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- Normal Probability Distributions.docx
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2. The gap width is an important property of a magnetic recording head. In coded units, if the width

is a continuous random variable over the range from 0 < x <2 with f(x)= 0.5x, determine the

cumulative distribution function of the gap width. [Ans: F(x) =0 for x<0, 0.25x2 for 0

3. The probability density function for the diameter of a drilled hole in mm is 10e-10(x-5) for x > 5 mm.

Although the target diameter is 5 mm, vibrations, tool wear, and other nuisance produce

diameters larger than 5 mm.

(a) Determine the mean and variance of the diameter of the holes. [Ans: 5.1mm, 0.01mm2]

(b) Determine the probability that a diameter exceeds 5.1 mm. [Ans: 0.3679]

4. Without an automated irrigation system, the height of plants two weeks after germination is

normally distributed with a mean of 2.5cm and a standard deviation of 0.5 cm.

(a) What is the probability that a plants height is greater than 2.25cm? [Ans: 0.6915]

(b) What is the probability that a plants height is between 2.0 and 3.0 cm? [Ans: 0.683]

(c) What height is exceeded by 90% of the plants? [Ans: 1.86]

5. The diameter of the dot produced by a printer is normally distributed with a mean diameter of

0.002 inch.

(a) Suppose that the specifications require the dot diameter to be between 0.0014 and 0.0026. If

the probability that a dot meets specifications is to be 0.9973, what standard deviation is

needed? [Ans:0.0002]

(b) Assume that the standard deviation is of the size of a dot is 0.0004 inch. If the probability that

a dot meets specification is to be 0.9973, what specifications are needed? Assume that the

specifications are to be chosen symmetrically around the mean of 0.002. [Ans: 0.0008 to

0.0032]

6. The life of a semiconductor laser at a constant power is exponentially distributed with a mean of

7000 hours and a standard deviation of of 600 hours.

(a) What is the probability that a laser fails before 5800 hours? [Ans:0.5633]

(b) What is the life in hours that 90% of the laser exceed? [Ans:737.5]

7. An electronic office product contains 5000 electronic components. Assume that the probability

that each component operates without failure during the useful life of the product is 0.999, and

assume that the components fail independently. Approximate the probability that 10 or more

of the original 5000 components fail during the useful life of the product. [Ans: 0.022]

8. The time between arrivals of taxis at a busy intersection is exponentially distributed with a

mean of 10 minutes.

(a) What is the probability that you have ait longer than one hour for a taxi? [Ans:0.002478]

(b) Suppose you have already been waiting for one hour for a taxi, what is the probability that

one arrives within the next 10 minutes? [Ans: 0.6321]

(c) Determine x such that the probability that you wait more than x minutes is 0.10. [Ans: 23.03

min]

(d) Determine x such that the probability that you wait less than x minutes is 0.90. [Ans: 23.03

min]

9.

According to results from the analysis of chocolate bars, the mean number of insect fragments

was 14.4 in 225 grams. Assume that the number of fragments follow a Poisson distribution.

(a) What is the mean number of grams of chocolate until a fragment is detected? [Ans: 15.625]

(b) What is the probability that there are no fragments in 28.35 grams (one ounce) chocolate

bar? [Ans: 0.1629]

(c) Suppose you consume seven one-ounce (28.35 grams) bars this week. What is the

probability of no insect fragments? [Ans: 3.05 x 10-6]

10. The lifetime of a mechanical assembly in a vibration test is exponentially distributed with a

mean of 400 hours.

(a) What is the probability that an assembly on test fails in less than 100 hours? [Ans: 0.2212]

(b) What is the probability that an assembly operates for more than 500 hours before failure?

[Ans: 0.2865]

(c) If an assembly has been on test for 400 hours without a failure, what is the probability of a

failure in the next 100 hours? [Ans: 0.2212]

(d) If 10 assemblies are tested, what is the probability that at least one fails in less than 100

hours? Assume that the assemblies fail independently. [Ans: 0.9179]

(e) If 10 assemblies are tested, what is the probability that all have failed by 800 hours? Assume

the assemblies fail independently. [Ans: 0.2337]

Tuto 2

1. Suppose that f(x)=0.5x-1 for 2<x<4. Determine the following:

(a) P(X<2.5) [Ans: 0.0625]

(b) P(X>3) [Ans: 0.75]

(c) P(2.5<X<3.5) [Ans: 0.5]

(d) Determine the cumulative distribution function for the random variable.

[

( )

(e) Determine the mean and the variance of the random variable. [Ans: 10/3, 0.2222]

2. Assume Z has a standard normal distribution. Use the normal distribution table to determine the

value for a that solves each of the following:

(a) P(Z<a) = 0.9 [Ans: 0.9]

(b) P(Z>a) = 0.1 [Ans: 1.28]

(c) P(-1.24<Z<a) = 0.8 [Ans: 1.33]

(d) P(-a<Z<a) = 0.9973

3. The length of an injection-molded plastic case that holds magnetic tape is normally distributed

with a length of 90.2 mm and a standard deviation of 0.1 mm.

(a) What is the probability that a part is longer than 90.3 mm or shorter than 89.7 mm? [Ans:

0.15866]

(b) What should be the process mean be set at to obtain the greatest number of parts between

89.7 and 90.3 mm? [Ans: 90.0]

Assume that the process is centered so that the mean is 90 mm and the standard deviation is 0.1

mm. Suppose that 10 cases are measured, and they are assumed to be independent.

(c) What is the probability that all 10 cases are between 89.7 and 90.3 mm? [Ans: (0.9733)10]

(d) What is the expected number of the 10 cases that are between 89.7 and 90.3 mm? [Ans:

9.973]

4. The CPU of a personal computer has a lifetime that is exponentially distributed with a mean

lifetime of 6 years. You have owned this CPU for 3 years.

(a) What is the probability that the CPU fails in the next 3 years? [Ans: 0.3935]

(b) Assume that your company has owned 10 CPUs for 3 years, and assume that the CPUs fail

independently. What is the probability that at least 1 fails within the next three years? [Ans:

0.9933]

5.

A square inch of carpeting contains 50 carpet fibres. The probability of a damaged fibre is

0.0001. Assume the damaged fibres occur independently.

(a) Approximate the probability of one or more damaged fibres in 1 square yard of carpeting.

[Ans:0.9906]

(b) Approximate the probability of four or more damaged fibres in 1 square yard of carpeting.

[Ans:0.8790]

(1 yard = 36 inches)

6.

Hits to a high-volume Web site are assumed to follow a Poisson distribution with a mean of

10000 per day. Approximate each of the following

(a) The probability of more than 20, 000 hits in a day. [Ans: 0]

(b) The probability of less than 9900 hits in a day. [Ans: 0.1586]

(c) The value such that the probability that the number of hits in a day exceed the value is 0.01.

[Ans: 10233]

(d) Approximate the expected number of days in a year (365 days) that exceed 10200 hits.

[Ans: 8.30 days]

7.

The percentage of people exposed to a bacteria who become ill is 20%. Assume that people are

independent. Assume that 1000 people are exposed to the bacteria. Approximate each of the

following:

(a) The probability that more than 225 become ill. [Ans: 0.0217]

(b) The probability that between 175 and 225 become ill. [Ans: 0.9566]

(c) The value such that the probability that the number of people that become ill exceeds the

value is 0.01. [Ans: 229.5]

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