj

s i d e of a s u p e r s c r i b e d

vowel

i n w r i t i n g c h a r a c t e r s w i t h vowel

g i v e n i n t h e n o t e s on c a l l i g r a p h y

in the

signs
Sanskrit

section.
The o n u s v a r i s r e a l i s e d i n M a r a t h i a s
a.

The o n u s v a r ,
is s t i l l

originally

follows:

a mark i n d i c a t i n g n a s a l i s a t i o n

of a v o w e l ,

w r i t t e n i n many Marathi words i n w h i c h t h e v o w e l s

not n a s a l i s e d
is disregarded

i n s t a n d a r d modern s p e e c h .
in reading,

though i t

are

The o n u s v a r i n s u c h words

is s t i l l

written either

show t h e e t y m o l o g y of a word, t o p r e s e r v e a d i s t i n c t i o n

of

to

meaning

i n p a i r s of words i n w h i c h one h a s a vowel w h i c h was

originally

nasalised,

Characters

1. See b e l o w .

or t o e x p r e s s g r a m m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

3. i .

2.

See S a n s k r i t , C h , 2 . 3 . i .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
w r i t t e n with the onusvar a r e , h o w e v e r, s t i l l
i s a t i o n of t h e v o w e l i n Konkani s p e e c h l .
i l l u s t r a t e some of t h e c o n t e x t s

109

r e a l i s e d with n a s a l-

The f o l l o w i n g

examples

i n which t h e a n u s v a r i s

written

hut n o t r e a l i s e d i n r e a d i n g .
Words:

#5T

"SBTiff

tuu

to

P a i r s of w o r d s :

kii

TO

TO

2
nav^

nav^

Grammatical f o r m s :

ye-ta

dat

pots

gohuu

pats^

pats5

#
he

^Tctt

kahii

tii

bas-to

bol-te

wfa

g^T^f

*l^t#

^ ^ f f

baget

mulane

mulanii

mulajii

An onusvar p l a c e d on a f i n a l

character

kor-uu
^r^r

ghorii

i s never

realised,

e x c e p t i n c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s i n modern Marathi w r i t i n g i n w h i c h
a d a p t a t i o n s of t h e s c r i p t a r e made i n o r d e r t o r e p r e s e n t

collo-

q u i a l forms of s p e e c h , a s i n drama and d i a l o g u e


h.

In many w o r d s , i n c l u d i n g m o s t S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , t h e
w r i t t e n on a c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g one of t h e v o r g i i y

onusvar

characters

i s r e a l i s e d as t h e n a s a l c o n s o n a n t o f t h e same c l a s s a s t h e
consonant r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r ,
b e f o r e a c h a r a c t e r of t h e c o - v a r g .
as a n a s a l c o n s o n a n t b e f o r e a f i n a l

or a s

When t h e anusvar i s
akar c o n s o n a n t

n
realised

character,

1. The v a r i e t y of Marathi s p e e c h known a s 'Konkani s t a n d a r d ' i s


on t h e c o a s t a l s t r i p s o u t h o f Bombay, t h e Konkan (korrjkori).
2. 'boat'.
3 . 'name'.
U. ' e m e r a l d ' .
5. ' f i v e ' .
6. See b e l o w , Marathi r u l e s o f o r t h o g r a p h y .
7. See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i . n o t e b .

spoken

no

MARATHI

the f i n a l

SECTION

c h a r a c t e r i s r e a l i s e d w i t h an - g l i d e .

This

a t i o n o f t h e nusvar i s i l l u s t r a t e d hy t h e f o l l o w i n g

t*r

vsMtr

zz

f*m

flttft

rang

unts

njiir

unj;

bhint

Jimpii

As i n S a n s k r i t ,

t h e r e i s . an a l t e r n a t i v e method o f

nasal consonants preceding v o r g i i y characters.


described l a t e r ,
When s u f f i x e s

examples:

^
themb

representing
T h i s method i s
p

i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

a r e added t o p l u r a l nouns and p r o n o u n s , t h e a n u s v a r

i s w r i t t e n on t h e c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g t h e s u f f i x .
i s r e a l i s e d as

before

and o f t e n r e a l i s e d b e f o r e

c.

realis-

This

onusvar

t h e v a r i o u s forms o f t h e s u f f i x
the s u f f i x e s

"ft

and

"$?T e . g .

r*TRT

c*?Hfr

7*?HT

rm^f

mtff

tyan-1^sa^

tyan-cii

tyan-na

tyan-nii

tyan-Jii

When t h e o n u s v a r i s w r i t t e n on a c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g one o f t h e
o n t o s t h or uusm c h a r a c t e r s ,

as i n Sanskrit loanwords,

l e a r n e d words u s e d i n t h e l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e ,
various ways.

mostly

it is realised

in

Among t h e ways o f r e a l i s i n g t h e o n u s v a r i n s u c h

words , g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n ^ - , the u s u a l Marathi


i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g

examples:

onusvar b e f o r e

T f , r e a l i s e d as

y , as in

onusvar b e f o r e

c^> r e a l i s e d a s

1 , as i n

sayyog
Hc/^M

o n u s v a r b e f o r e o t h e r o n t o s t h and uusm c h a r a c t e r s ,
savreksoi]^

kivva

vj"

1.

practice

hivsa

sollogh

r e a l i s e d as v .

mavs

sivh

See b e l o w , C h . 3 , 2 .
2 . ibid., 3.Class i i .
3 . The f i r s t
c h a r a c t e r i n t h e s e w o r d s i s <T combined w i t h ZJ" . S e e Ch. 3 * 3 * CI. 3 .
2+. S e e S a n s k r i t ,Ch. 2 , 3 . i . n o t e c .
5 . The l a s t c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s word
i s "*T combined w i t h ^ . See Ch. 3 , 3 . CI. 2 . i i i .
6 . The c h a r a c t e r
r e p r e s e n t s 3 5 combined w i t h ^ . S e e C h . 3 , 3 . C I . 4 . i . b .
N

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

In some e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y m a n u s c r i p t s t h e c h a r a c t e r

"67

is in-

s e r t e d b e t w e e n t h e c h a r a c t e r w i t h t h e o n u s v a r and a f o l l o w i n g
o n t o s t h or uusm c h a r a c t e r , f o r m i n g a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r w i t h i t ;
Ho^R

e.g.
d.

> sovhar

, Rjo^

, sivh

, sevrokson, .

The onusvar i s r e a l i s e d a s n a s a l i s a t i o n o f a v o w e l i n a few e x c l a m a t i o n s ; e . g . n3^" , o , v^J

^T?fr
ii.

^o^gJTJr

nil ; and i n t h e number word

, oyjii.

visorg.
This m o d i f i e r

i s described in the Sanskrit s e c t i o n .


1

used in w r i t i n g Marathi.

I t occurs

t o i n d i c a t e p r o l o n g a t i o n or

s t r e s s . When i t i s w r i t t e n w i t h t h e f i n a l

words:

rarely

i n a f e w S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , and

i s sometimes w r i t t e n w i t h e x c l a m a t i o n s ,

words, i t i s r e a l i s e d a s

It is

character in Sanskrit

f o l l o w e d by the vowel

"^T: , punha, "ipoT^f: , s v e t a h a ,


2

f c ^ Qij^T:

loan-

a , as in these

, vi/es'toha

When the v i s o r g o c c u r s m e d i a l l y i n a w o r d , i t i s r e a l i s e d e i t h e r a s
the d o u b l i n g o f t h e c o n s o n a n t o f t h e c h a r a c t e r w h i c h f o l l o w s i t , or
as a s p i r a t i o n a f t e r t h e v o w e l o f t h e c h a r a c t e r w i t h which i t i s
written; e.g.

c^:^

dukkh,

\3TcT:^F5T^T > antohkorer; .

When the v i s o r g i s w r i t t e n a f t e r e x c l a m a t i o n s ,

i t usually

represents

a p r o l o n g a t i o n of t h e v o w e l , o r a s p i r a t i o n a f t e r t h e v o w e l , a s i n
t h e s e words:

1.

vjy. , u u . . . , o r uuh ; fs

, cheh ;

cfT,, vah .

See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i i .
2 . The f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s word
is
combined w i t h
of S e e Ch. 2 , 3 . C I . 3 . i i .

MARATHI

I I 2

U. The Complete

SECTION

Syllabary.

The arrangement o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s of t h e Marathi s y l l a b a r y i n


traditional

order i s s i m i l a r t o that given in the S a n s k r i t

o m i t t i n g the vowel c h a r a c t e r s
'Bombay' f o r m s .

, ^

the

section,

and c , and u s i n g o n l y t h e

The t a b l e i n w h i c h t h e v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s

and t h e m o d i f i e r s added t o t h e c h a r a c t e r

\3Ff , a r e p l a c e d a t

head of a s e r i e s of c o l u m n s c o n s i s t i n g o f e v e r y c o n s o n a n t

*R ),

(except
the

character

i n t h e okar f o r m , w i t h e a c h o f t h e vowe l s i g n s and e a c h of t h e m o d i fiers,

i s c a l l e d i n M a r a t h i the

characters'.

rTCRll

>

barakhoc^ii, t h e

'twelve

T h i s t a b l e i s o f t e n r e c i t e d i n s c h o o l s by c h i l d r e n

learn-

ing to read.
These two t a b l e s show t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e c h a r a c t e r s
p l a c e d as i n i t i a l

c h a r a c t e r s o f words i n d i c t i o n a r i e s , w h i c h i s

same a s t h e o r d e r i n S a n s k r i t ,
to characters with the onusvar.
ed by t h e f o l l o w i n g

e x c e p t t h a t no s p e c i a l p l a c e i s
This d i f f e r e n c e

ai

arrjyo

arrjj"

arrjh

ak

Marathi:

ai

ak

arrjk

akh

arrjkh . . .

5.

in order i s

the
given

illustrat-

series:

Sanskrit: a
a

are

akh . .
ay

arrjy

arrjj" . .

N u m e r a l s.

The n u m e r a ls u s e d i n M a r a t hi a r e t h e 'Bombay' forms g i v e n i n


p
Sanskrit
6.

section.

Punctuation.

In prose w r i t i n g ,
English prose.
Sanskrit

1.

the

t h e same s y s t e m o f p u n c t u a t i o n i s u s e d a s

The s y s t e m u s e d i n Marathi v e r s e i s t h e same a s

system.^

See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , i + .

2 . ibid. , 5 .

3. ibid. , 6 .

in
the

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
Rules of Marathi

113

Orthography.

The r u l e s of Marathi o r t h o g r a p h y c o n c e r n t h e w r i t i n g of
vowels

and

( ^fT*T h r a s v

, diirgh

, or ' l o n g '

, or

'short'

vowels) ;

r u l e s are b e i n g m o d i f i e d

j" and

and

and t h e w r i t i n g o f

onusvar i n c e r t a i n words and i n g r a m m a t i c a l


itional

vowels)

the

forms.

the

Some of t h e

i n modern Marathi w r i t i n g ,

new r u l e s

h a v i n g b e e n p r e s c r i b e d i n 1932 b y t h e M a h a r a s h t r a L i t e r a t u r e
(

*T!TTn|

Tnf^r^T

"*rfWT

i n terms of

modifications
i.
a.

'standard'

position;
^Tla

baii

Hlool

malii

^frf^T

ani,

such a s
The v o w e l s of t h e
ing ' f i n a l '
^o^lcM

?[ ,

and

Society.

3" > 3r>

and v o w e l s i g n s a r e w r i t t e n i n a f i n a l

bhauu
and some S a n s k r i t

oftfcj k a v i

'crude form'

characters before

mulii-la

ohoH-^l

W\> t s a k u u

loanwords,

guru
of nouns f o l l o w
the

this rule

a d d i t i o n of s u f f i x e s ;

kavii-tsa

Pronouns are w r i t t e n w i t h t h e

'short'

^J'^f

regarde.g.

guruu-n e

v o w e l s : fclcrtl t i l a , "^c^ST

tula

The ' l o n g ' vowel c h a r a c t e r s

and v o w e l s i g n s a r e w r i t t e n i n a m e d i a l

p o s i t i o n immediately b e f o r e

a final

1.
2.

f o l l o w e d by t h e

e.g.

Exceptions:

b.

orthography,

R u l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e w r i t i n g of

Some

The r u l e s g i v e n below a r e

recommended by t h e M a h a r a s h t r a L i t e r a t u r e

The ' l o n g ' vowel c h a r a c t e r s

Society

meharastro sahityo porisod ) .

of t h e s e r u l e s have become w i d e l y a c c e p t e d .
stated f i r s t

trad-

tiik

\5fT^o5 z a i i l

*|c?>

See a b o v e , C h . l .
These r u l e s a p p l y t o t h e v o w e l s i g n s
vowel c h a r a c t e r s .

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r ;
muul

"^B*T

gheuun

corresponding with

the

e.g.

ii4

M A R A T H I

E x c e p t i o n s : The ' s h o r t '


I^rt

words, e . g .

, hit

v o w e l s a r e w r i t t e n i n some S a n s k r i t
,

> purus

the onusvar b e f o r e a f i n a l
bhint,

, unts

character ,

ekar consonant c h a r a c t e r ,

, citr ,

loan-

when t h e y o c c u r w i t h
as

; o r when t h e y o c c u r b e f o r e a f i n a l

as i n

S E C T I O N

in
conjunct

monusy^. The S a n s k r i t

o r t h o g r a p h y i s p r e s e r v e d i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s s u c h a s *JT^t
muurkh^, and
c.

In a l l

cft"5T ,

tiivr .
2

other p o s i t i o n s ,

or f o l l o w e d by any f i n a l c h a r a c t e r

an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r ,

1*<ft

firs*

gsRsr

kitii

tik'd'e

tuk'^a

the

' s h o r t ' vowels are w r i t t e n ;

vihiir

(crude form,

vihirii-)

ii.

R u l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e o n u s v a r w r i t t e n i n g r a m m a t i c al

forms.5

a.

All neuter forms,

s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l , e n d i n g - i n

Tf

a r e w r i t t e n w i t h t h e o n u s v a r on t h e s e f i n a l v o w e l s ;

tii

lug'a^ii
sftif

mo^he
Exceptions:

thoc|ii

ker'cjuu
^rf
poc[*te

c*|uf| , l o n i i

gehuu , i s m a s c u l i n e

mule
^

zhale

kelii

and H I D
U

, panii

bhiiti.

| or

e.g.

bhanj^e

5TT5

W%
yave

. The word ^T^* ,

plural.

I n modern Marathi s p e e c h , t h e vowe l


words, i s o f t e n r e a l i s e d as

, i n t h e n e u t e r forms of

o , i n informal speech.

T h i s change

of s p o k e n form i s o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d by w r i t i n g t h e o n u s v a r

1.
L.

e.g.

f^r%%-

E x c e p t i o n s : Some S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , e . g. TJ^J , p u u j a , "vftfff

he

except

alone,

See b e l o w , C h . 3 .
2.ibid. 3 . C l a s s 3 . i i i . b .
3 . i b i d . Class 3 . i .
ibid.Class 3 i i i . a .
5. The o n u s v a r i n n o t u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d
i n g r a m m a t i c a l forms,* e x c e p t i n t h e c o n t e x t g i v e n b e l o w i n b .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
as,

for instance,

zhale
b.

i n t h e d i a l o g u e o f n o v e l s o r dramas; e . g .

zhalo

ltf

*Ttt

5ft

bhancje

bhan^o

bore

singular,

and b e f o r e a l l s u f f i x e s

ghora-t

baro

bage-t

of words b e f o r e
as

kholii-t

final
e.g.

e.g.

TRf

mage,

Suffixes

e.g.

mula-nii

i s always

Tiff

realised

suffixes .

ending in

p u d h e , ^c"

<
| *T

representing
and

\3^T ; and on t h e

v3TT ,

khalii

certain

5
,

* ^

v3fl"cft

>

ta .

cf)^" koa"e

and p a r t i c l e s

ending

i n a c h a r a c t e r w i t h t h e vowel

M" a r e o f t e n spoken i n modern M a r a t h i w i t h f i n a l

t h e s e forms o c c u r i n t h e d i a l o g u e

matra, a s i n

, pucjhe

XJcf

Xi5

, pua"he ,

IfRf

*TT"*T , mago . T h i s u s e o f t h e o n u s v a r t o r e p r e s e n t

tTTTFT p a s ' n o

in

"3)*T e . g .

f^cfi^T

, tik'd^uun

ef",^"
,

the f i n a l

omitting the
mage ,
t h e forms o f

speech i s sometimes e x t e n d e d t o the p a r t i c l e

and t o some p a r t i c l e s

sign

o . When

o f dramas or n o v e l s ,

character i s often w r i t t e n w i t h the onusvar a l o n e ,

colloquial

form'

$\

c h a r a c t e r of p a r t i c l e s

Exception:

of

in the

r e p r e s e n t i n g the 'crude

The onusvar i s w r i t t e n on t h e c h a r a c t e r s
suffixes;

man/sa-huun

the a d d i t i o n of t h e s u f f i x

n , and o f t e n b e f o r e o t h e r

rT i s a d d e d ,

i n the p l u r a l ,

The onusvar w r i t t e n on t h e c h a r a c t e r

1.

5R

The onusvar i s w r i t t e n on t h e c h a r a c t e r w h i c h h a s t h e v o w e l o f
the ' c r u d e form' of words t o w h i c h t h e s u f f i x

c.

oR% >

kod" , TTSJ^f , pasuun ,


fecR^

tiked/no

The mark of n a s a l i s a t i o n i s p a r t o f t h e s u f f i x , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s
the word OTTrT , S t . The i n i t i a l v o w e l o f t h i s word c o a l e s c e s w i t h
the vowel of t h e crude form o f t h e noun t o w h i c h i t i s added a s a
suffix.
2 . See a b o v e , 3 . M o d i f i e r s , i . b .

n6
d.

MARATHI

SECTION

The a n u s v a r i s w r i t t e n on c e r t a i n s u f f i x e s
1st.

added t o v e r b a l

bases:

p e r s o n s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l :

elf - t o

rf

-te

^ -ii

and t h e v e r b a l f o r m s

-e

\3Tf^"

eff , t a

2nd. p e r s o n p l u r a l :

3F> - u u
>

3TT^f >

3 r d . p e r s o n s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l :

>3fl" , a , and

^ T ^ f > aha , and

and t h e v e r b a l f o r m s

-lo

if^

'TT^f ,

^5" - l e

Tl^f

off

> ^

nahii

nahii

n a h i i and

""(CTh n a h i i t

and a l l n e u t e r f o r m s w h i c h change i n t h e same way a s

variable

adjectives.
Suffixes

cTT t

ta

w h i c h a r e added t o form v e r b a l
,

clMI >

tana

w r i t t e n in d i a l o g u e as
e.

"OT

, uu , and

particles:
^

, re

and r e a l i s e d a s

r[ )

(sometimes

The o n u s v a r i s w r i t t e n on c e r t a i n forms o f t h e p e r s o n a l

pronouns,

when t h e y s t a n d i n t h e same g r a m m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p

other

words a s nouns and p r o n o u n s w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n of t h e


and
ofitofi,

1.

^ff . e.g.

iff

, mii

s33""X"st , a m h i i

kon.il .

The c h a r a c t e r

represents

mho

cj^lft

to

suffixes
,

tumhii ,
1

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

117

R u l e s o f Orthography o f t h e M a h a r a s h t r a L i t e r a t u r e
The m o d i f i c a t i o n

of the r u l e s

ed hy t h e Maharashtra L i t e r a t u r e
the w r i t i n g of t h e o n u s v a r .
pamphlet

o f s t a n d a r d o r t h o g r a p h y recommend-

S o c i e t y are mainly concerned with

The r u l e s

^jTc^T f H I ^ 1 %
s

Society.

are stated i n the Society's

f^flJIT

( J u d d h o l e k h o n a t s e nove niyom)

p u b l i s h e d i n Poona i n 1 9 3 6 . The m o s t i m p o r t a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n s

of the

s t a n d a r d r u l e s g i v e n above a r e t h e s e :
a.

I f t h e onusvar u s u a l l y w r i t t e n on c e r t a i n words ( t h a t
suffixes

or p a r t i c l e s )

i s not realised

i t should not be w r i t t e n , u n l e s s

i s , not

i n modern Marathi

speech,

i t i s c o n s i d e r e d important t o

show t h e e t y m o l o g y o f t h e w o r d , o r u n l e s s

i t i s t h e o n l y means o f

d i s t i n g u i s h i n g i n meaning b e t w e e n p a i r s o f w o r d s , a s g i v e n above
i n 3 i . n o t e a.
b.

The onusvar u s u a l l y w r i t t e n on t h e s u f f i x e s
the p a r t i c l e s g i v e n above i n r u l e

go3T%
mulane

g^T^fr
mulanii

khalii

The onusvar u s u a l l y w r i t t e n on t h e word

*TFT

OTTCTT

mage

ata

5fl f

on

on t h e p l u r a l form

TTfafcT

> nahiit

The onusvar w r i t t e n on t h e f i n a l
o^i ^ | .

, should

form r e f e r s t o t h e f i r s t

and t h e s e c o n d p e r s o n p l u r a l ;

, should be o m i t t e d ,

colloquial

> nahii

s i n g u l a r or p l u r a l ,

kahii

i n i i . a . and c .

be w r i t t e n o n l y when t h i s v e r b a l

d.

writte n to represent

forms such a s t h o s e g i v e n a b o v e
c.

a n (

i i . c . should be omitted, e . g .

Wfc^

The onusvar i s , h o w e v e r , s t i l l

~f

person,

and t h e o n u s v a r

, should be omitted.

c h a r a c t e r o f t h e wo.rd

cfitsfT >

C H A P T E R
CONJUNCT

CHARACTERS

Consonant c h a r a c t e r s may be combined t o r e p r e s e n t

two or more

c o n s o n a n t s w h i c h a r e t o be r e a l i s e d w i t h o u t an i n t e r v e n i n g
C h a r a c t e r s formed i n t h i s way a r e c a l l e d
by Marathi g r a m m a r i a n s ,
writing

in s c h o o l s .

characters

or

^t^T'!^

^SJrFTTSflT

(zoa^aksor)

(soyyuktaksor)

in the teaching

The c o n s t r u c t i o n and c a l l i g r a p h y

is described

i n the Sanskrit

i n w r i t i n g Marathi c o r r e s p o n d s ,

vowel.

of

of

conjunct

s e c t i o n ^ , but the s t y l e

used

in the conjunct c h a r a c t e r s , with

the
p

style

of the Bombay c h a r a c t e r s

given in the t a b l e s

in t h i s

The Marathi c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s
same c l a s s e s a s t h e S a n s k r i t c o n j u n c t
1.

i.

djiobbuu

ii.

contexts:

i s , words n o t borrowed from S a n s k r i t

from t h e modern l a n g u a g e s ;

the

i n Marathi.

o c c u r i n Marathi i n t h e s e

I n Marathi w o r d s , t h a t

chapter in

or

e.g.

ghod.yaT,

vhava

In S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , e i t h e r Words u s e d commonly i n M a r a t h i ,
l e a r n e d words u s e d nly i n t h e l i t e r a r y

pustok
1.

See S a n s k r i t ,

Ch.3l

3.

See

Ch.3/3

Sanskrit,

characters.^

C o n t e x t s of C o n j u n c t C h a r a c t e r s

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s

section

potr

language;

e.g.

iijvor
2.

See a b o v e , C h . 2 . i

- iii.

or

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS
iii.

In loanwords from o t h e r l a n g u a g e s ;

119

e.g.

s-fejen
2. R e a l i s a t i o n of C o n j u n ct C h a r a c t e r s i n M a r a t h i .
Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e a l i s e d i n r e a d i n g a s s y l l a b l e s

consist-

i n g of two or more c o n s o n a n t s f o l l o w e d by a v o w e l . When an okar c o n junct c h a r a c t e r o c c u r s a s t h e f i n a l


r e a l i s e d w i t h an o - g l i d e ,

c h a r a c t e r of a w o r d , i t i s

as i n " ^ T T T

, p h e k t ' , $|| ^sj

/astr'.

The r e a l i s a t i o n i n modern M a r a t h i of okar c h a r a c t e r s w i t h


vowel i n c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s
ing.

usually

i n words g i v e s r i s e t o a p r o b l e m of

zerospell-

For i n s t a n c e , when a f o r m a t i v e p a r t i c l e b e g i n n i n g w i t h a c o n -

sonant c h a r a c t e r i s added t o a v e r b a l b a s e e n d i n g i n a f i n a l
consonant c h a r a c t e r ,
ised with zero-vowel.

the f i n a l

okar

c h a r a c t e r of t h e b a s e i s u s u a l l y

This r e a l i s a t i o n

of the c o n s e c u t i v e

i s s i m i l a r to the r e a l i s a t i o n of a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r .

real-

characters

Similar prob-

lems a r i s e i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s , w h e r e an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r

is

r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel before a f o l l o w i n g consonant c h a r a c t e r ,


i n compound words i n w h i c h t h e f i r s t

and

p a r t e n d s i n an kar c o n s o n a n t

c h a r a c t e r , and the s e c o n d p a r t b e g i n s w i t h a c o n s o n a n t

character.

Examples of such words a r e g i v e n b e l o w w i t h e a c h c l a s s of

conjunct

characters.
3. C l a s s e s of Conjunct C h a r a c t e r s
Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s of a l l

in Marathi.

the c l a s s e s given in the

Sanskrit

s e c t i o n ^ occur i n M a r a t h i , b u t i n some o f t h e c l a s s e s o n l y a few of


the c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r .

Those w h i c h a r e u s e d i n w r i t i n g Marathi

1. This g l i d e i s not r e p r e s e n t e d i n t r a n s c r i b i n g words t o w h i c h


this rule applies.
2. See Ch.2,1. n o t e s a. and b .
3. See S a n s k r i t , Ch.3,3-

are

120

MARATHI

SECTION

shown, hy e x a m p l e s g i v e n i n e a c h c l a s s , w h i c h i n c l u d e some S a n s k r i t
loanwords f r e q u e n t l y use d i n Marathi.

More r a r e l y u s e d l o a n w o r d s ,

w h i c h may o c c u r i n l i t e r a r y M a r a t h i , a r e i n c l u d e d among t h e
given w i t h each c l a s s
C l a s s 1.

in the Sanskrit

Two s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r s

section.

joined.

The s e r i e s of c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s
given in the Sanskrit s e c t i o n .

occurring in Sanskrit

Most of t h e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s

the Marathi s y l l a b a r y o c c u r i n t h i s c l a s s .
-rro

is written

preceding another

examples

The c h a r a c t e r

, the superscribed stroke

is
of

representing

representing

consonant .
2

A c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t i n g an a s p i r a t e d c o n s o n a n t i s n o t
w r i t t e n as t h e f i r s t

usually

p a r t of a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s c l a s s ;

i n Marathi w r i t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s

<o^o(

sometimes u s e d .

-nno

The c o m b i n a t i o n s

, khkho
and

and

-mmo

^
are

, t t
n

but

n s

represented

i n some words by w r i t i n g t h e o n u s v a r o v e r t h e c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g "Cf


or

e.g.

^WfcT or ^f-CTff^
semmoti

or

TRcT
but

gemmot

sonnidhi

but

nn

The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e Marathi words i n w h i c h c o n s e c u t i v e consonant c h a r a c t e r s ,

t h e f i r s t b e i n g kar, a r e r e a l i s e d

o r d i n a r y s p e e c h i n t h e same way a s c o n j u n c t

^F^TT
anna

in

characters:

^T^Pf

fo^T

%Sc^T

STTTT

SfTWft

an^-ne-^

killa

bol-la^

cjsgga

ag'gadii^

1. See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , C o n j u n c t C h a r a c t e r s , C l a s s 1.
2 . See b e l o w , C l a s s 3* i i i . a *
3 . Verbal f o r m s .
U. Compound word.

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS

12

Reading e x a m p l e s .
1

iff

^1
S J ^ v T

f%FR

T^fr

^XXM

3Sf

^nnujor
ft

Class 2 . Two v s r g i i y c h a r a c t e r s

3?3TFT

"TTTT
f

^ T o ^ T

T|T
W

5 ^
W

joined.

The f u l l s e r i e s of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s
in Sanskrit i s given in the S a n s k r i t

i n t h i s c l a s s which o c c u r

section .
2

The c h a r a c t e r s of

this

c l a s s which occur i n M a r a t h i , m o s t l y i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , are g i v e n


below.

Some of t h e example s g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n may o c c u r

as loanwords i n Marathi l i t e r a r y

texts,

i.
c5Fv
-kto

-tko

-gdo

-dg

-gdh

-pto

-aba

-bd

- b j

-dgh

FT
-tpo
ii.

Most of the c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n u n d e r i i . a .

in the Sanskrit

section

occur i n l i t e r a r y M a r a t h i , r e p r e s e n t i n g homorganic n a s a l

conson-

a n t s ; but t h e method of r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e c o n s o n a n t s by w r i t i n g
3

the onusvar on t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s more o f t e n U s e d .


The word ^^T^cf, d e h a n t ,

'death',

a learned Sanskrit

loanword,

i s w r i t t e n w i t h t h e c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r , which d i s t i n g u i s h e s
from the word w i t h a Marathi suffix,^"^TRT,

dehat,

' i n the body' .

Among the c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n under


only

JJJ" , jno , and

, -tn

occur i n Marathi.

it

|T

ii.b.
i s not

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 3 1 .
2 . See S a n s k r i t ,Ch. 3 , 3 . C i . 2 . The
numbers i . - i v . c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e a r r a n g e m e n t of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s
i n the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .
3- S e e a b o v e , C h . 2 , 3 . i . nusvar.

122

MARATHI

SECTION

c a l l i g r a p h i c a l l y a conjunct character,

and i t

jjj a r e u s u a l l y

i n t h e v o r n o m a l a . Words b e g i n n i n g w i t h
last
iii.

i n Marathi

occur in Sanskrit

-gne

-ghno

Only two c h a r a c t e r s
loanwords:

^*

-tmo

-dma

-pno

o f t h i s group o c c u r i n M a r a t h i ,

, -nmo

and 5 ^

consonant c h a r a c t e r s ,

Jok-tii
o
Reading e x a m p l e s ^

i.

Characters

g u pt

Sanskrit

consecutive

t h e f i r s t b e i n g o k a r , are r e a l i s e d i n

s p e e c h i n t h e same way a s c o n j u n c t

Jokti

in

, -nmo .

The e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w i l l u s t r a t e words i n w h i c h

C l a s s 3 C h a r a c t e r s

placed

loanwords:

*FT

iv.

included

dictionaries.

These c h a r a c t e r s

-kmo

is often

ordinary

characters:

kap-to

joined with ontosth

/obd

ub'dar

characters.

j o i n e d w i t h f o l l o w i n g TJf .

