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MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

Exposure to :
a. Epstein- Barr virus
b. Measles
c. Rubella
d. Other Herpes strains

Age 20-40 yo
Gender Female
Race Whites
Geographical Location- Colder Climate regions
Genetic susceptibility
- HLA-DRB1 gene
- IL7R gene
Low levels of Vitamin D
Smoking

Sensitized T-cells cross the BBB

T-cells attach to myelin sheath receptors


Interferon gamma
activates macrophages

T-cells attach to macrophage


T-cells release cytokines

An inflammatory response is started


Macrophage release of tissue necrosis factor

Myelin is attacked

Destruction of the myelin sheath

Oligodendrocytes produce myelin in attempt to repair


the damaged myelin

T-cells, macrophages and interferon gamma works to


attack the myelin sheath as it was identified as non-self

T-cells, macrophages and interferon gamma works to


attack the myelin sheath, oligodendrocytes and axon as
they were identified as non-self

Axon becomes demyelinated

PLAQUES of sclerotic tissue appear on


demyelinated axon

Interruption of impulse transmission

Manifestations depending on involved


neurons