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Lngua Estrangeira - Ingls

Prof.: Rafael Dupont

Ingls

BNDES

Ingls para Concursos


Parte I Vocabulrio e Interpretao de texto
Unidade 1
Gneros Textuais
As provas de Ingls dos principais concursos no Brasil exigem do candidato a
leitura e compreenso de textos de diferentes gneros. Estes gneros textuais
possuem uma funo comunicativa especfica e se caracterizam por organizao,
estrutura gramatical e vocabulrio especfico.
A familiaridade com o gnero textual possibilita ao candidato efetuar leituras
mais eficientes e direcionadas, tornando mais fcil e rpida a localizao das
informaes desejadas. Nosso objetivo nessa unidade aprender a identificar, de
maneira simples e eficaz, os diferentes tipos de texto das provas de Ingls.
Os textos abaixo so de diferentes gneros. Qual o objetivo do autor em cada
um deles

2
PYRO Studio

A
complete,
fully
integrated
hardware/software solution, PYRO A/V Link
Studio provides the best value and the best
components for capturing, editing and
exporting both analog and digital video in
real time. PYRO AV Link Studio hardware
includes the PYRO 1394 PCI card and cable,
and the PYRO AV Link, an external box that
connects to your computer via FireWire. With
Composite,
S-Video
and
Component
connectors, capture video from any source.
For video editing, it includes Sony

Vegas +DVD
Production
Suite.
The

Vegas +DVD Production Suite is a powerful


set of three programs that seamlessly edits
video and audio, produces 5.1 surround

mixes, encodes to Dolby Digital AC-3 le


formats and authors DVDs. From short-form
videos to widescreen 5.1 DVDs, Vegas+DVD
software provides comprehensive video,
audio, and DVD production features for the
professional media producer.

Prof. Rafael Dupont

3
Snoopy is an extroverted beagle with a
Walter Mitty complex. He is a virtuoso at
every endeavor at least in his daydreams
atop his doghouse. He regards his master,
Charlie Brown, as "that round-headed kid"
who brings him his supper dish. He is
fearless though prudently cautious about "the
cat next door." He never speaks- that would
be one human trait too many- but he
manages to convey everything necessary in
facial expressions and thought balloons. A
one-man show with superior intelligence and
vivid imagination, he has created such
multiple personalities as: Joe Cool, World
War I Flying Ace, Literary Ace, Flashbeagle,
Vulture, Foreign Legionnaire, etc.

Pgina 1

Ingls

Dear Son,
Im writing this letter slowly because I know you
cant read fast. About your father - he isnt looking for a
job anymore. Now he has a lovely job. He has 500 men
under him - he cuts grass at the cemetery.
Your uncle Patrick drowned last week in a vat of
whiskey in the Dublin Distillery. Some of his
workmates tried to save him but he fought against them
bravely. They cremated him and it took three days to
put out the fire.
I went to the doctor on Thursday and your father
went with me. The doctor put a sort of small tube in my
mouth and told me not to talk for five minutes. When
your father realized what had happened he offered to
buy the tube from the doctor.
It only rained twice this week, first for three days
and then for four days. Monday was so windy that one
of the chickens laid the same egg four times.
We had a letter from the undertaker last week. He
says he isnt going to wait anymore. If the payment on
your Grandmothers plot isnt paid in seven days, up she
comes!
Your loving Mother
P.S. I was going to send you five pounds but I had
already sealed the envelope.

Prof. Rafael Dupont

BNDES

A man was reading the paper when an


ad caught his eye: $500 Porsche! New! The
man thought that it was very unusual to
sell a Porsche for $500, and he thought it
might be a joke, but thought it was worth
a shot. So he went to the lady's house and
sure enough, she had an almost brand new
Porsche.
"Wow!" the man said. "Can I take it
for a test drive?" Unlike what he
expected, the man found that the car ran
perfectly and took it back to the lady's
house.
"Why are you selling me this great
Porsche
for
only
$500?"
"My husband just ran off with his
secretary, and he told me I could have the
house and the furniture as long as I sold
his Porsche and sent him the money."
Japanese researchers develop synthetic
paste for teeth

LONDON - Treating early tooth decay could


become easier and less painful thanks to a new
discovery by Japanese scientists.
Researchers in Japan have developed a new
synthetic tooth enamel that can repair early tooth
decay without the need for drillings and fillings.
The crystalline white paste can reconstruct
enamel without removing the decayed area. It
repairs small cavities and helps prevent new
ones.
We have shown that our synthetic material can
reconstruct enamel without prior excavation,
Kazue Yamagishi, of the FAP Dental Institute in
Tokyo, said in a report in the science journal
Nature on Wednesday.
Dentists usually treat cavities by removing the
decayed area and filling the hole with a resin or
metal alloy. But it is not ideal for small cavities
because healthy tooth is also removed to make
the filling stick.
The scientists tested the new paste on early
decay in a lower premolar tooth. After examining
the tooth with an electron microscope they found
the paste integrated with the tooths natural
enamel.
But the researchers warned the paste should not
come into contact with the gums because it could
cause inflammation due to its high concentration
of hydrogen peroxide.

Pgina 2

Ingls

BNDES

7
INDICATIONS: For the temporary relief
8 of minor
aches and pains associated with the

common
cold, 2 headache,
toothache,
Unidade
muscular aches, backaches, for the minor
pain of arthritis, for the pain of menstrual
para and
leitura.
cramps
for reduction of fever.
DIRECTIONS: Adults: Take 1 caplet
every 4 to 6 hours while symptoms persist. If
pain of fever does not respond to 1 caplet, 2
caplets may be used but do not exceed 6
caplets in 24 hours, unless directed by a
doctor. The smallest effective dose should be
used.

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Post-World War I and the Great Depression


(19181940)
Following World War I, the U.S. grew
steadily in stature as an economic and military
world power. The aftershock of Russia's October
Revolution resulted in real fears of communism
in the United States, leading to a three-year Red
Scare.
Prohibition agents destroyed barrels of
alcohol in Chicago, 1921. The United States
Senate did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles
imposed by its Allies on the defeated Central
Powers; instead, the United States chose to
pursue unilateralism, if not isolationism.
In 1920, the manufacture, sale, import and
export of alcohol was prohibited by the
Eighteenth Amendment to the United States
Constitution. The "Prohibition" encouraged illegal
breweries and dealers to make substantial
amounts of money selling alcohol illegally. The
Prohibition ended in 1933, a failure.
During most of the 1920s, the United States
enjoyed a period of unbalanced prosperity: farm
prices and wages fell, while industrial profits
grew. The boom was fueled by a rise in debt and
an inflated stock market. The Wall Street Crash
of 1929, the Dust Bowl, and the ensuing Great
Depression led to government efforts to restart
the economy and help its victims with Franklin D.
Roosevelt's New Deal. The recovery was rapid in
all areas except unemployment, which remained
fairly high until 1940.