The s e r i e s of c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s c l a s s i s g i v e n i n t h e

Sanskrit

s e c t i o n ^ . A l l t h e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s of t h e Marathi s y l l a b a r y ,
cept

^* , no

and ^

, no , o c c u r i n t h i s c l a s s ,

only in S a n s k r it loanwords.

1 . Verbal f o r m s .
3 . See S a n s k r i t ,

ex-

thoug h some o c c u r

Many of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r i n Marathi

2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n of e x a m p l e s , s e e
Ch.3,3.CI.3.i.

p.131.

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS
a s a r e s u l t of c e r t a i n g r a m m a t i c a l p r o c e s s e s .
sometimes w r i t t e n w i t h c h a r a c t e r s
vowel sound in words s u c h a s
Reading e x a m p l e s

YTSFZT

123

E n g l i s h loanwords a r e

joined with

XJ[ , t o r e p r e s e n t t h e

, 'Dank' and

olfoT)

cpipT

'camp'.

^ f t s ^

^ZTT^T

tfts^TFf-

6TVZTT-cr

tuijTc^T

^TToZjTH

oZTT^TPT

T^ZT

STq"^

ii. Characters j o i n e d w i t h f o l l o w i n g

TJ^f

*f^*T

of .

Only a few of t h e c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s
p
the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n

Ri#mi

in t h i s s e r i e s , g i v e n in

, o c c u r in M a r a t h i , most o f w h i c h o c c u r i n l o a n -

words. The c h a r a c t e r s which o c c u r i n M a r a t h i w o r d s , and i n some l o a n words i n common u s e , a r e i l l u s t r a t e d


Marathi words a r e w r i t t e n w i t h
The r e a l i s a t i o n o f a f i n a l

i n t h e examples g i v e n below.

o^" , S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s w i t h

o k a r c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i n some words

which form compounds w i t h t h e words

qi<fy\

, vala

, o r qT"T

i l l u s t r a t e s the r e a l i s a t i o n of c o n s e c u t i v e consonant
when t h e f i r s t

i s o k a r , in t h e same way a s c o n j u n c t

, var ,

characters,
characters.

For example:
pokvann

cjak'vala

see

1.

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,

2.

See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s 3 . i i .

p.131.

dhvoni

budh'var

124

MARATHI

Reading

examples

^f^cT

iii.
a.

SECTION

3qTft

Characters

^TTc^T

joined with preceding

preceding another
The c h a r a c t e r s

\' 7T , reph

or w i t h f o l l o w i n g ""Jf

series

are given in the Sanskrit

a r e formed "by p l a c i n g t h e s t r o k e

, above t h e c h a r a c t e r b e f o r e w h i c h

as t h e f i r s t

^RcT:

character.

in this

These c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

^r*q~r^r

o f two o r more c o n s e c u t i v e

1[

called

i s t o be

consonants.

c h a r a c t e r s , w h e t h e r kar or w i t h v o w e l

i s given in the note s

on c a l l i g r a p h y

characters

d o u b l i n g may s o m e t i m e s o c c u r .

Sanskrit

The c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h o c c u r i n Marathi

i n t h e r e a d i n g examples given below.


the r e a l i s a t i o n

zero-vowel,

f o l l o w e d by another consonant c h a r a c t e r ,

realisation

o f rep h w r i t t e n above a c o n s o n a n t

1.

and i n loan-

thoug h i n t h e w r i t i n g o f

The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e

korta

These

C h a r a c t e r s a r e n o t u s u a l l y d o u b l e d when

w r i t t e n w i t h r e p h i n Marathi w o r d s ,

are i l l u s t r a t e d

this

signs,

section.

occur i n Marathi words, i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s ,

words from o t h e r l a n g u a g e s .

realised

The p l a c e o f

s t r o k e on t h e v a r i o u s

in the Sanskrit

s e c t i o n2

kor-ta^

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,

2 . See S a n s k r i t ,
3 . Verbal f o r m .

orpon^

see

sor'pen^

p.131.

C h . 3 . 3. , Class

3iii.a.

of

similar

, with
to the

character:

tark

par'kar

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS
A s p e c i a l form of r e p h i s w r i t t e n
<qf

or

with

i n Marathi w o r d s .

to represent

T h i s f o r m of reph i s

^-T i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , "but i t

The f o l l o w i n g

w r i t t e n i n t h i s form w i t h

]T

examples i l l u s t r a t e

girhaiik

The w r i t i n g of reph i n t h i s form w i t h

suffixes

reph

rhosv^

and

arises

Other w o r d s a r e u s u a l l y w r i t t e n w i t h

suurya-^"

sSTT^ 1^1

this

to

from
the

e.g.

suury^
The word

written

is usually restricted

Marathi words i n which t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f

superscribed reph.

sometime s

korhacja

grammatical p r o c e s s e s .

preceding

i s not usual to write

form i n a S a n s k r i t text"'".

torha

125

dus'ra

> when c h a n g e d t o t h e

or p a r t i c l e s ,

'crude f o r m ' , b e f o r e

i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e

word vSTp^TTlt by t h i s d i f f e r e n c e

i n t h e w r i t i n g of

^-^T^rfacarya-*

acary-'

dus'rya-^

' c r u d e f o r m'

adding
of

the

reph:

-34MI$)

^Tf-^F^T-

acarii^

acarya-^"

Reading examples 7
cpfe

*$Jji

Wr

srsftc-r
v$

orSc^
mffidb

^r^rf
rfr

tp?

&F$t*

c#rJ

-mi

<sp?w
rih"

1 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C I . 3 . i i i . a .
2. Sanskrit ' h r e s v e ' .
3. S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d .
U. ' c r u d e f o r m ' . 5 . ' s p i r i t u a l p r e c e p t o r ' .
6. 'Brahman c o o k ' .
7 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 3 ' 1 .

126

MARATHI

b.

following another
The f u l l

section .
1

series

SECTION

character.

of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s

Only a f e w o f

i s given in the

these characters

Sanskrit

occur i n Marathi, m o s t l y

S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s and some E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s .

For t h e

simplification

of p r i n t i n g ,

new f o r m s s u c h a s vr*^ > bhr

times used.

The r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w i l l u s t r a t e

and

in

, Jra

are
the

some-

charact-

e r s of t h i s group w h i c h o c c u r i n M a r a t h i .
Reading

examples

5R*r .

iv.
a

Sb"*T

^r^T

3TTO^

Characters w i t h preceding

preceding another
The c h a r a c t e r s

of

f^T

^T^T

or w i t h f o l l o w i n g

character.

t h i s group w h i c h o c c u r i n S a n s k r i t a r e

in the Sanskrit s e c t i o n ^ .

The c h a r a c t e r s

following another
The c h a r a c t e r s

S a n s k r i t section**.

of

below,

character.
the

The r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w i l l u s t r a t e

the

Marathi.

The f o l l o w i n g w o r d s i l l u s t r a t e

consecutive consonant

the f i r s t

i n t h e same way a s

being akar, r e a l i s e d

ul'-Jiii

bol-to5

ghal-ne5

charact-.

conjunct

"Wc^f

characters:

1.

are

t h i s group u s e d i n S a n s k r i t a r e g i v e n i n

c h a r a c t e r s which occur i n

ers,

given

o c c u r r i n g i n Marathi

i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e w o r d s g i v e n a s r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s
b.

%Tc*T
bas-la5

ghet-la5

See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C I . 3 . i i i . b .
2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n
examples, see p . 1 3 1 .
3 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C I . 3 . i v . a .
ibid. , iv.b.
5. Verbal forms.

of

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS
Reading e x a m p l e s

mmc^TOT

C l a s s U.

127

ohlcl

vargiiy characters

^"c^f

c^Tofr

cW

j o i n e d w i t h p r e c e d i n g or f o l l o w i n g

uusm

characters.
i.

vorgiiy characters

a.

"8^ or

The f u l l

series

joined with

or

preceding a v o r g i i y

character.

of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s

given i n . t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .
2

^j" .

occurring in Sanskrit

T h o s e w h i c n o c c u r i n Marathi

i l l u s t r a t e d in the examples g i v e n b e l o w .

is
are

Most of t h e c h a r a c t e r s

i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , and t h e c h a r a c t e r "^"l o c c u r s i n E n g l i s h

occur
loan-

words.
The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l es
u t i v e consonant c h a r a c t e r s ,
same way as c o n j u n c t

illustrate
the f i r s t

M a r a t h i words i n w h i c h

consec-

b e i n g okar, are r e a l i s e d

in the

characters:

oys'poys
Reading examples

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 3 2 .
2 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s 4 . i . a .
3 . Verbal form.
i+. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 3 2 .
1.

128

M A R A T H I

b.

or ^

following a vorgiiy

S E C T I O N

character.

The s e r i e s of c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s group whic h o c c u r i n


are g i v e n i n the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .
1

Only a few of t h e s e

occur in Marathi, m o s t l y i n S a n s k r i t loanwords.


i n t he r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s g i v e n "below.

characters

These a r e

The c h a r a c t e r

Sanskrit

illustrated

jJjT , k s o ,

is

n o t c a l l i g r a p h i c a l l y a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r , and i s o f t e n i n c l u d e d

in

t h e v o r i j o m a l a . Words b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h i s c h a r a c t e r a r e u s u a l l y

placed

i n Marathi d i c t i o n a r i e s a f t e r words b e g i n n i n g w i t h
5
Reading e x a m p l e s
-q%^T

oTr^Tc^

ii.

cT

<ft8pT

tfftij

cFTT

p r e c e d i n g or f o l l o w i n g nunasik ( ' n a s a l ' )

a.

p r e c e d i n g an nunasik

^ .

<3fcFSTrar$t

characters,

character.

These c h a r a c t e r s a r e g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n ^ . Only one o f


-

t h e c h a r a c t e r s i s u s e d i n M a r a t h i , i n t h e word
b.

f o l l o w i n g an nunasik
The c h a r a c t e r s

"C^"

brahman^ .

character.

, -nh o ,

, -nh

and

*^jjT

, -mh , o c c u r

i n Marathi^.
Reading e x a m p l e s .
0

ofiTr-f-af-

1.
2.
3.
U.
6.

s=^Tofr

*^TcTHT

See S a n s k r i t , Ch. 3 , 3 - C l a s s i+. i . b .


Compare n o t e on t h e c h a r a c t e r 5"" i n C l a s s 2 . i i . b .
For t r a n s c r i p t i o n of e x a m p l e s , s e e p . 1 3 2 ,
See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s U . i i . a ,
5. i b i d . b .
For t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e x a m p l e s , s e e p . 1 3 2 .

above.

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS
Marathi p r o s e

-q-|^n-^f

i%cR' ff

*rf|$

n%.gyf

^q=n
x

JlfittS

o;tft S i f t q T f ^ K

fcT^HT^

^ ^ w i t q i ^ T

^ r o f -spfrjcft

ftr^T^fRT^ri^

tfte "g^i

^t^T v3Trf^t

iRcSf

^H^T

^flcITcT.

. W ^ T 3ff

%of ^ r q fofcerT ^ ^ i ^ q i

sif?

^f?T^5R

T T ^ R

^TlffrT, 3TJ"R "^bff ^ o ^ i - c ^ l i

" q s ^ , ^ ^

gpf STfTFft

^TT%cf. TTTcnTT, < 3 ^ q ^ = R T , f c ? ^ T ^ ^ f t ^ T f t

Vf&

passage

i<

-^fq-jfa-

t&zft

srrl.qT

^ r ^ f t c^fe^r
7

STITT^

*rtff

SFf

^ T f ^

^^mcft ^ T I J ^ I ^ I K ^ I ^^rr.^uiji^^ ^ c T T w s q M ^ o s

1. M a r a t h i V a c h a n m a l a , B k . k , p . 1 5 , b y V a s a n t
Keshav B h i k a j i D h a v a l e , G i r g a u m , Bombay.

Ramchandra

Nerurkar,

sfr

pub.

MARATHI

SECTION

T r a n s c r i p t i o n o f R e a d i n g Examples
Chapter 2 .
l.i.
jog
chot

Is

pod
noth

khor^
dheg

l.ii.

kr
dhr

jsl
kl

vr
lth

dhrr
dhekol

bdl
tlph
lv'kr
psl'ton.

bes
? t

phonos
Jehor

yo;
khes

hey'gey
ser'seko");

her'kot
henve^

her
J*er

sod^ek
dejok

ser've ";
meson/vet
-

2.ii.

kha

/ok
Jebe
herein
leher

ley
tsev
reyet
vezen

kenev
mezel

ker*vet

Jev
tehe

phes
sehe

seres
sehez

kele/
phesel

mes'let

he^ed
ve^ei;
d/ieve^
kel/meT_et
zevel/ser

an
ath
iiq.
zeii
ud^et

thiik
kay
cjoTa
baii

ledh
zer

dhen'ger
kerem'tots

J"et'po"(;
ser'pon.
semez'tei^s

2.i.

eyt
menu
eyvez

n 9

semoy
hezer

phel,
khe],
sere^
zevel,
tsej/voT;
beT/ket
mez'zeve^

<l
nun
seii
aper^

vecon
gerez

sen^
res

chel.
pe^es

khen/ke-|;
z h o t *kn

ghsr
ol

vy
tsor

(; P l
tsor'hot
9 r ,

phbt
zhegec"_

thb'kt
kets'kef

teney
nozsr

hot
ve/

Jepeth
serek

peser
besev

thor
lov

dhsm
zht

pod,
zer^
{hensk
zspst

men/ g"|;
dts'kt

go v e t
t^serot

per'ker
poked"/vet

kht
l^sokh

thkt
pe-^set

joy
dor

cln
vrv

thg
bht

bhejen
zekhem

vn
bhr

kor'met
kets'ret
sor
hos

mon
<tph

gsd^'b^
"tjsts'k^

dhsm'k"!;
tsem'ket

khe-t ' p o t
phej; ' k e n

l.iii.

bogh
kon.

gho^ok
tsoo^han.

peked^
khecjek

modot
dhemok

dhe

tso

no

hii

ruuc|h
hoy
peysa
bhauu

to
jhiil
nav
krpa
rsi

iid
uus
neuu
eyrer;
ne

pey

uuth
iter
se^eii
dhuu

tel
mevz
jev
kevi
dhobii Jiju
suii
eke

ek
eyn
u s el.
ojhor
chi

eyk
evt
d^ekh
evsedh

bhii

ga

ocjh
eyj
uter
ol_ekh
ghe

ev"|;
rn.
ukhe^
thuu

ho

dos
drcjh b e y l
hit
duudh
khecjuu
Jev b e h u n e y e
berii
chatii
bhiiti
g u ru
tsevda
yeii
rtu
eyke
oTii

TRANSCRIPTION

13

maydan
rumal
"[he v l In
jevuun kavtuk
nokar
becjuuk
gariiud.
ka"|;hor
jiivan
zamiin
deim^
patois
laa"haii t a r a z m i 1^Bui"|;ii
vagayre
-^savpajii
pahije
mara-|;b.ii
"J; ilcaxi-uL
bayragii
bhikarii
itar
ek
aykila
utar
uufh
gheiin
aii
dhuuun
p. 106. k h i d / k i i
kor'cja diis'ra kap'c^e
ik'cje
tek'cjii
kun/bii
^savk'/ii
koy'ta
guc]/ghe
av'gha
par'dhii
ev'cjha
bat'mii
tar'buuz
ker'sunii
phavz'dar
.fik'vari
ub'dar
mik'tats
khabar'dar
phasav'rjuuk
hat'us'na
soqav'nuuk
lahan'pana
ka^-to
pas'ra
pasar-tat
sar'kuun
sarak-tiil
g h a s ' r u u n g h a s ' r i i l ghasar~.fi i l
a^h'Tuun
a"|;hav-tiil
bigh'cjuun
bighad^lela
ad/kha^at
ad/kha^-tat

kal_at
ghasar
bighad^

Chapter 3
C l a s s 1.
phikka
akkal
sakkhii
cjagga
kat^sa
gaccii
iccha
lajja
ha"j;tii l a " t t
t t
khacj^a J"a:nr|av p a t t a u t t h a n r a d d i i biiddhi
ann chappann lapph a d^habbuu h i y y a k i r r h a l l i i s a v v a i / / h i s s a
n 9

Class 2.
yukti
Jabd
lagn

camatkar
sadgui|
gupt
satphal
atma
padma

Class
vaky
rajy
gaqya
pothya
dhohyane
karavyas
hyala
Class

cjokyala
jyane
pec[hyatsa
udya
abhyas
vyakhyan
ma^yane

upodghat
mugdh
samapt
udbhav
ratn
jnan

sarjkhya
tujhya
hor|_yas
madhye
bhyala
ava/y
atmyatsa

agya
petya
arjyatse
nyahal/ne

ramy

sa^kon.
utpann
-udbodhak
phakt
janm
varjmay

ghya
mo"|;hyane
tyacya
pyala
suury

rahasy
raukhy

naphyatsa
kholya
mamisy
nadya

3.ii.

kvacit
gvahii
ucchvas
jvala
vi/vas
iijvar
svacch
svapn
dvara
sarasvatii
tattvajjian
mahattv
anvay
sarv
dhvaja
Class

ticya
citthya

svatah
kevha
vhava
vha^
Jvas

3iii-

a.
t a r k imiurkh marg d i i r g h
khurcii
k h u r c y a a r z kor "; garc[
puurr^
kiirti
arthat
vardal
ardha
arpar^
uurph
barph
durbal garbh dharm dharmik
dhayry
sarv
darjan hars
nars
tarha
durlabh
kurhac[
puurvii
varse
sarvat
ardhya
ryarya
-

b.
kram
prayatn
Jriimant

kram
priiti
sahasr

irjgrajii
agraha
tras
abruu
prapt
namr
tryaipqav
samudr

chidr
tiivr

citr
tamra"";

MARATHI

132

Class

SECTION

3iv.

valgana

phalguri

svalp

kolha

kalhaii

Ihovii

klas

sle\

C l a s s U.
i.a.
ajcary
pajcim
puskal,
vyavastha
stabdh
nisphal
strii
strya
spast
drs^l
Jastr
sneha
skuul
b.
vatsal
poriiksa
suuksm
ksarajah
ii.

tumhii

Marathi P r o s e

amhii
Passage

us ";
r a s t r Jresth
rasta
tast
krsn.
snan
sthir
rastyane
drs"|;ya
sthiti
ajcary
sphuurti
s^ejan
post

durlaks
utsuk
kantiane

tilksr^
ak'smat
nhavii

ksatriya
mhatara

vansa

oksaboksii

unha^a

cinh

p r a t y e k J o h o r a t s e m a h a t t v k a h i i ek v i T i s t g o ^ t i i t a h e . a p ' l y a y a
mumboii i l a k h y a t az m u m b o i i , eh'medabad, s o l a p u u r v o g o y r e Johore v y a parasa"{;hii p r o s i d d h
ahet.
s a t a r a , eh'med'noger, vijapuur vogoyre
Johore e y t i h a s i k drs"|;ya m a h a t t v a c i i a h e t .
per]cjher'puur, n a / i k v a g a y r e Johore dharmik drs"|;ya J r e s ^ h g e n i l i i z a t a t .
pur e J o h o r a c i i
p r e s i d d h i v i d v a n a n t s e raaher'ghar mhor|Uun v i j e s a h e . karon. ya t h i k a n i i
sarv prakar'cya Jiksenacya j i t ' k y a s o y i i a h e t , t i t ' k y a i t e r t h i k a n i i
n a h i i t , ani p u u r v i i
p e J v y a n c y a v e l i i kay kimva h o l l i c y a
irjgrejii
r a j ' v a ^ i i t kay m a h a r a s t r a t i i l v i d v a n l o k a n t s e t e ek a v e c f t e s t h a n
houun r a h i l e a b e . pure Jahar s a m u d r a p a t i i p a s u u n 1850 phuu"(; u n t s a h e .
ya J a h a r a c i i s t h a p a n a don Je v a r s a p u u r v i i
Jivajiimaharajani^se guru
d a d a j i i k o r ^ a d e v y a n i i k e l i i . m a h a r a j a n t s a vacja ye t h e h o t a ani r a y "gad.
g h e i i p a r y a n t t y a n t s e mukhy "[hane puny-asats a s e ,
maharajancya p a j c a t
s a t a r a he Jahar mara^hyancya s a t t e t s e kendr z h a l e .
puqyanajiik simhagad. k i l l a , b h a f g h a r y e t h i i l dharan_ va t a l a v a n i l a s k a r a t i i l sundar
imar'tii
pah'nyasar'khya ahet.
p u r ^ y a t i i l Janivar'vad^yazava^
Jrii
Jivajiimaharajanl^se
smarak mhanuun t y a n t s a ajvaruud^h bhavy p u t a ^ a
ubha k e l e l a a h e .

1 . anusvars t o be read w i t h z e r o - r e a l i s a t i o n are not t r a n s c r i b e d


this passage.

in

GUJARATI

SECTION

C H A P T E R
ARRANGEMENT

OP

THE

SYLLABARY

(?L*Y3.lCLl

The w r i t i n g s y s t e m of G u j a r a t i

on t h e S a n s k r i t s y s t e m , w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n s
l a n g u a g e s of N o r t h e r n I n d i a w h i c h a r e w r i t t e n
script.

The c h a r a c t e r s

of t h e G u j a r a t i

is referred to

u n d e r s t o o d by a c h i l d ' .

a s i n t h e o t h e r modern

in the

D e v a n a g a ri

given in the Sanskrit

^ I ^ ^ M X ^ I

Each c h a r a c t e r

(ba^obodh) ,

is called

'character-

grammarians t o r e f e r

to

characters are s i m i l a r

to t h o s e u s e d i n S a n s k r i t , but as the

t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r s

in reading Gujarati

Sanskrit system in r e s p e c t
vowel

of c o n s o n a n t

o , t h e s e terms a r e u s e d i n t h i s

differs

The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s

the terms u s e d i n t h e S a n s k r i t

section

used i n t h i s

illustrate

section

the
realisa-

somewhat from t h e

characters r e a l i s e d with

the

in t h e i r Gujarati

and t r a n s c r i b e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e r e a l i s a t i o n
in Gujarati.

$13. ( a k s a r ) ,

The terms u s e d by G u j a r a t i

section" ".

' t h a t can be

i s c a l l e d ct 5L^-LLCd.L ( v e r n o m a l a ) ,

and the s y l l a b i c s e r i e s
series'.

as

i s "based

s c r i p t a r e a r r a n g e d i n t h e same

way as t h o s e of t h e D e v a n a g a r i s c r i p t ,
The s c r i p t

, gujaratii)

of t h e

characters

the differenc e

and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g

between
terms

section:

Sanskrit

^TT*T

fcTTTT:

1. See S a n s k r i t ,

Ch.l.

^if^A

(oksor)

(viramoh)

C^.^.LH

(viram)

(ontohstha)

^iMrrl^l

(ontosth)

(akseram)

Gujarati

form

136

G U J A R A T I

S E C T I O N

The t a b l e g i v e n b e l o w shows t h e a r r a n g e m e nt o f t h e G u j a r a t i
s y l l a b a r y i n roman n o t a t i o n .
and t h e c h a r a c t e r s
either a vowel,

As t h e s y s t e m o f w r i t i n g i s s y l l a b i c ,

i n the syllabary represent s y l l a b l e s

o r a c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d by t h e v o w e l

t a b l e s show e a c h c o n s o n a n t w i t h t h i s v o w e l .

to i n English t e x t s as t h e 'inherent

Voiceless
Voiced

P l o s i v e s

CONSONANTS w i t h

.1
Velar

2
Palatal
CO

Aspirate

kho

cho

Unaspirated

go

Aspirated

gho

jho
(P-9)

tho

tho

ph

do

dho

bh

no

no

m
v^

ro

lo

Fricatives

Jo

so**

so

ho

Lateral

MODIFIERS

5
Labial
p

yo

VOWELS

referred

to

clhe
2

k
Dental

Semivowels

Aspirate

1.

i s usually

3
Retroflex

ko

fo)

o , when

vowel'.

Unaspirated

Nasal

o , t h e roman

The v o w e l

r e a l i s e d i n t h i s way w i t h a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r ,

c o n s i s t i n g of

11

Nasal - m or

- 5 . S e e n o t e s on f o l l o w i n g

page.

uu

e , z y o , o ^ v
J

Aspirated

ARRANGEMENT OF T H E SYLLABARY
1. The c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t e d b y
and f i n a l l y w i t h t h e f l a p p e d

cjo

and

c|he
r

consonants

2. The c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t e d by

no

and

no

ion w i t h o t h e r c o n s o n a n t s , i n S a n s k r i t
3 . The c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t e d by
dental

ve

137

are r e a l i s e d
and

rh

medially

i n some w o r d s .

occur only in combinat-

loanwords.

i s usually r e a l i s e d with l a b i o -

articulation.

h. The c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t e d b y

so

and s y l l a b i c

o c c ur o n l y

in

Sanskrit loanwords.
5. The v o w e l s

and

a r e w r i t t e n i n t h e s c r i p t w i t h t h e same

c h a r a c t e r , or vowel s i g n , u s u a l l y t r a n s c r i b e d a s
o

and

are a l s o w r i t t e n w i t h t h e same c h a r a c t e r ,

u s u a l l y transcribed as

u and ' l o n g ' uu.

'short'

i and ' l o n g '

'short'

are w r i t t e n a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n r u l e s
' s h o r t ' and ' l o n g '

ii,

'short'

speech t h e r e i s o f t e n l i t t l e

and t h e

'long'

of orthography .
1

vowels

This d i s t i n c t -

v o w e l s i s p r e s e r v e d i n t n i s work i n

the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r s ,

t h o u g h i n modern G u j a r a t i

d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n of

words w r i t t e n w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r s - r e p r e s e n t i n g

1.

sign,

These p a i r s o f v o w e l s o c c u r i n G u j a r a t i w o r d s ,

and the c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e

i o n between t h e

or vowel

o .

The s e r i e s of v o w e l s i n c l u d e s

'long'

e . The v o w e l s

vowels.

See Chapter 2 , under 2 . i i . V o w e l

Signs.

the

'short'

or t h e

C H A P T E R
CHARACTERS

OP

THE

2
SYLLABARY

The G u j a r a t i c h a r a c t e r s a r e a m o d i f i e d form of t h e

Devanagari

c h a r a c t e r s , w i t h some c h a n g e s of l i n e and form w h i c h hav e come a b o u t


through an a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e s c r i p t f o r c u r s i v e w r i t i n g .

The c h a r a c t -

e r s a r e more rounded t h a n t h o s e of t h e D e v a n a g a r i s c r i p t ,
have a h e a d - s t r o k e .
section will

Comparison w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r s

in the

Sanskrit

show how t h e G u j a r a t i c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e l a t e d i n form t o

t h o s e of t h e D e v a n a g a r i s c r i p t .
characters

and do n o t

is

in general

The method of w r i t i n g t h e

t h e method d e s c r i b e d i n t h e

Gujarati

Introduction,

and r e f e r e n c e s h o u l d b e made t o t h e n o t e s on c a l l i g r a p h y g i v e n w i t h
e a c h group of c h a r a c t e r s

i n the Sanskrit s e c t i o n .

Special notes

g i v e n b e l o w on t h e c a l l i g r a p h y of any c h a r a c t e r s of w h i c h t h e
of s t r o k e s c a n n o t b e e a s i l y deduced from t h e D e v a n a g a r i

order

characters.

The G u j a r a t i c h a r a c t e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r u n d e r
same h e a d i n g s a s t h e c h a r a c t e r s

are

in the Sanskrit s e c t i o n :

the

Consonant

C h a r a c t e r s , Vowel C h a r a c t e r s and Vowel S i g n s , and M o d i f i e r s .


1 . Consonant

Characters.

The c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e a r r a n g e d i n t h r e e g r o u p s :
characters,

'ontosth'

c h a r a c t e r s and 'uusm' c h a r a c t e r s .

given in the s y l l a b a r y ,

t h e s e characters are r e a l i s e d as

c o n s i s t i n g o f an i n i t i a l
vowel

consonant,

a , and t h e y a r e d e s c r i b e d a s

1 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , l . i

iii.

'vorgiiy'

As t h e y a r e
syllables

or s e m i - v o w e l , f o l l o w e d by t h e
^ H B l ^ (okar).

The

realisation

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
of a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r w i t h o u t
ant e l e m e n t of t h e s y l l a b l e
written at the f o o t

this

only,

is

vowel,

that i s ,

thus

so on, a s i n S a n s k r i t .

This s t r o k e

is

called

character w r i t t e n with

this

is

called

grammariansj b u t i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f w r i t i n g
written with t h i s stroke are d e s c r i b e d as

, k-

somewhat from t h e r e a l i s a t i o n

of

conson-

halont'

by

**lX^

, and
and a

Gujarati

in s c h o o l s ,
J

stroke

t-

(p(j^LH ( v i r a m )

characters

(khodu,

The r e a l i s a t i o n of okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s
differs

as the

i n d i c a t e d by a d i a g o n a l

of t h e c h a r a c t e r ,

stroke

139

'lame').

in reading

these characters

Gujarati

in

Sanskrit.

The f o l l o w i n g n o t e s may be r e g a r d e d a s g e n e r a l g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s
which r e f e r e n c e may be made l a t e r when t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e

to

discussed

in d e t a i l .
a.

A final

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r

v o w e l , e x c e p t i n a few S a n s k r i t
b.

A final

i s usually realised with


loanwords.^

kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r f o r m e d by c o m b i n i n g two or more

characters^,

r a final

o k a r c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d e d by a

character written with the onusvar r e p r e s e n t i n g a nasal


ant* -, i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d w i t h an
A m e d i a l okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r
with zero-vowel,

i s r e a l i s e d in certain

or w i t h an o - g l i d e ,

for

d.

c h a r a c t e r h a s one of t h e v o w e l

When an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r
verbal b a s e , i t

is

contexts

i n s t a n c e , when s u c h a

c h a r a c t e r o c c u r s a s t h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r of a t h r e e
word, and t h e f i n a l

conson-

e-glide.

c.

zero-

the f i n a l

character
signs^.

c h a r a c t e r of a

is usually r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel,

or w i t h an

1 . See S a n s k r i t ,Ch. 2 , 1 .
2 . The v i r a m i s n o t w r i t t e n i n G u j a r a t i
w i t h c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h a r e r e a l i s e d i n t h i s way; i t i s w r i t t e n o n l y
i n a few S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s .
3 - S e e b e l o w ,Ch. 3 , 2 .
U. See b e l o w , 3 . i . b .
5. See b e l o w , 2 . i i .

Ho

GUJARATI
e-glide,

SECTION

b e f o r e t b e a d d i t i o n of s u f f i x e s

c o n s i s t i n g of,

n i n g w i t h , a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r w i t h one of t h e vowe l
For g u i d a n c e i n r e a d i n g , f i n a l

or b e g i n signs.

