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Agric. sci. dev., Vol(3), No (5), May, 2014. pp.

191-193

TI Journals

Agriculture Science Developments


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ISSN:
2306-7527
Copyright 2014. All rights reserved for TI Journals.

Effects of Foliar Application of Micro Fertilizers on Grain Yield


and Yield Components of The Rice Sazandegi, s Cultivar (Oriza
sativa L.)
Faranak Fareghi naeini
Department of Agriculture, Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran

Hamid Dehghanzadeh*
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Payame Noor University, I. R. of IRAN

Gholamreza Moafpourian
Facility member of Agricultural Center of Fars Province
*Corresponding author: Dehghanzadeh@pnu.ac.ir

Keywords

Abstract

Iron chelate
Cupper chelate
Zinc chelate
Rice

In order to evaluate the effects of foliar application of micro fertilizer containing iron, copper and
zinc on the rice Sazandegi,s cultivar the present study was conducted in Isfahan province, during
2010-2011. using factorial experiment in randomized complete blocks design in three replications
.Foliar application at three growth stages (tillering ,stem elongation and heading) ,first factor and
different rates of micro fertilizer (0, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 percent) was second factor. Results showed
that foliar application with 0.3 percent treatment increased yield and grain component yield
significantly. Foliar application in stem elongation stage was more effect on yield and grain
component yield. Combination of construction fertilizer in growth stages fertilizer on panicle
length, number of gain per panicle and 1000 grain weight was significant. Finally in the same
examination, foliar application with 0.3 percent in heading stage caused increase grain yield.

1.

Introduction

With fertilizers containing micronutrients application in the soil or sprayed on plant, in addition to increased production, the concentration of
these elements critical increases in food productions [11]. Iron, zinc and copper are essential for plant growth and biochemical activities of plant
cells. Any stress, nutritional deficiency of this element, direct and indirect adverse effects on human health and the animals leave [2]. Foliar
nutrients such as borom, copper, iron, manganese and zinc in alkaline soils of Iran due to lack of quick removal, easy of implementation,
reduced toxicity resulting from the accumulation of these elements in the soil and prevent the consolidation of their use in soil is more
appropriate [16]. Foliar feeding is one of the ways that can minimize the risk of falling into the environment. For this purpose, should understand
the mechanism of absorption by the leaves, followed by leaf maximize absorption [4]. The results of the research conducted in the 3000 irrigated
wheat field in three years showed that micronutrients leads to 30 to 40 percent yield increase [11]. Yilmaz, [18] reported that Zn application not
only significantly increased the yield, but increased the concentration of this element in wheat. Gangwar et al., [6], reported that an increase of
one to five mg Cu/ kg soil per pots, rice yield increased from 15.3 to 25.7 grams in each pot. Supply of mineral nutrients needed for plant
growth, is one way to increase crop yield. Despite increased substantially during the past twenty years, particularly in cereal crop production is
achieved, however, the average yield of most crops are still below their potential. Potential performance of high-yielding varieties using only the
physical and chemical environment favorable conditions and with proper management can be achieved [5]. Deficiency of microelements in
plants in calcareous soils of Iran is stronger and therefore more in need of this type of material [12]. Determine the best amount and timing of
manure application in rice Sazandegi,s cultivar under Isfahan conditions.

2.

Methodology

Field experiment was conducted during 2010-2011 in Isfahan province, Iran. Place an altitude of 1650 meters above sea level. Soil texture was
silty loam; pH is about 7.7 and EC about 0.92 dS. m-1. Amounts of zinc, copper and iron in the soil were 1.6, 0.98 and 4.7 mg /kg soil
respectively. The geographic coordinates of the station are 3242 N and 5109 E at 1555 m above sea level. Experimental design was
arranged as a factorial design in randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factor involves spraying time: tillering, stem
elongation and heading and the second factor is was the amount of fertilizer micronutrients (iron chelate 13.2 %, copper chelated 14% and 14%
zinc,) with concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 percent was used. Transplanting to the field was made in the first half of July. Plots of 20
square meters and row spacing were 20 20 cm was used. There was a 2 m distance between two adjacent plots. Sprayed at tillering stage, the
stem and heading in the intensity of sunlight is reduced until the plant was completely soaked. To measure yield components including number
of grains. Panicle-1 and number of pods. square meter-1 and 1000-grain weight, 15 plants were harvested from each plot at the time of maturity.
To measure grain yield, 8 m2 of each plot were harvested after removing boarder effects. Evaluated traits were determined as followed:

Faranak Fareghi naeini, Hamid Dehghanzadeh *, Gholamreza Moafpourian

192

Agriculture Science Developments Vol(3), No (5), May, 2014.

1) Number of grains.panicle-1 was also determined from the 15-plant sample. The number of grains in the panicle of branches was counted and
then divided by 15.
3) 1000-grain weight was determined by counting 500 grains from each yield sample. Then grains were dried at 30 C in a forced air drier,
weighted and then multiplied by 2.
4) To measure grain yield, after removing boarder effects 8 m2 of each plot were harvested at the time of maturity. Grain yield samples were
forced air-dried at 30 C to a uniform moisture level, cleaned in the grain lab and then weighted.
Statistical calculations were performed using ANOVA appropriate with SAS ver. 9.1. It should be pointed out for means comparison we applied
DunCan's multiple range test at 0.05 probability levels when the F values were significant.

3.