Pgina 3

Ingls

BNDES

A
Able
About
Above
Abroad
Accept
Accomplish(ed)
Account
Accurate
Achieve(ment)
Acquire
Actual(ly)
Address
Advice
Advise
Affair
Afford
Afraid
Age
Agenda
Agree(ment)
Aid
Aim
Allow
Almost
Amend(ment)
Amount
Ancient
Apply
Approach
Arrive
Article
Assemble
Asses(met)
Asset(s)
Assign(ment)
Assume
Assure
Attach
Attend
Attempt
Available
Average
Prof. Rafael Dupont

adj. capaz
prep. sobre; adv. por volta de
adj.acima
adv. exterior
v. aceitar
v. realizar; (realizado)
n. relato
adj. preciso
v. alcanar, realizar (n. realizao)
v. adquirir
adj. verdadeiro (adv. realmente)
n. discurso, endereo
n. conselho
v. aconselhar
n. assunto, caso
v. custear
adj. amedrontado (medo)
n. idade, poca; v. envelhecer
n. pauta
v. concordar (n. acordo)
n. ajuda
n. objetivo; v. visar
v. permitir
adv. quase
v. emendar, corrigir (n. melhoria)
n. quantia
adj. antigo
v. candidatar-se
v. aproximar-se; n. abordagem
v. chegar
n. artigo
v. reunir(-se)
v. avaliar (n. avaliao)
n. bem, trunfo (n. pl. bens)
v. atribuir, designar (n. tarefa, atribuilo)
v. presumir, supor
v. garantir
v. anexar
v. assistir, freqentar, comparecer
v. tentar
adj. disponvel
n. mdia
Pgina 4

Ingls
Avoid
Aware

BNDES

v. evitar
adj. ciente

As frases abaixo trazem exemplos de palavras que iniciam com a letra A. Nem todas elas
aparecem na lista acima. Nestes casos, tente inferir o significado das palavras em destaque.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.

The two large classrooms have been assigned to us.


The teacher assigned a different task to each of the children.
We have been assigned the two large classrooms.
The teacher assigned each of the children a different task.
By the end of 1999 the group had assets of 4.5 billion dollars.
The older child should be able to prepare a simple meal.
It would be nice to be able to afford to retire early.
He lifted his hands above his head.
About 45 percent of its sales come from abroad.
an accurate description / account / calculation
accurate information / data
Accurate records must be kept.
Its not a question of some abstract concept.
Philip played the game according to the rules.
You dont need to talk to anyone/body if you dont want to.
He was too scared to tell anybody/one.
Its too expensive and anyhow/way the color doesnt suit you.
There had never been such a beautiful woman anywhere in the world.
Lets go anywhere next summer.
We are doing this all without any help from the government.
The plants are inspected for insects and if I find any, they are squashed.
He has assembled a team of experts to solve the problem.
The deputy was arguing about the easy availability of guns.
to apply for a job / passport / grant
to apply to a company / university
You should apply in person / by letter.
The meeting will be attended by finance ministers from many countries.
He didnt approach the front door the whole time the police were around..
At their approach the little boy ran away and hid.
Some people were for the proposal, but many more were against it.
Prices vary according to the quantity ordered.
We are moving ahead with plans to send financial aid to Iraq.
We are going to do an expedition across Africa.
The gene they discovered today doesnt account for all those cases.
You must be able to speak French for this job.
A viral illness left her barely able to walk.
I didnt feel able to disagree with him.
Her mother was away and couldnt advise her.

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 5

Ingls
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.

BNDES

I advise extreme caution.


Police are advising people to stay at home.
Follow your doctors advice.
We were advised to seek legal advice.
Let me give you a piece of advice.
A word of advice. Dont wear that dress.
Take my advice. Dont do it.

ATIVIDADES DE AULA
I - Complete the sentences below by using the words from the box.
AID
ALLOW

ASSEMBLE
AGENDA
AGREE
AVAILABLE
AMEND
ABLE
AFFORD

AIM

APPLY

a. I wasnt . to finish the task on time.


b. All the doctors .. that he should be transferred to a private room.
c. I couldnt to buy any of the books asked, so I borrowed them from the
library.
d. This is sure to be an item in the . next week.
e. We are moving ahead with plans to send financial .. to Kurdish refugees.
f. The .. of the text is to inform about Hindu culture and traditions.
g. The Government doesnt .. tobacco companies to advertise on TV.
h. The president agreed to .. the constitution and allow multi-party
elections.
i. Sally will for that same kind of job again.
j. Greenpeace managed to .. a large group of people to protest in front of the
town hall.
k. The hotel was crowded. There was only one room .
II Match the columns.
1. ABROAD
2. ADVISE
3. AFFAIR
4. ASSETS
5. AID
6. AWARE
7. ASSEMBLE
8. ASSIGN
9. ASSURE
10. ACCURATE

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 6

Ingls
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)

BNDES

ACONSELHAR
EXTERIOR
BENS
DESIGNAR, ATRIBUIR
ASSUNTO
PRECISO
CIENTE
GARANTIR
REUNIR
AUXLIO

TESTES
1. There are many who will work hard to achieve their goals.
(A) alcanar
(B) determinar
(C) prender
(D)fazer
(E) terminar
2. Most areas suffered more rain than usual, with Northern Ireland getting double the average
for the month.
(A) situao
(B) chuva
(C) montante
(D) quantiade
(E) mdia
3. She is very attached to her family and friends.
The gadget can be attached to any vertical surface.
(A) ligada, anexada
(B) forada, ligada
(C) desligada, desacoplada
(D) colada, forada
(E) forada, ligada
4. The president gave an address to the American people.
(A) endereo
(B) conselho
(C) aviso
(D) considerao
(E) discurso

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 7

Ingls

BNDES

5. The new laws allow the confiscation of assets purchased with proceeds of the drugs trade.
(A) remedios
(B) drogas
(C) acessrios
(D) bens
(E) aparelhos
6. Her leadership qualities were the greatest asset of the Conservative Party.
(A) vantagem
(B) sorte
(C) bens
(D) bem
(E) segredo
7. The pilots had to take emergency actions to avoid a disaster.
(A) conseguir
(B) contornar
(C) assimilar
(D) evitar
(E) resgatar
8. I see your point but Im not sure if I agree with you.
(A) discordo
(B) prefiro
(C) acordo
(D) concordo
(E) vou
9. Sally traveled abroad with her family last week.
(A) a bordo
(B) para longe
(C) para o exterior
(D)de carro
(E) com borda
10. They wont allow him to go on with his plan
(A) ajudar
(B) possibilitar
(C) alterar
(D) corroborar
(E) permitir