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s

ed w i t h z e r o - v o w e l a r e t r a n s c r i b e d w i t h o u t

o , and m e d i a l okar c o n -

s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l or w i t h an o - g l i d e
transcribed thus:
i.

k'

, t'

, p'

are

C h a r a c t e r s of t h e v o r g i i y group (ct?!^^. ) .
1

The f i r s t

g r o u p o f c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s c o n s i s t s of

twentyfive

c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g s y l l a b l e s w i t h an i n i t i a l p l o s i v e
f o l l o w e d by t h e v o w e l
( v e r g ) , or c l a s s e s ,

ko-vorg

ce-vorg

];'-verg

te-verg

pe-vorg

a . These c h a r a c t e r s f a l l

H
d
CO

d
H
te

po

An o l d e r form o f Q

khe

ghe

consonant
ct^^L

into five

according to the f i v e p o s i t i o n s

ke

1.

realis-

of

articulation.

-ne

>>
jhe

che

vS

the

H
the

de

be

phe

is

ahe

ii

-jie

-n.o

H
(H H
dhe

no

bhe

mo

See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 1 . i .
2 . C h a r a c t e r s w h i c h do n o t o c c u r
i n i t i a l l y a r e shown by a hyphen p r e f i x e d t o t h e s y l l a b l e i n t h e
roman t r a n s c r i p t i o n .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
The c h a r a c t e r s

<-

36

06

141

e written thus:

*L

36

The okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e f e r r e d t o , a s f o r i n s t a n c e i n
spelling,

thus:

, >&^L ( k e k k o ) ,

The c h a r a c t e r s

\$ and

ct

CITHX

( t e t t o ) , and s o o n

do n o t o c c u r i n G u j a r a t i w o r d s , h u t

they are w r i t t e n , i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s , i n some


S a n s k r i t loanwords i n t h e l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e .
&

are r e a l i s e d

m e d i a l l y and f i n a l l y

as

The c h a r a c t e r s
re

and r he

and

in certain

words. Examples o f t h i s r e a l i s a t i o n a r e g i v e n l a t e r , a f t e r t h e
vowel s i g n s a r e d i s c u s s e d . l
Reading e x a m p l e s

1 . One c h a r a c t e r words.
words:

-t

^9

Pour o f t h e v o r g i i y c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r a s
V

<!

2. Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , f i n a l c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h
Qrl

H L

d H

H V

*M.vS

:*bd

Hv5

*4.d

d6

UvS

3 . Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , f i n a l

<Hfri U6v5
<HHvS

^vSH
dHfc

H6

#d

zero-vowel.
V6

CH^L

<dd

$d

characters r e a l i s e d with

Hfcfc
*<.H6

HHd
&Hd

$d6
d d H

Hl

YvS

zero-vowel.

d>LS

=>Otd

CHYd

U. Four c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h

U6d

zero-'vowel

or w i t h an e - g l i d e ; f i n a l c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h

zero-vowel.

%VAl

H Y ^ t

(HdS^t

=M.H$

1. See b e l o w , under 2 . i i .
2. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . l 6 8 .

lySdHd

<HAV

i 2

GUJARATI

ii.

SECTION

C h a r a c t e r s o f t h e o n t o s t h group ( ^ H r T l ^ ^ i
There a r e f o u r G u j a r a t i

same group of S a n s k r i t

characters

characters.

in t h i s group, as

ye

le

re

ve

When t h e c h a r a c t e r s M.

and

ol

realised with a following vowel,


they occur m e d i a l l y ,

the

or m e d i a l l y

they are r e a l i s e d as c o n s o n a n t s .

in p o s i t i o n s

are r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l ,

occur i n i t i a l l y ,

in

i n w h i c h eka r c o n s o n a n t

or f i n a l l y ,

When

characters

they are r e a l i s e d as

semi-

2
v o w e l s , f o r m i n g d i p h t h o n g s w i t h t h e v o w e l of t h e p r e c e d i n g
e.g.
UVt
otH
W4.
#t
yejen
ven
bhe y
jev
Reading

examples3

1 . None of t h e o n t e s t h
2.

3.

characters

Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , f i n a l

*U

M3.

*w.

&h

o c c u r s as a word.

characters realised with

ik

H a

w.

Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , f i n a l

ab^l
a^LQi

W
^a

CLR.

^>(rt

Vtt?.

zero-vowel.

LH

*t
=mm

w .

characters r e a l i s e d with

CNAS

m f m

<=OHct

* R

or w i t h an e - g l i d e ;

&ctt

3.

&H(H?l

final

zero-vowel.

n a n h ^ h ch^l

characters r e a l i s ed with

UvSctt

yh

rl^A

k. Pour c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h

1.

syllable.

(dbSSqi

cttrtY

zero-vowel

zero-vowel.

^ftdA

See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , l . i i .
2 . F u r t h e r e x a m p l e s of t h e
i o n of t h e s e two c h a r a c t e r s a r e g i v e n b e l o w , under 2 . i i .
For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . l 6 8 .

realisat-

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
iii.

C h a r a c t e r s o f t h e uusm group ( (3l"tH. )

4 :

These c h a r a c t e r s a s g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n a r e w r i t t e n
in t h e Hindi s t y l e .

The G u j a r a t i c h a r a c t e r s a r e :

J"o

<*

so

The c h a r a c t e r X

so

ha

o c c u r s o n l y i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , and when

w r i t t e n i n words i n common u s e i n G u j a r a t i ,
Jo

e x c e p t i n formal

i t i s often r e a l i s e d as

reading.

Reading e x a m p l e s .
1 . None of t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s g r o u p o c c u r s a s a word.
2 . Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l

*U

characters r e a l i s e d with

m.

*16

3 . Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l

&L H*l ^

zero-vowel.

<SH * t d

characters r e a l i s e d with

a^uat

zero-vowel.

*iu*i U H H ^ I H

U. Pour and f i v e c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; f i n a l

characters r e a l i s e d with zero-

v o w e l , s e c o nd c h a r a c t e r i n f o u r c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , t h i r d

character

i n t h e f i v e c h a r a c t e r w o r d , r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l or w i t h an
o-glide.

3iHYl

U W d . ?&SZ

^U^d

The l a s t c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r

c&Sd

<dWl

i n the Gujarati syllabary i s

, ~T,o r e a l i s e d a s a r e t r o f l e x l a t e r a l c o n s o n a n t w i t h

o .

Reading e x a m p l e s .

#t

1.

m.

m.

See S a n s k r i t ,

owjo

Ch.2,1. i i i .

H<<t 3H<a

2.

3 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 1 . i i i . V e d i c

For

HR.<=L^I

transcription,

character.

mste

see

p.l68.

144

G U J A R A T I

The two c h a r a c t e r s

*Q and

S E C T I O N

, each r e p r e s e n t i n g

c o n s i s t i n g of two c o n s o n a n t s f o l l o w e d b y t h e v o w e l

syllables

o , are

often

p l a c e d a t t h e end of t h e s e r i e s of c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s

i n t h e vori^o-

m a l a , b u t t h e y do n o t p r o p e r l y b e l o n g t o t h e s y l l a b a r y ,

and t h e y a r e

discussed

later .
1

2
2 . Vowel C h a r a c t e r s and Vowel S i g n s ,
i.

Vowel

Characters.

The v o w el c h a r a c t e r s u s e d i n w r i t i n g G u j a r a t i c o r r e s p o n d w i t h
the vowel c h a r a c t e r s
rr , 1

and

11

i n S a n s k r i t though t h e forms d i f f e r .

do n o t o c c u r i n G u j a r a t i ^ .

usually placed f i r s t

in the

syllabic r
The c h a r a c t e r

The v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s

ii

e,

oy

, syllabic

okar, akar,

S i

uu

0,0**

ov

r , o c c u r s o n l y i n a few

loanwords, used mainly in the l i t e r a r y language.


are r e f e r r e d to as

are

vornomala.

>i

Syllabic

The v o w el

Sanskrit
characters

i k a r , u k a r , and s o o n .

I n a l l r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s which f o l l o w ,

kar c o n s o n a n t

characters

which o c c u r i n words h a v i n g vowe l c h a r a c t e r s or vowel s i g n s s h o u l d b e


r e a l i s e d according to the general rules already given, unless

special

n o t e s a r e added.

1 . See b e l o w , C h . 3 . C l a s s e s 2 . and U.
2 . For t h e u s e o f vowel
c h a r a c t e r s and vowel s i g n s , s e e S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 2 . i .
3 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 2 . i .
h. See a b o v e , C h . l . The r e a l i s a t i o n of
t h e s e vowel c h a r a c t e r s a s
e or e , and a s o or o , i s d i s c u s s e d
below under i i . Vowel S i g n s .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
Reading e x a m p l e s

1. Vowel c h a r a c t e r s o n l y .

^It ^
5

2. Vowel c h a r a c t e r s w i t h okar

SlH

^6

145

characters.

*>tlU

H@

^Ld

^1*

<a*T fesP utf

fcsftV

5>tl6

&$$t

i i . Vowel s i g n s .
Vowel s i g n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o e a c h v o w e l c h a r a c t e r ,
are added t o t h e okar form o f t h e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s
s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g of an i n i t i a l
vowels

to

character

ev .

e x c e p t 3>-C
to

represent

c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d by one of

The v o w e l s i g n s a r e g i v e n h e r e added t o

the

the

si &

1-

ka

kii

ku

kuu

kr

ki

The o r d e r of s t r o k e s

&

key

ko,ko

ke,ke

kov

i n w r i t i n g c h a r a c t e r s w i t h vowel s i g n s

i n g e n e r a l t h e same a s t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e n o t e s on c a l l i g r a p h y
the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .

Some of

f o o t when t h e vowel s i g n s f o r

KI
ja

guu

pu

or

uu

the

are added:

puu

su

suu

forms:

fir <!, ^
ji

in

added.

a. The u p r i g h t s t r o k e of a c h a r a c t e r i s w r i t t e n w i t h o u t r o u n d i n g

gu

is

t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e m o d i f i e d i n form

when c e r t a i n of t h e vowel s i g n s a r e

b. Special

jii

ju

juu

^
nu

1 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n of e x a m p l e s ,
2 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 2 . i i .

ru
see

p. 168,

ruu

dr

J*r

hr

146

GUJARATI

SECTION

In t h e t e a c h i n g o f w r i t i n g i n s c h o o l s ,
r i g h t s t r o ke of a c h a r a c t e r ,
t h e c h a r a c t e r s *D\X ,^\X

are r e f e r r e d to as L H l

and

vowel s i g n s f o r
^1^1

s y

tl

and $

(diirgh i i ) ,

>

1.

examples

One c h a r a c t e r

.^ct

(diirgh uu) .
'akar',

(hrosv i)

'ukar',

and

(3^ a r e

and

called

Characters having

'ekar'

The

vowel

and s o o n .

words.

$iy

L&

aid

dfe

*(taf

Mk

*b<i

<3t(L

%iX

<tute

Svi^d

characters.
ai^

*bfo

Realisation of

the vowels

and

S^l

eflA

^al

dlAuCl

oiH

fed

(L(Hl
oiteT

^Udl

SplRl

&$>

Ufcft

^lA

These v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s ,

HL

^.lALHlCL

OX

( H l ^ d t A

and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o w e l s i g n s ,

r e p r e s e n t two v o w e l s o f d i f f e r e n t

quality.

The v o w e l

each

character

and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n a r e r e a l i s e d i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f words
e , b u t i n some words a s

e ; the vowel c h a r a c t e r

ponding s i g n are r e a l i s e d

i n t h e m a j o r i t y of words a s

1,
2.

and

^IMX

PL^L&L

r e f e r r e d t o a s HL^LL ( m a t r a ) .

2 . Words of two or more


i6

are c a l l e d

^ ^ 0 ^ ^ ( h r o s v u) and

Reading

(kano),

to

i n t h e v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s and s i g n s ,

and t h e vowel s i g n s f o r

s i g n s are d e s c r i b e d as

the up-

and of t h e v o w e l s i g n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g

the diagonal s u p e r s c r i b ed s t r o k e s
a s i n 5^

and i n s p e l l i n g ,

hrosv, 'short' ; d i i r g h , 'long'.


For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . l 6 8 .

and t h e

as

corres-

o , but

in

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
some words a s

147

o . The r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s a s

i s d e s c r i b e d by G u j a r a t i grammarians a s

Ce^ejrt ( v i v r t ,

and

'open').

Some

p a i r s of w o r d s , w r i t t e n i n t h e same w a y , a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n meaning
only by t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e v o w e l y^X

or a s

o . Some words

in frequent use i n which t h e s e v o w e l s are r e a l i s e d as 'open'


are g i v e n b e l o w ; a f u l l e r
dictionary

' Narmakosh'

list

o f s u c h words i s g i v e n i n t h e G u j a r a t i

^LH

^61

s\-

\%i

?IH

"l6S

u \ v

^ 6 -

t-

U>1 <i\ ^MlSL


o

i s r e a l i s e d as

~h?> ISH " M l

*s

Words i n which tyX. >

the

<^U-

<^-t

i&
^

&LCL

>-t

^u-

o&*t

^Htt

d^C-lL

corresponding sign,

e :

\ &
*&ct

i s r e a l i s e d as

o :

=*tXy>H ^iu^- SlMfct Anc-tl^ lual


SL^L sia^iX slCa^X
>tvi

*HXV16

al6

ril lvs- ileo


HIH

noted.

, or t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n ,

*%>Ut

' J o d n i k o s h ' 2 words i n

, and i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y

which t h e ' o p e n ' v o w e l s o c c u r a r e s p e c i a l l y


Words i n which

vowels

U&ytl

Ml^tl

*4l(
Hi

l. d ^ U sils

^X^i- -tXs^ -iX^X


MXdluti

HU&U'l

MX^

^Cl ^Ci^ 4-

When c h a r a c t e r s w i t h t h e s e v o w e l s a r e w r i t t e n w i t h t h e mark of
n a s a l i s a t i o n known a s t h e a n u s v a r ^ ,

they are r e a l i s e d as 'open'

vowels.

n4sl$.l , narmako;, pub. 1 8 7 3 .


2.
WUrCl
*&vS$tUstfU
s a r t h a g u j o r a t i i jodjanii k o / , p u b . l 9 U 9 . The ' o p e n ' r e a l i s a t i o n o f
t h e s e vowel c h a r a c t e r s and s i g n s i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s d i c t i o n a r y by
i n v e r t i n g t h e matra.
3 . The word s w r i t t e n w i t h a hyphen a r e
verbal b a s e s .
L. I n t h i s and l a t e r words i n which t h e r e a r e two
okar c h a r a c t e r s , i t i s t h e f i r s t w h i c h i s r e a l i s e d w i t h o .
5. S i m i l a r l y a l l words i n w h i c h t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l e i s al , ' f o u r ' .
6. S i m i l a r l y o t h e r words i n w h i c h t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l e i s "Hist > ' l e s s a
quarter'.
7 . See b e l o w , u n d e r 3 . M o d i f i e r s , i . o n u s v a r .

1.

148

GUJARATI

Some words w h i c h a r e
of

as

or a s
1

go\,

SECTION

d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n meaning o n l y by t h e
0 :

round'

gol,

'treacle'

khol , ' e n q u i r y '

khol,

copop i i ,

coporii,

'smeared'

'oil-cake'
'book'

kon,, ' a n g l e '

kon^, 'who'

colli ,

colii,

'bodice'

'sixteen'

sol,

realis

sol,

(name of a v e g e t a b l e )

'weal',

'stripe'

R e a l i s a t i o n o f okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i n words w i t h vowe l


c h a r a c t e r s and s i g n s
a.

in c e r t a i n

positions,

When a m e d i a l okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r ,
w o r d , i s f o l l o w e d by a f i n a l

in a three

character

c h a r a c t e r w i t h a vowel s i g n ,

usually r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel,


s e m i - v o w e l s r e p r e s e n t e d by

or w i t h an o - g l i d e ,

and

vowel of t h e p r e c e d i n g s y l l a b l e ,

^d<ai

v&<+CL

H^iil

e^'lo

cor'bii

men/ko

as

it

is

and t h e

form d i p h t h o n g s w i t h

the

in

>c&
phay'do

chev'"(;e

The r e a l i s a t i o n o f m e d i a l okar c h a r a c t e r s i n words of more

than

t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p o s i t i o n i n e a c h word
of t h e c h a r a c t e r s w i t h vowe l s i g n s .

I n compound w o r d s ,

the

r e a l i s a t i o n d e p e n d s upon t h e form of the words j o i n e d i n t h e


compound.

The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s

the r e a l i s a t i o n

of

in such words.

Second c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l ,

or w i t h an

$lct&<l

"&daiS

^6HL-t

Yl-LctR,

Jet'korii

keflak

nuk'san

jan'vor

o-glide:

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
Other c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l ,

dukan'dar
b.

14

or w i t h an o - g l i d e :

dL"t6rCl<d

6U6<dl9

UM-MPCl

tabod^'tob

kopa );'ba j i i

par'van'gii

When a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g w i t h a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s added t o a
noun or pronoun, or t o a v e r b a l b a s e ,
character, this f i n a l
w i t h an o - g l i d e ,

HtR-Cl
gam-no

e n d i n g i n an okar c o n s o n a n t

character i s r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel,

as i n t h e s e

examples:

d^A

^dX

"iiadi

<au>ul

tom-ne

kor-to

bol-va

lag-Je

When s u c h s u f f i x e s

a r e added t o v e r b a l b a s e s of t h r e e or more

c h a r a c t e r s , o f which t h e f i n a l

and p r e - f i n a l

are o k a r , t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e p r e - f i n a l
the way i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g

^&HY
somoj

therok

or

consonant

characters

character varies

in

examples:

UHYdt

UHVlddl

sem'jii

somoj-va

som'jav-va

thor'ke

thorok-to

thor'kav-vo

Reading examples" "


1

1.

2.

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d a s i n n o t e a.

lS5l

*HH$l

<d6l

HlU<tfl

YHjd

UlHfc^

Hln^tl

6l6*ll<<

^Y^lctl

SU^d^lA

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d a s i n n o t e b .

dd*

&d*=Cl

HUCIA
1.

d6Ul

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e

U66

HU^CI
p.168.

US6dl
HiaeCl

Hl&a<=&

150

GUJARATI

SECTION

R e a l i s a t i o n of m e d i a l and f i n a l
The c h a r a c t e r

\$

and

i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d m e d i a l l y or f i n a l l y

flapped consonant,
p

p o , e x c e p t when p r e c e d e d by a c h a r a c t e r

w i t h t h e o n u s v ar .

I n some w o r d s , h o w e v e r , i t

a s t o p , q . The c h a r a c t e r

as a

written

i s always r e a l i s e d

as

i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d a s a s t o p , c|h ,

and s o m e t i m es a s a f l a p p e d c o n s o n a n t .

In some words t h e

realisation

as a s t o p i s c o n s t a n t .

The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s a r e some o f t h e words

frequent use in which

5 d i 3 l Si-

and

are always r e a l i s e d as s t o p s ^ : .

u
Hiil ntst ml
=HL<SL *Hl4l<*t 1 6 - 1 6

eu.V*tl

rCU

'male b u f f a l o '

Ybj

jad/u^ ", ' t h i c k '

CUSL

vodjD,

paro,

'cancelled'

vowel c h a r a c t e r s

vo^o,

or

'short'

and ' l o n g '

'elderly'
vowels.

and

(3

, (L

applied

in writing

the

> and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g vowel

though p r a c t i c e v a r i e s , and numerous e x c e p t i o n s

occur,

, and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n , a r e u s u a l l y w r i t t e n i n

characters,
1.
3.

c|

'jaw'

The f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l r u l e s a r e u s u a l l y

as

'neighbourhood'

jaru^,

Orthography o f t h e

a.

vS

i s n e c e s s a r y f o r d i s t i n c t i o n of m e a n i n g :
padjD,

signs,

*=tL6-

nasalisation.

I n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a i r s o f words t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of
r

^5-&us

<*$L

&L&

These c h a r a c t e r s a r e a l w a y s r e a l i s e d as s t o p s a f t e r

as

in

or i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g a f i n a l

final

kar c o n s o n a n t

See n o t e i n l . i . a b o v e .
2 . See b e l o w , under 3 i . nusvar.
See N o t e s on G u j a r a t i P h o n o l o g y , T . N . D a v e , B u l l e t i n of t h e S c h o o l
of O r i e n t a l S t u d i e s , V o l . V I . p . 6 7 3 f f .
h. For t h e mark of n a s a l i s a t i o n on t h e f i n a l c h a r a c t e r of t h i s w o r d ,
s e e b e l o w , under 3 . i . n u s v a r .
5 . P u l l e r n o t e s on G u j a r a t i o r t h o graphy a r e g i v e n i n ' J o d n i k o s h ' , I n t r o d u c t i o n , p . 3 0 f f .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

151

character, unless this i s a conjunct character ;

e.g.

laii
ff)

korii

panii

, and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n ,

other p o s i t i o n s ;
2

divos

n i

ik

ciij

geriib

are u s u a l l y w r i t t e n in

all

e.g.

CrLHd

PtatSl

&GX*UA

ed&U.ui

tikhe-J;

bilad^ii

hojiyar

ghod^iyaT,

Some e x c e p t i o n s :

biijo
h.

(t

hokiikot

liidhe

kiidho

Jiikhiine

and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n , a r e u s u a l l y w r i t t e n i n a

medial p o s i t i o n when i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g a f i n a l
character, unless this

uu^h

duudh

i s a conjunct character;

hhuukh

akar c o n s o n a n t

e.g.

phuul

mejuur

(3 and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n , a r e u s u a l l y w r i t t e n i n o t h e r
p o s i t i o n s , though many words o c c u r i n . G u j a r a t i t e x t s w r i t t e n w i t h
2

e i t h e r the ' s h o r t '


una^o

or t h e

dukan

'long'

vowel

suthar

; e.g.
varu

Some e x c e p t i o n s :
uucok

uupar

al/su

^Ll

SJjH-

kuuvo

suujh-

uubho

The S a n s k r i t o r t h o g r a p h y i s u s u a l l y p r e s e r v e d i n S a n s k r i t
words; e . g .

QiXl
hit

bhiiti

Lj^U

^(>l

purus

bhuumi

loan-

*>t<f
bohu

1 . See b e l o w , Chapter 3
2 . For t h i s vowel w r i t t e n with, t h e o n u s v a r , s e e b e l o w , under

3.i.

152

GUJARATI
3.

Modifiers.

The m o d i f i e r s > ^H^^Ll^.


the Devanagari s c r i p t ,
i.

SECTION

(onusvar)

and

(^^i^C

are both used in w r i t i n g

( v i s o r g ) , used

Gujarati.

onusvar.
The o n u s v a r i s a mark r e p r e s e n t i n g n a s a l i s a t i o n ,

in Gujarati

oil)

in

am

and i s

i n t h e form o f a d o t above a c h a r a c t e r ,

thus:

irrj

kurrj

urrj

err)

orrj

karg

kiirj

The o n u s v a r i s p l a c e d a t t h e r i g h t s i d e of any
s t r o k e , and i t

written

kern

korrj

superscribed

i s w r i t t e n on t h e c h a r a c t e r a f t e r e v e r y o t h e r

stroke,

as i n the Devanagari

script.

R e a l i s a t i o n of the
a.

anusvar.

The a n u s v ar i s r e a l i s e d i n some words a s t h e n a s a l i s a t i o n of


vowel of t h e c h a r a c t e r w i t h w h i c h i t

is written.

This

realisation

o c c u r s u s u a l l y when t h e o n u s v ar i s w r i t t e n w i t h any of t h e
to

, except

i n some S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s .

the

vowels

The o n u s v a r

r e a l i s e d i n t h i s way o c c u r s i n many g r a m m a t i c a l f o r m s .

Examples:

h$

HI

#6

SlH

*t

U&X

Midi

koii

ma

11\

tu

uuc

me"

pohoc

povva

Grammatical f o r m s :

nuiA
chokorS

%q

bodhae

The ' l o n g ' v o w e l s

fcj

kelu
and

(1

HU?

Vl(3

*Hld^

maru

ja u

av-vu,

are u s u a l l y w r i t t e n i n

characters

w i t h t h e o n u s v a r when i t r e p r e s e n t s n a s a l i s a t i o n of a v o w e l ,
1 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i . and i i .
2 . i b i d . , n o t e on c a l l i g r a p h y of t h e o n u s v a r .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

153

e x c e p t i n g r a m m a t i c a l forms d e s c r i b e d a s ' n e u t e r s i n g u l a r ' , w h i c h


are always w r i t t e n w i t h t h e ' s h o r t '

e(M

ettct

StvSt

HIS?

<#>i

viichii

bhiit

uucjo

maru

liibu

uuc|u

Some words a r e w r i t t e n w i t h e i t h e r
The vowel c h a r a c t e r s

khec-vu

'short'

or ' l o n g '

vowels.

, and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g

are r e a l i s e d w i t h t h e o n u s v a r a s

b.

vowel; e . g .

bhs

signs,

0 ; e.g.

and

sop-vu

pehoc-vu

The onusvar w r i t t e n on a c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g one of t h e v o r g i i y


c h a r a c t e r s may be r e a l i s e d a s t h e n a s a l c o n s o n a n t of t h e same
c l a s s as the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r ,
the c o - v o r g .

or as

b e f o re a character of

Thi s r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e nusvar o c c u r s m a i n l y i n

reading Sanskrit loanwords.

When t h e nusvar i s r e a l i s e d a s a

n a s a l c o n s o n a nt b e f o r e a f i n a l

kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r , t h e

f i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d w i t h an - g l i d e .
1

knj;h

Janti

jsntu

ssmbha"!

smbndh

As i n S a n s k r i t , t h e r e i s an a l t e r n a t i v e method of
nasal consonants in t h i s c o n t e x t .
The ' s h o r t ' forms o f t h e v o w e l s

Examples:

representing

T h i s method i s d e s c r i b e d
and

are u s u a l l y w r i t t e n

w i t h t h e nusvar r e p r e s e n t i n g a n a s a l c o n s o n a n t ; e . g .

ling

cinta

sundor

1 . See a b o v e , l . b . R e a l i s a t i o n o f kar c o n s o n a n t
2 . See b e l o w , C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s 2 . i i .

later.

kumbhar

characters.

154
c.

GUJARATI

SECTION

When the o n u s v a r i s w r i t t e n on a c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g an o n t o s t h
or an uusm c h a r a c t e r ,

a s i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s and l e a r n e d words

used in the l i t e r a r y language ,

it

i s r e a l i s e d in various ways,

a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p o s i t i o n of a r t i c u l a t i o n of t h e f o l l o w i n g
ant.

The r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e o n u s v a r i n t h e s e c o n t e x t s hy

in v a r i o u s p a r t s of I n d i a i s d e s c r i b e d i n the S a n s k r i t
The u s u a l G u j a r a t i p r a c t i c e
nusvar b e f o r e

, r e a l i s e d as

nusvar b e f o r e

section .
1

examples:

, as in ^i^l,

> soyyog
> Polling

o t h e r n t s s t h and uusm c h a r a c t e r s ,

realised

, r e a l i s e d as

sfcttygl

; e.g.

speakers

*^C^l l

(j^

nusvar b e f o r e a l l
as

i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e s e

conson-

sevrskssi]

, as i n

<=tA<=lA

*HXi

^G^Ll

varsvvar

vj

hivsa

sivh

Reading examples-^
1.

onusvar r e a l i s e d a s i n n o t e

*]

tiH

5$

DMJM.

(HtH

\ b

a.

%l

clt'lV

HL

ULY

H&X

(LH

*bl
HtJSt

<=Ct<>i

2 . nusvar r e a l i s e d a s i n n o t e s b . and c .

*>U-l&
ii.

Vci

<m<

M.6

ZHPil

visorg
This m o d i f i e r ,

d e s c r i b e d i n the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n * , d o e s n o t

in Gujarati words, but i t

4-

o c c u r s m e d i a l l y i n a few S a n s k r i t

loanwords

and i s r e a l i s e d a s t h e d o u b l i n g of t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s o n a n t , a s

%g*H. dukkh ( a l s o w r i t t e n

^"l^

, dukh) and

^H,rti^ft^l

occur

in

> ntskksr^.

1 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i . e .
2 . $1
r e p r e s e n t s k - j o i n e d w i t h -s . See C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s U. i . b .
3 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 6 9 .
U. See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 i i .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
U. The Complete

Syllabary.

The t r a d i t i o n a l

order of

i s shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g

the characters

155

i n the s y l l a b i c

series

table^-:

=^1

n
H

H
d
(H

<

4.

The vowel c h a r a c t e r -sfe i s n o t u s u a l l y

included in the

The t a b l e i n which t h e v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s
m o d i f i e r s added t o t h e c h a r a c t e r

(except

table.

) , and t h e

, a r e p l a c e d a t t h e head of a

s e r i e s of columns c o n s i s t i n g o f e v e r y c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i n t h e kar
form, w i t h each of t h e v o w e l s i g n s

and e a c h o f t h e m o d i f i e r s ,

c a l l e d in Gujarati the ^L^.l'^ivSl > b a r a k h o d i i ,


This t a b l e i s

1. Cf.

the

'twelve

is

characters'.

o f t e n r e c i t e d i n s c h o o l s by c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g t o r e a d .

Devanagari t a b l e

i n S a n s k r i t ,Ch . 2 , U.

156

G U J A R A T I

S E C T I O N

These two t a b l e s show t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h c h a r a c t e r s a r e p l a c e d


a s i n i t i a l c h a r a c t e r s o f words i n d i c t i o n a r i e s , w h i c h i s t h e same a s
the order i n S a n s k r i t ,

e x c e p t t h a t words b e g i n n i n g w i t h

characters

w i t h t h e o n u s v a r a r e p l a c e d a f t e r words b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e same
character withou t the onusvar, as i l l u s t r a t e d
Sanskrit:

ai

arrjy

arrjje

Gujarati:

ai

ak

akh . . .

5.

arrjho

below:

ako

akho

...

as

ah

arrjk

airjkh

...

Numerals.

The G u j a r a t i n u m e r a l s a r e w r i t t e n t h u s :

6.

Y H \

3
3

English prose.
Sanskrit

See

Hp
10

Punctuation.

In p r o s e w r i t i n g ,

1.

V3

t h e same s y s t e m of p u n c t u a t i o n i s u s e d as

in

The s y s t e m u s e d i n G u j a r a t i v e r s e i s t h e same as t h e

system.^

Sanskrit,Ch.2,6.

