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International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research (IJASR) ISSN (P): 2250-0057; ISSN (E): 2321-0087 Vol. 4, Issue 6, Dec 2014, 11-16 TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research (IJASR) ISSN (P): 2250-0057; ISSN (E): 2321-0087 Vol. 4,

INFLUENCE OF FEW FARMING TECHNIQUES ON THE MITE SOIL BIODIVERSITY IN THE PLAIN OF MITIDJA (ALGERIA)

SOUMEYA FEKKOUN 1 , SALAHEDDINE DOUMANDJI 2 & DJELLOUL GHEZALI 3 1 Faculty of Science M’hamed Bougara, Boumerdes, Algeria 2,3 National High School of Agronomy El Harrach, Algeria

ABSTRACT

The comparative study of the soil mite biodiversity between two citrus fruits orchards, one treated by plant health products and the other not worked, witness was made monthly. The date and the number of samples of the soil were same for both orchards. To extract the soil mites, soil samples were placed in the Berlèse - Tullgren funnels. The density recorded in the witness orchard moved gradually in the month of March to reach a maximum in September, before regressing during following months until December corresponding to a minimum.In the treated orchard the density varied from one month to another . In the pilot station, the index of diversity of Shannon-Weaver was of 1.8 bits and the equitability reached 0.02. In the station treated diversity was very low hardly reaching 0.5 bits which showed that the involved species are strongly in imbalance between them.

KEYWORDS: Mitidja, Orchard of Citrus, Berlèse Funnels, Soil Mites

INTRODUCTION

The problem of the soil and water pollution has hold the attention for several decades of researchers like Ramade (2003). However,few workshas been done on the impact of farming techniques onthe biodiversity of soil mites in the citrus fruits orchards as well in the world especially in North Africa. But, of the studies on the presence of pesticides in the ground and subsoil waters and on their toxicity on the aquatic animals are to be noted (Chassin et al.1984, Dautrebande et al. 1984, Leistra & Boesten, 1989). The evaluation of the quality of the ground by living organisms to study the impact of pesticides is recently quoted by Andres et al. (1998) and Cortet et al. (1999). The present study is an approach which has the aim of making a comparative analysis of the acarofaune between two citrus fruits stations in mixture. One is subjected farming work and to plant health treatments and the other witness not having undergone any farming technique. The goal of this study is to clarify the impact of the plant health products and the agricultural work on the acarofaune of the ground.

PRESENTATION OF THE AREA OF STUDY

The

area

of

Boufarik

is

at

the

center

of

the

plain

of

Mitidja.

It

is

at

an

average

altitude

of

49

m

(36° 41 ' N; 3° 05 ' E). The pluviometric mode is of Mediterranean type, characterized by a double annual and interannual irregularity (Mutin, 1977). The annual average temperature in 2004 was of 18.7 °C. for a sum of precipitations of 708.9 Misters. vegetable cover is composed of a juxtaposition of orchards of citrus fruits, medlar trees and apple trees and pieces in waste lands or occupied by market gardenings, installed on not very advanced grounds of alluvial contribution (MUTIN, 1977).

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MATERIAL AND METHODS

Soumeya Fekkoun, Salaheddine Doumandji & Djelloul Ghezali

Station 1 corresponds to the treated orchard, of 6 hectares surface. It is made up of especially clémentiniers

(Citrus clementinaBlanco) grafted on lemon tree. The trees were laid out in lines separated by a variation is 6 meters on the level of the same line. The orchard was well looked after, which corresponds to an annual size of maintenance, some

  • 20 depth cm ploughings and contributions of mineral manures NPK balanced between April and October at a rate of 45 kg

per hectare for an amendment in order to have a better production. Different insecticidessuch as organo-phosphorus, diméthoate and parathionand acaricide the amitrase were used. Station 2 was infecting the orchard untreated which is located in the station of the protection of the plants of Boufarik. It extended on 5 hectares and accountedseveral species from citrus fruits of which clémentiniers (Citrus clementina, orange trees (Citrus sinensis L Osbeck) and lemon trees (Citrus silt L Burm.). The orchard did not undergo any plant health treatment and did not profit from farming work. Ground samplings were done with the foot of citrus fruits to a 10 cm depth. Thus, for each station 17 taking away are carried out during each of the 9 months. active from July 2004 to April 2005, put aside February omitted consequently in the strongly rainy climatic conditions. The species collected are placed in boxes of Petri for their determinations at the laboratory by observation using a binocular magnifying glass.The soil mites collected were identified to species level with the help of dichotomic key of Krantz (1978). The techniques of analysis employed ecological indices of composition such as the density and the diversity of Shannon-Weaver.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Following the use de153 funnels of Berlèse during 9 months, the acarina collected in the two orchards belong incorporating 3 orders, those of Oribatida, Gamasida and Opilioacarida. In the treated orchard, hardly 798 individuals belonging to 24 species and to 18 families are recovered, while in the orchard untreated (pilot) 3085 individuals belonging to 25 species and to 19 families are counted. Manpower as individuals in the treated orchard appears less. According to Bachelier (1978) following the application of certain types of insecticides the populations of Microarthropodes can be reduced during several months. It is to be noted that the use of the plant health products in the treated orchard does not influence the richness. On the other hand they act on manpower of each species present. Their effects are not yet well defined. It is possible that they intervene like factors of mortality, as it is as probable as they influence negatively the fruitfulness and the fertility of the acarina of the ground. The Order of Oribatida is the most dominant in both stations. This result confirms by those several authors such as Krantz (1978), Bachelier (1978) and Gobat (2003). According to Davet (1996) the Wood mites play a significant role in the first stages of the processes of the decomposition of the vegetable matter. The highest manpower characterizes the family of Oppiidae which dominates as well in the treated orchard (40 %, NR = 318 individuals) as in the pilot orchard (43 %, N. = 1326 individuals). Manpower of Scheloribatidae are more modest in the orchard treated (AR% = 23.4 %, N. = 187 individuals) just like in the pilot orchard (27.4 %, N. = 845 individuals). After the first two quoted families, Lohmaniidae take part with a frequency equal to 15.0 % in the treated orchard and hardly 8 % in the orchard untreated.