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 8

Ingls

BNDES

11. Have you read this newspaper article?


(A) jornal
(B) entrevista
(C) venda
(D) artigo
(E) relato
12. Ill call you tomorrow night about ten oclock.
(A) em ponto
(B) depois das
(C) sobre as
(D) por volta das
(E) antes das
13. This a National Security affair.
(A) necessidade
(B) perigo
(C) assunto
(D) afeto
(E) questionamento
14. He gave me a superficial account of what happened that night.
(A) conta
(B) relato
(C) acordo
(D) reportagem
(E) abordagem
15. If we all work together, I think well achieve our goal.
(A) terminar
(B) recomear
(C) alcanar
(D) otimizar
(E) marcar
16. We approach the end of the year with the economy slowing and little sign of cheer.
(A) abservamos
(B) aproximamos
(C) terminamos
(D) comeamos
(E) permitimos

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 9

Ingls

BNDES

17. I can assure you that this is a safe sport.


(A) assumir
(B) comparar
(C) garantir
(D) recomndar
(E) competir
18. The minister was unable to attend his friends funeral.
(A) festejar
(B) comparecer
(C) atender
(D) lamenter
(E) compreender
Unidade 3
Para no sermos surpreendidos com o vocabulrio dos textos, imprescindvel que a
leitura das questes principalmente as de interpretao seja feita antes da primeira leitura
do texto. Desse modo, ao lermos o texto, j teremos uma noo acerca do seu assunto e das
informaes que devemos encontrar durante a leitura.
Alm das questes de interpretao, comum encontrarmos questes de referncia
pronominal ou numrica. Elas exigem do candidato a habilidade de relacionar pronomes e
nmeros a substantivos encontrados no texto. Vale lembrar que utilizamos pronomes para
evitar a repetio de substantivos.
Leia as questes abaixo e reflita sobre o possvel assunto do texto. Logo aps, sublinhe
nos textos o pronome citado em cada uma das questes de referncia. Finalmente, faa uma
leitura atenta do texto para responder s questes.
TEXTO I
19. The main purpose of the text is to
(A) inform about a new product.
(B) show how drivers are imprudent.
(C) inform the rate of accidents caused by distracted drivers.
(D) explain how one can avoid accidents.
(E) show the problem of distracted drivers.
20. According to the text, AutoVue
(A) is a system that avoids all kinds of accidents.
(B) goes off every time the driver change lanes.
(C) is a system controlled by a computer
(D) is a system developed to reduce accidents.
(E) emits a sound if the driver is distracted.
Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 10

Ingls

BNDES

21. The word it refers to


(A) this camera
(B) roadsides
(C) dashboard
(D) this system
(E) accidents

Help For Distracted Drivers


The rate of automobile accidents caused by distracted is destined to decline, thanks to a new
invention to alert drivers before they go off the road. Called AutoVue, this camera and computer
combination can be attached to the dashboard of a car. When the car makes an unsignalled turn,
this system emits a sound similar to the rumbling noise already caused by raised strips on
roadsides. It will not go off if drivers indicate that they are changing lanes.

TEXTO II
22. The text doesnt inform that:
(A) Nokia is a huge company
(B) The final price of the N-Gage
(C) You can play games in the N-Gage
(D) You can make phone calls with the N-Gage
(E) The new N-Gage might compete with the Game Boy Advance
23. The word its refers to
(A) phone
(B) mobile phone
(C) Nokia
(D) Nintendo
(E) Game Boy Advance

A Giant Gets Bigger


Nintendos Game Boy Advance may have some pretty hot competition coming up. Before the end
of the year, mobile phone giant Nokia plans to expand its horizons with N-Gage, a GSM mobile
phone on which you can also play videogames stored on tiny memory cards. The cost has yet to
be determined, but estimates vary from $100 to $200.

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 11

Ingls

BNDES

TEXTO III
24. The best title for the text above is
(A) For Women Only
(B) Sites For Women
(C) Internets New Challenges
(D) The Best On The Internet
(E) Online Issues For All

Though womens Day has come and gone, here is a site that truly celebrates the gentler sex. The
cleverly-named www.handbag.com offers in-depth coverage of issues of great interest and
importance to women. Theres a career expert, for example, to help you with your job change and
an online house-price predictor to get you through those messy property issues. But youll also
find some lighter editorial content, like the latest in celebrity gossip, fitness trends and beauty
products. Definitely worth a visit!

TEXTO IV
25. According to the last lines of the text, it can be inferred that
(A) The site will be removed from the net due to the Vice Presidents complain.
(B) Theres a real picture of the Vice Presidents wife with a clown nose.
(C) The Vice Presidents wife works as a clown.
(D) The site responded by sending the Vice President a doctored picture of his wife.
(E) The site will be maintained besides the complaints received.
26. The words it and her refers respectively to
(A) the site the Vice President
(B) portraits Lynne Cheney
(C) portraits the Vice Presidents wife
(D) office Lynne Cheney
(E) the site Lynne Cheney
Humor or Disrespect?
Courage. Passion. Faith. Petroleum. Xenophobia. Thats how one extremely popular satiric web
site (www.whitehouse.org) sums up the Bush administration. a lampoon of the White Houses
official web site (www.whitehouse.gov), whitehouse.org has been under fire lately for its lessthan-lovely portraits of Lynne Cheney, the Vice Presidents wife, that prompted the Vice
Presidents office to send a letter to the site requesting that it removes her satiric biography
(pictures and all). The sites response: to devilishly doctor her picture with a clown nose and black
tooth.
Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 12

Ingls

BNDES

TEXTO V
27. According to the text
(A) the American dream is the SUV.
(B) the SUV models consume more oil than cars.
(C) cars are under attack by environmentalists.
(D) cars are wasteful vehicles.
(E) not many people in the United States have an SUV.
28. The words which refers respectively to
(A) SUV cars
(B) American Dream SUV
(C) car wasteful models
(D) automobile SUV
(E) car SUV
Even if the automobile is one of the most powerful symbols of the American Dream, the recent
war in Iraq led many people to question the countrys dependence on oil. It wasnt the car itself
which came under attack from environmentalists so much as some of the most wasteful models.
The massive SUV, or Sports Utility Vehicle, which is a truck on wheels, rather than a car, is a
particular object of hate: the Hummer, for example, gives you as little as 12 miles per gallon,
whereas a Toyota Prius can do 52 and this led the Union of Concerned Scientists to observe: If
everybody in the US who drives an SUV drove a car instead, we could cut out Middle Eastern oil
imports entirely.
Unidade 4
Observe com ateno a lista de palavras abaixo. Todas elas iniciam com as letras B e C e
foram extradas de textos de vestibulares. Esta a continuao da lista bsica de vocabulrio
para concursos.