C H A P T E R
CONJUNCT

CHARACTERS

Consonant c h a r a c t e r s may b e combined, t o r e p r e s e n t

two or more

c o n s o n a n t s which a r e t o be r e a l i s e d w i t h o u t an i n t e r v e n i n g
Character s formed by j o i n i n g o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s
(soyyuktaksor)

by G u j a r a t i g r a m m a r i a n s or

t h e t e a c h i n g of w r i t i n g i n s c h o o l s .
of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s
Sanskrit s e c t i o n .

i.

*$tv5L^L^ ( j o q a k s e r )

in the Devanagari s c r i p t

s i m i l a r methods, w i t h t h e s e
Some c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

s t r o k e of t h e f i r s t

i.

In G u j a r a t i w o r d s ,

as

upright

t h e r e m a i n i n g p a r t of t h e

in

than the f i r s t

, gg , Q U O ^ ,
in

first
part

bbo.

Gujarati.
in the f o l l o w i n g

contexts

t h a t i s , w o r d s n o t borrowed from S a n s k r i t
e.g.

vSl^
qahyu

See S a n s k r i t ,

, kko.

a r e f o r m e d by o m i t t i n g t h e

occur i n Gujarati

from modern l a n g u a g e s ;

1.

characters

s e p a r a t i n g space, as in

C o n t e x t s of C o n j u n c t C h a r a c t e r s

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s

the

c h a r a c t e r s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d by

c h a r a c t e r i s o f t e n w r i t t e n on a l o w e r l e v e l

1.

calligraphy

i s described in

a r e f o r m e d by w r i t i n g two

character^,

of the s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r ,

in

modifications'

together, without the usual


i i . When c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

tL^BciL^R.

are c a l l e d

The c o n s t r u c t i o n and

Gujarati conjunct

vowel.

Ch.3,1.

bsccu

H^l

&l

nkkii

ci-|;t

2.

ibid.,

n i i

Ch.3,1.ii.

or

158

ii.

G U J A R A T I

In S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , e i t h e r words u s e d commonly i n

Gujarati,

or l e a r n e d words u s e d o n l y i n t h e l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e ;

e.g.

pustok
iii.

S E C T I O N

petr

iijvor

I n l o a n w o r d s from o t h e r l a n g u a g e s ;

rosto

gard^

e.g.

s^e/on

2 . R e a l i s a t i o n of C o n j u n c t C h a r a c t e r s i n

Gujarati.

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s are r e a l i s e d i n r e a d i n g as s y l l a b l e s
i n g o f two or more c o n s o n a n t s f o l l o w e d by a v o w e l .

When an okar c o n -

j u n c t c h a r a c t e r o c c u r s a s t h e f i n a l c h a r a c t e r of a w o r d ,
l y r e a l i s e d w i t h an o - g l i d e ,

as in

, jenm'

of s p e l l i n g .

in certain positions

it

is

, %tX|J^^ ,

The r e a l i s a t i o n i n modern G u j a r a t i of okar c o n s o n a n t


with zero-vowel

consist-

i n words g i v e s r i s e

usual-

Jastr'.

characters
t o a problem

For i n s t a n c e , when a f o r m a t i v e p a r t i c l e b e g i n n i n g w i t h

a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s added t o a v e r b a l b a s e e n d i n g i n a
okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r ,
with zero^vowel.

the f i n a l

c h a r a c t e r of t h e b a s e i s

final
realised

T h i s r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e c o n s e c u t i v e c h a r a c t e r s

s i m i l a r to the r e a l i s a t i o n of a conjunct c h a r a c t e r .

Similar

a r i s e i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s , where an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s

is

problems
realis-

ed w i t h z e r o - v o w e l b e f o r e a f o l l o w i n g c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r , and i n
compound words i n w h i c h t h e f i r s t p a r t ends i n an okar
c h a r a c t e r and t h e s e c o n d p a r t b e g i n s w i t h a c o n s o n a n t

consonant
character.

Examples of s u c h words a r e g i v e n below w i t h t h e v a r i o u s c l a s s e s


conjunct

of

characters.

1 . See a b o v e , C h . 2 , l . a . and b .
This g l i d e i s not r e p r e s e n t e d i n the
t r a n s c r i p t i o n of words t o w h i c h t h i s r u l e a p p l i e s .

CONJUNCT CHARACTERS
3 . C l a s s e s of Conjunc t C h a r a c t e r s

in

159

Gujarati.

The c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s u s e d i n w r i t i n g G u j a r a t i a r e

classified

i n t h i s c h a p t e r i n t h e same way a s t h e c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n
the S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .
1

C o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s of a l l t h e c l a s s e s

i n G u j a r a t i , hut i n some of t h e c l a s s e s
are u s e d .

o n l y a few of t h e

in

occur

characters

Those which a r e u s e d i n w r i t i n g G u j a r a t i a r e shown by t h e

examples g i v e n i n e a c h c l a s s , w h i c h i n c l u d e some S a n s k r i t loanwords


f r e q u e n t u s e . Some of t h e r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t

in

sect-

ion occur i n l i t e r a r y t e x t s a s l e a r n e d l o a n w o r d s , and t h e s e may be


transcribed without d i f f i c u l t y

in Gujarati

Class 1 . Two s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r s

characters.

joined.^

Most of the c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e G u j a r a t i s y l l a b a r y o c c u r i n
c l a s s , as 'doubled' c h a r a c t e r s .
as

The c h a r a c t e r f o r

, the superscribed s t r o k e r e p r e s e n t i n g

-rre

r-

is

this
written

preceding another

consonant-3,
A c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t i n g an a s p i r a t e d c o n s o n a n t i s n o t

usually

w r i t t e n as t h e f i r s t p a r t of a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s c l a s s ;
, khkho , ^

in Gujarati w r i t i n g the c h a r a c t e r s
^Jd^ , dhdho

are o f t e n u s e d .

The c o m b i n a t i o n s

, "(; t
n

-nno

and

r e p r e s e n t e d i n some words b y w r i t i n g t h e nusvar o v e r t h e


preceding

or ^

sommoti

n 9

but
a n <

-mmo

are

character

; e.g.

snnidhi

but

The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l es i l l u s t r a t e
consecutive consonant c h a r a c t e r s ,
1 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 .
3 . See b e l o w , C l a s s 3 . i i i - a .

nn

G u j a r a t i words i n which two

t h e f i r s t b e i n g kar, are

2 . Cf.

Sanskrit,

realised

Ch.3,3.Class 1 .

i6o

G U J A R A T I

S E C T I O N

i n o r d i n a r y s p e e c h i n t h e same way a s c o n j u n c t

^WllvSl

niHHl

OUA^

<Hkddl
%

ag-gaq^ii

characters:

gam-ma

bhav-vu-'

behen-no

R e a d i n g examples^-

^tb>iX

'i/sSi

ygt

@ c l

^
Class 2.

P*L.

CHL

d A

a ^ j >

eSWi

^e>l

H>S&L ftbrut w

H-*

^Q*

C^Hd

Two v o r g i i y c h a r a c t e r s

joined.
Sanskrit

Those w h i c h a r e most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d i n w r i t i n g

G u j a r a t i a r e g i v e n "below, i n t h e same g r o u p s a s t h e c h a r a c t e r s
in the Sanskrit
u

ii.

given

section^.

6rl
-kto

-tko

cH

-pt

-tp

-bd

Most of t h e c h a r a c t e r s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h o s e o f t h i s group
t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n , under i i . a . , a r e w r i t t e n i n l i t e r a r y
rati,

(fedl

The c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s c l a s s o c c u r f o r t h e most p a r t i n
and o t h e r l o a n w o r d s .

u ^ v s

r e p r e s e n t i n g homorganic n a s a l c o n s o n a n t s .

in

Guja-

T h i s method of

representing nasal consonants preceding v o r g i i y characters

is

g e n e r a l l y u s e d o n l y i n w r i t i n g S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s . An a l t e r n a t i v e
method, r e p r e s e n t i n g n a s a l c o n s o n a n t s of e a c h c l a s s by w r i t i n g
t h e nusvar on t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a r a c t e r , h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a b o v e ^ .
Of t h e c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n under i i . b . ,
, jn

and <?!,, - i n

i s not c a l l i g r a p h i c a l l y
1.
i+.
is
6.

occur i n G u j a r a t i .

The c h a r a c t e r

a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r and i s

only
^

often

Compound word.
2 . Noun w i t h s u f f i x .
3 . Verba l form.
For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . l 6 9 .
5. The s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r i n t h e s e words
formed from t h e D e v a n a g a r i c h a r a c t e r f o r d ; C f . S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 1 . i . .
See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C I . 2 .
7. See a b o v e , C h . 2 , 3 . i . b .

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS
included i n the s y l l a b a r y .

In Gujarati

161

d i c t i o n a r i e s words b e g i n -

i n g w i t h 5[L a re p l a c e d a f t e r w o r d s b e g i n n i n g w i t h
o f t e n r e a l i s e d as
iii.

iv.

-gno

a literary

of t h i s

-ghn

Of t h i s g r o u p , o n l y

group occur in S a n s k r i t

-tmo

-dm

loanwords:

-pn

, -nm , o c c u r s i n G u j a r a t i ,

and l ^ H , , -nm

v^pi-L , -rjm?

^jL i s

gye .

Some of t h e c h a r a c t e r s

-kmo

though

may o c c u r i n l e a r n e d l o a n w o r d s

in

text.

The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s

illustrate

consonant c h a r a c t e r s , when t h e f i r s t
junct c h a r a c t e r s :

the r e a l i s a t i o n

is

UCfel

SlScCl

Jskti

Jsk-tii

kar,

of

consecutive

i n t h e same way a s c o n -

^Vt

^Udl

gupt

ap-to

Reading examples^

(Ml&t

Class 3 . Characters
i.

ctcSia UHc8lR. ^ V t ctrM*.

joined w i t h ntsth

Characters j o i n e d w i t h f o l l o w i n g
All the characters

>L occur in t h i s c l a s s .

i n which the s u f f i x

^(X

Many o f t h e

.
syllabary,

characters

> n d other forms


a

t h e v e r b a l b a s e by j o i n i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r

except

of t h i s s u f f i x ,

and

see

p.169.

forms

a r e added t o

of the s u f f i x with the

2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,
Ch.3,3.Class 3 i .
M

^S*

occur in verbal

c h a r a c t e r of t h e b a s e .

1 . Verbal form.
3 . See S a n s k r i t ,

A&L

characters,

M.

of t h e G u j a r a t i

31c^>

final

i6z

G U J A R A T I

S E C T I O N

Reading e x a m p l e s ^
Q&AL

v^iej

dJ.Wl

^fe
^>cMl

^dHL
cHL

*IL*J

ai^i
16^

GfclL

ii.

^cu*4.

xClW

HvSHl
H**l

%^
OU<>*4

*foi

^
H-i^l

HlrMl

6mJ

8 ^

6ltfl

Hm^

iLeMl
Cl6i/rft

5H<S^l

.2

Characters joined with f o l l o w i n g

Only a few o f t h e G u j a r a t i c h a r a c t e r s a r e combined w i t h


these occur only i n S a n s k r i t loanwords.

, and

The r e a l i s a t i o n o f a f i n a l

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i n some compound words formed w i t h t h e words


^LUill 9 v a l a

and cJJA , v a r , i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f c o n s e c -

u t i v e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s , when t h e f i r s t

i s o k a r , i n t h e same way a s

conjunct c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s ; e . g .
U&=Ll-*L

^6cllCs*i

pokvann

o^h'vad^iyu

* & H < m

cjak'vala

s o m ' v ar

J^Ll
budh'var

Reading examples-^

iii.

Characters

joined with preceding

or f o l l o w i n g
v

a.

preceding another

character.5

These c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s a r e formed by p l a c i n g a s t r o k e known^


a

r e p h , above t h e c h a r a c t e r b e f o r e w h i c h

ed a s t h e f i r s t

i s t o be r e a l i s -

o f two o r more c o n s e c u t i v e c o n s o n a n t s .

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . l 6 9 .
3 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . l 6 9 .
see Sanskrit, C h . 2 , 1 . i i i .

The p l a c e of

2. See S a n s k r i t , Ch.3j.3-CI.3. i i .
U. For t h e c h a r a c t e r * C , f ,
5. S e e S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C I . 3 . i i i *

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS

163

t h i s s t r o k e on G u j a r a t i c h a r a c t e r s , w h e t h e r a k a r or w r i t t e n w i t h vowe l
s i g n s , corresponds with the p l a c e
characters,

of

t h e s t r o k e on t h e

and t h e o r d e r o f w r i t i n g

the s t r o k e s of c h a r a c t e r s

reph i s t h e same a s t h e o r d e r d e s c r i b e d

i n the Sanskrit

The c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s w h i c h o c c u r
i n t h e r e a d i n g example s g i v e n

Devanagari
with

section .
1

i n Gujarat i are

illustrated

below.

The f o l l o w i n g words i l l u s t r a t e

the r e a l i s a t i o n

consonant c h a r a c t e r s , when t h e f i r s t

is

junct c h a r a c t e r s w r i t t e n w i t h r e p h a r e

6dl

6*.dl

^LH

korta

kor-ta^

dharm

okar,

of

consecutive

i n t h e same way a s

con-

realised:

ghar-m3

dt

P&l^Ct

varn.

nisar'nii

Reading examples**"

dS

b.

<H?t

<=td-t

*H&

These c h a r a c t e r s a r e f o r m e d b y w r i t i n g a s h o r t , d i a g o n a l

stroke

*dOfd

f o l l o w i n g another

H*tl

\ d

character.

either a g a i n s t the u p r i g h t s t r o k e
c h a r a c t e r . 5 Two c h a r a c t e r s

oUit-t

similar

of a c h a r a c t e r ,

or b e l o w a rounded

t o t h e Devanagari c h a r a c t e r s

used i n forming t h e s e c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s :
Jo .6 The examples g i v e n b e l o w i l l u s t r a t e

for

do , and > i .

the characters of t h i s

which o c c u r i n G u j a r a t i , m o s t l y i n S a n s k r i t

and E n g l i s h

are
for
class

loanwords.

Reading e x a m p l e s 7

1.
3.
5.
7.

#i

Sid

V)i

W&l

V U S d *Ut
*H1?A&

d*l

Jty
URlL

See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 - C I . 3 . i i i . a. C a l l i g r a p h y .
2 , Verbal form.
Noun w i t h s u f f i x .
L. F o r t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 6 9 .
Cf.Sanskrit,Ch.3,3.CI.3.iii.b.
6. i b i d . , C h . 2 , 1 . i . and i i i .
For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 6 9 .

164

G U J A R A T I

i v . Characters with preceding

S E C T I O N

or f o l l o w i n g

.1

The c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s c l a s s w h i c h a r e u s e d i n w r i t i n g

Gujarati

are i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e r e a d i n g examples g i v e n below.


a.

preceding.
Characters with preceding Q

are not u s u a l l y w r i t t e n in Gujarati

e x c e p t i n a few S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s .

Some words a r e w r i t t e n e i t h e r w i t h

a conjunct c h a r a c t e r or w i t h s e p a r a t e c h a r a c t e r s , such as
bolke

, or <H<&>-t>al'ke.
In r e p r e s e n t i n g c o l l o q u i a l s p e e c h forms i n modern G u j a r a t i ,

character
for
b.

i s s o m e t i m e s w r i t t e n f o r (^J^ , a s
, loher

the

in

, and o t h e r s i m i l a r w o r d s .

following.
C h a r a c t e r s combined w i t h f o l l o w i n g

occur mainly i n S a n s k r i t

and E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s .
The f o l l o w i n g w o r d s i l l u s t r a t e

the r e a l i s a t i o n of

c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s , when t h e f i r s t
j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s

bil'kul
Reading e x a m p l e s

i s o k a r , i n t h e same way a s c o n -

class:

voT/gonii

bod'lii

am'lii

ftti*t ae-L-ii
Me^is

consecutive

ate&
&AI

1 . Cf. S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C l . 3 . i v . a .
2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 6 9 .

*<=ieu
vsaiu

and b .

^euu

Kie-i

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS
C l a s s U' v o r g i i y c h a r a c t e r s

165

j o i n e d w i t h p r e c e d i n g or f o l l o w i n g uusm

characters.
i.
a.

vorgiiy characters
$X

> H

joined with

>

preceding a vorgiiy

*H. ^

character.

The c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s w h i c h o c c u r i n G u j a r a t i , m o s t l y

in

S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , a r e i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w . The
f o r m a t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r s

is similar

n a g a r i c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s ,
u s i n g t h e form " C ^ 3 f
b.

or ^

o r

5^

u s i n g t h e form

when c o m b i n e d w i t h

following a vorgiiy

Only a few of t h e G u j a r a t i
which occur a r e i l l u s t r a t e d

characters

The c h a r a c t e r

when t h e f i r s t

often

Words b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h i s a r e

the realisation
is

akar

of

consecutive

, i n t h e same way a s

'

HlUdX

'lftwl_

fedUHl

n a s - t o 5

bhs-no6

dives-ma?

is written

i n some words for^RQS t o

the p r o n u n c i a t i o n i n modern G u j a r a t i
a n d ^ Y ,

Those

The c h a r a c t e r

a f t e r words b e g i n n i n g w i t h

The f o l l o w i n g words i l l u s t r a t e

nuk'san

a c o n j u n c t c n a r a c t e r and i s

i n c l u d e d i n t h e G u j a r a t i vornomala.^-

conjunct c h a r a c t e r s :

3 . 1 , and

occur i n t h i s c l a s s .

i n the examples below.

placed i n Gujarati d i c t i o n a r i e s

^ for

character.

> kso , i s not c a l l i g r a p h i c a l l y

consonant c h a r a c t e r s ,

t o the f o r m a t i o n of the Deva-

sahej

o f s u c h words a s

represent

(d

S 9 n e l

(^Y).

1 . Cf. S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s k . i . a . and b .
2. i b i d . , C h . 2 , 1 . i i i .
3. i b i d . , C h . 2 , l . i . ca-vargah,
U. G f . n o t e on $t under C 1 . 2 . i i . b .
5.. Verbal form.
6. Noun w i t h s u f f i x .
7 . Noun w i t h p a r t i c l e .

i66

G U J A R A T I

S E C T I O N

Reading examples^

y^<a

W l

W l

SkCd

3I

GttfcSUl

fe-H^L
ii.

R.*rtl

<t*d,

*U3*l

Wfcd

(^Hil

^ H ^ L

^L^rd

g^t

preceding-or f o l l o w i n g onunasik ( ' n a s a l ' )

a.

**Cl

characters .
2

preceding.
Two c h a r a c t e r s occur with preceding

(6 , i n the Sanskrit l o a n s

words CtyUl brahmon, , and p j . ^ , c ihn


b.

following.
The characters which occur with f o l l o w i n g

tbe examples given below. The c h a r a c t e r s

are i l l u s t r a t e d i n
and V( are sometimes

w r i t t e n t o represent t h e tendency t o a s p i r a t i o n i n some words i n


c o l l o q u i a l speech.
Reading examples 3

-<*l%

d ^ [tih]

U L ^ [*U&]

Gujarati prose passaged

5*1 t*i

*dtWU

<tR r l d l
cl^lDl

M l VLv^d

^ I d ^ U s

U&4%A

&

&

rld^

*Y, ^iRdL

^ Y d R l - H

^ L L ^ =dil^
ctl i ^ d l M V

cldl

#ldl,

^ d r l Gdl^ld UeT y l R , ^ l
C d l R l - f l vlvS^Cl <d^l

dfe;

"ideOA

<dl<tdRt

1. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 6 9 .
2. C f . S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s U. i i .
3. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 1 7 0 .
k Sarpha Jodnikosh, by Maganlal
Prabhudas Desai, Uth e d . 19U9, p . 1 6 , pub. Navajivan Prakashan
Mandir, Ahmedabad.

C O N J U N C T

*k

ctU^-Cl >.

(k^vSl

<H*Adl
H^l.

SidlA

*d5to

fcQA

<=LR

5HUVrLLHl4l

^UAL-il

e>.

=i>id

Y d !

3d

*UR

e>

d M ^ & l A

Vldl&

rL VCVIHL

YtvS^d

W t d d

d R l
\<=Udl

fctftUH

Rd**U

Hl-H

@<Hvl

^HH^
(A&fcHt

^LaU^bd

R l 4 l

e>.

^ ( A

HfcF

(A^eildl

rlLC^lH-

*4J& %ii &, AMI

^HdHL-H

<dA

(AHIH!

=*l(dlA

167

cHL 9lvS^dHL * d U Y 5 d l

(RlRlAl

Vto^QAl ^IL^iclHL

CHARACTERS

R e T aAdik

HUieiHl

*td-d

9ui>d

^HAHl-M-

H f c f Y L H >

* d A

V
Y
tR
"ORI

Ufc/l

d&l

<=txk
d l M ^ l
HO

d .

G U J A R A T I

S E C T I O N

T r a n s c r i p t i o n o f R e a d i n g Examples
Chapter 2.
1.1.
ghon
jho-j;

no

ch

pg
gho<^

nakh
dhon

bdn
jomer^

pk4
beged^

dhod^'por^
l.ii.
lecek
reved^

per
loy

res

lese^

helek

j e n _

mdd
dhemek

lekh
char

jheror^
yeven

poster

Je"|;h

sedh

seres

J e r ' b e t

bor
red^

rej
kol

rev
cay

vekhet
pelokh

led^'ken^

tor'tej

Jon,

hes
Jepeth

dej

semey
her'kot

ba^ad

dhevel

kernel

h&\.

2.1.

ao

is
uucek

uun
iya"t
mau

ek
uu~J;h
leii

ap
e

deph'ter
ser

Jet
phenes

veket ser
1

per'vel

. hel'ke-j;

eo
e<]h
ri^
e v s e d h ogh
geii
jeiie

d e i i

che

sev

vey
joy

;tereph
bhereri

heren^

.kes'ret

gomen
peahen

leg
bher

reten
peven

yoj

cjheg
pen_

gej'ken

sar'ke-j;

d e l

ke

teged^
bhejen

bherec[
corek

herekh

p h e X

2.1i.

khol
ver

ph1;

bed^'che !;

ch-|;h
jed^

hh.Qi{

phs^sk
tenekh

Dhe-fpo ];

ghor
jhol

veredh
leger;

kkh
ben

me^h
dom
cmn
depe^

cek'mek

leg'bheg

1. i i i .

s e m

jhecjep
nogod

cheler
vered

kel'ter

cec[
thed^

tok

bho-Ji'kon

roth
yov

dho

jo

Da

ghii

aj
ubheq
deiie
te

ev^h
iijf
leiie
ca

je

bhuu

dho

jii

Jejh
roj
t
duudh
lok
ruup
ciij
drdh
hit
jay
god
lav
nehi
behu
mehe
pechii
aje
uubho
uge
apo
rsi
rtu
seve
teo
bhaii
chiie
juo
boyrii
golo
varu
peyso
iriuke
rajii
pelo
divo krpa
vise
nijale
ujanii
ruupiyo
tabedarii
hojiyarii
bhaioe
n

P.1U9.
pay'Iii
cheter
peser

ek'tha
ap'ne
jem'rukh
c h e f re
pes'riine

bek'rii
pay'del

cheter-vii
pesor-vii

nek'jo
pog'lii
al'su
ko^'val
guj ratii
f

kos'bii
koseb'cor

peked^
pek'cjo
pekecj-vo
mok'lii
mokal-vii

TRANSCRIPTION
pa
badh

3.i.
ii.

169

hu
kii
bhoy
ph:k
khc
sSj
jhakh
tevaj
madu.
pehoc
vl^ii

anand

jsntu

vssant

msr^

endor

uugh
thau"

kenjus

slic
llba
gmba

bhes
somp

Chapter 3
Glass 1 .
nokkii
lokk&d^
cokkho l a g g u v s c c e
beccu i c c h a goccho
S9jj9d_
ujjhotli
chu-J;t
tt
citt
khsd^o p i t t g T , p o t t h g r muddgl buddhi
oddho grins cgppu bebbe h i m m 9 t
reyygt
chello
hSliii
hisso
D

h i i

Class 2.
jukti

bhgkti
rukmir^ii
sembgndh
jpan

t 9 t k a l

l 9 g n

C 9 m 9 t k a r

rgrjg

j 9 n m

gupt
sundgr

Jebd
argmbh

t 9 t p a r

pgnth

ygtn
pgrgntu

Class 3 - i kyare
/ 9 k y o
khyalu
fiakhyo
lagyu
sughyu
slicyo
puchyo
jyare
k h o j y u suujhyu
chu^yo
uuthyu
p9d_yo
kadjiyo bher|yo
jiityo
tya
athyu
vidya
/ o d h y o medhye manyo
nyay p y a r e
apyfl haphyo
dgbyCf thobhy u
gamyu s u u r y
kgryo b o l y o
avyu
bhavyu
9V9/y
piir'syu
monusy
kshyu"
rnelyu n i k g l y o
9drJ"y
Class 3 . i t .
settv
svgpn

prthvii
dve/

serv
dhvgni

ii/vsr
tottvsjjian

vi/vas

sv9bhav

Class 3 i i t
a. trk
muurkh
vidyarthii n i r
b.

krom
from

vorg
srjit
g e r j s n a v e r n o n puurr^ v a r t s n
9
erdhu rpgr^ d h s n n d 9 r m i y k h e r v puurve
hors

r t h

d 9 y

r a t r cgndr sgmudr prem


Jravar^
agreh
trabu

prarjii
trsri
irjgrejii
n 9 m

triiju
Jukrovar
prsmane
bhramor

Class 3 - i v .
phalgun
k 9
Jlok
klej*
Class

l p g n a

klas

kolha
glas

k 9 l h 9 i i

sv^lp

Jilp

pralhad

slet

U.i.

a. m e / k a r l i paj"cim
ce/ma
pejcattap
p u s k 9 \ duskorm r a s t r
vostu rssto
sthiti
tiroskar
sgrrjskrt
smeror^

a/cory
dust
P ?t
pustgk
Jastr s t r i l
stheT,
rast

b. p o r i i k s a

krs:q

r 9 k s 9 r ^

Qksar

Igksmoi;

9 p s 9 r a

insaph

170

GUJARATI

Class

SECTION

U.ii.

nhavu

samhe ( s a m e )

Gujarati prose

tamhe

(tome)

passage

jod^onii J a s t r o p u u t h o y , b o h o T i i J i s t ruuq^hine
bodhu

jeflu

a v o j y o k c h e tefrCL j , e'thova t e n a k a r ' t a y e ,

t e v i i poi\ jocjanii behujonomany one n i j c i t


che.

e n u s e r o t i i hoy,

a j e ongre j i i b h a s a n i i

thaii

joc|onii bodhii r i i t e

to kehevayo j n e h i ; k e f l i i y e

jevii

j a y , e vodhare

pan_ t e p r o j a - m a sanga-|;han t a t h a t a l i i m ' b a d h a t a hovane l i i d h e

sarvamany t h a i i c u k i i c h e ,
lakhan_ jad^ii ave c h e .
gaii e f l e
thaii

tethii

avojyok

che.

ty

angrejii bhasanii

jod^anii

jod^aniinil b a b e t - m a badhe ekMharu'

ek v a r a r a j a k a t a - m S t h i i

vyavastha utpann

thaii

p a c h i i s u d h a r a k a r v a j h o y t o t e kam prama^-ma ghanu s a h e l u

jay che.
sudharano p r a v a h a many v i k a l p o n i i moryada-mg j v a h i i

vakhot

j a t a v i k a l p o - m a amuk j a t - n i i

Joke c h e .

jod^anii j vadbare ruud^h t h a y che

ane b i i j a v i k a l p o avamahy na hoy topan_ v a p a r a j - n e abha've k a l a g r a s t


thaii

hoy

J a s t r o j u d d h che em

b a b o t - m a e cjhangadhacja. v a g a r - n i i

jocjonii-ma a r a j a k a t a p h e l a v a pami i n a t h i i .

j a y che ane k h a r i i pacje c h e .

BENGALI
PREPARED

IN

SECTION

COLLABORATION

WITH

MISS G. M. SUMMERS
formerly

Lecturer

School of Oriental
University

in Bengali

and African
of

London

in the
Studies

1.

C H A P T E R !
ARRANGEMENT

The B e n g a l i s c r i p t ,

OP

THE

SYLLABARY

a s a w r i t i n g s y s t e m , i s "based on t h e same

s y l l a b i c system as the Devanagari s c r i p t .

The c h a r a c t e r s of

the

s y l l a b a r y are a r r a n g e d i n t h e same w a y , and t h o u gh t h e m a j o r i t y o f


t h e c h a r a c t e r s seem a t f i r s t

s i g h t t o be very d i f f e r e n t

form from t h o s e of t h e D e v a n a g a r i s c r i p t ,

i n l i n e and

some o f them a r e

recognis-

a b l y of t h e same o r i g i n .
The same s y s t e m o f n o t a t i o n i s u s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n f o r t h e
s c r i p t i o n of t h e B e n g a l i s c r i p t a s t h a t u s e d i n t h e S a n s k r i t
and i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e modern l a n g u a g e s w h i c h a r e
w i t h t h e Devanagari s c r i p t .

As i n t h e D e v a n a g a r i s c r i p t ,

c h a r a c t e r of t h e B e n g a l i s c r i p t r e p r e s e n t s a s y l l a b l e

in Bengali as in Sanskrit,

red t o i n E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s a s t h e

'inherent'

vowel.

a consonant c h a r a c t e r o f t h e B e n g a l i s y l l a b a r y ,

section,

written
each

consisting

e i t h e r of a vowel or o f a c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d b y t h e f i r s t
vowel s e r i e s . This v o w e l ,

v o w el of

is usually

or i n r e c i t i n g

'o'.

In order to p r e s e r v e

the

refer-

In r e f e r r i n g

s y l l a b a r y , the inherent vowel i s , however , t he vowel which i s


r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e p h o n e t i c symbol

tran-

to

the
usually

uniform-

i t y i n t h e s y s t e m a t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h i s work t h e symbol
T

i s used in t h i s s e c t i o n to r e p r e s e n t

t h e r e are v a r i o u s o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s

t h e i n h e r e n t v o w e l , and a s

i n t h e q u a l i t y of vowel

used i n r e a l i s i n g t h e B e n g a l i c h a r a c t e r s , t h e s y s t e m a t i c

sounds

transcription

174

B E N G A L I

S E C T I O N

i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s accompanied, both i n the examples g i v e n in

the

t e x t and i n t h o s e g i v e n f o r p r a c t i c e i n r e a d i n g , by a p h o n e t i c
scription.

The p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s g i v e n i n b r a c k e t s t o

trandis-

t i n g u i s h i t from t h e s y s t e m a t i c roman t r a n s c r i p t i o n .
I n t h e roman s y l l a b a r y g i v e n b e l o w , t h e s y l l a b l e s a r e
in the table i n the systematic t r a n s c r i p t i o n used in the
syllabary.