Results and Discussion

Foliar concentration has a significant effect on the plant height (Table 1), So that the concentration increases from zero to 0.4%, plant height was
significantly increased (Table 1). Increase in plant height of 0.4% treatment compared to control was 8% (table 1). Effect of time foliar
application on plant height was significant (Table 1), so that spray at stem elongation and tillering stages, had the highest and lowest plant
height, respectively. (Table 1). Interaction of concentration and time of sprayed on the plant height was significant (table 1). Spray at stem
elongation with concentration of 0.4%, the maximum height of 69.57 cm produced (Table 1).
Effect of time foliar application on panicle height was significant (Table 1), so that spray at stem elongation and tillering stages, had the highest
and lowest panicle height, respectively. (Table 1). Interaction of concentration and time of sprayed on the panicle height was significant (Table
1). Spray at stem elongation with concentration of 0.3%, the maximum height of 24.28 cm produced (Table 1).
Foliar concentration has a significant effect on the number panicle per square meter and number grain.spike-1 (Table 1), So that the concentration
increases from zero to 0.3 %, number panicle per square meter and number grain.spike-1 were significantly increased (Table 1). However, with
increasing concentrations of the 0.4 %, number panicle per square meter and number grain.spike-1 were reduced, but this reduction was not
significant (Table 1). Effect of time foliar application on panicle per square meter and number grain.spike-1 were significant (Table 1), so that
spray at stem elongation and tillering stages, had the maximum and minimum panicle per square meter and number grain.spike-1 respectively
(Table 1). Interaction of concentration and time of sprayed on the number grain.spike-1 was significant (Table 1). Spray at stem elongation with
concentration of 0.3%, the maximum number grain.spike-1 of 115.62 produced (Table 1).
Grain weight and grain yield were significantly affected by foliar concentration (Table 1), So that the concentration increases from zero to 03%,
1000-grain weight and grain yield were significantly increased (Table 1). However, with increasing concentrations of the 0.4 %, 1000-grain
weight and grain yield were reduced, but this reduction was not significant (Table 1). Effect of time foliar application on 1000-grain weight and
grain yield were significant (table 1) so that spray at heading and tillering stages, had the maximum and minimum 1000-grain weight
respectively (Table 1). So that spray at stem elongation and tillering stages, had the maximum and minimum grain yield, respectively (Table 1).
Interaction of concentration and time of sprayed on the 1000-grain weight was significant (Table 1). Spray at heading with concentration of
0.3%, the maximum 1000-grain weight of 21.44 gr produced (Table 1).

Treatments

Table 1. Means comparison of measured characteristics in rice under foliar application of micro fertilizer*
Plant height Panicle
Number of Number
1000-grain
Grain
(cm)
height (cm)
Panicle.m-2
grain.spike-1
weight(gr)
yield
(kgr.ha-1)

Concentration (%)
Control
0.2
0.3
0.4
Growth stage
Tillering
Stem elongation
Heading

63.49 c
68.62 b
69.96 b
69.46 a

21.41 b
22.78 ab
23.68 a
23.41 a

357.64 d
361.11 c
367.16 a
365.11 b

98.30 d
101.57 c
110.31 a
106.80 b

19.95 c
20.64 b
21.29 a
20.56 b

7011.31 c
7204.83 c
7481.68 a
7300.19 b

66.58 b
69.58 a
66.74 b

22.04 b
24.33 a
22.09 b

361.58 b
364.11 a
362.59 b

101.43 c
107.37 a
103.95 b

19.65 b
20.86 a
21030 a

6937.50 b
7507.75 a
7303.28 a

*Treatments with at least one similar letter are in same group

Discussion
The results showed that plant height increased with increasing concentration of micro fertilizer. Chani et al., [3], reported that taking zinc, rice
stem growth increased. Marschner [13], stating that zinc is required for the synthesis of tryptophan, the precursor of the formation of indole
acetic acid (IAA). Increase the amount of tryptophan in plants that feed with the zinc manure. There seems to be a suitable nutritional condition
during this phase of growth has increased the plant height [1].
Various studies have reported that the use of micro elements manure, has led to an increase in the number of panicle [9, 14]. Seem to get enough
food, avoid the tiller of death and tiller production must be maintained [13].
Increasing panicle length accordance with increasing concentrations of micro elements fertilizer has been reported in various studies [12, 17].
Hemantaranjan and Gray [8] reported that zinc and iron significantly increased the panicle length.
Micro-mineral fertilizer levels were significantly increased number grain per panicle. Malakouti [11] reported that use of micronutrients iron,
zinc, copper, grain number per panicle increased 8, 10 and 8 percent, respectively. According to the results, sprayed at stem elongation, had the
greatest impact on increasing the number of grains per panicle. It seems appropriate nutritional conditions during stem elongation, increased the
number of flowers that could potentially be formed [12].

193

Effects of foliar application of micro fertilizers on grain yield and yield components of the rice Sazandegi,s cultivar (Oriza sativa L.)
Agriculture Science Developments Vol(3), No (5), May, 2014.

Foliar micro fertilizers, led to a significant increase in rice grain weight. Sarkar et al [15] reported similar results and stated that use of fertilizer
in heading stages, increasing the dry matter and leaf area duration itself can be a reason for increase in the 1000-grain weight.
Foliar micro fertilizers, led to a significant increase in grain yield. Cedari and Malakouti [7] reported that zinc sulfate, copper sulfate, iron
Sequestrate, causing yield were 20 percent increase. Among the different growth stages, foliar at the stem elongation stage, produced the highest
grain yield.

4.

Conclusion

In general, according to the results of this experiment, increasing micro-fertilizer concentration to 0.3 percent, increased yield and yield
components of rice. Micro-fertilizer application at stem elongation stage compared to other stages was more effective in increasing yield.

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