Back
Background
Basis
Before
Behave
Being
Belief
Believe
Prof. Rafael Dupont

B
n. costas; v. mover para trs; adj. de trs; adv. atrs, no
passado, de volta
n. formao, experincia
n. pl. base, parte principal
prep. diante de, perante; conj. antes que; adv. na frente de
v. comportar-se, agir
n. existncia, se; v. (+ing) sendo, estando, ser, estar
n. crena
v. acreditar
Pgina 13

Ingls
Belong
Blame
Bond
Born (be born)
Borrow
Both
Bound
Boundary
(line)
Brand
Brief
Broad
Broadcast
Bureau
Business
But

BNDES

v. pertencer
v. culpar; n. culpa
n. elo, vnculo
adj. nascido, nato; (v. nascer)
v. pegar emprestado
adj./pron. ambos;
adj. compelido; n. limite; v. limitar
n. limite (linha divisria)

n. marca (registrada)
n. breve; adj. conciso
adj. largo, amplo
n. transmisso; v. transmitir
n. agncia, departamento
n. negcio
conj. mas, porm; prep. exceto
C
Care
n. cuidado; v. cuidar de
Caution
n. prudncia
Century
n. sculo
Certain
adj. certo, determinado
Challenge
n. desafio; v. desafiar
Chance
n. possibilidade, chance
Change
n. mudana; v. mudar
Chapter
n. captulo
Character
n. carter, personagem
Charge
n. carga; v.carregar,acusar
Chart
n. mapa, tabela
Childhood
n. infncia
Choice
n. escolha; adj. escolhido
Citizen
n. cidado
Claim
n. reivindicao, alegao;
v. reivindicar, alegar
Class
n. classe, sala, aula
Clever
adj. inteligente, esperto
Clue
n. pista, indcio
College
n. faculdade, universidade
Commitment
n.compromisso
Compare
n. comparao; v. comparar
Complain(t)
v. reclamar (n. reclamao)
Compliance
n. consentimento
Comply
v. concordar, consentir
Comprehensive adj. abrangente, amplo
Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 14

Ingls
Compromise
Conceive
Concern
Concerned
Concerning
Consider
Constraint(s)
Contend (with)
Content
Convey
Cope (with)
Core
Cost
Counterpart
Countless
Couple
Course
of course
Create
Current

BNDES

n. compromisso; v. entrar em acordo


v. conceber, imaginar
n. preocupao, relao; v. preocupar
adj. Preocupado
prep. relativo a
v. considerar, refletir
n. constrangimento
v. discutir, afirmar (lidar com)
n. contedo; adj. contente
v. transmitir
v. lidar com, suportar
n. ncleo, centro; adj. central
n. custo; v. custar
n. contraparte, correlativo
adj, incontvel
n. casal, par
n. curso; v. percorrer
naturalmente, claro
v. criar
n. corrente; adj. atual

As frases abaixo trazem exemplos das palavras acima em diferentes contextos. Nem todas elas
aparecem na lista. Tente inferir o significado dessas palavras atravs do seu uso nas oraes.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

She was too young to give the child the care it needed.
You should exercise extreme caution when driving in fog.
Generosity is part of the American character.
Reducing the gap between rich and poor is one of the main challenges facing the
government.
He claimed that it was all a conspiracy against him.
He rejected claims that he had affairs with six women.
Theres been a record number of complaints about the standard of mobile phone
services on Brazils companies.
The move is in compliance with the European agreement on pesticides.
The group has expressed concern about reports of political violence in Africa.
The growing number of people seeking refuge in Thailand is beginning to concern
western aid agencies.
The government contends that he is fundamentalist.
The director is reluctant to discuss the contents of the play.
Sandon Hall and its contents will be auctioned by Sotheby's on November 12th.
In every one of her pictures Frida Khalo conveys a sense of immediacy.
He also conveyed his views and the views of the bureaucracy.
He has had to cope with losing all his previous status and money. (=contend)

Prof. Rafael Dupont

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17. It was amazing how my mother coped with bringing up three children on less than three
pounds a week. (=manage)
18. The core of the city is a series of ancient squares. (=centre)
19. We must look the core of the problem. (heart)
20. The Secretary of State and his Russian counterpart met to try to solve the problems
involving both countries.
21. Ten years after its release, the Lands End shirt has suffered countless improvements.
22. There used to be strong bond between church and power.
23. FBI stands for Federal Bureau of Investigation.
24. He greeted them with a wave and a broad smile.
25. Mark wouldnt let me borrow his clothes.
26. Under certain conditions, electrons can behave like waves rather than particles.
27. Nothing would relieve his terrible sense of blame.
28. Kirgizia is bounded by Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Kazakhstan.
29. The Minister is concerned about this issue.
30. Mozarts life was brief.
31. In a broadcast on state radio the government also announced that it is willing to resume
peace negotiations.
32. He asked several questions concerning the future of the company.
33. She is unable to conceive.
34. I just cant even conceive of that huge quantity of money.
35. Christopher is commonly known as Kit.
36. Everyone has the right to good medical care regardless of their ability to pay.
37. Standards in health care have improved a lot.
38. Caution is the key word in this situation.
39. Statistics should be treated with caution.
40. The decision will impose serious constraints on all schools

ATIVIDADES DE AULA
I Complete the sentences below by using the words from the box.

COMPLAIN

BUREAU
COMMONLY

CONCEIVE

BROAD

CONCERNED

CHARACTER

BROADCAST

Prof. Rafael Dupont

CLAIM

CAUTION
CONCERNING
BRIEF
CARE

Pgina 16

Ingls

BNDES

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.

Their visit didnt take long. It was very .