For t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f c e r t a i n a d d i t i o n a l

w h i c h do n o t o c c u r i n t h e S a n s k r i t s y l l a b a r y ,
transcription,

Sanskrit

characters

and f o r t h e

phonetic

the f o l l o w i n g symbols, not included in the

Roman N o t a t i o n , a r e u s e d i n t h i s
i.

represented

All-India

section:-

S y s t e m a t i c roman n o t a t i o n .
po and ph , f o r t h e r e t r o f l e x f l a p p e d c o n s o n a n t s , r e p r e s e n t e d
t h e s c r i p t b y m o d i f i e d forms of t h e c h a r a c t e r s
to

and

corresponding

cjh .
1

y , f o r t h e m o d i f i e d form of t h e c h a r a c t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o
2
and r e a l i s e d i n v a r i o u s w a y s , d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter
nj , f o r t h e m o d i f i e r r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e
ii.

Phonetic

y ,

2.

nusvar.3

notation.

( o ) , f o r t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e i n h e r e n t vowel i n most
(as) , f o r t h e r e a l i s a t i o n ,

in certain contexts,

s c r i b e d i n roman n o t a t i o n a s
special contexts,

to represent

2.

of the vowel t r a n s c r i b e d as

o r a s z e r o - v o w e l , "in c e r t a i n
ibid.,

l.ii.

tran-

a ; and f o r t h e r e a l i s a t i o n ,

ntsth y.

in

e .

nasalisation.

t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e i n h e r e n t v o w e l ,

a s an - g l i d e ,
1 . See C h . 2 , l . i .

contexts.

of t h e v o w e l

(")', s u p e r s c r i b e d t o vowel symbols, t o r e p r e s e n t


(*),

in

medially,

positions.
3 . See

Ch.2,3.ii.

ARRANGEMENT OF T H E SYLLABARY

75

B e n g a l i S y l l a b a r y i n Roman N o t a t i o n
1
Velar

2
Palatal

Unaspirated

ka

ca

Aspirated

kha

cha
J

CQ
CD
>
H

Voiceless

CONSONANTS w i t h

CQ

H
O
>

Unaspirated
Aspirated

gha

Retroflex

Jha

5
Labial

Dental
ta

pa

tha

tha

pha

da

ba

dha

bha

na

ma

ra

la

va**

sa^

sa

dha

PH

Nasal

(p-o)

Semivowels

ya-'

Fricatives

jfa
ha

Aspirate
VOWELS

MODIFIERS

N a s a l - nj and

ii

uu

ay

av

Aspirated - h

Notes on t h e s y l l a b l e s marked 1 - 6 i n t h e above

table:

1 . The c h a r a c t e r s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s e two s y l l a b l e s a r e m o d i f i e d
to represent th e medial and f i n a l
as f l a p p e d s o u n d s , w r i t t e n a s

pa

r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e s e

characters

and pha i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n .

2. The c h a r a c t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h i s s y l l a b l e i s n o t w r i t t e n a s a
s i n g l e character i n B e n g a l i , b u t only i n combination with
c h a r a c t e r s , i l l u s t r a t e d b e l o w i n Chapter 3.

other

176

3.

B E N G A L I

S E C T I O N

As t h e c h a r a c t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h i s s y l l a b l e

i s always

i n t h e same way a s t h e c h a r a c t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o
form o f i t

i s used to represent

of t h i s m o d i f i e d

character,

s c r i b e d i n t h i s work a s
h.

6.

in certain contexts.

r e f e r r e d t o a s 'ntsth y ,

to the s y l l a b l e

2.2.ii.

i s t h e same a s

syllabic

The c h a r a c t e r s

occurs only

, occurs only in Sanskrit

of t h e Eengali s c r i p t

groups as the s y l l a b l e s

in

loanwords.

are arranged i n the

g i v e n i n t h e above t a b l e ,

by B e n g a l i grammarians i n d e s c r i b i n g

These t e r m s a r e S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s ,
t h e same c o n v e n t i o n s

r e a d i n g from a t e x t .

the characters

and t h e i r

the s i m i l a r i t i e s

somewhat d i f f e r e n t

and d i f f e r e n c e s

and i n s y s t e m a t i c

ksrm

lo) \m*.

section.

a r e o b s e r v e d a s t h o s e u s e d i n modern

t h e y are r e c o g n i s a b l e as loanwords.

of t e r m s , i n s c r i p t
^T^TR"

realis-

Bengali
from

B e n g a l i ^SJ^^f

viramoh

v|

The

ksr,,

(okkhor)

viram

(biram)
(borgo)

ontshsth

vs>|

antastha

^^"{T

uusman

^"^J

uusm

vyajijanam

^5$*7

vyejijsn (been j on)

T ^ R

two

transcription:

^FcT^ST

are

following

between the

and p h o n e t i c

vrg

read-

t h o u g h when t h e S a n s k r i t and t h e B e n g a l i t e r m s

p l a c e d s i d e by s i d e ,
examples i l l u s t r a t e

used

and when t h e y a r e r e a l i s e d i n

They s o u n d , t h e r e f o r e ,

the Sanskrit terms,

same

and t h e t e r m s

a t i o n in reading are s i m i l a r to those given in the Sanskrit

Sanskrit

the

loanwords.

This v o w e l ,

sets

and t r a n -

b .

The c h a r a c t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h i s s y l l a b l e

ing,

The u s e

The c h a r a c t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h i s s y l l a b l e

Sanskrit

j , a m o d i f i e d

y , i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapte r

character corresponding
5.

realised

(ontostho)

(u/J"8)

ARRANGEMENT OF T H E SYLLABARY
Bengali

177

Calligraphy.

In t h e modern t e a c h i n g o f B e n g a l i w r i t i n g ,
g e n e r a l l y u s e d , and c o n s e q u e n t l y l i t t l e

ordinary pens are

a t t e n t i o n i s paid to the b a l -

ance or d i r e c t i o n of t h e b r o a d and t h i n s t r o k e s .

Formerly,

however,

w r i t i n g was t a u g h t w i t h a b r o a d p e n s u c h a s t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e
n o t e s on c a l l i g r a p h y i n t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n .
1

position

of t h e b r o a d and t h i n s t r o k e s

Though t h e

relative

i s n o t s o s t r i c t l y adhere d t o

in w r i t i n g Bengali as i n w r i t i n g the Devanagari s c r i p t ,

the

d i r e c t i o n of them i s t h e same a s t h a t i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h o s e
There i s a c o n v e n t i o n a l
character? the f i r s t

general
notes.

order of w r i t i n g the strokes i n

s t r o k e i n w r i t i n g m o s t of t h e

each

characters

b e g i n s a t t h e t o p l e f t hand s i d e and t h e l a s t s t r o k e b r i n g s t h e p e n
t o the t o p r i g h t hand s i d e s o t h a t i t

i s p o s s i b l e t o p a s s s t r a i g h t on

t o the b e g i n n i n g of t h e n e x t c h a r a c t e r .

I f a c h a r a c t er has a h o r i z o n -

t a l h e a d - s t r o k e , or i s c o m p l e t e d w i t h a s h o r t h o r i z o n t a l s t r o k e
t h e top r i g h t hand s i d e ,
t o the f i r s t

t h i s s t r o k e i s w r i t t e n l a s t and c a r r i e d on

s t r o k e of t h e n e x t c h a r a c t e r i n a word; when s u c h a

s t r o k e i s p l a c e d on t h e l e f t
first.

at

hand s i d e

of the c h a r a c t e r ,

This h e a d - s t r o k e i s r e f e r r e d t o as the

be l i f t e d as r a r e l y a s p o s s i b l e

'matra'.

it

is

written

The pen s h o u l d

i n w r i t i n g a c h a r a c t e r , or

consecutive

characters. A l l the c h a r a c t e r s are w r i t t e n below the l i n e ,

if

paper i s u s e d , and t h e r e g u l a r a l i g n m e n t i s by t h e t o p of

the

ruled

characters.
The p r i n t e d forms of t h e c h a r a c t e r s , g i v e n i n t h e t a b l e s
Chapter 2 , are n o t u s u a l l y u s e d i n m a n u s c r i p t .

The c o r r e s p o n d i n g

c u r s i v e forms of t h e c h a r a c t e r s , u s e d i n w r i t i n g ,
1 . See S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n ,

Introduction.
N

in

are g i v e n below

the

178

B E N G A L I

S E C T I O N

p r i n t e d f o r m s , w i t h n o t e s on c a l l i g r a p h y when n e c e s s a r y .
g i v e n "below i l l u s t r a t e
characters,

The e x a m p l e s

the g e n e r a l order of s t r o k e s i n w r i t i n g

some t y p i c a l f o r m s , and t h e s m a l l "but i m p o r t a n t

differ-

e n c e s t o he n o t e d b e t w e e n c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h h a ve some s i m i l a r i t y
form.

\5

>
V
v5

&
m

the

of

C H A P T E R
CHARACTERS

OP

THE

SYLLABARY

The B e n g a l i c h a r a c t e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t l j i s c h a p t e r under t h e
same h e a d i n g s a s t b e D e v a n a g a r i c h a r a c t e r s

in the Sanskrit

section:

Consonant C h a r a c t e r s , Vowel C h a r a c t e r s and S i g n s , and M o d i f i e r s . *


1. Consonant C h a r a c t e r s .
The c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e a r r a n g e d i n t h r e e g r o u p s :
( b o r g i y o ) c h a r a c t e r s , ntssth ( o n t o s t h o )
characters.

c h a r a c t e r s , and uusm(uj*j6)

In t h e form i n w h i c h t h e y a r e g i v e n i n t h e

they are r e a l i s e d a s s y l l a b l e s

vorgiiy

c o n s i s t i n g o f an i n i t i a l

syllabary,
consonant

f o l l o w e d by t h e f i r s t v o w e l o f t h e v o w e l s e r i e s , r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e
roman t a b l e a s
that i s ,

The c h a r a c t e r s a r e d e s c r i b e d a s 'kar'

(okar),

' e n d i n g i n ' . Each c h a r a c t e r i s r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e

which i t r e p r e s e n t s , w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c l e
example, k-kar, t - k a r , p - k a r .

When a c h a r a c t e r i s t o b e

without the inherent vowel, t h a t i s ,

This mark i s c a l l e d

9^

is

realised

i s w r i t t e n a t t h e f o o t of

'hsnt' ( h o / o n t o )

w r i t t e n w i t h t h i s mark a r e r e f e r r e d t o t h u s : ^5
(ko-e ho/onto)^,

for

a s t h e c o n s o n a n t e l e m e n t of

s y l l a b l e only, a short diagonal s t r o k e


character.

'-kar';

syllable

' g - e hsnt

is

the
the

, and c h a r a c t e r s
'k-e h o s s n t '

( g o - e h o / o n t o ) , and s o on.

In

r e a d i n g w o r d s , kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e a l i s e d i n v a r i o u s

1. Compare S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n , C h a p t e r 2 .
2 . ' e n d i n g i n a c o n s o n a n t ' . Cf. S a n s k r i t C h . 2 . 1 . v i r a m e h and hlnt.
3 . 'hsssnt i n k'.
See a l s o b e l o w , u n d e r i .

180

BENGALI

SECTION

c o n t e x t s with z e r o - v o w e l , hut the hosonto i s not u s u a l l y w r i t t e n with


such c h a r a c t e r s i n modern B e n g a l i , a s i t

i s assumed t h a t t h e

can r e c o g n i s e from a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s p o k e n l a n g u a g e w h i c h
a r e t o b e r e a l i s e d i n t h i s way.

In some v e r b a l forms

reader
characters

, however,

the

hosonto i s o f t e n w r i t t e n w i t h c h a r a c t e r s t h a t are r e a l i s e d w i t h
v o w e l , and i t

i s used in writing Sanskrit texts in Bengali

zero-

script.

The a b s e n c e o f t h e h o s o n t o i n a c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r c a n n o t ,
e v e r , b e t a k e n t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t o be r e a l i s e d

howwith

t h e i n h e r e n t v o w e l . A l t h o u g h t h e w r i t i n g s y s t e m o f B e n g a l i h a s much i n
common w i t h t h e S a n s k r i t w r i t i n g s y s t e m , owing t o i t s o r i g i n , t h e u s e
of a system so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the S a n s k r i t system f o r w r i t i n g a
modern s p o k e n l a n g u a g e makes n e c e s s a r y a number o f c o n v e n t i o n s b o t h o f
s p e l l i n g and of r e a l i s i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n r e a d i n g .

Some of

these

c o n v e n t i o n s c o n c e r n t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s .

The

Bengali consonant c h a r a c t e r s , as they are given i n the s y l l a b a r y ,

are

realised,

a s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , i n t h e same way a s t h e S a n s k r i t

charact-

e r s . When t h e y o c c u r i n w o r d s , h o w e v e r , t h e y a r e r e a l i s e d i n v a r i o u s
ways: as consonants w i t h the inheren t vowel, as consonants w i t h
v o w e l , or a s c o n s o n a n t s w i t h a g l i d e - v o w e l .

Further, the

zero-

inherent

v o w e l , r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s y s t e m a t i c roman n o t a t i o n by o , i s

realis-

ed i n some c o n t e x t s a s ( o ) and i n o t h e r s a s ( o ) .

realis-

This varying

a t i o n of okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s depends upon c e r t a i n f a c t o r s


which a g e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n i s g i v e n i n the n o t e s f o l l o w i n g the
t a b l e o f c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s - ^ and i n s p e c i a l n o t e s i n t h e

of
first

discussion

1 . These v e r b a l f o r m s a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w , under i i .
2 . R u l e s r e c o g n i s e d by t h e U n i v e r s i t y of C a l c u t t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e w r i t i n g of t h e h o s o n t o a r e g i v e n i n t h e B e n g a l i d i c t i o n a r y
1^4*1
( c o l o n t i k a ) , a p p e n d i x , page 3 8 , s u b - s e c t i o n 1+.
3 . See b e l o w , u n d e r i . , R e a l i s a t i o n of okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s .
t

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
of vowel c h a r a c t e r s and v o w el s i g n s ! . k t
u

181

reading a Bengali

the r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s i n many words c a n b e


o n l y by a knowledge o f t h e s p o k e n
i.

text

determined

language.

C h a r a c t e r s of t h e v o r g i i y g r o up (
This group c o n s i s t s o f t w e n t y f i v e

consonant characters

i n g s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g o f an i n i t i a l

represent-

p l o s i v e c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d by

the i n h e r e n t v o w e l . These c h a r a c t e r s f a l l
vorg3, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f i v e p o s i t i o n s

into five

classes,

of a r t i c u l a t i o n .

The t a b l e

of t h e s e f i v e c l a s s e s may be compared w i t h t h e S a n s k r i t t a b l e
vorgiiy consonant

of

characters.

Jko-vorg^
k

kh

gh

ch

3"

jh

th

a;

<th

th

5 c-vrg

I *f
t-vrg

t-vrg

ft

-ji

u
-n

*r
t

ph

1 . See b e l o w , under 2 , i i .
l.i.
3. (borgo).Cf. S a n s k r i t ,

*r

M
p-vrg
* f

dh

bh

2. ( b o r g i y o ) . C f . S a n s k r i t , Ch.2.
Ch.2,l.i.
U. ( k o - b o r g o , e t c . ) .

182

BENGALI

SECTION

The c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n i n t h i s t a b l e a r e t h o s e used, i n
The c o r r e s p o n d i n g c u r s i v e f o r m s , u s e d i n h a n d w r i t i n g ,

printing.

are g i v e n below.

The c u r s i v e forms d i f f e r from t h e p r i n t e d forms m a i n l y i n an a d a p t a t i o n of t h e o r d e r and d i r e c t i o n of s t r o k e s t h a t makes i t p o s s i b l e

to

j o i n e a c h c h a r a c t e r t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r by means of a s m a l l
head-strokel.

The o r d e r o f s t r o k e s

i s g i v e n w i t h any c h a r a c t e r

w h i c h t h i s o r d e r i s n o t e v i d e n t from t h e form of t h e c h a r a c t e r

in
itself.

ko-vorgo:

a*

ce-vorge:
to-vorgo:

ta-vorgo:

<5

po-vergo:
Calligraphy

of

ko

characters:

jhe

~|

dho

<

<f

Calligraphy

f7

cho

Xho

<^

IVf

or

<

So

of words :

*fv5

T=f

The h o s o n t o i s n o t w r i t t e n w i t h

3V

C5

1.

khr]c}a teCkhoijcjo

See n o t e s on c a l l i g r a p h y ,

, k-

v JQ ,

\*) , t o . The c o n s o n a n t

a f o l l o w i n g v o w e l i s r e p r e s e n t e d as
'^fCS

Characters w r i t t e n w i t h the hosonto:

to as

pe

\S

Ch.l.

^
to).
2.

Tjf , m- .
t-

. This c h a r a c t e r i s

without
referred

( k h o ^ o t o ) , 'broken

to'

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
The c h a r a c t e r
m e d i a l l y and f i n a l l y

183

rja , d o e s n o t o c c u r i n i t i a l l y , b u t i t

occurs

i n a few B e n g a l i words and i s o f t e n w r i t t e n w i t h

the h o s o n t o .
The c h a r a c t e r

, jia , o c c u r s o n l y i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s ,

combination w i t h o t h e r
The c h a r a c t e r

characters^.

"| , n e , i s r e a l i s e d a s ( n o ) , e x c e p t when i t
2

combined w i t h c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e t
l o a n w o r d s , and n e v e r
The c h a r a c t e r

is

I t occurs only in Sanskrit

initially.
3J , pho , i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d a s a b i - l a b i a l

f r i c a t i v e . When s t r e s s e d ,
The c h a r a c t e r

in

\5

it

i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d as a p l o s i v e .

, bho , i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d a s a p l o s i v e when

i n i t i a l , b u t a s a b i - l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e when m e d i a l or
The two c h a r a c t e r s

\5" , cLo

Modified forms of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s

and

Jy , djio

final.

occur only

initially.

o c c u r m e d i a l l y and f i n a l l y .

cjo-e Juunyo po- . They a r e u s u a l l y p l a c e d a t t h e end o f t h e


b e i n g r e g a r d e d a s s e p a r a t e c h a r a c t e r s from

v5

and

These

vornomala,

]jf .

R e a l i s a t i o n of t h e i n h e r e n t v o w e l i n akar c o n s o n a n t

characters. k

The r e a l i s a t i o n of okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i n v a r i o u s w a y s ,
according to the p o s i t i o n of t h e c h a r a c t e r

i n a w o r d , and i n

phonetic c o n t e x t s , f o l l o w s c e r t a i n g e n e r a l r u l e s .

special

Some of t h e s e c o n -

t e x t s can be d e f i n e d o n l y by a d e t a i l e d p h o n e t i c s t u d y of t h e spoken
l a n g u a g e , and numerous e x c e p t i o n s

occur.

however, g i v e some g e n e r a l g u i d a n c e f o r

The r u l e s s t a t e d below

will,

reading.

1. See Ch.3,3*Class 2 . i i . b .
2 . i b i d . , Class 2 . i i . a .
3. (dja-e /unno p o ) , ' i n 40 a d o t , p a ' , i . e . t h e
pa w r i t t e n by
adding a dot t o 40 .
U. F u r t h e r n o t e s on t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of okar
consonant c h a r a c t e r s i n s p e c i a l c o n t e x t s a r e g i v e n b e l o w , under
i i i . , and under 2 . i i .

184
a.

BENGALI
Initial

akar c o n s o n a n t

An i n i t i a l
vowel

characters.

akar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r

( o ) , as i n

character

SECTION

sf^

, g o c ( g o c ) , ^j^f

i s f o l l o w e d hy a f i n a l

the i n i t i a l

i s usually r e a l i s e d with
, kob(kob) , u n l e s s

the

the

n a s a l consonant c h a r a c t e r ,

when

okar c h a r a c t e r i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d w i t h t h e v o w e l

(o),

as i n \ g p ^ , jan( j o n ) .
b.

Medial akar c o n s o n a n t
i.

M e d i a l akar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i n words o f t h r e e

.of w h i c h t h e f i n a l
(o),
ii.

characters.1

a s i n "^STpSl

is

characters,

akar, are u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d w i t h the

, kadam(kodom) , ^ f l ^

vowel

> nagad(nogod) .
2

M e d i a l okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a s t h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r o f a

four character word, are often r e a l i s e d with z e r o - v o w e l ,


an o - g l i d e ,

a s i n ^^SXJ^?

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s

, ckmk(cok'mok)3.

or w i t h

Two c o n s e c u t i v e

are not u s u a l l y b o t h r e a l i s e d w i t h

the

vowel ( o ) . . .
c.

P i n a l akar c o n s o n a n t
i.

P i n a l okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e a l i s e d i n many words

zero-vowel,
ii.

Pinal

as i n

2.
3.
1+.
5.

"^x*

, ct(co{) ,

with

, kb(kob).5

kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e a l i s e d i n some words

w i t h the vowel
1.

characters.

(o).

This r e a l i s a t i o n

o c c u r s i n word s of

certain

T h i s n o t e r e f e r s t o w o r d s c o n s i s t i n g of kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s
o n l y ; f u r t h e r n o t e s a r e g i v e n b e l o w , under 2 . i i . , f o r t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s i n words i n w h i c h v o w e l s i g n s o c c u r .
See S . K . C h a t t e r j i , v3t^t5J^K
"^hftcTf
<T5t^ T
bhasapreka/
bangala vyaksrsn, p p . 3 2 f f . ; pub. C a l c u t t a U n i v e r s i t y , 1939For t h e method u s e d i n t h e p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f m e d i a l and
f i n a l c h a r a c t e r s i n words t o w h i c h t h e s e n o t e s r e f e r , s e e a b o v e ,
C h . l . , and b e l o w , a f t e r n o t e c .
For t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f kar c h a r a c t e r s i n compound w o r d s , s e e n o t e
c. below.
Final c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel are not u s u a l l y w r i t t e n
w i t h t h e h e s s n t . T h i s mark i s u s e d i n n o t e s a. and b . t o s i m p l i f y
the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of examples o c c u r r i n g b e f o r e the r e a l i s a t i o n of
final characters i s discussed.
r

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
grammatical c a t e g o r i e s ,

s u m m a r i s e d later-*-;

185

and i n c e r t a i n

w o r d s , u s u a l l y words o f two c h a r a c t e r s , w h i c h c a n be
o n l y by a knowledge o f s p o k e n B e n g a l i ,
\S"5[

e . g . ^S"\5

other

recognised

, kote(koto).

, teme( t o m o ) . When s u c h w o r d s o c c u r a s t h e f i r s t p a r t of a

compound word, t h e f i n a l

character,

word, i s s t i l l r e a l i s e d i n t h i s

t h o u g h m e d i a l i n t h e compound

way.

The word TF^ , mote , i s r e a l i s e d i n two w a y s , t h e same


w r i t t e n form r e p r e s e n t i n g two w o r d s o f d i f f e r e n t meaning i n t h e
spoken l a n g u a g e : ^ r \ 5
and TT\5

, (moto),

> (mot),

'similar',

'idea',

'opinion ,
1

or

'purpose',

'like*.

As t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s w i t h t h e

vowels

( o ) and ( o ) v a r i e s n o t o n l y i n t h e c o n t e x t s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , b u t

also

i n some o t h e r c o n t e x t s w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d l a t e r 3 , and some w h i c h c a n not be d e f i n e d by any g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t ,

the f o l l o w i n g system i s

used

i n t h e p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e x a m p l e s i n t h i s work:
a) I n i t i a l okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e t r a n s c r i b e d w i t h ( o )
with ( o ) , accordin g t o n o t e a.

above.

b) Medial akar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d a s a s y l l a b l e
the inherent vowel are t r a n s c r i b e d w i t h (o)
according to note b.
w i t h an e - g l i d e

with

or w i t h (.0) ,

above; t h o s e r e a l i s e d with zero-vowel

are t r a n s c r i b e d t h u s :

or

(k'),(p').

c) P i n a l okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l
t r a n s c r i b e d as f i n a l

or

are

c o n s o n a n t s ; t h o s e which are r e a l i s e d w i t h

t h e vowel (0) a r e t r a n s c r i b e d w i t h ( o ) , a c c o r d i n g t o n o t e c.^"


1 . See b e l o w , under i i i .
2 . For e x a m p l e s o f s u c h compound w o r d s ,
s e e b e l o w , under i i . R e a d i n g e x a m p l e s .
3 . Further n o t e s on t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f akar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s a r e
g i v e n b e l o w , under i i i . and u n d e r 2 . i i . Vowel S i g n s .
1+. V a r i a t i o n s from t h e s e g e n e r a l r u l e s may o c c u r i n c e r t a i n w o r d s , b u t
such v a r i a t i o n s are o u t s i d e t h e s c o p e of t h i s work.

186

BENGALI

SECTION

Reading examples-*1.

One c h a r a c t e r w o r d s , r e a l i s e d a s c o n s o n a n t s w i t h t h e v o w e l
^

2.

Tf

*t

T>

*t

Final characters r e a l i s e d with

n?
ii.

zero-vowel:

iii.

^ " v 5

Initial

Spl

rfl>

vSfvJ

s f v s

^T5?p

TSf^T^

T 5 " v 3

^*sj>

?FF^E

5f\5Si\5

W&^T

zero-vowel:

and

c.i.

and

c.i.

*T&3?

2+. Four c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; r e a l i s e d a s i n n o t e b . i i .

F&'fTj

" ^ T T s

c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h (o),> f i n a l w i t h

Three c h a r a c t e r w o r d s ; r e a l i s e d a s i n n o t e b . i .
T F 1 > 3 5

ts^

tjfe

Final characters r e a l i s e d with ( o ) :


^ 5 T 3

ii.

*t

Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s .
1.

3.

(o).

*tT>*tT>
W W

C h a r a c t e r s o f t h e o n t o s t h group( ^

There a r e f o u r c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s g r o u p , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f o u r
t h e vrg, a s shown i n t h e roman s y l l a b a r y ^ .

They may b e compared w i t h

t h e D e v a n a g a r i c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g group**.

y
Cursive forms:
Words:

1.
3.

pf

?r

of

*r

Zf^Jf

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 2 6 .
2. (ontostho).
See roman t a b l e , C h a p t e r 1 .
U. S e e S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , l . i i .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
The c h a r a c t e r

TJ , t r a n s c r i b e d i n t h e roman n o t a t i o n a s

i s r e a l i s e d as ( j o ) .

It corresponds,

group, t o t h e o n t e s t h o c h a r a c t e r

Z[

as the f i r s t

v5f , jo , r e f e r r e d t o a s

'vorgiiy

yo ,

character in

, y , i n t h e S a n s k r i t

It i s r e f e r r e d to as ' o n t o s t h o y o ' ( o n t o s t h o
from

187

this

syllabary.

j o ) , to distinguish

j'(bo.rgiyo j o ) .

it

The s e m i -

vowel c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e S a n s k r i t c h a r a c t e r

If

i s represented

in

B e n g a l i by a m o d i f i e d form o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r .

|J

, r e f e r r e d to as

' o n t s s t h y o ' ( o n t o s t h o o ) . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s r e a l i s e d i n v a r i o u s ways


a c c o r d i n g t o i t s p o s i t i o n and p h o n e t i c c o n t e x t , and i s d i s c u s s e d
in a specia l

note^.

The c h a r a c t e r
r e a l i s e d as ( b o ) .

, t r a n s c r i b e d i n t h e roman n o t a t i o n a s

It corresponds,

group, t o t h e o n t o s t h o c h a r a c t e r

as the fourth character i n


, vo , i n t h e S a n s k r i t

vo ,

syllabary.

' o n t o s t h o v o ' ( o n t o s t h o bo) i n

to d i s t i n g u i s h i t ,

from t h e t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i n

in discussion,

' v o r g i i y b ' ( b o r g i y o b o ) . A l t h o u g h v o r g i i y b

antssth v a r e t h e same i n f o r m and i n r e a l i s a t i o n ,

the

is

this

I t i s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s work a s

po-vergo,

later

order

the

and
character

i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e s y l l a b a r y i n b o t h t h e vorgiiy' and t h e

ntssth

g r o u p s , and S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s w h i c h a r e w r i t t e n i n t h e D e v a n a g a r i
script with i n i t i a l

<|

, v , a r e p l a c e d i n B e n g a l i d i c t i o n a r i e s

a separate s e c t i o n f o l l o w i n g words w i t h i n i t i a l

in

, 1 . A know-

l e d g e of S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s i s n e e d e d i n o r d e r t o r e c o g n i s e w h i c h
words are t o be found among w o r d s b e g i n n i n g w i t h v o r g i i j f e b and which
among t h o s e b e g i n n i n g w i t h ntsth v . I n t h e more modern B e n g a l i
d i c t i o n a r i e s t h e t e n d e n c y i s t o p l a c e a l l words b e g i n n i n g w i t h
c h a r a c t e r i n one s e c t i o n , a f t e r w o r d s b e g i n n i n g w i t h
1 . See n o t e on ntsth y , u n d e r 2 . i i .

below.

, ph .

this

188

BENGALI

SECTION

a n t a s t h a va i s , h o w e v e r , r e c o g n i s e d a s d i f f e r e n t
when i t

i s combined w i t h a n o t h e r

Reading

examples

Of t h e o n t o s t h a c h a r a c t e r s ,

2.

Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s .

ii.

3.

Pinal character

<jt??t

zero-vowel:

TO.vr*\

r e a l i s e d with

(o):

words.3

*t*R

sr^rif

i|. Pour c h a r a c t e r

words.^

^^3"^

^F^J^S?r

3^1^

C h a r a c t e r s o f t h e uusma group(
T h i s group o f c h a r a c t e r s

fricative

o c c u r s a s a word.

*pr

Three c h a r a c t e r

iii.

only

Pinal characters r e a l i s e d with

wm

^"SJ

)5

includes three characters r e a l i s e d

c o n s o n a n t s w i t h t h e vowel ( o ) ,

a s an a s p i r a t e w i t h t h e v o w e l ( o ) .

and one c h a r a c t e r

pared w i t h the Devanagari c h a r a c t e r s


Jo

Words:
1.
3.

sa

sa

as

realised

The c h a r a c t e r s a r e a s s o c i a t e d
c

f o u r o f t h e v a r g a , a s shown i n t h e roman s y l l a b a r y .

Cursive forms:

ha

1.

i.

character.

from v a r g i i y a

with

They may b e com-

o f t h e same g r o u p . ^
and

ha

*Wf

T^f

1!S

See C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s 3 . i i .
2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 2 6 .
See a b o v e , n o t e s b . i . and c . i .
U. See a b o v e , n o t e s b . i i . and
c . i . and i i . ( c o m p o u n d s ) .
5. ( u j / o ) .
6. See C h . l .
7 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 1 . i i i .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
The t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s

"*f

and

189

are r e a l i s e d , a s

(jo),

c e p t when t h e y a r e combined i n a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r w i t h c e r t a i n
charactersl.