This hierarchy of the families by decreasing importances is announced already by SEMMAR (2004) and FEKKOUM & GHEZALI (2007). Indeed, SEMMAR (2004) note, in the ground of a left apple orchard with abandonment close to Tassalat –El-Merdja (3° 00 ' E; 36° 37 ' N.), the predominance of Oppiidae (33.7%, N. = 266 individuals), followed by Scheloribatidae and Lohmaniidae. In the present study the other families are slightly mentioned. The order of Gamasida occupies the second places as much in the treated orchard (4 %, N = 32 individuals) that in the pilot plantation

Influence of Few Farming Techniques on the Mite Soil Biodiversity in the Plain of Mitidja (Algeria)

13

(4.7 %, N = 144 individuals). The third position is occupied by the order of Opilioacarida with quantitative low values in the two stations.

The density of the acarina can inform about the cycle of development of the acarina on the one hand and about the living conditions in this medium on the other hand (Figure 1).

Influence of Few Farming Techniques on the Mite Soil Biodiversity in the Plain of Mitidja (Algeria)

Figure 1: Monthly Average Density of the Acarofaune of the Ground of the Pilot Orchard

According to the results obtained in the orchard untreated, the density of the acarina started to increase gradually

2

2

as of March (1427 acarina /m , to reach a maximum in September (6974.5 acarina / m ). It seems that during this month the living conditions become favorable. It is as possible as this peak of manpower of acarina coincides with the appearance of adult forms, which are shown easily recoverable thanks to the apparatus of Berlèse. In the present study the density of the

2

acarina regresses during the autumn up to a minimal value in December (168.4 acarina / m ). The reduction of manpower per unit of area during the last quoted month can be explained by the strong falls of rain (192.4 mm) and by the reduction of the average temperature (11.5°C). Indeed Bachelier (1978) note which the adults of Wood mites are inserted in the ground or die in winter. In the pilot orchard the variations of the monthly density of the acarina are explained by those of the two principal climatic factors, temperature and precipitations. On the other hand, in the orchard treated the fluctuations of manpower of the various components of the acarofaune although relatively low do not seem to follow the climatic variations because of the interference of the treatments using pesticides and other farming techniques (Figure 2).

Influence of Few Farming Techniques on the Mite Soil Biodiversity in the Plain of Mitidja (Algeria)

Figure 2: Monthly Average Density of the Acarofaune of the Ground in Treated Orchard editor@tjprc.org

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Soumeya Fekkoun, Salaheddine Doumandji & Djelloul Ghezali

The evolution of the monthly values of the density is an alternation the strong ones and low values. Indeed the

minimal value equal to 481.1 acarina / m 2 noted in July a peak of 1002 acarina / m 2 in August succeeds, in its turn followed by a low density reaching 433 acarina / m 2 . Cortet (1999) stresses that the functional aspect can be also considered, in particular the influence of the pollutants on the biological cycles of the species. According to Holland et al. (1994) the large-scale use of the pesticides leads in general to the reduction in manpower of insects and other invertebrates. Precisely Minor et al. (2008) notice that the Wood mites are affected by the weedkillers. These pesticides have a negative effect on the density and the richness of the acarina of the ground. The values of the density recorded on the level of this station present fluctuations between the months, whose explanation can be required only insofar as this orchard were the subject of plant health treatments. Those caused consequently changes of the living conditions. It followed by the reduction of the average monthly density from there, except for December during which the recorded value appears higher than that noted in the orchard untreated. The evolution of the monthly values of the density is an alternation the strong ones and low values. In the index of the diversity of Shannon-Weaver hardly equal to 0.02 bits and a equitability of 0.005. The very low value of the index of equal distribution is explained by the predominance of an unspecified species of Oppiidae. The diversity of the microarthropodes of the ground is influenced by various husbandries used. CORTET et al. (2000) announce that a weak decomposition of the organic matter is observed in the pieces treated with the fipronil, which is due probably for a negative purpose on the activity of the microarthropodes of the ground. On the contrary in the station

untreated, the value of the index of diversity is higher reaching

...

bits.

In the same way the equitability is stronger with 0.5.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to thank Mr Ahmad Kamran Khan for his contribution in the redaction.

CONCLUSIONS

The use of the funnels of Berlèse in the two stations emphasizes 3 orders of acarina of which that of Oribatida appears dominating with three families, those of Oppiidae, Scheloribatidae and Lohmaniidae. The orders of Gamasida and Opilioacarida are modestly represented in manpower. The use of the plant health products in the treated station does not influence the richness since manpower of the species found in the two orchards are comparable. But it is possible to say that the farming techniques used in the treated station reduce the number of individuals per species. This comparative approach between the two stations made it possible to confirm that the harmful effect of the plant health products on the numbers of individuals of the acarina of the ground and on their density.

REFERENCES

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  • 4. Cortet J., Gomot Of Vauflery A., Poinsot-Balaguer NR, Gomot L, Texier C & Cluzeau D. (1999). The uses of invertebrate soil fauna in monitoring pollutant effects. European J. Soil Biology 35 115-134.

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