The opposite of . is narrow. ... means the same as wide.
The concert will be . live.
For further details, you may contact the Tourist Information .. .
You should take more over your work.
These products are very fragile. They must be treated with .. .
The most famous Shakespeares .. is Hamlet.
An underground organization has responsibility for the bomb explosion.
The disease is less rare than .. supposed.
The Brazilian people often about the government but does nothing.
Last night I received a strange phone call from a neighbor. He seemed
worried about noises on the street.
l. The presidents of both countries discussed various questions .. pollution and
the environment.
m. He . the idea of transforming the old power station into an arts center.
TESTES
29. His background was in engineering.
(A)profisso
(B)formao
(C)costas
(D)passado
(E)traseira
30. I cant bear people who make judgments and label me.
(A) gosto
(B) interesso
(C) presto ateno
(D) relaciono
(E) suporto
31. How could she tell beforehand that I was going to fail?
(A) distantemente
(B) posteriormente
(C) anteriormente
(D) distantemente
(E) erroneamente

Prof. Rafael Dupont

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32. One billion people throughout the world are Muslins, united by belief in one God.
(A) favor
(B) lado
(C) culpa
(D) crena
(E) marca
33. She has many qualities besides being very beautiful.
(A) ao lado de
(B) alm de
(C) acima de
(D) contanto que
(E) perto de
34. The commission is expected to blame the army for many o the atrocities.
(A) acusar
(B) aceitar
(C) cobrar
(D) negociar
(E) amparar
35. The agreement strengthened the bonds between the two countries.
(A) desavena
(B) acordo
(C) ligao
(D) disputa
(E) negcio
36. The new treatment could save Emmas life and the lives of countless others.
(A) poucas
(B) contveis
(C) incontveis
(D) sempre
(E) mais
37. Brazil is free to adopt policies to bolster its economy.
(A) prejudicar
(B) incrementar
(C) melhorar
(D) amparar
(E) suportar

Prof. Rafael Dupont

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38. That incredible experience created a very special bond between us.
(A) distncia
(B) reao
(C) elo
(D) negcio
(E) paixo
39. Drug traffickers operate across national and international boundaries.
(A) territrios
(B) divisas
(C) guardas
(D) faces
(E) correntes
40. The local branch of Bank of America is having serious problems with its shareholders.
(A) matriz
(B) quartel-general
(C) banco
(D) repartio
(E) filial
41. Nike is a brand of Tennis-shoes.
(A) loja
(B) seo
(C) marca
(D) repartio
(E) filial
42. .. is very important in this situation.
(A) Claim
(B) Complain
(C) Conceive
(D)Core
(E) Caution
43. Those residents expressed about the crime statistic.
(A) Conceive
(B) Concern
(C) Chance
(D)Contend
(E) Complain

Prof. Rafael Dupont

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BNDES

Unidade 5
Vamos colocar em prtica nosso conhecimento.
Instruo: As questes de nmero 1 a 4 referem-se ao texto abaixo.
Not Just Sex and Sangria
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

It's just after sunset on a recent Friday, a quiet time in the off season on
the island of Ibiza. The $200-a-week package tours from the north of England
have not begun to descend on San Antonio Bay, which resembles a mini-Miami
Beach on the Spanish Mediterranean.
Ibiza owes its life to tourism. When holiday makers from Europe began flocking
to the arid and impoverished island 30 years ago, they saved it from collapse.
Their dollars helped compensate for the stagnant salt, fishing and agriculture
industries. But to tourism grew too much, too fast. Ibiza became synonymous
with sun, sex and sangria. Thousands of young Europeans descended upon the
island each summer, threatening to destroy the local culture and the people's
peaceful life.
Now the island is fighting back. The government is desperately trying to
take tourism in a new direction, by inviting more capital from up-market tourists
and promoting cultural tourism to attract selected groups of culture-hungry
tourists so as to avoid the damaging effects of uncontrolled tourist trade. It is
also setting high standards for hotels and restaurants, and forbidding new
construction close to the water.

extracted and reduced from a report by


Stryker McGuire in NEWSWEEK, May 12,1997

44. Ibiza is located


(A) near Miami Beach
(B) on the Spanish Mediterranean
(C) on San Antonio Bay
(D) in the north of England
(E) on the Continent
45. Ibiza owes its life to tourism because
(A) tourists invested their dollars in fishing
(B) it contributed to develop Ibiza's culture
(C) in the past, tourists worked in the arid fields
(D) it compensated for the weakness of the industry
(E) the island can only live on agriculture

Prof. Rafael Dupont

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BNDES

46. But tourism grew too much and too fast". The growth of mass tourism in Ibiza is described as
(A) a necessary and agreeable occurrence
(B) a policy established by the government
(C) a danger for the local people's life-style
(D) a problem for the young European tourists.
(E) a desirable thing for everyone on the island
47. Now, the Government intends to
(A) promote a better kind of controlled tourism
(B) change the directors of the tourism industry
(C) increase the constructions near the bay
(D) send tourists to several other places
(E) forbid the entrance of culture-hungry people

Instruo: As questes de nmero 5 a 10 referem-se ao texto abaixo.


Development, democracy, and village telephone
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

I was born in 1942 and raised in a poor village in one of the poorest areas
of rural India, a place with kerosene lamps and no running water. In 1980, at
38, I was a U.S. citizen and a self-made telecommunications millionaire. By
1990, I was 47 years old and nearing the end of nearly a decade back in India
as leader of a controversial but largely successful effort to build an Indian
information industry and begin the immense task of extending digital
telecommunications to every corner of my native country, even to villages like
the one where I was born.
That effort persists today at an increased pace, but it remains
controversial. Some of the controversy has centered on me and my methods.
Most of it focuses on the efficacy and logic of bringing information technology to
people who are in global terms the poorest of the poor. Common sense and
accepted thinking about economic development have long held it ridiculous to
supply Third-World villages with modern technology. What subsistence farmers
need is not high-tech science and complex systems, the argument goes, but
basic literacy, disease resistant cereals and oilseeds, that is, all the "appropriate"
technologies that the unsophisticated rural poor can use and understand.
For me, modern telecommunications and electronic information systems
are appropriate technologies even in those regions of the world that still lack
adequate water, food, and power. The reason is simply that modern
telecommunications is an indispensable a id in meeting basic needs. Wouldn't a
telephone help a poor community if a natural calamity, like fire or flood,
happened?
Technology can eliminate cultural barriers, affect economic inequalities, even
compensate for intellectual disparities. In short, high technology can put unequal

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 21

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BNDES

26 human beings on an equal footing, and that makes it the most potent
27 democratizing tool ever devised.

extracted and reduced from an article by Sam Pitroda


48. The writer's life has
(A) always been poor and difficult
(B) gone from poverty into richness
(C) never changed in any way.
(D) shown a very poor development
(E) become a sad and dull one
49. Some years after having become an American citizen, the writer
(A) didn't even think about his village in India
(B) decided to become a farmer in his village
(C) chose not to think about the poor people's needs
(D) decided to work only for the poor areas in the U.S.
E) began fighting for telecommunications in India
50. The writer's project for telecommunications in his native country is controversial because
(A) people there really hate the leader of the project
(B) the leader wants to receive a great amount of money
(C) the propositions in the project seem inappropriate
(D) the project will only protect the poorest people
(E)the villagers consider the project unsophisticated
51. From the writer's viewpoint, telecommunications is
(A) an ineffective tool for the the villagers' work
(B) a superfluous economic tool for poor farmers
(C) a disaster for democratic systems of government
(D) a basic aid for socio-cultural and economic equality
(E) a ridiculous element in the life of poor communities
52. The expression at an increased pace (l. 7) indicates that the project in India is now being
carried out with
(A) greater delay
(B) weaker enthusiasm
(C) fewer people involved
(D) more rigorous control
(E) greater speed

Prof. Rafael Dupont

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BNDES

53. Technology can eliminate cultural barriers... (L. 18) In this sentence, the modal verb can
indicates that the writer considers the elimination of cultural barriers
(A) doubtful
(B) impossible
(C) hypothetical
(D) unconvincing
(E) probable
Unidade 6
Observe com ateno a lista de palavras abaixo. Todas elas iniciam com as letras D e E e
foram extradas de textos de concursos. Esta a continuao da lista de palavras essenciais
para o vestibular.