They a r e d e s c r i b e d ,

for

instance,

in spelling,

exother

as

' t a l o v y o J"e'(talobbo J o ) , ' m u u r d h a n y a s o ' (murdhonno Jo) and ' d o n t y a


(donto J o ) .

TFJ o c c u r s o n l y i n S a n s k r i t

The c h a r a c t e r
syllabary.

, ho , i s

presenting s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g

, kso

, jjia , e a c h r e -

the consonant characters in

They do n o t , h o w e v e r , p r o p e r l y b e l o n g t o t h e

and i n t h i s work t h e y a r e d i s c u s s e d l a t e r ,
of c o n j u n c t

and

Bengali

o f two c o n s o n a n t s f o l l o w e d by t h e

vowel ( o ) , are o f t e n p l a c e d a f t e r
okseromala.

loanwords.

t h e l a s t c h a r a c t e r of t h e

Two o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s ,

the

syllabary,

in the appropriate

classes

characters .
2

Reading examples-^
1 . Of t h e uusma c h a r a c t e r s o n l y

"*f

o c c u r s a s a word.

2 . Two c h a r a c t e r w o r d s .
i.

Pinal character r e a l i s e d w i t h

*r
ii.

"SR

"$\5

zero-vowel;

*r*r

Pinal character r e a l i s e d w i t h
*TV5

3.

t?-*t

(o):

"SIT

Three c h a r a c t e r words**
^\5F

^H**

^f*P

If. Pour c h a r a c t e r words"^

ii.

*r^F3

"SRvs^

^ ^ ^ ^

so

^FT^Sp ^ T ? ^ ?

1 . See C h . 3 . 3 . C l . U . i . a .
2 . i b i d . C 1 . 2 . i i . b . and C l . U . i . b .
3 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 2 6 .
k - R e a l i s e d a s i n n o t e s b . i . and
c . i . a b o v e. 5 . Words i n l i n e i . r e a l i s e d a s i n n o t e s b . i i . and
c . i . ; words i n l i n e i i . r e a l i s e d a s n o t e c . i i . ( c o m p o u n d s ) .

190

BENGALI

SECTION

R e a l i s a t i o n of okar consonant c h a r a c t e r s i n v e r b a l
The r e a l i s a t i o n o f m e d i a l and f i n a l
c e r t a i n grammatical c a t e g o r i e s
given below.

forms.

akar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s

i s made a c c o r d i n g t o t h e g e n e r a l

in

rules

No c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t a t e m e n t can b e made w h i c h c o v e r s

all

c a t e g o r i e s , b u t t h e s e r u l e s g i v e some g u i d a n c e i n r e a d i n g from t h e
script.

The o n l y c o m p l e t e g u i d e i s a k n o w l e d g e of t h e s p o k e n l a n g u a g e ,

a. V e r b al b a s e s e n d i n g i n an kar c o n s o n a n t
i.

Verbal b a s e s w i t h o u t
The f i n a l

character.

suffixes.

kar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r of a v e r b a l b a s e i s

ised with zero-vowel;

e.g.

^7?T

35-3

bl(bol)

kr(kor)

F^T

?RS

cl(col)

baka(bok)

The form o f t h e v e r b d e s c r i b e d g r a m m a t i c a l l y a s t h e
person s i n g u l a r of the present imperative,
w r i t t e n i n t h e same

way

b a l a or b a l ( b o l )
ii.

Verbal b a s e s w i t h

'second

i n f e r i o r form'

is

a s t h e b a s e , and r e a l i s e d i n t h e same

way. The f i n a l c h a r a c t e r of t h i s form of t h e v e r b i s


ten with the h a s a n t a ;

real-

often

writ-

e.g.

k a r a or k e r ( k o r )

beka or b a k ( b o k )

suffixes.

When a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g w i t h , or c o n s i s t i n g o f ,
c h a r a c t e r i s added t o a v e r b a l b a s e ,

the f i n a l

a consonant

c h a r a c t e r of

b a s e i s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l o r w i t h an a - g l i d e .

the

Examples

of

t h i s r e a l i s a t i o n a r e g i v e n b e l o w , under n o t e b .
The g r a m m a t i c a l f o r m s d e s c r i b e d a s t h e
simple present t e n s e '
perative'

'Second p e r s o n of

and t h e ' s e c o n d p e r s o n o f t h e p r e s e n t

the
im-

a r e w r i t t e n i n t h e same way a s t h e v e r b a l b a s e ; b u t

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

191

are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e "base i n r e a d i n g a l o u d hy t h e


a t i o n of t h e f i n a l

c h a r a c t e r w i t h t h e vowel ( o ) .

, bala(bolo) ,

^SjtJ , k a r a ( k o r o ) , ^|"^

realis-

Examples:

poro(poro)

This r e a l i s a t i o n o c c u r s w i t h s i m i l a r g r a m m a t i c a l forms o f a l l
which have o n l y okar c h a r a c t e r s
of the ' f u t u r e

imperative'

realised with ( o ) ,
s i g n of o' .
L

in the base.

in which the f i r s t

the f i n a l

In the verb

character
, boss

In the

w i t h t h e vowel ( o )
the c h a r a c t e r ,

as i n

<35$J

The v e r b a l s u f f i x e s

i s w r i t t e n w i t h the vowel

, the i n i t i a l

character
<^3?[

in

(bojo).

akar c h a r a c t e r of a v e r b a l

base

k a r e ( k o r i o ) , ^CS^T k a r o ( k o r o ) ! .
c o n s i s t i n g o f akar c o n s o n a n t

^5 , t a ( t o ) ,

, ba(bo)

ar e added t o v e r b a l b a s e s t o form v a r i o u s

t h e s e v e r b a l forms t h e f i n a l
ed as d e s c r i b e d i n n o t e a . i . ,

and

characters.
cT ,

'tenses' ,

and i f

the base c o n s i s t s

In

akar c h a r a c t e r of the base i s

consonant c h a r a c t e r s t h e i n i t i a l
the vowel ( o ) .

is

i s s o m e t i m e s shown by w r i t i n g t h e mark * a f t e r

b . Verbal forms w i t h s u f f i x e s

la(lo)

'second person'

okar c h a r a c t e r

b o t h grammatical forms i s r e a l i s e d w i t h ( o ) ; e . g .
The r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e i n i t i a l

verbs

realis-

o f two akar

character also is realised

with

Examples:

^^\5
koro-bo(kor'bo)

35^5*1

kara-ta(kor'to)3

kara-la(kor'lo)^

1 . See b e l o w , 2 . i i , n o t e a . i i .
2 . S u f f i x e s of t h e t e n s e s d e s c r i b e d a s
' f u t u r e s i m p l e ' ( b o ) , ' p a s t h a b i t u a l ' ( t o ) and ' p a s t i n d e f i n i t e ' ( l o ) .
3 . In c o l l o q u i a l B e n g a l i t h e s e q u e n c e T^f^T , - r l - , a r i s i n g from t h e
a d d i t i o n of a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g w i t h
e?| , or t h e s e q u e n c e 7 t K 5 * - r t a r i s i n g from t h e a d d i t i o n o f a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g w i t h \ 5 , t o a v e r b al base ending i n ^
, a r e r e a l i s e d r e s p e c t i v e l y a s ( - 1 1 - ) and
( - t t - ) , as i n t h e v e r b a l forms
^S^cTf , ( k o l l o ) and
?|5j5"t5 ,
( k o t t o ) . This r e a l i s a t i o n w o u l d b e made i n r e a d i n g from a B e n g a l i t e x t
w r i t t e n i n t h e c o l l o q u i a l s t y l e . S e e f u r t h e r n o t e s on t h e r e a l i s a t i o n
of v e r b a l forms under 2 . i i , and l a t e r i n C h . 3 3 . C l . l .
N

192

BENGALI

SECTION

2 . Vowel C h a r a c t e r s and Vowel S i g n s .


Vowel c h a r a c t e r s a r e w r i t t e n i n B e n g a l i , a s i n S a n s k r i t ,

to

r e p r e s e n t s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g o f a v o w e l o n l y , and v o w e l s i g n s

are

added t o c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s t o r e p r e s e n t s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g o f
i n i t i a l c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w e d by one o f t h e v o w e l s i n t h e s e r i e s
below.

These c h a r a c t e r s may b e compared w i t h t h e D e v a n a g a r i

c h a r a c t e r s and v o w e l s i g n s , g i v e n i n t h e S a n s k r i t
i.

an

given

vowel

section.

Vowel C h a r a c t e r s .

r2

ii

5
ey

Cursive forms:

- uu

^3 <J
a S
o

'

av

v3

%*T

&

v3Si

The s u p e r s c r i b e d s t r o k e s i n t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s a r e w r i t t e n l a s t ,

start-

i n g from t h e matra and w r i t i n g u p w a r d s .


The c h a r a c t e r s "^f , a , and 5 j j , a , a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s ^|<^
^5f| , s v a r i i

s v a r i i a ( J o r i o) and

a (.fori

\5f

a)->. The o t h e r v o w e l

c h a r a c t e r s are r e f e r r e d t o as the vowel which each r e p r e s e n t s .


The c h a r a c t e r s
'short',
diirgha^,

and

and t h e c h a r a c t e r s
'long'.

The ' s h o r t '

reading with very l i t t l e

are d e s c r i b e d as

and ^5
and t h e

, hrasva**,

a r e d e s c r i b e d a s y^^J

'long' vowels are r e a l i s e d

in

d i s t i n c t i o n o f q u a l i t y , b u t c e r t a i n words

1 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 2 . i . and i i . 2 . ' s y l l a b i c


3. svora, ' v o w e l ' ; s v a r i i a , 'vowel-character
ion of the f i r s t vowel c h a r a c t e r i n c e r t a i n
n o t e s under i i . b e l o w .
U. ( h r o j f o ) .

r ' ; see Ch.l.Vowels.


a ' . For t h e r e a l i s a t contexts, see special
5. ( d i r g h o ) .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
are always w r i t t e n w i t h t h e

'short

193

v o w e l s and o t h e r s a l w a y s w i t h

' l o n g ' v o w e l s . Examples of p a i r s o f w o r d s o f w h i c h t h e meaning


d i s t i n g u i s h e d hy t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e

'short'

or t h e

given

later.

and

are

The vowel

, syllahic r

words. The vowel c h a r a c t e r s


^

is

'long' vowel,

i n which a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i s t i n c t i o n m u s t h e made i n r e a d i n g ,

the

, o c c u r s o n l y i n some S a n s k r i t
, s y l l a h i c rr ,

loan-

<fo , s y l l a h i c 1 , and

, s y l l a h i c 11 , a r e u s e d i n p r i n t i n g S a n s k r i t t e x t s i n B e n g a l i

script.

The c h a r a c t e r

The c h a r a c t e r

r e a l i s e d as

(ri).

e , i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d as ( e ) , hut

varies

i n c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d b e l o w , under Vowel S i g n s .
The c h a r a c t e r
the c h a r a c t e r

\^

tip

, y , i s r e a l i s e d a s t h e d i p h t h o n g ( o i ) ,

, v , i s r e a l i s e d a s t h e d i p h t h o n g

and

(ou).

Reading examples2
1 , Vowel c h a r a c t e r s
W|

only
^

i?

2 . Vowel c h a r a c t e r s and kar c o n s o n a n t


i.

^rr&

V 3 v 5 ^ f

^"*T

characters

Pinal characters r e a l i s e d with, z e r o - v o w e l :

^ 1 > * T

ii.

\3

^mi

^TpF

^SH
v ? T 5

N ^ < 1

Pinal characters r e a l i s e d w i t h

VSv5

\s?i

(o):

V3^T

v^-q

\3^f
1 . See b e l o w , under i i . Vowel S i g n s , R e a d i n g e x a m p l e s .
2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n of e x a m p l e s , s e e p . 2 2 7 .
o

^T5

^sf

194

BENGALI

ii.

SECTION

Vowel S i g n s .
Vowel s i g n s , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e v o w el c h a r a c t e r s , a r e

h e l o w added t o t h e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r

. As t h e v o w e l

given

is

i n h e r e n t v o w e l of e a c h o f t h e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e form
which t h e y are g i v e n i n the s y l l a h a r y ,
ponding t o the vowel c h a r a c t e r

ka

ki

kii

ku

t h e r e i s no v o w e l s i g n

in
corres-

\5f .

kuu

kr

ke

koy

S p e c i a l forms o f some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s w i t h v o w e l

*P

gu

ru

ruii

added t o

J*u

ko

hii

, are

Vowel s i g n s w h i c h a r e p l a c e d on t h e l e f t

<^

kv

signs:

hr

The v o w el s i g n s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e c h a r a c t e r s ^
used in writin g S a n s k r i t ,

and ^

and <^> .

s i d e of t h e

o t h e r s i g n s a r e added a f t e r

the

The o r d e r of w r i t i n g t h e s t r o k e s

c h a r a c t e r s w i t h vowel s i g n s

is i l l u s t r a t e d in these cursive

3Tr ejpf

TV

*PnT

cWl~

gfl"
^trzfm

C*C
^rc-rcr

Of

The s i g n of s y l l a h i c

in
forms:

^nrw

Characters w i t h vowel s i g n s are r e f e r r e d t o i n s p e l l i n g


C^* , ( k o - e e k a r ) , ' t h e s i g n of v) i n ^5 ';

C*fr
z m o s

thus:

, (go-e hroj/o

i s r e f e r r e d to as ( r i k a r )

or

the

consonant

character has heen w r i t t e n .

(5T

consonant

c h a r a c t e r w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e t o he r e a l i s e d a r e w r i t t e n h e f o r e
consonant c h a r a c t e r ;

the

ukar).

(riphola).l

1 . For e x a m p l e s o f s p e l l i n g w o r d s , s e e h e l o w , end o f C h . 3 .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

i9S

Reading examples

\S^g

*Nfa

^rfC^t

c^rfSr f*ra

Tftvs

?jm

c^rr^ #f%^t

CF^

^tc^r

f^tft

^f*r

3 #

ftf^

YWWf%r

$?P

^fl

c^t^t

wrrf^*rr fSnF*rrfV

R e a l i s a t i o n o f okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s ,
characters in s p e c i a l

f ^ t

and c e r t a i n vowel

contexts.

In r e a d i n g B e n g a l i words from t h e s c r i p t ,

t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i n w o r d s w h i c h have v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s or
vowel s i g n s p r e s e n t s c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s ;

and t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f

some of t h e vowel c h a r a c t e r s and s i g n s v a r i e s i n s p e c i a l

contexts,

such as t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f c e r t a i n o t h e r v o w e l s i n f o l l o w i n g

syllables.

The n o t e s g i v e n b e l o w p r o v i d e some g e n e r a l g u i d a n c e i n r e a d i n g from


the s c r i p t , but a k n o w l e d g e o f B e n g a l i p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y f o r
c o r r e c t r e a l i s a t i o n of s u c h w o r d s .
a. R e a l i s a t i o n of okar c o n s o n a n t

characters.

i . When an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r o c c u r s a s t h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r
of a t h r e e c h a r a c t e r word p r e c e d i n g a f i n a l
sign,

c h a r a c t e r w i t h a vowe l

i t i s usually r e a l i s ed with zero-vowel,

or w i t h an a - g l i d e ;

e. g.
amora(am'ra)

badale(bod'le)

jhagara(jhog'ra)

J;ukari( t u k ' r i )

m a m a l a ( m a m ' l a)

J"amane( Jam'ne)

1 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 2 7 .
2 . These n o t e s c o m p l e t e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of akar
c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s ; s e e a b o v e , n o t e s g i v e n on p p . 1 8 3 and 1 9 0 .

BENGALI
When t h e f i n a l

SECTION

c h a r a c t e r o f s u c h words i s o k a r , t h e m e d i a l

character i s r e a l i s e d as described in previous notes .

The

f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e t h i s r e a l i s a t i o n a f t e r an i n i t i a l
character w i t h a vowel

sign:

vSl^S
bhare.t ( b h a r o t )

f^\s*T

QFtFf

pitele(pitol)

kebola(kebol)

When an okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r o c c u r s i n a word o f f o u r o r more


characters,
o-glide,

i t i s r e a l i s e d with

o , w i t h z e r o - v o w e l , o r w i t h an

according t o i t s p o s i t i o n in r e l a t i o n to characters

vowel s i g n s . The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e v a r y i n g
i s a t i o n of t h e se c h a r a c t e r s i n d i f f e r e n t

kamobe/(kom'be/)

ii.

real-

contexts:

g o l e j o g e ( g o l jog)
1

J"atokara( J o t ' k o r a )

with

m a r o p i { o ( m a r 'pi-j;)

same j o d a r o ( Jomo j ' d a r )

The r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e f i n a l

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r of v e r b -

a l b a s e s h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . The f o l l o w i n g v e r b a l f o r m s a r e
1

further

i l l u s t r a t i o n s of this

realisation:

*rr?re

wfsre

parebe(par'bo)
The s u f f i x e s

J*unele( J u n ' l o )

aseteCaJ"'to)

i n t h e s e f o r m s may be w r i t t e n w i t h t h e o k a r ; e . g .

parebo(par'bo)

Junelo(Jun'lo)

asato(aj'to)

S i m i l a r l y t h e forms i n which the f i n a l c h a r a c t e r of t h e b a s e are


r e a l i s e d w i t h ( o ) may b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e forms i n w h i c h

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

197

the f i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s r e a l i s e d w i t h z e r o - v o w e l b y w r i t i n g

this

character with the okarj e . g .


koro(kor)

koro(koro)

koro(koro)

kore(koro)

koro(koro)

maro(mar)

maro(maro)

maro(maro)

lekho(lekho)

lekho(lekho)

i i i . When two words o f d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g a r e w r i t t e n i n t h e same


way and d i s t i n g u i s h e d o n l y b y t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e f i n a l

okar

c h a r a c t e r of one o f t h e word s w i t h ( o ) , t h i s r e a l i s a t i o n i s
i n d i c a t e d by w r i t i n g t h e o k a r , a s i n t h e s e p a i r s :
'time',

^5"pf

(kalo)

or

^f(j^ft

(kalo) , 'black';

head',

\^\e?f

(bhalo)

or

\5tG*Tf

(bhalo) ,

<3*tc7f ( k a l ) ,

\5fc*f

(bhal) , ' f o r e -

'good'.

b . The r e a l i s a t i o n o f c e r t a i n v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s and s i g n s i s
by t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f o t h e r v o w e l s i n f o l l o w i n g
i.

The c h a r a c t e r

often

affected

syllables.

n3J , o r t h e i n h e r e n t v o w e l o f an akar c o n s o n a n t

c h a r a c t e r , i s r e a l i s e d a s ( o ) when i t i s f o l l o w e d by one o f t h e
c h a r a c t e r s , or c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n s ,

e.g.

\5ff3
ati(oti)

*pf|-

for

, ii

, u

or uu .

^3njc?I

dhonii( dhoni)

atula(otul)!

When t h e c h a r a c t e r "^3f r e p r e s e n t s

J"abu ja( J o b u j )

the negative prefix,

however,

the u s u a l r e a l i s a t i o n o f i t a s ( o ) i s n o t a f f e c t e d by t h e o c c u r rence o f one of t h e s e v o w e l s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s y l l a b l e ; e . g .

^3T^7J,
iii.

adhiira(odhir) ,

The c h a r a c t e r

S\

^3f\JpT

, atula(otul) .
2

, or t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i g n , i n i n i t i a l

p o s i t i o n i s of t e n r e a l i s e d a s (ae) u n l e s s
1 . A proper name.

2.

i t i s f o l l o w e d by a

'incomparable'.

198

BENGALI
character with the vowels

SECTION

, ii

, u

or

uu ; e . g .

h e l a ( h s 3 l a )

nekFa(neek'pa)

emn(eemon)

emeni(em'ni)

ek(eek)

ekta(sek \a)

ek-|;ii( e k ' f i )

ek-J;u( e k -j;u)

The v e r h a l

formOfC^fis r e a l i s e d i n two w a y s . When i t r e p r e s e n t s

t h e form d e s c r i b e d g r a m m a t i c a l l y a s ' s i m p l e p r e s e n t ,

third person'

i t i s r e a l i s e d a s (dsskhe). When i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e form d e s c r i b e d


as 'pas t p a r t i c i p l e ' ,

it

i s r e a l i s e d as

Reading e x a m p l e s , i l l u s t r a t i n g
1.

(dekhe).

the note s give n

i.

above.

F i n a l kar c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h
fo-q
p
#f*t
cft^t
c^r

zero-vowel

ii.

(o)

. ^ S

F i n a l kar c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d w i t h
f%\5

C^tfe

*jsrr*r

c^rT^r

YF

^^fC^

CTffi

C*ft\5

2 . M e d i a l kar c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d a s d e s c r i b e d i n n o t e
st^Ti

3.

*tt*ta

*ITf*r

c*M.

0 ? ^

Verbal f o r m s , r e a l i s e d a s d e s c r i b e d i n n o t e a. i i .

Wv5

(7W

*IT^

*Th

WCSt

^BftfST

vgrt^

^ft^rC^Tt

vsffq
f^3fv5

%v5^

?t

^ft

^*j?r

b.i.

ift

^j^s

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e x a m p l e s , s e e

p.227.

fl5F3CTt

Tg*R

U. kar c h a r a c t e r s r e a l i s e d a s d e s c r i b e d i n n o t e

1.

a.i.

TpTj^r

^f^R

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
R e a l i s a t i o n of the m o d i f i e d c h a r a c t e r
The c h a r a c t e r

, r e f e r r e d t o as

*99

, 'ontostho

yo'.

' o n t o s t h y ( o n t o s t h o o)

a m o d i f i e d form of t h e ntsth c h a r a c t e r

1J

, y .

This

is

modified

c h a r a c t e r has b e e n i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e B e n g a l i s c r i p t as a g r a p h i c
d e v i c e f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g s o u n d s w h i c h c a n n o t h e r e p r e s e n t e d hy t h e
ntssth c h a r a c t e r s

and

, since

i n modern B e n g a l i ntsth y

i s r e a l i s e d hy t h e same sound a s v o r g i i y
i s e d hy the same sound a s v o r g i i y

h.

j and ntsth v i s

The c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h t h i s c h a r a c t e r o c c u r s , and t h e
of i t i n r e a d i n g , are i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g
a. As the c h a r a c t e r

real-

realisation

notes,

<J i s r e a l i s e d i n modern B e n g a l i a s ( j o ) , a means

of r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e B e n g a l i e q u i v a l e n t of t h e s e m i - v o w e l

occurs i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y .

loanwords

which are w r i t t e n i n t h e D e v a n a g a r i

Sanskrit

s c r i p t with the character

y , are w r i t t e n i n B e n g a l i w i t h ntsth y, and t h i s


is realised in various ways,

which

ZJ"_,

character

i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e examples

given

below-^:
i,

r e a l i s e d a s an i n t e r s y l l a b i c

^tf^RS
mayiko(mayik)

deya(doya)

vocalic glide,

*rh|3r

in

TftSPP

mayur(mayur)

maya(maya)

as

niym(niyom)

dayk( dayok)

ayojn(ayojon)

1. See a b o v e , under l . i i . ntsth c h a r a c t e r s . 2 . For a h i s t o r i c a l


d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s c h a r a c t e r , s e e S . K , C h a t t e r j i , The O r i g i n and
Development of t h e B e n g a l i L a n g u a g e , pub. U n i v e r s i t y of C a l c u t t a .
3 . A d e t a i l e d p h o n e t i c a n a l y s i s i s o u t s i d e t h e s c o p e o f t h i s work,
and t h e r e f o r e t h i s v o c a l i c g l i d e , t h e q u a l i t y o f w h i c h may v a r y
according to the vowels p r e c e d i n g or f o l l o w i n g i t , i s r e p r e s e n t e d
in the phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n by ( y ) i n the examples g i v e n i n
n o t e s a . , b . and c.

200

BENGALI
ii.

][J

as

realised finally

as a v o c a l i c

g l i d e o f an e - l i k e

quality,

in
jy(;joy)

smy( Jbmoy)

visy(biJoy)

tf^r

^tn

35171

pricy(poricoy)

daye(day)

kays(kay)

<9

or r e a l i s e d a s an i n t e r v o c a l i c
vowel r e a l i s e d as ( o ) ,

om
deyo(deyo)

as

atn
rays(ray)

g l i d e f o l l o w e d by t h e

inherent

in

(Tin

c^tti

neyo(neyo)

q jeyo-(o j e y o )
b.

SECTION

(%n

peyo(peyo)

komoniiyo(komoniyo)

dheyo(dheyo)

vorgiiyo(borgiyo)

ontostho yo i s w r i t t e n t o r e p r e s e n t the B e n g a li e q u i v a l e n t
certain diphthongs

Bengali e q u i v a l e n t
such
i.

of

i n l o a n w o r d s from o t h e r modern l a n g u a g e s ,

i s used i n combination with other characters


of i n i t i a l

characters

to represent

combined w i t h

and

the

y2

in

loanwords:-

The r e a l i s a t i o n

ey , i s

(oi).

i n modern B e n g a l i o f t h e v o w e l c h a r a c t e r

Loanwords from o t h e r l a n g u a g e s

nagari e q u i v a l e n t

of t h i s diphthong o c c u r s ,

character representing

i n which the

or i n w h i c h

,
Deva-

the

in these languages i s r e a l i s e d

with

the p r e c e d i n g vowel as a diphthong, are w r i t t e n i n Bengali

with

ntssth y, a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w .

1.
2.
3.

Compare t h i s r e a l i s a t i o n w i t h t h e words w r i t t e n i n t h e same way i n


note c . i i . below.
The c h a r a c t e r <f\ r e p r e s e n t s - r g - . See C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s 3 . i i i . a .
See S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , C o n j u n c t C h a r a c t e r s , C l a s s 3 . i .

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
3>J , o k a r , r e a l i s e d m e d i a l l y
e-like quality,

as

20I

as a front v o c a l i c

g l i d e w i t h an

in

\SrtsrsiT
<

jayga(jayga)

kayada(kayda)

payesa(payj)
, ekar, r e a l i s e d m e d i a l l y
g l i d e , as

ayesa(aye/)

o n t o s t h o y i s w r i t t e n a l s o

i n some E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s a s a

means of r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e E e n g a l i
i n such words a s
iii.

'chair' ,

When t h e c h a r a c t e r

consonant c h a r a c t e r
zero.

CS^Jl^

T[

pronunciation

of t h e

diphthongs

( c e y a r ) , and ' c a r e ' (,^Kj|^f ( k e y a r ) .

, y , i s combined w i t h an

in a conjunct

character^,

it

initial

is realised

as

Some l o a n w o r d s u s e d i n m o d e r n B e n g a l i a r e w r i t t e n i n H i n d i ,

i n the Devanagari s c r i p t ,
Class 3 i . j that i s ,

w i t h an i n i t i a l

with i n i t i a l

combined w i t h

Such w o r d s , as l o a n w o r d s

conjunct characters

in Bengali,

are w r i t t e n in Bengali

a vowel c h a r a c t e r i n a m e d i a l

or f i n a l

position.

in

ntssth y o c c u r s i n words and i n g r a m m a t i c a l


Ch.3,3.Class 3 . i . ,

and b e l o w ,

writing

This use

of

forms.

Ch.3,3.Class

y .

script

p e y a l a ( p e y a l a ) , C^jSJt^f p e y a r s ( p e y a r ) .

ntssth y i s w r i t t e n i n some w o r d s i n o r d e r t o a v o i d

1. See S a n s k r i t ,

of

the character representing

e k ar c h a r a c t e r f o l l o w e d by ntssth y, as

t h e s e words : C?fV] | ffj


c.

vocalic

in

kayedo(koyed)
ii.

a s an i n t e r s y l l a b i c

3.i.

BENGALI
i.

SECTION

JJ i n w o r d s , r e a l i s e d a s an i n t e r s y l l a b i c v o c a l i c

glide

f o l l o w e d by t h e i n h e r e n t vowel o r t h e vowel r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e
vowel s i g n , as

in

OTOI
meye(meye)

koyeko(koyek)

Jiyoro( Jiyor)
ii.

photuya(photuya)

J*iya(jiya)

poyalo(poyal)

i n grammatical forms, i n which i t

is written medially

w i t h a v o w e l s i g n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e vowel o f a p a r t i c l e ,

when

a p a r t i c l e c o n s i s t i n g o f a vowel o n l y i s added t o a word e n d i n g


i n a v o w e l . The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e t h i s u s e of H
V e r b a l forms i n w h i c h f i n a l
as an i n t e r s y l l a b i c

"5J

, akar or e k a r ,

v o c a l i c g l i d e a f t e r t h e vowel

is

realised

and a f t e r

the i n h e r e n t v o w e l , which i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s r e a l i s e d as
a s i n t h e s e forms w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d g r a m m a t i c a l l y a s
participles',

o c c u r r i n g in the l i t e r a r y language

boliya(boliya)

dekhiya( dekhiya)

J"uiya( J u i y a )

'

(o);

'past

giya(giya)

and i n t h e s e c o l l o q u i a l f o r m s , d e s c r i b e d i n t h e same way -

giye(giye)

diye(diye)

hoye(hoye)

Verbal forms i n w h i c h f i n a l
g l i d e w i t h an e - l i k e

royo(roy)

"^1

peye(peye)

r e a l i s e d as a v o c a l i c

q u a l i t y , a s i n t h e s e forms w h i c h a r e d e s -

c r i b e d grammatically as

nsyo(noy)

Juye(juye)

'present tense ,

payo(pay)

third person'

janaye(janay)

beroye(beroy)

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

203

The v e r b a l forms ($fj$ and C^t^T a r e r e a l i s e d r e s p e c t i v e l y a s


and (neey).

Noun forms i n w h i c h t h e

'genitive

added t o nouns e n d i n g i n a v o w e l ,
which t h e ' l o c a t i v e '
after a final

suffix

*rtan*

f%oj?r

mayero(mayer)

jhiyer(jhiyer)

and noun and pronoun forms

in

i s w r i t t e n as o n t o s t h o yo

^fcsra

amayo(amay)

<| , vo

i%<m
g&kui
tomay(tomay)

, i s r e a l i s e d a s (bo)

i n modern

t h a t i s , i n t h e same way a s t h e v o r g i i y c h a r a c t e r

b , a g r a p h i c method o f r e p r e s e n t i n g word s t r u c t u r e
the semivowel

vo

i n loanwords becomes n e c e s s a r y .

