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www.en_wikibedia.org/fossil_fuel/

1
Whitney, Gene. "Fossil Fuels." Microsoft Encarta 2006 [DVD]. :
Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2005.
2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fossil_fuel / EIA
Whitney, Gene. "Fossil Fuels." Microsoft Encarta 2006 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft 3
Corporation, 2005.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fossil_fuel 4

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In 2002 the world s remaining electricity supply was generated primarily by hydroelectric
power (17 percent) and nuclear fission (17 percent), with solar, geothermal, and other
sources accounting for a relatively small amount.

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Demand for natural gas, historically considered a waste by-product of petroleum and coal
mining, is growing in business and industry because it is a cleaner-burning fuel than
petroleum or coal. Natural gas, which can be piped directly to commercial plants or
individual residences and used on demand, is used for heating and for air conditioning.
Residential uses of natural gas also include fuel for stoves and other heating appliances.

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- 1,050,691
1,277,702
1,081,279

Levels of primary energy sources are the reserves in the ground. Flows are
production. (in million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe)) (34.9+23.5+21.2).

Oil: 1,050,691 to 1,277,702 million barrels (167 to 203 km) 2003-2005


Gas: 6,040,208 - 6,805,830 billion cubic feet (171,040 to 192,720 km)
6,805.830*0.182= 1,239 BBOE 2003-2005
Coal: 1,081,279 million short tons (1,081,279*0.907186*4.879= 4,786
BBOE) (2004)

Flows (daily production) during 2002 (7.9 is a ratio to convert tonnes of oil equivalent
to barrels of oil equivalent)

Oil: (10,230*0.349)*7.9/365= 77 MBD


Gas: (10,230*0.212)*7.9/365= 47 MBOED

Oil & Gas Journal, World Oil www.eia.doe.gov/ 6


/

Coal: (10,230*0.235)*7.9/365= 52 MBOED

Years of production left in the ground with the most optimistic reserve estimates

Oil: 1,277,702/77/365= 32 years


Gas: 1,239,000/47/365= 72 years
Coal: 4,786,000/52/365= 252 years

Note that this calculation assumes that the product could be produced at a constant
level for that number of years and that all of the reserves could be recovered. In
reality, consumption of all three resources have been increasing. While this suggests
that the resource will be used up more quickly, in reality, the production curve is
much more akin to a bell curve. At some point in time, the production of each
resource within an area, country, or globally will reach a maximum value, after
which, the production will decline until it reaches a point where is no longer
economically feasible or physically possible to produce.

Fossil fuel subsidies


In economic terms, pollution from fossil fuels is regarded as a negative externality
and should be taxed. This 'internalizes' the cost of pollution and makes fossil fuels
more expensive, thereby reducing their use and the amount of pollution associated
with them. Although European nations do impose some pollution taxes, they also give
billions of subsidies to the fossil fuel industry, offseting the taxes.
although taxation may be one opinon on reducing their use its not conclusive by any
measure.
1. ^ Nuclear proliferation through coal burning - Gordon J. Aubrecht, II, Ohio
State University

VII

WORLD FOSSIL FUEL SUPPLY

Because the global economy is powered by fossil fuels, it is critical to know how long world
reserves will last. However, estimating the world s remaining fossil fuel reserves requires
extensive information, including comprehensive geological maps of the world s
sedimentary basins, models of energy production systems, and data showing world energy
consumption patterns and trends.

Reserves and Resources

When estimating the world s fossil fuel supply, experts distinguish between reserves and
resources. Reserves are fossil fuel deposits that have already been discovered and are
immediately available. Resources are fossil fuel deposits that geologists believe are located

in certain sedimentary basins, but have not yet been discovered. Because geologists base
fossil fuel resource estimates on the location, extent, and formation of deposits recovered
in geologically similar basins, resource estimates are less certain than reserve estimates.
Both reserve and resource estimates are revised as data about new and existing deposits
become available.
Fossil fuel reserves can be further divided into proved reserves and inferred reserves.
Proved reserves are deposits that have been measured, sampled, and evaluated for
production quality. Inferred reserves have been discovered but have not been measured or
evaluated.
The definition of fossil fuel resources can be narrowed to technically recoverable resources.
This definition does not consider whether a deposit can be extracted economically, but only
whether the fossil fuel can be recovered using existing technology. By definition, the world
fossil fuel supply increases as technological advances are made allowing previously
unrecoverable resources to be extracted and processed.

World Energy Data

Worldwide deposits of fossil fuels are finite. Some experts use data on world energy
deposits to estimate how many years world energy supplies will last at current and
projected consumption rates.
At the beginning of the 21st century, the world reserves of petroleum were estimated to
be roughly 1 trillion barrels. By 2002 worldwide consumption of petroleum totaled 29
billion barrels a year. The world s natural gas reserves were estimated to be roughly 1,500
trillion cubic meters (5,000 trillion cubic feet). Worldwide consumption of natural gas by
2002 totaled 2.6 trillion cubic meters (92 trillion cubic feet) a year. At the beginning of the
21st century the world coal reserves were estimated to be roughly 1 trillion metric tons,
and by 2002 worldwide consumption of coal totaled 5 billion metric tons a year. Total
worldwide energy consumption is expected to grow at 2.2 percent per year until 2015.
Theoretical models can be developed to estimate how many years the world fossil fuel
supply will last. However, these models are complicated by technological advances in the
energy production industry, unexpected discoveries of new fossil fuel deposits, and
political, social, and economic factors that influence energy production and consumption.
Because fossil fuels are being consumed at much faster rates than they are produced in
the earth s crust, humankind will eventually deplete these nonrenewable resources. While
it is unclear how far in the future this will happen, there is evidence that some regions are
becoming depleted in certain types of fossil fuels. For example, production of crude
petroleum in the United States peaked in 1970. Today the United States imports
significantly higher proportions of its petroleum needs.