Damage
Data
Deal (with)
Dealing(s)
Death
Decrease
Deep
Defeat
Definetly
Degree
Delay
Deliver(y)
Demand
Deny
Depth
Deserve
Design
Desire
Develop
Device
Disease
Display
Double
Doubt
Drop
Duty
Prof. Rafael Dupont

D
n. dano; v. danificar
n. pl. (de datum) dados
n. acordo; v. negociar (lidar com)
n. negcio(s), procedimento
n. morte
n. decrscimo; v. diminuir
n. profundidade; adj. profundo, intenso
n. derrota; v. derrotar
adv. Definitivamente
n. grau, diploma
n. atraso; v. adiar
v. entregar, dar a luz (n. entrega)
n. demanda; v. demandar
v.negar
n. profundidade
v. merecer, ser digno de, ter direito a
n. projeto, desenho
v. projetar, desenhar
n. desejo, vontade; v. desejar
v. desenvolver
n. dispositivo, aparelho
n. doena, enfermidade; v. infectar
n. exibio; v. exibir
n. dobro, duplo
n. dvida; v. duvidar
n. gota; v. gotejar, deixar cair
n. dever, taxa, imposto
Pgina 23

Ingls

Each
Earn
Ease
Eastern
Edge
Effect
Effort
Either
Emphasize
Employ
Enable
Enhance
Enough
Entire
Establish
Eventually
Ever
Excerpt
Exchange
Expect
Expense
Explain

BNDES

E
adj. cada (um), cada qual
v. ganhar, receber, merecer
n. sossego, facilidade; v. aliviar, abrandar
n./adj. Oriental
n. extremidade, beira, limite, vantagem; v. margear, avanar
devagar
n. efeito, resultado; v. efetuar, causar
n. esforo, empenho
adj. um ou outro; adv. tambm, em vez de; conj. ou, seno
v. enfatizar
v. empregar
v. permitir, capacitar
v. aumentar, melhorar
n. o suficiente;adj. bastante
adj. inteiro; n. o todo
v. estabelecer, determinar
adv. eventualmente, finalmente
adv. sempre, alguma vez
n. excerto; v. extrair
n. troca; v. trocar
v. esperar
n. despesa
v. explicar

1. Jack doesnt want to damage his reputation as a politician.


2. The proposal was defeated by just one vote.
3. The government has denied that there was a plot to kill the president.
4. Those workers deserve to make more than minimum wage.
5. We may be able to design a course to suit your particular needs.
6. All countries, it was predicted, would develop and develop fast.
7. Jacks duty is to look after the animals.
8. We need helpers of all types, engineers, scientists (e.g. geologists), teachers,
9. Each year, hundreds of animal are killed in tropical forests.
10.
Companies must earn a reputation for honesty.
11.
She passed her exam with ease.
12.
Thats a typical eastern custom.
13.
Dont put that cup so near to the edge of the table it will fall off!
14.
The effort of climbing the hill made the old man very tired.
15.
The money I inherited enabled me to go on a world cruise.
16.
These clothes do nothing to enhance her appearance.
17.
They enjoy playing tennis.
18.
Men and Women should enjoy equal rights.
19.
Dont start it again! We have enough problems already.
20.
He had spent his entire life in China as a doctor.
Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 24

Ingls
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

BNDES

If the warranty is limited, the term may entitle you to a replacement or a refound.
Pupils in our schools are taught in a safe, secure environment.
We have a duty to persuade others to respect the environment.
The UN has established detailed criteria for who should be allowed to vote.
The human race has enough weapons to annihilate itself.
The committee was established in 1912

1. Complete the sentences below by using the words from the box.
DELIVER
DEFEAT
DECREASE
DESIGN
DEPTH

ENOUGH
DERIVE
EVENTUALLY

DEVICE
DATA

DELAY

ENHANCE
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
2.

The study was based on .. from 2,100 men and women.


You must gradually ... the amount of vitamin C you are taking.
Cesars guerrillas the colonial army in 1968.
For sentimental reasons I wanted to my departure until February.
The Canadians plan to . more food to southern Somalia next summer.
This is an opportunity to .. the reputation of the company.
The smallest lake in this region ranges from ten to fifteen feet in .. .
The word Easter .. from Eostre, the pagan goddess of spring.
They wanted to a machine that was both practical and attractive.
They were selling an electronic . that protects your vehicle 24 hours a day.
Is there .. room for me?
She hopes to get a job on the local newspaper and ...work for The Times.
Match the columns.

(F) develop
(G) disease
(H) display
(I) distress
(J) domain
(K) draft
(L) drop
(M) duty

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 25

Ingls
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)

BNDES

angstia, aflio
domnio, propriedade
esboo, rascunho
desenvolver
doena
exibir, revelar
gota, gotejar
dever, obrigao

TESTES
54. Thats a lovely way to earn a living.
(A) perder
(B) viver
(C) ganhar
(D) obter
(E) vencer
55. I gave him some brandy to ease the pain.
(A) reforar
(B) aumentar
(C) recuar
(D) abrandar
(E) intensificar
56. We were on a hill, right on the edge of town.
(A) incio
(B) meio
(C) limite
(D) fora
(E) dentro
57. The teacher disagrees with the methods and approaches employed in this study.
(A) testados
(B) aplicados
(C) direcionados
(D) revisados
(E) observados
58. The new test should enable doctors to detect the disease early.
(A) capacitar problema
(B) permitir doena
(C) ajudar doena
(D) permitir problema
(E) avisar doena
Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 26