This

as a back v o c a l i c g l i d e ,

haoya(haova)

poya(poova)

\3

is

, o ,
used

realised

t r a n s c r i b e d here p h o n e t i c a l l y as

d.akoyala( c|akovala)

(-v)

deoyali (deovali)

This method of r e p r e s e n t i n g a b a c k v o c a l i c g l i d e i s u s e d a l s o
v e r b a l forms i n w h i c h a s u f f i x

b e g i n n i n g with (a)

base c o n s i s t i n g of one c h a r a c t e r ,

hooya(hoova)

yaoyan(jaovano)

as

semivowel

f o l l o w e d by ntssth y. T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s i s
i n which

<|

involving

i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n B e n g a l i by w r i t i n g t h e v o w e l c h a r a c t e r

in the f o l l o w i n g examples of l o a n w o r d s ,

duiyer(duiyer)

wr^srm

thanayo(thanay)

As t h e o n t o s t h o c h a r a c t e r
Bengali,

is

buyer(bouyer)

srr^mr

payo(pay)

vi}<J , e r e ( e r )

v} , e ( e )

suffix

vowel; o n t o s t h o yo r e a l i s e d as a v o c a l i c g l i d e

^ru
d.

(deey)

in

i s added t o a

in

paoya(paova)

1 . Compare t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e s e f o r m s w i t h t h a t of t h e two words


w r i t t e n i n t h e same way, g i v e n a b o v e i n a . i i .

204

BENGALI
3.

SECTION

Modifiers.

Three m o d i f i e r s a r e u s e d i n w r i t i n g B e n g a l i .

These a r e marks

added t o c h a r a c t e r s t o r e p r e s e n t some m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e
it represents.

The f i r s t

two m o d i f i e r s r e p r e s e n t n a s a l i s a t i o n , and t h e

third represents aspiration.


corresponding modifiers

These m o d i f i e r s may be compared w i t h t h e

of the Devanagari

T>3f-f^P5. > c e n d r o - b i n d u , and

i.

a.

cendro-bindu

syllable

script .
1

v5pJ^f?T onus v a r a ,

VI/

When t h e mark

i s w r i t t e n above a c h a r a c t e r , t h e v o w e l of

s y l l a b l e whic h t h e c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t s i s r e a l i s e d w i t h

the

nasalisation.

T h i s mark c o r r e s p o n d s i n f o r m , t h o u g h n o t i n t h e way i n w h i c h i t

is

r e a l i s e d , w i t h t h e mark c a l l e d e n u n a s i k e i n S a n s k r i t ,
c e n d r e - b i n d u added t o v o w e l

vsrr
e

^
I

characters:

T5

uu

Ii

i?

a
e

ey

c e n d r e - b i n d u added t o t h e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r

ke

ka

ki

w t

kii

kii

^3
6

ev

w i t h vowel s i g n s :

^ o ^ ^ o ^ r c ^ T
ke

KUU

key

ko

Characters w r i t t e n w i t h cendre-bindu are r e f e r r e d to i n


t h u s : ( j o r i a-e c o n d r o b i n d u ) , ( k o - e condrobindu h r o j J o

kev
spelling

ikar).

Readin g examples-^

I* "Ss

ft

^5

5tE

^sfw

editor

dr

ft
C^F

T5t v5

f$*r

1 . See S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i . and i i .
3 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e page 2 2 8 .
realised with zero-vowel.

r
C7lt&

-^tffen

% ctr
f Tpf

f*
C?C*f

fr^rfe

2. (condro-bindu).
F i n a l ekar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY
b.

205

nusvar!

The term a n u s v a r a i s u s e d i n B e n g a l i
r e a l i s e d as ( n ) .

I t may o c c u r f i n a l l y ,

t o r e f e r t o t h e mark ,
or m e d i a l l y , w r i t t e n a s an

a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e h o s o n t o form o f

the character

examples i l l u s t r a t e

the

ehorrj(ebon)

the w r i t i n g of

sim(jin)

\ , no .

These

onusvar:

arrjti( an-J;i)

irrjraj( i n r a j )

sarrj(jan)

Some words may he w r i t t e n e i t h e r w i t h t h e o n u s v a r or w i t h

rorrj(ron) or

ran(ron)

barrjla(banla )

The nusvar o c c u r s i n many S a n s k r i t


er of the ntssth or t h e uusm g r o u p ,
have the S a n s k r i t p r e f i x w r i t t e n

banla(banla)

loanwords preceding a c h a r a c t and e s p e c i a l l y

i n Devanagari as

r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e nusvar i n B e n g a l i ,
t h e v a r i o u s ways of r e a l i s i n g

or

as -n

Tflq

i n words w h i c h
, sm .

The

, may he compared w i t h

t h e nusvar of t h e D e v a n a g a r i s c r i p t

in

the same S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f
Examples:

India.

^f^C^jT^t

srrjyog( Jon j o g )

"ST^T^f

smrag( Jonrag)

^f^^tf

smyad( Jonhad)

v5f5"Sf

rr) J( on Jo)

Sfo'Sff^

smsar( Jon J a r )

f% ^

sirrjh( J i n h o )

Reading examples^

'Tv

fes

"SR^KS

its

^rtr
*TT$33

*f$H*r
T^^T-

*rs^rr

fefo
^ ^ 3 ^

1. ( o n u j j o r ) . In t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e x a m p l e s , i n roman n o t a t i o n , t h e
nusvar i s t r a n s c r i b e d a s rr) i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t from t h e
character
^ , transcribed as
n .
2 . Cf. S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i . c .
3. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n of e x a m p l e s , s e e p . 2 2 8 .

2o6
ii.

BENGALI
"f^^^T,

visarg.

SECTION

The s i g n g w r i t t e n a f t e r a c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t s a s p i r a t i o n
i n g t h e v o w e l of t h e s y l l a b l e w i t h w h i c h t h e c h a r a c t e r

is

follow-

realised.

I t o c c u r s m a i n l y i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , and i s w r i t t e n i n a few
Bengali exclamations
with a f i n a l
syllable.

t o e x p r e s s e m p h a s i s . When t h e v i s a r g e i s

character,

When i t

it

i s r e a l i s e d as a s p i r a t i o n a f t e r

occurs medially,

the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r ,

it

a s i n TJg^T ,

written

the

final

i s r e a l i s e d a s t h e d o u b l i n g of .
duhkhe(dukkho).

Examples:

bah(bah)

uh(uh)

Reading e x a m p l e s

punah(punoh)

^TS

^wp?
f^rg^ran ^f%gc*m

*f\5ffs

U. The Complete

fto^T

^C5\5tg

wfrm

g i v e n on t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e .
e

^STWRT

ijg^Ti
?rrgw?
t^g^m^f
ijg^

Syllabary.

The c o m p l e t e s y l l a b a r y ,

a r

atahpara( otoppor)

*f*T8

and ffc

n i h j e ^ a ( n i J" J*e J")

arranged i n the t r a d i t i o n a l

order,

The S a n s k r i t v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s

i n c l u d e d in the s y l l a b a r y .

, "^Jj

This t a b l e , w i t h the

o f c h a r a c t e r s w i t h v o w e l s i g n s g i v e n above under Vowel S i g n s - 5 ,


the order i n which the c h a r a c t e r s are p l a c e d as the i n i t i a l
of words i n d i c t i o n a r i e s .

and b o t h p r e c e d e

the

consonant

character.
See a b o v e , u n d er

shows

characters

w i t h o u t t h e a n u s v a r or c a n d r a - b i n d u b u t f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r

1 . ( b i j o r g o ) . Cf. S a n s k r i t , C h . 2 , 3 . i i .
2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 2 8 .
3.

order

characters

Characters w i t h the onusvar p r e c e d e

same c h a r a c t e r s w i t h t h e c a n d r a - b i n d u ,

is

2.ii.

CHARACTERS OF T H E SYLLABARY

^1

5f
5. Numerals
The B e n g a l i numeral s a r e w r i t t e n

6.

thus:

"i

tt

Kb

<l

lr

fc>

io

10

Punctuation

In B e n g a l i p r o s e w r i t i n g t h e e nd o f a s e n t e n c e i s marked hy an
u p r i g h t s t r o k e of t h e same h e i g h t a s t h e u p r i g h t s t r o k e o f a c h a r a c t e r . This mark i s r e f e r r e d t o a s "Cfff^j , d a r i .
marks are u s e d as i n E n g l i s h .

Other p u n c t u a t i o n

This system i s i l l u s t r a t e d in the

prose p a s s a g e a t t h e end o f t h i s s e c t i o n .
1

The s y s t e m o f

punctuation

used i n B e n g a l i v e r s e i s t h e same a s t h a t u s e d i n S a n s k r i t , h u t i n
2

much modern v e r s e t h e p r o s e s y s t e m i s

1 . See end of C h . 3 .

2 . See S a n s k r i t ,

used.

Ch.2,3.ii.

Reading e x a m p l e s .

C H A P T E R
CONJUNCT

CHARACTERS

Consonant c h a r a c t e r s may be combined t o r e p r e s e n t two or more


c o n s o n a n t s w h i c h a r e t o b e r e a l i s e d c o n s e c u t i v e l y , w i t h o u t an i n t e r vening vowel.
Bengali as
1.

C h a r a c t e r s formed i n t h i s way a r e r e f e r r e d t o

^SrPF.^

in

yuktak^orol.

C o n s t r u c t i o n of Conjunct

Characters.

B e n g a l i c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d t o some e x t e n t

by

t h e same m e t h o d s a s t h e D e v a n a g a r i c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s , d e s c r i b e d
2

in

t h e S a n s k r i t s e c t i o n . These methods v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e form o f


t h e c h a r a c t e r s t o be
i.

combined.

The c h a r a c t e r w h i c h i s r e a l i s e d a s t h e s e c o n d c o n s o n a n t may b e
subscribed to the f i r s t

ii.

character;

e.g.

kko

nta

pte

hmo

The c h a r a c t e r s t o b e j o i n e d may b e w r i t t e n
without the usual i n t e r v e n i n g space;
m
ngha

iii.

If the f i r s t

echo

e.g.

*m

dgo

dhvo

c h a r a c t e r h a s a s t r o k e w h i c h c a n be u s e d a s p a r t

the second c h a r a c t e r ,

t h e c h a r a c t e r s may be j o i n e d a s i n

examples:

*5f
ddo

1.

(juktakkhor).

consecutively,

2.

bde
See S a n s k r i t ,

ndo
Ch.3. 1 .

bjo

these

of

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS
i v . The form of e i t h e r t h e f i r s t

o r t h e s e c o n d c h a r a c t e r may "be m o d i -

f i e d i n o r d e r t o make p o s s i b l e
as one c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r .

t h e w r i t i n g of t h e two c h a r a c t e r s

These m o d i f i c a t i o n s vary according

the form of t h e c h a r a c t e r s t o be j o i n e d ;

tto

ttho

v. The c h a r a c t e r s

\5

>

kto
T\

209

Jlt^

, and

e.g.

^t*

18

, h a v e s p e c i a l forms w h i c h are

u s e d when t h e y a r e c o m b i n ed w i t h o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s ;

3*
tko

\^

tyo

rko

^
1

tpo

to

kya

e.g.
^
kro

v i . I f any c h a r a c t e r s c a n n o t b e c o m b i n e d by any o f t h e s e m e t h o d s ,
t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of them w i t h o u t an i n t e r v e n i n g vowel i s
ed by w r i t i n g t h e f i r s t

indicat-

c h a r a c t e r w i t h the hosonto.

The m o d i f i e d forms of some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s , w r i t t e n a s t h e


second p a r t of a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r ,
which t h e f u l l c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t s
( p h o l a ) ; e . g . TfTp^ft"

are r e f e r r e d t o as the
and t h e p a r t i c l e
<Hj5TT

, yo-phola( jophola) ,

The m o d i f i e d forms of t h e c h a r a c t e r s

Tf

*|ir

syllable
, phola

vo-phola(bophola).
<S|

55|

, used i n

forming c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s , a r e a l s o r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s w a y . ^
2 . C o n t e x t s and R e a l i s a t i o n o f C o n j u n c t

Characters.

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s i n B e n g a l i o c c u r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g
i.

In B e n g a l i w o r d s , t h a t i s , w o r d s n o t b o r r o w e d from S a n s k r i t or
from modern l a n g u a g e s ;

ba<^o(boa$o)
1.

contexts:

e.g.

potton(potton)

See a b o v e , C h . 2 , l . i . khan^o t o .
f e r r i n g to conjunct c h a r a c t e r s ,

mui^a(mur]DJ3)

2 . For s p e l l i n g terms used i n r e s e e e n d of t h i s c h a p t e r .


p

210
ii.

BENGALI

SECTION

I n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s , e i t h e r words u s e d commonly i n B e n g a l i ,
words u s e d i n t h e l i t e r a r y l a n g u a g e o n l y ;

e.g.

3T>

n^r
pontha(pontha)

or

J*ebde( Jobdo)

ra^-J;re(ras"l;ro)

I n t h e c l a s s e s o f c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n b e l o w , under 3 . ,
conjunct c h a r a c t e r s are i n c l u d ed which are used o n l y i n w r i t i n g
Sanskrit.

Some o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s do n o t o c c u r i n B e n g a l i

t h o u g h words i n c l u d i n g them a r e f o u n d i n B e n g a l i
i i i . I n l o a n w o r d s from o t h e r l a n g u a g e s ;
khaji j a r a ( k h o n j o r )

texts,

dictionaries,

e.g.

ma^-(;ara(ma^-j;ar)

carbbi( corbbi)

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e a l i s e d a s s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g of two
or more c o n s o n a n t s f o l l o w e d by a v o w e l .

The r e a l i s a t i o n of ekar c o n -

junct characters i n v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s f o l l o w s i n general

the

rules

a l r e a d y g i v e n f o r t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of e k a r c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s .
d e s c r i b i n g the r e a l i s a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s ,

the

In

inherent

vowel i s p h o n e t i c a l l y t r a n s c r i b e d as ( o ) , as i n t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n
the c h a r a c t e r s of the

syllabary.

The r e a l i s a t i o n i n modern B e n g a l i o f ekar c o n s o n a n t


with zero-vowel,

of

or w i t h an e - g l i d e ,

g i v e s r i s e t o a problem of s p e l l i n g .

characters

in certain positions

i n words

T h i s r e a l i s a t i o n of s u c h

charact-

e r s i n words of t h r e e o r more c h a r a c t e r s , and i n v e r b a l b a s e s w i t h


suffixes

a d d e d , h a s b e e n i l l u s t r a t e d above^-. The r e a l i s a t i o n of

consonant c h a r a c t e r s w i t h zero-vowel

i n such c o n t e x t s

often

ekar

results

i n t h e s p e a k i n g o f two c o n s e c u t i v e c o n s o n a n t s i n a way s i m i l a r t o
r e a l i s a t i o n of a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r .
1 . See a b o v e ,

Ch.2.2.ii.

Examples of B e n g a l i words

in

the

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS

211

which t h e r e a l i s a t i o n of s e p a r a t e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s i s s i m i l a r
t h a t of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s a r e g i v e n b e l o w w i t h t h e v a r i o u s
3.

to

classes".

C l a s s e s of C o n j u n c t C h a r a c t e r s i n B e n g a l i .

The B e n g a l i c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

are arranged i n t h i s chapter

in

the same f o u r c l a s s e s a s t h e D e v a n a g a r i c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n i n t h e
Sanskrit s e c t i o n . A l l the c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n in the Sanskrit
have e q u i v a l e n t s i n t h e B e n g a l i s c r i p t ,

section

and a l l t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n

t h a t s e c t i o n can be w r i t t e n i n B e n g a l i s c r i p t .

in

The r e a d i n g e x a m p l es

g i v e n w i t h each c l a s s of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s i n c l u d e some l e a r n e d
loanwords which may be f o u n d i n l i t e r a r y
C l a s s 1 . Two s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r s

joined.

texts.
1

These c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t s y l l a b l e s

c o n s i s t i n g of a

'doubled'

consonant f o l l o w e d b y a v o w e l .

-kko

-kkha

-ggs

-ggho

-cca

-echo

-JDS

-3

-q.dha

-tto

-ttho

-ddo

-ddha

jho

ft

t
-tt*

-ttha

-ppo

-ppho

-yyo

-bba

The c h a r a c t e r

-nna

-bbho

-lis
?j

-J Jo

i s r e a l i s e d as (nno).

r e a l i s e d as ( j j o ) , or when i t

-ssa

The c h a r a c t e r TJ3

is

i s a k a r , a s ( j j e e ) . The c h a r a c t e r >|>J

which o c c u r s o n l y i n l o a n w o r d s ,

1 . Compare S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 . 3 .

i s r e a l i s e d as

Class

1.

(sso).

212

BENGALI
When a s u f f i x w i t h an i n i t i a l

verbal base with a f i n a l

SECTION
c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s added t o a

okar c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r ,

the r e a l i s a t i o n

t h e c o n s e c u t i v e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e v e r b a l form i s s i m i l a r t o t h e
i s a t i o n of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s .
<P"^"v3

, korota(kotto) ,

Reading e x a m p l e s

fT^TT'^|

of

real-

Examples:

, parolama(pallam).

i f ^ t r i ? ^9fv5
Sttr \STsfhf *w?P3

^rasr

^rnr

ceK

C l a s s 2 . Two vorgiiy^o c h a r a c t e r s

f ^rfB^r

joined.^

These c h a r a c t e r s occur mainly i n S a n s k r i t loanwords.


of Devanagari c h a r a c t e r s

The

of t h i s c l a s s , g i v e n in the S a n s k r i t

series
section,

i n c l u d e s many c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h o c c u r i n t h e j o i n i n g o f words i n comp o u n d s , i n p h r a s e s and i n s e n t e n c e s i n a S a n s k r i t t e x t .

The c h a r a c t e r s

o c c u r r i n g i n a S a n s k r i t t e x t p r i n t e d i n B e n g a l i s c r i p t c a n be
ed w i t h a k n o w l e d g e o f S a n s k r i t ; b u t i t
work t o i n c l u d e a l l
class.

i s beyond th e s c o p e of

t h e p o s s i b l e combinations of c h a r a c t e r s

in

recognis
this
this

The c h a r a c t e r s g i v e n b e l o w may o c c u r i n a B e n g a l i l i t e r a r y

i.

sir
-kto

-tko

-tkho

-gdo

-tpa

-tpho

-pto

ii.

text

W
-dgha

-dg

-gdho

"5

If

-dbo

-bda

-dbhe

-bdh

1 . These forms a r e sometimes* w r i t t e n , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n d i a l o g u e , w i t h


c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s . Cf. n o t e s i n C h . 2 , 1 . i i i .
2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 2 8 . 3 . Cf.
Sanskrit,Ch.3,3.CI.2.i.-iv.

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS

^1

ii.a.
-nke

-rjkh

-rjgh

nj

%
-nt

-iit 9

*f

2?

-J1C9

-jichg

-P-j

-nt9

-nth9

-nd9

3?

-jijh

*T

-ri^h

hs

213

-ndh9

S p e c i a l ukar form
-mph

-mp

-mbs

-mbh

ntu

The n a s a l c o n s o n a n t o f t h e k-vrg, i n t h e f i r s t

group a b o v e ,

may be r e p r e s e n t e d a l t e r n a t i v e l y b y t h e o n u s v a r .

The c h a r a c t e r

<p

, joined with a character of the co-vorgo, i s r e a l i s e d as

(n-).

The c h a r a c t e r

<f

, j o i n e d w i t h a c h a r a c t e r of the

[o-vergo, i s r e a l i s e d as (n_-).

-cjio

jjio

The c h a r a c t e r

-tn

-dne

o c c u r s o n l y i n t h e S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d "SjnEfef

yacjia, r e a l i s e d a s ( j a c n a )
The c h a r a c t e r ^

or a s

(jacinga).

i s r e a l i s e d i n i t i a l l y a s ( g o ) ; and m e d i a l l y

as ( g o ) , w i t h n a s a l i s a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g v o w e l , a s i n
T^jpy

jjiano(gsen) , and ^ j

\o&f

, ajna(aggse).

This

character

i s n o t c a l l i g r a p h i c a l l y a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r , and i t i s
included i n the oksoromala a f t e r
in.

?f

*U

-kma

-gno

-gmo

The c h a r a c t e r

^
-ghn

T\f

as in

characters^.

If

-tmo

-dm

-pn

, tm, i s r e a l i s e d a s ( t t o ) ,

i s a t i o n of t h e f o l l o w i n g v o w e l ,
The c h a r a c t e r

the consonant

often

often with

nasal-

"^TTlfl" , a t m a ( a t t a ) .

, dm, i s r e a l i s e d a s ( d d o ) , w i t h

nasalisation

1. See a b o v e , C h . 2 , 3 . i . b .
2. Words b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h i s c h a r a c t e r
are p l a c e d i n d i c t i o n a r i e s a f t e r w o r d s b e g i n n i n g w i t h O^f .

214

BENGALI
of t h e f o l l o w i n g v o w e l ,
"*i>V|

l v

, pedmo(podd6,

<SJ
-nmo
The f o l l o w i n g

SECTION

e x c e p t i n words i n common u s e , s u c h a s

poddo).

**T

-nmo

-nmo

c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s , when t h e f i r s t
realisation

of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

V e r b a l forms

^Pr^T

the r e a l i s a t i o n

i s ekar,

of t h i s

*|'MWf^b

consecutive

class:
^SFTOT*?

kapete(kap' to)

of

i n a way s i m i l a r t o t h e

^ftvS

kadebe(kad bo)
Other words

-mno

examples i l l u s t r a t e

Junetame( J"un'tam)

^TFS^rT

^Tv5^Tf^

panemeric e ( p a n m o r i c ) p a t e k u y a ( p a t k u y a ) h a t e c h a n i ( h a t c h a n i )
1

Reading

examples

i- " 1 % ^T^fT^

Tg^^R

%WTv5
^^TT

ii.-^jsfTO

*rni

Characters
All

except

*rsr

and fi

T^^T

^*JTv3

TSf^cff

*rr^rr

flr^n"

of the Bengali s y l l a b a r y occur i n t h i s

class

characters,
.2

, no . These c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

$ , referred to as yephela(jophola)

character,

, k y e ,\*>^ , t y e ,^(3

1.

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,

^ f e ^

*rtffe

by a d d i n g t h e s t r o k e
thus: ^

F^i

*r^t

joined with following

. ne

n^i

5 * ^ 3

joined with entesthe

t h e. c h a r a c t e r s
V

^Rgv5

^vfT^

^-^f

Class 3 . Characters
i.

s e e p .2 2 8 .

, p y e , **f$

2. Cf. S a n s k r i t ,

a r e formed
t o another
, /ye .

Ch.33.Class 3 . i .

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS

215

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s may h e f o r m e d h y c o m h i n i h g t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s ;
t ktyo,

ntyo,

, ndhyo,

e.g.

, tmyo.

Characters w r i t t e n with y o p h o l a are r e a l i s e d i n v a r i o u s ways;


and the o c c u r r e n c e o f a c h a r a c t e r c o m b i n e d w i t h y o p h o l a i n
c o n t e x t s a f f e c t s t h e q u a l i t y o f some o f t h e
a. R e a l i s a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s w i t h

certain

vowels.

yophola.

When an i n i t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s w r i t t e n w i t h y o p h o l a i t i s r e a l i s e d a s
as z e r o - y o p h o l a and t h e v o w e l o f t h e s y l l a b l e ,
nyuuno(nun)

dhyey(dheyo)

When a m e d i a l or a f i n a l

character

e.g.

jyotiso(jotij)
i s written with yophola,

c h a r a c t e r i s r e a l i s e d a s t h e d o u b l i n g of t h e c o n s o n a n t

the

represented

by the c h a r a c t e r w i t h w h i c h y o p h o l a i s written.1; e . g .

vakkyo(bakko)

rajyo(rajjo)

puny-o(punno)

b . R e a l i s a t i o n of v o w e l s a f f e c t e d b y y o p h o l a .
An okar c h a r a c t e r p r e c e d i n g a c h a r a c t e r w i t h y o p h o l a i s
with the inherent vowel as ( o ) ,

^TO

realised

e.g.

M\53

vsr^ra

onye(onno)

sobhyo(Jobbho)

kolyo(kollo)

I f an i n i t i a l

c h a r a c t e r w i t h yphla i s kar, t h e vowe l i s

talvy(talobbo)
real-

i s e d a s (ee) , u n l e s s t h e kar c h a r a c t e r i s f o l l o w e d by an i k a r or
an i i k a r c h a r a c t e r , when i t

vyotha(b8etha)

i s r e a l i s e d as ( e ) 3 ;

vythii(bethi)

v y s j i jn(bien jon)

e.g.

vytiit(betito)

1 . For examples of m e d i a l c h a r a c t e r s , s e e b e l o w , under n o t e b .


2 . Cf. t h e v e r b a l form ^5^?f , k r l ( k o l l o ) , Ch. 2 , 1 . i i i . n o t e b .
3 . Cf. n o t e on r e a l i s a t i o n of v o w e l c h a r a c t e r s and s i g n s , C h . 2 , 2 . i i . b .

216

BENGALI

SECTION

I f a c h a r a c t e r w i t h y o p h o l a i s a k a r , t h e vowel i s r e a l i s e d a s (ee) ,

nyayoCnsey)- 1

dhyane( dhsen)

vyakhyane(bffikkheen)

kenya(konnee)

In t h e word^C^T^T > u d y o g o , a S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d i n w h i c h t h e
c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r a r i s e s from t h e j o i n i n g o f t h e p r e f i x
, ut- ,
w i t h t h e word C^ft^T > y o g a

, the medial character i s r e a l i s e d as (djo) ,

t h e word b e i n g r e a l i s e d a s ( u d j o g ) .
2

T h i s r e a l i s a t i o n may b e c o n -

t r a s t e d w i t h t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r w i t h y o p h o l a i n f<Pf5T,
v i d y a ( b i d d e e ) . N o t e a l s o "Sf?^ , s o h y o ( Jo j jho) .
R e a d i n g examples-^
<TT^

yc&n

ii.

^Tv5

C^rfnS\5t

fs^T

gSv5

^raft

Characters with f o l l o w i n g

C5otf3

^rero

qsrr

CS^Jt

oth

"?f .h

This c l a s s of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s c o n s i s t s of c h a r a c t e r s

combined

w i t h o n t o s t h o v o , c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h t h e Devanagari c h a r a c t e r s
with the ontostho character
o n l y i n S a n s k r i t l o a n w o r d s . When

, vo . These c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s
<^ , o r i t s m o d i f i e d f o r m ,

as t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r ,
vophola(bophola).
form,
dhvo,
1.

joined
occur

occurs

i t i s r e f e r r e d to as

I t i s w r i t t e n w i t h some c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e f u l l

j o i n e d t o t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a r a c t e r by t h e m a t r a , a s i n iffi

, hvo ; or i n t h e m o d i f i e d f o r m , added t o t h e f o o t of a

Cf. t h e v e r b a l form r e a l i s e d a s (neey) i n t h e n o t e on o n t o s t h o y e


on p . 2 0 3 .
2 . Also r e a l i s e d as (uddog).
3 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 2 9 .
U. C f . S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C l a s s 3 . i i .

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS
character, as i n
character

<f

, kv ,

, tv ,

217
, jv . The form of

, rvo , i s d i s c u s s e d , l a t e r , under

the

iii.a.

The f o l l o w i n g are e x a m p l e s o f c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s formed hy combining three characters:

, ttvo

, ddhv ,

, ktvo.

In t h e c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s c l a s s , n t s s t h v i s

re-

garded as a s e p a r a t e c h a r a c t e r f r o m v o r g i i y b, a l t h o u g h i n t h e
s y l l a b a r y t h e two c h a r a c t e r s a r e t h e same. Words b e g i n n i n g w i t h an
i n i t i a l conjunct character of t h i s c l a s s are p l a c e d in

dictionaries

a f t e r words b e g i n n i n g w i t h c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s formed by c o m b i n i n g a
consonant c h a r a c t e r w i t h a f o l l o w i n g

When v o p h s l a i s w r i t t e n w i t h an i n i t i a l

character,

it is

real-

i s e d as zero.; e . g .

^t^t
svamii(jami)

w
jval(jal)

w r

tvkt(tokto)

dvadJ( d a d o j )

When vphla i s w r i t t e n w i t h a m e d i a l or a f i n a l
i s r e a l i s e d as the f i r s t p a r t of

it

the conjunct character doubled, with

z e r o - r e a l i s a t i o n of vphla, a s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g
nvh(onnoho)

character,

iiJvr(iJJor)

examples:

viJv(biJJo)

konv(konno)

The c h a r a c t e r "5^" , hv , i s r e a l i s e d a s a v - g l i d e f o l l o w e d by a
b i l a b i a l a s p i r a t e , as i n pj^qcTf

, bihvl(bivvhol).

In S a n s k r i t w o r d s , u s e d a s l e a r n e d l o a n w o r d s i n l i t e r a r y

Bengali,

a p r e f i x ending i n a hsnt c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r may be added t o a


word w i t h i n i t i a l ntssth v s .

In t h e c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r which

r e s u l t s , and i n t h e c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h a r i s e from t h e

joining

2*8

BENGALI

SECTION

o f two words i n a compound, v o p h o l a i s r e a l i s e d a s ( b - ) ; e . g .

udvigno(udbigno)
The words

sodvyevohare(/odbebohar)

t^^ff*^

rgvedo(rigbed)

, udvano(uddan) , and f ^ ^ l , v i d v a n o ( b i d d a n )

are e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s g e n e r a l

rule.

The r e a l i s a t i o n , o f v e p h o l a , i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e above e x a m p l e s ,
r e s u l t s i n a s i m i l a r i t y o f r e a l i s a t i o n o f two o r more words w h i c h a r e
t h e same i n t h e s p o k e n l a n g u a g e and d i s t i n g u i s h e d o n l y i n w r i t i n g ;
e.g.

, d h a n i i , and $fl<jp| , d h v a n i , r e a l i s e d a s ( d h o n i ) ,^

f*r3^T?T
*fJ

J i k a r o , and ^Wj.^ , s v i i k a r e , r e a l i s e d a s ( j i k a r ) ,

'^n<r

, J"oro,

, svoro , r e a l i s e d as ( / o r ) 5

, s o r a , and

Reading examples^-

iii.
a.

Characters joined w i t h preceding


^
preceding another
*s

or w i t h f o l l o w i n g

character.5

Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s c l a s s a r e formed b y w r i t i n g a s t r o k e
r e f e r r e d t o a s (,<j^p , r e p h s ( r e p h ) , above t h e c h a r a c t e r b e f o r e w h i c h
<J

i s t o be r e a l i s e d .
T h i s s t r o k e i s p l a c e d a t t h e r i g h t hand s i d e o f a n y o t h e r s u p e r -

s c r i b e d s t r o k e , and i s t h e l a s t s t r o k e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r t o b e w r i t t e n .

e,g

-rko

-rco

-v\o

The c h a r a c t e r s

\s
-rto

>F>\Sl 3,
T

Y
-rpa
,

a4
-rkii

F,^f,

-rke

T,^I

cf
-rkov
and ^

1 . ' m a s t e r ' and ' s o u n d ' ,


2 . ' h u n t i n g ' and ' a g r e e m e n t ' .
3 . ' a r r o w ' , ' c r e a m ' and ' v o i c e ' .
U. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 2 9 .
5. C f . S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C I . 3 . i i i . a .

