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# TECHNICAL DRAWING M3

DRAWING VIEWS

DRAWING VIEWS

Projection
Types of Projection
Multi-View Projection -The Glass Box
Third Angle Projection
Two View Drawings
Section Views
Auxiliary Views
Detail Views
Broken-Out Section Views
Partial Views, Cropped Views

PROJECTION
Behind every 2D drawing of an object is a space relationship involving
the object and three imagined things:
1. The observers eye, or station point
2. The plane of projection

## 3. The projectors (also called visual

rays or lines of sight).
Perspective Projection

Parallel Projection

TYPES OF PROJECTION
There are two main types of projection: perspective and parallel.
These are broken down into subtypes, as shown below:

Vanishing Point

TRUE PERSPECTIVE

## Objects drawn in true perspective

look realistic.
They have vanishing points
where straight lines seem to
converge

## They can have one, two or three

Vanishing Points
vanishing points, depending on
how much the artist wants to work.

## But in true perspective, objects far

away will be drawn smaller than
nearby objects not a good idea in
technical drawing!

Vanishing Points

## Now that you have seen how nice perspective

drawings can be...

We hardly ever use perspective projections when
doing technical drawing.
They are too much work, and they dont show all the
details we may need to show.
Also, they distort both angles and dimensions.

## Leave them for ART class...

ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
(A SIMULATED PERSPECTIVE DRAWING STYLE)

## Isometric (or simulated

perspective) drawings look
at first like perspective
drawings
But the lines dont converge.
There are no vanishing
points and distant objects
are the same size as nearby
ones.
Right angles in isometric
projections are usually
represented by 60 or 120
angles.

60
Represents 90

Represents 90

## Warning: Your workbook classifies isometric drawings as perspective

drawings, but they are not true perspective. They resemble perspective
drawings but in a true perspective drawing, distant objects are drawn
smaller. In isometric drawing, distant objects are not smaller..

AN ISOMETRIC DRAWING

OBLIQUE PROJECTION
ANOTHER SIMULATED PERSPECTIVE
Similar

to isometric projection, it
is also a simulated perspective
In oblique projections, the side of
the object facing you is drawn
square and accurate (that is
with right angles at 90 and its
measurements proportional)
The sides not facing you are
distorted
Warning: Your workbook calls this oblique
perspective, but it is not a true perspective.

This side
is not!

This side
is accurate
90
=60

90

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

## Orthographic projections flatten one view of the

object onto a sheet of paper, while retaining the
correct proportions (angles and dimensions)
Maps are an example of orthographic projection (a
top view)
The trouble with orthographic projections is that
one view usually isnt enough.

## Maps and floor-plans are exceptions, where one top-view is

often enough.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
(MULTI-VIEW)
Draws an object as it
would be seen from
several different
directions
The views are flat,
with all angles shown
correctly and all
measurements to scale.

COMPARING PROJECTIONS
Perspective drawings look nicer
when used by an artist, but
Isometric, oblique and multiview drawings give more
accurate information when
used in technical drawing.
Isometric drawings show
accurate dimensions, but
distorted angles.
Oblique drawings give accurate
dimensions for one side only.
Orthographic (multi-view) are
the best choice for most
technical drawing.

Oblique

Orthographic
(multi-view)

COMPARISON OF PROJECTIONS
Projection

Used for

Tested
on

Orthographic

## Drafting, maps, floor

plans

Yes

Technical drawings,
drafting, conceptual
sketches (sometimes)

Yes

(top view)

Orthographic
(multi-view)

## True Perspective Artistic drawing,

(one, two or three
conceptual sketches

No

Isometric

Yes

point)

(simulated
perspective)

Oblique
(simulated
perspective)

Conceptual sketches,
technical drawings
(sometimes)

Conceptual sketches

No

## The projection of an object.

Perpendicular lines or projectors are drawn from
all points on the edges or contours of the object to
the plane of projection
Shown below is the projection of an object onto the
frontal plane.

## DRAWING VIEWS PLANES OF PROJECTION

Likewise,
the top view is projected
onto the horizontal
plane

## the side view is projected

onto the profile plane

## Placing parallel planes to

the principal planes forms
a glass box (always
observed from outside the
box)
To show views of a 3D
object on a 2D piece of
paper, it is necessary to
unfold the planes such that
they lie in the same plane
All planes except the rear
plane are hinged to the
frontal plane, which is
hinged to the left-side plane

possible

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE

## MULTIVIEW PROJECTION PROPER

NUMBER OF VIEW
It may not, be necessary to show all six views to
completely describe the object.
In fact, the minimum number of views is preferable.
How many views are necessary to completely describe
this plate?
1?
2?
3?
4?

DRAWINGS

## MULTIVIEW PROJECTION EXERCISE,

PROPER NUMBER OF VIEW

EXERCISE

No NIM Genap

No NIM Ganjil

ETIKET