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BNDES

59. Large paintings can enhance the feeling of space in small rooms.
(A) favorecer
(B) capacitar
(C) aumentar
(D) suportar
(E) diminuir
60. There are only ten airports in the entire country.
(A) metade
(B) todo
(C) completo
(D) parte
(E) somente
61. That was a fantastic chance to ....................... her reputation.
(A) duty
(B) domain
(C) demand
(D) enhance
(E) enable

Unidade 7
Utilizamos a estratgia de leitura chamada active reading para identificarmos o tpico
do texto e mapearmos as informaes nele presentes sem nos preocuparmos com os seus
detalhes. Para tanto, devemos ler o primeiro pargrafo na sua totalidade e refletir sobre
duas questes muito simplres: Qualo assunto geral do texto? Qual aspecto desse assunto
est sendo abordado?
Em seguida, observamos o texto rapidamente e prestamos ateno nas primeiras e
ltimas oraes de cada pargrafo, palavras e expresses em itlico e nos cognatos. Dessa
forma, podemos mapear o texto e as informaes presentes em cada pargrafo.
J a tcnica de leitura conhecida como scanning pode ser extremamente til quando
necessitamos identificar informaes especficas no texto. Para excuta-la, basta correr os
olhos no texto at localizarmos o trecho no qual se encontra o assunto procurado. como
procurar um nome numa lista telefnica ou uma palavra no dicionrio.
Podemos utilizar estas duas ferramentas para realizarmos as provas de Ingls dos
concursos com mais eficincia. Devemos lembrar que as questes de interpretao de texto
exigem do candidato a compreenso da idia geral/principal do texto bem como a
identificao de detalhes especficos encontrados no mesmo.
Observe os textos abaixo e faa uma primeira leitura rpida dos mesmos,
observando os ttulos, cognatos, referncias e tpicos frasais. Em seguida, tente resumir,
em apenas uma frase, a idia central de cada um deles.
Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 27

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BNDES

ANIMAL mAGIS

ANIMAL MAGIC
Most animals have a better sense of
smell than humans. Dogs, for example, are
renowned for their acute sense of smell a
hunting dog has around 220 million sensory
cells, 35 times more than a human. Horses
also have highly developed noses, to make
up for their poor eyesight, and fish and water
mammals also usually have a good sense of
smell. Sharks, in particular, can detect fresh
blood at great distances. Smell can ensure
the survival of the species male silkworm
can locate a female five miles away by her
specific aroma. Some animals, however,
cant smell at all. Most underground animals
have an acute sense of vibration, but cannot
detect any scent.

2
NIGHT MOVES
No one knows why some people
sleepwalk. But it tends to run in families and is
much more common in children than in adults.
Although sleepwalkers are usually able to guide
themselves through doors and down stairs, they
are infallible and can quite easily hurt themselves
by walking into things. It is difficult and not
advisable to wake a sleepwalker. Usually the
best idea is simply to guide them back to bed.
According to Dr Hanning, the people most likely
to sleepwalk and to sleep talk are those who
tend to be more deeply affected by outside
events such as horror films and disturbing news
stories. This may well explain why children are
more prone than adults.

TOP SANT - Health and Beauty

TOP SANT, Health and Beauty

NUTRITION BARS: NOT WHAT THEY


CLAIM
Many of the high-priced nutrition
bars Americans wolf down arent what they
seem, a new study says. The gadflies at
consumelab.com, a private organization that
evaluates health and nutrition products,
tested 30 bars for level of fat, carbohydrates,
proteins, cholesterol and sodium. Only 12
conformed to their labels claims. Half had up
to 20 grams more of carbs, including sugar.
The lab says people should be skeptical of
any bar claiming to have fewer than 15
grams of carbs. Four bars had at least twice
as much sodium as claimed. Two had more
overall fat, and four had up to three times the
listed levels of saturated fat. But dieters
rejoice: all calorie claims were accurate.
www.usatoday.com

4
8

CIGARETTE SMOKING DELAY


CONCEPTION
Women who want to get pregnant delay
their chances by about two months if they
smoke tobacco, a study finds. The study
clearly shows a link between smoking and
fertility problems, says Marcus Munafo of the
Institute of Health Sciences at the University of
Oxford in England. The study included 569
women smokers, ex-smokers and those who
had never smoked with an average age of 29.
On average, smokers took two months longer
to conceive, but the scientists found no
difference between women who had never
smoked and those who had quit at least a year
earlier, says the report in the Journal of
Biosocial Science. In addition to delaying
conception, smoking during pregnancy is linked
to higher infant mortality, an increased risk of
respiratory infection and lower-weight babies,
scientific studies have shown.
www.usatoday.com

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 28

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BNDES

IDIA CENTRAL
1: ___________________________________________________________
2: ___________________________________________________________
3: ___________________________________________________________
4: ___________________________________________________________

Agora, vamos mapear o texto abaixo e descobrir o seu tema principal:

10

15

20

25

The widespread destruction of tropical rainforest


ecosystems and the consequent extinction of numerous
plant and animal species is happening before we know
even the most basic facts about what we are losing.
Covering only 6 percent of the Earth's surface,
tropical moist forests contain at least half of all species.
The abundant botanical resources of tropical forests
have already provided substantial medical advances; yet
only 1 percent of the known plant and animal species
have been carefully examined for their medicinal
potentials. Meanwhile, 2 percent of the world's rainforests
are irreparably damaged each year. Scientists estimate
that, at the accelerating rate at which rainforests are now
being destroyed, as much as 20 or 25 percent of the
world's plant species will soon be extinct.
Approximately 7,000 medical compounds
prescribed by Western doctors are obtained from plants.
These drugs had an estimated retail value of US$ 43
billion some years ago. Seventy percent of the 3,000
plants identified by the United States National Cancer
Institute as having potential anti-cancer properties are
characteristic of the rainforest. Tropical forest species
serve Western surgery and internal medicine in three
ways. First, extracts from organisms can be used directly
as drugs. For maladies ranging from persistent headaches
to lethal contagions such as malaria, rainforest medicines
have provided modern society with a variety of cures and
pain relievers.