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS

219

are o f t e n w r i t t e n i n t h e i r d o u b l e d f o r m w i t h r e p h l ;
, rtto,

, rggo,

*zf

, rmmo,

In some w o r d s , i n c l u d i n g v e r b a l f o r m s ,
consonant c h a r a c t e r s w i t h z e r o - v o w e l
r e a l i s a t i o n of

j^" before

rvvo

the r e a l i s a t i o n

in certain positions

of

okar

leads to

a n o t h e r c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r i n a way

t o the r e a l i s a t i o n of r e p h e ,

as i n t h e s e

the

similar

examples:-

Verbal f orms: *Pf|"<<p3 p a r o t a ( p a r ' t o , p a t t o ) ,


Other words : T f ^ ^ j " ^

e.g.

^sf^<f

^f^^t^f

, derobaro( dor'bar) ,

, mar 2v( m o l l o)
, s e r o k a r o ( Joir'kar)

Reading examples*r

*j*f

\54

?fl^v5
b.

^T*T

^jt^

^ifi

^pft

f%M*f

following another
Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s

stfrta

character.3

of t h i s

class

a r e formed by s u b s c r i b i n g

stroke r e f e r r e d to as r o p h o l a ( r o p h o l a )

the

to a consonant character.

characters with rophola which occur i n B e n g a l i , mostly in

The

Sanskrit

l o a n w o r d s , a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s g i v e n b e l o w .
The f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r s

illustrate

e r s w i t h r o p h o l a , w i t h some s p e c i a l
e r s formed by j o i n i n g t h r e e

kro

1.

gro

jro

the calligraphy

of

charact-

f o r m s ; and some c o n j u n c t

charact-

characters:

tro

dro

pro

bhro

Jr

hr

-3T

"5

dru

dhruu

Jru

tru

-r)gr

-ndr

-ktr

-ndhr

The r u l e s of o r t h o g r a p h y o f
B e n g a l i d i c t i o n a r y T>*jf!^ ,
discontinued.
3*. C f . S a n s k r i t , C h . 3 , 3 . C I . 3 .

C a l c u t t a U n i v e r s i t y , given in the
p . 5 9 7 , recommend t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e
2. For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 3 0 .
iii.a.

be

BENGALI

220

SECTION

Reading e x a m p l e s !

srm

fsv5

cm

tfrsfar

t$
^ 1

iv.

Characters with preceding

a.

cv|

preceding another

5 ^

^t3
c5|

^1*3

f[

, lgs

character.
*J

a r e formed hy w r i t i n g

second character e i t h e r immediately a f t e r ,


, Iks

c*f

or w i t h f o l l o w i n g

Characters joined w i t h preceding

fSs

a t m

or b e l o w ,

, lp , ^

*f

the

, thus:-

, lm . Only a few of

the Bengali c h a r a c t e r s occur with p r e c e d i n g

of\

, and t h e s e

are

i l l u s t r a t e d below i n the reading examples.


c?J

b.

following another

character.

These c h a r a c t e r s a r e formed by w r i t i n g
c h a r a c t e r a f t e r which i t
^

, kl ,

character

, gl

i s t o be r e a l i s e d ,
,

, pi ,

i s not combined w i t h

<f

5 f at the f o o t
thus

the

, ml ,

$f

, Jl .

thus

i t i s r e f e r r e d to as

but

When *f

i s added t o a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r a s t h e

p a r t of a c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r ,

The

in a conjunct c h a r a c t e r ,

t h e two c h a r a c t e r s a r e w r i t t e n c o n s e c u t i v e l y ,
or a m o d i f i e d form of i t ,

of

second

laphala(lophola).

Only a few of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s o c c u r , m o s t l y i n S a n s k r i t

loanwords.

Those w h i c h o c c u r a r e i l l u s t r a t e d b e l o w i n t h e r e a d i n g e x a m p l e s .
The r e a l i s a t i o n
first

of c o n s e c u t i v e c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s , when t h e

i s kar and i n c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s ,

i n a way s i m i l a r t o t h e

i s a t i o n of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s c l a s s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n
1 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 3 0 .
2 . Cf. S a n s k r i t , Ch. 3 , 3 . C I . 3 . i v . a .

and b .

realthese

221

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS

words : f^T<pYf

b i l 9 k u l 9 ( b i l

'kill) , " ^ p 3 c ^

matglgbgdnot'lob).

Reading examples-*-

3Fte

c s w

s r m

Class U. v o r g i i y g c h a r a c t e r s

a.

j o i n e d w i t h p r e c e d i n g or

C h a r a c t e r s combined w i t h p r e c e d i n g
*]" ,

or

"5f

"*]" , ^

preceding another

-Jc9

"*f

-Jch9

-Jna

~?t

~?t

Words w i t h c u r s i v e

"~ l
sr

~^P

:-

:-

-sph9 - s m 9

forms:

The c h a r a c t e r

combined w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r s

, 'no , i s r e a l i s e d

the conjunct c h a r a c t er
sko , "^^j"

n s

Jmo

Characters which occur w i t h p r e c e d i n g

except with

following

or "9\

character.

C h a r a c t e r s which o c c u r w i t h p r e c e d i n g

-^ko

as

i s r e a l i s e d as

, sp9 , and

(so).
(jno).

of t h e \9-vorg9

When combined w i t h
The c h a r a c t e r s

i n o r d i n a r y s p e e c h , b u t may b e r e a l i s e d a s ( s k o ) ,

(spho)

i n formal s p e e c h .

For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,

(spo)

"*J , Jno , i s u s u a l l y r e a l i s e d as

see p.230.

2.

Cf.

Sanskrit,

,
f(

"Sip"

, spho a r e r e a l i s e d as (Jko) , ( j p o )

(jpho)

1.

^rr?

^sffa

characters,

u u s m 9

i.

csrr^

a m

and
and

(sno).

C h . 3 , 3 , C l a s s h. i .

222

BENGALI

SECTION
"Sf

Characters which occur w i t h p r e c e d i n g

sko

skho

st

The c h a r a c t e r

sth

sn

sp

:-

"tr

sph

combined w i t h c h a r a c t e r s

of t h e t-vrg

r e a l i s e d a s ( s ) . N o t e t h e form of t h e c h a r a c t e r
The c h a r a c t e r s
realised initially
(josru)

, Jm , and ^
as

(J5)

sm

, stu

, sm , kar

or

.
akar,

and (J"a) , a s i n t h e words ^Cf^f

and ^fjSJ^S , smark( J a r o k ) .

is

These two c h a r a c t e r s ,

are

, JmJ*ru
and ^

sm , a r e r e a l i s e d m e d i a l l y and f i n a l l y a s ( / J o ) , a s i n t h e words
'^'"Q' , uusm(uJ".fo)
and \3~*t\ , bhsm(bho j Jo) .
Conjunct c h a r a c t e r s

of C l a s s e s 1 . , 2 . and 3 . may o c c u r w i t h

c e d i n g uusm c h a r a c t e r s ,
^

, -stv

such a s , -t

r s

> If

The f o l l o w i n g words i l l u s t r a t e

-str

a way s i m i l a r t o t h e r e a l i s a t i o n

" rr^|v5
Reading

b.

> asstsCaT'to)

examples

Characters

1.
3.

Verbal form.
Cf. S a n s k r i t ,

is

consecutive

kar i n c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s , ,

of c o n j u n c t c h a r a c t e r s

f>*f*Tt

joined with following

, ks ,

, -stv

of t h i s

in

class:

> cJ"ma ( c o J"'ma)

Three c h a r a c t e r s
^

the r e a l i s a t i o n of

c o n s o n a n t c h a r a c t e r s , when t h e f i r s t

!:3:

pre-

"5J or

"SJ . 3

occur in t h i s group, i n Sanskrit

, - t s and

loanwords:

, -ps . I n w r i t i n g S a n s k r i t i n

2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,
Ch.3,3.Class k.i.b.

see

p.230.

Bengali

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS

223

s c r i p t , however, c h a r a c t e r s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s
given i n the Sanskrit s e c t i o n a r e u s e d .

"^J" , - k s o ,

The c h a r a c t e r

occurs i n E n g l i s h l o a n w o r d s .
Cursive forms i n words

The c h a r a c t e r

< N >

i s not c a l l i g r a p h i c a l l y

a conjunct

and i t i s o f t e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e s y l l a b a r y a f t e r
characters.

character,

t h e consonant

I t does n o t , h o w e v e r , b e l o n g p r o p e r l y t o t h e s y l l a b a r y ,

as i t r e p r e s e n t s a s y l l a b l e c o n s i s t i n g o f two c o n s o n a n t s f o l l o w e d b y
the vowel

o . W o r d s b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h i s c h a r a c t e r are p l a c e d i n

d i c t i o n a r i e s a f t e r words b e g i n n i n g w i t h

, kvo . I t i s r e a l i s e d

i n i t i a l l y a s ( k h o ) and m e d i a l l y a n d f i n a l l y
ion o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s

a s ( k k h o ) . The r e a l i s a t -

, k s r j o , an d "^f , ksmo , i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n

these examples:

3j^r
kgnuto(khnuto)

tiiksno( tikkhno)

When an okar c h a r a c t e r i s f o l l o w e d b y
i s r e a l i s e d a s ( o ) , a s i n Jff^T

suuksmo( Jukkho)
^* , t h e i n h e r e n t

, J l o k s n o ( J l o k h n o ) j and i f

vowel
^

a k a r , t h e vowel s i g n may b e r e a l i s e d a s (se) , a s i n t h e s e words <f^t

, r e k s a ( r o k k h a , rokkhse) ,

"SJ^JT

> yok^ma( jokkhss).

Reading examples 2

^nra

*rftftre

xs^fht^

1. Cf. n o t e on 3 under Clas-s 2 .


2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 3 0 .

*j*r

above.

*t*&?t

is

224
ii.

BENGALI
^

SECTION

j o i n e d w i t h nunasik ( ' n a s a l ' )

characters .
1

Three o f t h e nunasik c h a r a c t e r s a r e j o i n e d w i t h
J^T

-hn

-hn

The c h a r a c t e r s

and

-hm

a r e r e a l i s e d a s ( n h o ) , and t h e

c h a r a c t e r "5Jf i s r e a l i s e d a s ( m h o ) .
Reading e x a m p l e s

Bengali prose passage^

^*rc*rt

^cafe

w(7Tt

^rrms csffisrar

t%^re3

ewer

IW

TO^TO

HJ*flN
r

&

*ri$

^n*rr

^srar f N n ^ ^c?r-

xsrera ^ c ^ r qc=?

m^cs?

^ f f a s -ft^ ^cafSt s s w ^ r f ^ - ^faft

*m?r etches i

f^Tra

smosh

^c?rfi

*Trf%c3ra

^c?rfSi

^c*r gc*r ^ * r r ^ c s ^sf^rcafu

^rrftvsi

C^t\5S

of^ra

C^TQ3

^PT, v3*R

Tftft
c * r 5

vb ( s f t ^ ^ t

G5T<5ft ^3

a*RTS "R^TS-

TOUTS

\5T3

^f%v5

gsiws

* n f 5

OSWSiS

^ <

fq&Cv5 FIT! ^TT I

^ r r c ?

* r e f 5

*?ttow

1 . C f . S a n s k r i t , Ch. 3 , 3 . CI.
ii.
2 . For t r a n s c r i p t i o n , s e e p . 2 3 0 .
3 . R a h i n d r a n a t h T a g o r e , g i k s a n a V i k i r a n a , an a d d r e s s on u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , puh. U n i v e r s i t y of C a l c u t t a , 1 9 3 3 .

C O N J U N C T CHARACTERS

TO,

fl^f CT-^rtCT

c%5u

<7r^rf(7T

Examples of B e n g a l i s p e l l i n g t e r m s ,

225

^re^m

^^QJTT

including conjunct

characters:

( p o , goe g o , cjoe Junno po)


(hoe h r o j j o i k a r ,

d o n t o Joe h o j o n t o ,

donto

Joe akar)

( t o e h r o j j o i k a r , b o e b o p h o l a , khor]c(o t o )
( t a l o b b o J o , koe t o t a t e h r o j j o
( b o r g i y o j o e jioe a k a r ,

donto

ikar)

no)

(borgiyo j o , donto noe mophola)


(c|hoe h r o j j o u k a r , murdhonno n o e djho t a t e h r o j j o i k a r ,
(joe

TO

jopholae condrobindu t a t e

( d o n t o J o , d o n t o n o e dhoe
(dirgho i ,

jophols., t a te

t a l o b b o Joe b o p h o l a ,

( j o r i a, ontostho

joe

( h r o j j o u , coe c h o e r o p h o l a ,

reph ro)

reph)
ontostho

( t a l o b b o Joe l o p h o l a t a t e

okar,

(donto Jo, o n u j j o r ,

Joe ko t a t e

(noe h r o j j o i k a r ,

akar)

reph)

( d o n t o J o , boe b o p h o l a t a t e

akar)

donto

talobbo

0)

ko)
r i p h o l a , to)

Joe e o , o n t o s t h o

( d o n t o Joe t o e r o p h o l a t a t e d i r g h o
( t a l o b b o Joe h r o j j o i k a r , k h y o e

0)

ikar)

akar)

( g o e r o p h o l a t a t e d i r g h o i k a r , murdhonno Joe mophola)

to)

226

BENGALI

SECTION

T r a n s c r i p t i o n of R e a d i n g E x a m p l e s

Chapter 2.
l.i.

kg
ko

ngdg
nod

che
cho
ngkhg
nokh

kgtg
koto

bofo
boro

bong
bon

ng
no

pg
po

T ^
-|;ok
9

ghong
ghono

jene
jon

dg
do

cjhg
c|ho

pgdg
pod

t
DO

khgrg
khor

pet
pofo

gotg
goto

mans
mon
kotgkg
kotok

jeget
jogot

ce^opg^g
cof'P !

ko^eke^
kof'kof

kgcgmgco
koc'moc

thekothgk
thok'thok

gepeggp
gor'gop

l.ii.

kglg
kol

ghgrg
ghor

kho
kho

gh"];
ghof
joro
joro

thg
tho

pgthg
poth

ngtg
noto

tg^g
to{

tgtg
toto

kene
kon

phe-(;gkg
phojjok
0

jhoro
jhop
poto
poto

tg
to

ghg-j;gkg
ghofok
cjhekemeke
djiok'mok

^gpg^opg

tgkgtgkg
tok'tok

TP'TP

malg
mol

pgrg
por

bglg
bol

rgkg
rok

khg^gkhg^g
kho-fkhot
dhopgdhgpg
dhop'dhop

dglg
dol

rgthg
roth

phol
phol

joto
joto
bodolg
bodol

golgdo
golod

kheretoro
khorotor
l.iii.

sohgrg
Johor

mlj
moloj
pholgkgrg
pholokor

nggorg
nogor

gglong
golon

kglgrgvg
kolorob

Jovg
Job

sgbg
Job

dojg
doj

sgkhg
Jokh

Jgtg
/oto

sgmg
Jomo

hgtg
hoto

hgrg
horo

sohoj
Johoj

sgrglg
Jorol

holgphg
holoph

1 . B r a c k e t s a r e o m i t t e d i n t h e p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n i n o r d e r t o make
i t p o s s i b l e t o p l a c e t h i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y b e l o w e a c h word
in the systematic t r a n s c r i p t i o n .

TRANSCRIPTION
tsts
to/'toj

khoskhs
kho/'kho/

smtl
Jomotol

8hocore
/ohocor

i
i

2.i.

is
i/
elm
elora
ii/o
i/o

itlo
itol
otsn
oton
op
r
opo
oro
ib
ibo

2.11.

thu
thu

/i/u
/i/u

godhuli
godhuli
p. 198.
jut
juto

tomora
tom'ra
lekh
lekh

guurh
gurho

ki
koi

kuu
ku

go
go

iid
id

or
or-

niiti
niti

dagabaji
dagabaji
cokh
cokh

pagol
pagol

thak
thako

jagsl
jag'lo
nodii
nodi

jan
jan
jagolo
jag'lo
ydi
jodi

nirupadhi
nirupadhi

/rgal
Jrigal
sol
/olo

ggnbhela
gogon'bhela

jitob
jit'bo

b h i jt
bhij'to
boli
boli

mrt
mrito

devr
dehor

talpat
tal'pat

jan
jano

ysti
joti

motaleb
motaleb

dhsvt
dhouto

kv/l
kou/ol

mucoki
muc ki

novka
nouka

kopotika
kopotika
megho
megh

chi
chi

guru
guru

hur i i
huri

mrg chot dr^h mvn


m r i g o c h o t o d r i p h o mouho

cuppi
cup pi

nr
nri

krpa
kripa

ruti
rufi

hrdi
hridi

niil
nil

os
0/0
mv
mou

/i

c|heu
djieu

mane
mane

duur
dur

thak
thak

khi
khoi

er
er

olo
olo

jhi
jhi

yui
jui

kamera
kam'ra

/unto
/un'to

uun
un

yk
oiko

pather
pathor

tukra
fuk'ra
lekh
lekho

rn
rin

kumarii
kumari

dudh
dudh

v
ou

oy
oi

ut
uto

dao
dao

sahss
Jaho/

/unot
/un'to
bi
boi

se
/e

ruupa
rupa

tin
tin

caker
cakor

e
e

jelsksr
jolokor

mdkt
modokof

itr
ist
utr
udk
ett
itor
i/ot
utor
udok
etot
evssdh
vrt
vsn
oujodh
ou/on
ourot
p
ogh
iit
ot
g
en
vm
ito
opo
ogho
oto
ogo
eno
oumo

jiivilca
jjbika

tit
tito

ghnkph
ghonokoph

am
am

alo
alo

rsi
ri/i

mot a
raofa

ghnrs
ghonoro/

ukh
ukho

ca
ca

otu
otu

cjhlcjhl
d h o l ' dhol

ut
t

it
it

it
ito

tltl
tol'tol

l
l

at
*t

227

jitobo
jit'bo

tulb
tul'bo
besi
bo/i

/unol
Jun'lo
so-lil
/olil

BENGALI SECTION

228

calita
col i t

sahito
Johit

polu
polu

ptu
pofu

3 . i . a.

jamidara
jomidar

madhura
modhur
ora
or

era
er
tusa
tuf

thai
thai

jaka
jaka

dari
dari

khopa
khopa

nam
nor)

t ]
t J

b.
samghata
Jorjghat

ii.

gam
gan

s n

co

arrjja
onJo

pamju
parjju

sarah
Joroh

ta
ta

Jarrjsa
Jorjja

havih Jesa
hobijjej

kudala
kudol

^ J i 9 r r j t ; h srrj
t 9t^
h o

avatarrjsa
o b o t o n Jo

bedhe
bedhe

vanavkah
bonoukah

narrjjuka
norj Juk
karrjsaha
korj Joha
atahpara
otoppor

nihsukha
niJJukh

duhsamaya
dujjomoy

vamjo
arjJo

o n

sairjghatika
Jarjghatik

sahah
Johoh

acetah
ocetah

bhui
bhui

hakapi
hakapi

samjodhana
Jorj Jodhon

nabhahsad
nobhoJJod

ro
ro

ghota
ghof

poci/o
pocij"
damJana
donjon

pun ah
punoh

bahut
bohut

dha
dha

d^ar^a
djar

sutararrj
Jutorarj

palita
polito

phatura
photur

t^
\v.

C O

cheka
chek

vamJadhara
borj Jodhor

nihkarana
nikkaron

ci
ci

galita
golito

baluka
boluk

dhudhula
dhudhul

3r

aruh
oruh

Jatayuh
Jotayuh '

ha
ha

caca
cac

samvit
Jorjbit

sarrjyamana
Jorj jomon

marut
morut

Ska
ak

yui
jui

abhidhana
obhidhan

bahsadana
bajJodon

nihkasana
nikkajon

duhsaha
dujJoho

Chapter 3
Class 1.
pakka
pokko

paggara
poggo

kakkhata
kokkhof

that t a
thatt
a

udjLiina
ucJdJLn

kaccara
koccor
uttara
uttor

utthana
utthan

cavdda
couddo

Joyya
Jo 0 d

phulla
phullo

manajjanti
monoj'janti

c h a b b i Ja
chabbiJ

ummeda
ummed

visani\a
bi-Jonno

sahayya
Jahajjo

saddara
Joadar

tibbat
tibbot

Class 2.
i . J a k t i - vagdana
J o k t i bagdan

udgamana
udgomon

udghata
udghat

utkara
utkor

l a j ja
l o j ja

sar^r^avata
Jonnoboto

chappara
choppor -

gupta
gup t o

iccha
iccha

utphulla
utphullo

utpanna
utponno

paricchanna
poricchonno
adbhuta
odbhut
camatkara
comotkar

kujjhatika
kuj jhofika

Juddha
Juddho

hissa
hijja,

vrddha
briddho

Jabda
Jobdo

kanna
kanna

utpatha
utp.oth

utkhata
utkhat

hissa

citta
citto
dagdha
dogdho
satkorja
Jofkon

TRANSCRIPTION
ii.

lankar
olonkar

jhQjijhato
jhonjhaj;
ndha
ondlio
iii.

J"nkh
/onkho

kon^okii
konjjoki

sompgdg
/ompod
/9kma

Jokka

ssngst
Jorjgoto
kon^ha
kor^fha

ssnghstsn
/onghofon

jicsl
oncol

parjcja. a^hur|dhitg
panc^a c]hur]c{hito

lgmphg
lompho

gmbgrg
ombor

sonlsgn
Jorjlogno

atma
attS

i v . unmogn
unmogno

229

sgmbhgvg
Jorabhob

nimnokt
nimnokto

cygvgng
cobon

Janti
/anti

jpang
gsen

jijsli
onjoli

panthii
ponthi

ninda
ninda

jijjiasa pgtnii
jiggee/a p o t n i

pgmkti
ponkti

vagmn
baggi

pna
pna

jonm
jonmo

lanchsna
lanchona

vanmey
banrjoy

ssnmas
JonmaJ"

Class 3 . i
vaky
bakko

khyat
kheeto

yogyota
joggota

thyan

qhyaqa

pur]y
punno

mitthya
mitthes

bhrtyer
bhritter
nyuune
nun

upsnyas
uponnse/

vyonjsn
bsenjon
Class

/yam
J*8=m

cyutg
cuto

ygtyacarg
jottsecar

ggdyg
goddo

gtyuttgmg
ottuttomo

dyumgni
dumoni

pyang
peen

rsvpy
rouppo

monusyo
monuJ"/o

syoda
Jod

jyoti
joti

gbadhyg
obaddho

gbhyasa
obbheaj

jyetha
jeatha
sgtyg
/otto

gtygyg
ottoy
dbyang
dheen

dhyey
dheyo

nyay
ntsy

myao
meeo

kglyano
kolleen

talovyg
talobbo

s s h y udyana
J o j j h o uddsen

sgndhya
/ondhss

sonkbyeyo
Jonkheyo

3.ii.

kvocit
kocit
iiJvoro
iJJor

pokvo
pokko
svocche
Joccho

ucchvaso
ucchaj*

jval
jal

nvesr[
onne/on

tvsra
tora

svode/e
/odej

tottvo
totto
sorosvotii
/oro//oti

dhvonsa
dhonfo
/vaso
/a/

vilvo
billo
jihva
jibha

Class 3 i i i .
a. terk
torko

muurkhe
murkho

vorgiiyo
borgiyo

diirghg
dirgho

varcc
barcco

muurcchong
raurcchon

s a r j j u vrn
/ o r j u borno
korttgvyg
kortobbo

podarthg
podartho

kerdd-]; rddh durnam


kordot
ordho durnam

ssrp
/orpo

smrpn dhrm
/omorpon dhormo

msryyada
morjseda
durlgbh
durlobh

230

BENGALI

vghirbhutg
bohirbfruto
iii.b.

s s r v v a mgr/gng
/orbo mor/on

kruddbg
kruddho

bhrgmgrg
bhromor

vyggrg
beegro

hrita
hrito

g/ru
osru

Class

3.iv.

ulka
ulka

vglgita
bolgito

klanta
klanto

gramg
gram

prarthgna
prartbona

andhrg
andhro

ul-|;a
ulfa

plavong
plabon

ggrhgrjg
gorhon

vajrg
bojro

sgmra-J;g
J"omra{

phalgurjg
phalgun

glepgng
glepon

msrssr^a
mor/on

ghreyg
ghreyo

a/rayg
asroy

SECTION

putrg
putro

srutg
sruto

drgvyg
drobbo

prg:qamg
pronam

vgdhrg
bodhro

sarjkrantg
/orjkranto

gulpbg
gulpho

tablakg
toblok

visgrgg
biJorge

srmi
sm

ucchrgyg
ucchroy

gglpg
golpo

aryyg
arjo

mlang
mlan

priyg
priyo

vrgtg
brot

paktrg
poktro

prggglbhg
progolbho
Jlokg
Jlok

sgrddarg
Jordar

Jrii
sri
sgrjgrghg
/orjgroho

gulmg
gulmo

ulbg
ulbo

gjliilg
o/lil

hladg
hlad

p r a j n g n i s k r t g ngs"tg
p r o s n o n i / k r i t o noJ-J;o

jyesthg
jeJ"t

C l a s s U. i .
a. p o / c a t
pojcat

ni/ceyg
nijcoy

nip^n-urg
ni/fhur

krsng
krijno

n i / c h i d r g a/cgryg
nijchidro a/corjo
ni^pgtti
nifpotti

nisphglg
ni/phol

grii^mg
grij/o

skgndg
skondo

n o

skhglitg
skholito

stgbdba
stobdho
smgrgr^g
Joron

svasthg
Jostho

snano
snan

snigdhg
snigdbo

spgs"J;g
spoT^o

sphu-J;itg
sphutito
smrti
srlti

b.

gksarg
okkhor

pariksitg
porikkhito

tgtksgrjat
totkhonat

suuk^mg
Jukkho

C l a s s U. i i .
gpgrahng
oporanho

ahnikg
anhik

cihng
cinho

mgdhyahng
moddhanho

brghma
bromba

vismgyg
bi/Joy
strii
stri

arksg mgtsgrg
arkkho m o t / o r
gpsgra
op/ora
prahr]g
pranho

spor/g
spor/o

khinng
khinno

rasjro
rajfro
vipsa
bip/a
k^viiirjg
khinno

puurvvahng
purbbanho

TRANSCRIPTION

231

Bengali prose passage


ekedine epeksakrte
elpeveyase
sekdin
opekkhakrito olpoboyje

y e k h a n e amare J e k t i
j o k h o n amar
Jokti

chile
chilo

tekhene
tokhon

kekhane kekhene i m r e j i s a h i t y a mukhe mukhe bamla k a r e J u n i y e c i .


kokhono kokhono i n r e j i J a h i t t o mukhe mukhe h a n l a k o r e J u n i y e c i .
Jrotara
srotara

imreji
inreji

janetene s a v a i .
jan'ten
Jobai.

tavu
tohu

tara
tSra

s i ikar a karecena
fikar
korecen

s a h i t y e r a v a n i i bamlabha^aye t a d e r e mahe s e h e j e s a r a p e y e c e .
Jahitter hani banlabhajay
tader
mone J o h o j e Jara p e y e c e .
adhunika / i k ^ a i m r e j i h h a s a v a h i n i i
adhunik Jikkha i n r e j i h h a / a b a h i n i
tara
tar

anekakhani
onek'khani

mara y a y e .
mara j a y .

paddhati yara
a b h y a s t a nay
poddhoti j a r i o b b h o s t o noy

i m r e j i khanara { ^ b i l e
i r j r e j i khanar
-j^elslXe
emana b a i p l i i r e
gemon b a n a l i r

aharera
aharer

yakhana k h e t a b a s e
jokhon k h e t e b o j e

k e l e j i yejjiere kotha,
k o l e j i jogger kotha,

Pik^ara b h o j e o
fikkhar bhojeo

amare visoye"|;a s e r v v e s a d h a r o n e r e
amar b i / o y | ; a
J orb o / a d h a r o n e r

Jiksa
Jikkha

ache
ache

e ya b a l e c i
e ja b o l ' c i

e
e

neye.
noy.

Jiksare jalera
Jikkhar j o l e r

c a l a n o r o k o t h a n o y e , p a i p a y e k h a n e p a v c h a y e na s e k h a ne
calanor kotha noy,
paip
j e k h a n e p o u c h o y na Jekhane
vyavasthara kotha.
bsebosthar
kotha.
Jest na h e y e t e v e
J o s t o na hoy t o b e

takhana
tokho n

s e i daj*a, Jei doja, -

vi^aya e niye
bijoye e niye

niye.
niye.

debara
debar

je"|;herere d a v i i
jo{horer
dabi

e p e c e y e haye yaya.
opocoy hoye jay.

amara a j a k e r a a l o c y a
amar a j ' k e r
alocco

ja^ila
joj;il

t a r a pekpe
badhat a r pokkhe b a d h a -

g r a s t a b o l e i bheropuuro b h o j e r a m a j h a k h a n eo k s u d h i t e
grosto b o l e i bhor'pur
bhojer
majh'khaneo khudhito

s a v a i o t h e c a majhepathe a n e k a k h a n i
Jobi o t h o c o m a j h ' p o t h e o n e k ' k h a n i

vastuta
hostuto

chele b i l e t e pari
chele b i l e t e papi

bhojyo o r o s o n a r o modhyapathe ka"|;a c h u r i r a d e v t y e


b h o j j o o r o / o n a r moddhopothe k a f a c h u r i r
doutto

amadera
amader

imreji
inreji

h a l e i amadera manera p r o v e J e p e t h e
h o l e i amader moner p r o b e J" ' p o t h e

pathe p i encjo o k o m p a n i i r a c j i n a r e kameray


pothe p i end^ o kompanir
acinar k a m ' r a y

sempuurne mi"|;0te c a y e n a .
Jompurno m i f ' t e c a y n a .

amare
amar

kala.
kol

paniiyera
paniyer

matrbhasaye s e i v y a v a s t h a yadi gospedere ceye p r o m a t r i b h a j a y J e i beebostha


jodi gojpoder
ceye proe i v i d y a h a r a d e j e r e m e r u v a s i i menere upaye hobe k i i
e i biddashara d e j e r
m o r u b a j i moner upay hobe k i .