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 29

Ingls

30

35

40

45

50

55

BNDES

Secondly, chemical structures of forest organisms


sometimes serve as models from which scientists and
researchers can chemically synthesize drug compounds.
For example, the blueprint for aspirin comes from extracts
of willow trees found in the rainforest. Neostigmine, a
chemical obtained from the Calabar bean and used to
treat glaucoma in West Africa, also provides the blueprint
for synthetic insecticides. However, the chemical
structures of most natural drugs are very complex, and
simple extraction is usually less expensive than synthesis.
Ninety percent of the prescription drugs that are based on
higher plants include direct extractions from plants.
Finally, rainforest plants provide aids for research.
Certain plant compounds enable scientists to understand
how cancer cells grow, while others serve as testing
agents for potentially harmful food and drug products.
Tropical forests offer hope for safer contraceptives for
both women and men. The exponential growth of world
population clearly demonstrates the need for more reliable
and effective birth control methods. Worldwide,
approximately 4,000 plant species have been shown to
offer contraceptive possibilities. The rainforest also holds
secrets for safer pesticides for farmers. Two species of
potatoes have leaves that produce a sticky substance
that traps and kills predatory insects. This natural selfdefense mechanism could potentially reduce the need
for using pesticides on potatoes. Who knows what other
tricks the rainforest might have up its leaves?
http://www.ran.org/info_center/factsheets/05f.html
1995-2003 Rainforest Action Network

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 30

Ingls

BNDES

Unidade 8
Observe com ateno a lista de palavras abaixo. Todas elas iniciam com as letras F, G,
H, I, J e K e foram extradas de textos de concursos.
F
Face
n. rosto; v. enfrentar
Fail
v. fracassar
Failure
n. fracasso
Fair
n. feira; adj. justo
Faith
n. f
Fall (fell,
n. queda, outono; v. cair
fallen)
Far
adj. distante
Fate
n. destino, sorte; v. destinar, condenar
Fault
n. culpa, defeito, falha; v. causar defeito
Fear
n. medo; v. temer
Feature(s)
n. (pl.) aspecto, caracterstica; v. exibir
Field
n. campo, rea de atuao; adj. de campo
Figure (out)
v. imaginar (deduzir, entender)
Fill
v. preencher
Fit
adj. adequado; v. adequar-se, caber
Fix
v. consertar
Foreign
adj. estrangeiro
Foreword
n. prefcio, prlogo, introduo
Forgive
v. perdoar
Former
adj. primeiro, anterior, antigo, exFortunately
adv. felizmente
Found
v. fundar
Full(ly)
adj. cheio (completamente)
Full-time
n. tempo integral
Further
adj. mais distante, mais; adv. mais, alm (disso)
G
Gender
n. gnero, sexo
General
adj. geral; n. general
Goal
n. meta, objetivo, finalidade, fim
Good
adj. Bom
Goods
n. pl. mercadorias, bens, artigos
Grant
n. doao; v. conceder, admitir
Great(ly)
adj. grande, timo
(adv. grandemente, muito)
Gross
n. grosso, total; adj.bruto, grosseiro
Ground
n. terra, base; v. estabelecer
Growth
n. crescimento, aumento
Guess
n. palpite; v. adivinhar, supor
Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 31

Ingls
Guide
Guideline
Half
Handle
Hard
Hardly (ever)
Harm(ful)
Height(en)
Help(ful)
Hence
Highlight
Highly
Hinder
Hopefull(ly)

BNDES

n. guia, manual; v. guiar, conduzir, ensinar


n. norma, orientao, instruo
H
n. metade; adj. meio; adv. em metade
v. lidar com, manejar
adj. duro, difcil; adv. duramente
Adv. dificilmente, quase nunca
n. dano, mal; v. prejudicar, fazer mal (adj. prejudicial)
n. altura, auge, cume (elevar)
n. ajuda; v. ajudar, evitar (adj. til)
Adv. conseqentemente, portanto
n. ponto culminante; v. focalizar, realar, iluminar
Adv. altamente, muito
v. impedir, obstruir, atrapalhar
adj. esperanoso (adv. esperanosamente)

However

Adv. no entanto, entretanto


Conj. porm, contudo
I
If
conj. se, caso
Ill
n. mal; adj. doente, mal;
Imply
v. insinuar, sugerir, dar a entender
Improve(ment) v. melhorar, aperfeioar (melhoria)
Income
n. renda
Increase
n. aumento, crescimento; v. aumentar
Increasingly
adv. de modo crescente
Indeed
adv. de fato, na verdade
in-depth
adj. detalhado
Infer
v. inferir, deduzir
Input
n. contribuio, informaes
Inquire,
v. inquirir, investigar
enquire
J
Join
n. juno;v. juntar, ligar, associar-se
Joint
n. junta, unio; adj. ligado, comum
Journal
n.peridico, revista (tcnica), dirio
Just
adj. justo; adv. exatamente, quase, agora mesmo, somente, h
pouco
Just as
tal qual, no momento
K
Keep (kept)
v. manter, guardar, cumprir
Key
n. chave,cdigo; adj. central, principal
Kind
n. tipo, classe; adj. amvel, gentil
Knowledge
n. conhecimento, sabedoria
Prof. Rafael Dupont

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BNDES

Exemplos de uso.
1. Students can gain valuable experience by working on the campus radio or magazine.
2. Excessive weight gain doesnt do you any good.
3. The figures show a general decline in employment.
4. Johns goal on life is to write a book.
5. That clothing store is specialized in leather goods.
6. Mr. Brown granted the man permission to leave.
7. Sally was awarded a grant for studying abroad.
8. The crowds behaved grossly during the whole match.
9. A strong wind was blowing right in my face.
10.
Youll face many challenges next year.
11.
He failed in his attempt to take control of the company.
12.
Their marriage was a failure and they both wanted to be free of it.
13.
The result of the contest was very fair according to specialists.
14.
I ought to seal the boxes. I dont want the books falling out from them.
15.
I know a nice Italian restaurant not very far from here.
16.
All that trouble was Georges fault.
17.
It is a big fault to think that you can learn how to manage people in business
school.
18.
The spacious garden and the pool are special features of the house.
19.
I watched an incredible movie which features a Spanish actor in the main role.
20.
They went for walks together in the fields.
21.
Theyve spent a lifetime fighting against prejudice and racism.
22.
The new government figures predict that two in ten marriages will end in divorce.
23.
They are trying to figure out the politician of this whole situation.
24.
The government has files on peoples taxes and incomes.
25.
Those pants were too small and didnt fit his waist.
26.
The president fulfilled his promise of announcing date for the referendum.
27.
Without them you will not be able to fulfill the tasks you have before you.
28.
Fortunately, our train arrived on time.
29.
More than half of all households report incomes above $ 10,000.
30.
Youll have to be able to handle the whole situation.
31.
If Mark asks what happened in court I think we should tell him the truth.
32.
She was dressed in the height of fashion.
33.
What is the height of this building?
34.
George is always very helpful to his mother.
35.
The trade imbalance is likely to rise again in 2010. Hence anew set of policy actions
will be required.
36.
I cant carry this parcel. It is too heavy for me.
37.
Im very worried about Johns heavy drinking.
38.
The traffic along Trafalgar Square was really heavy.
39.
Those children are nearly the same height.
40.
What is the height of that mountain?
41.
The highlight of our tour was seeing the palace.
42.
Internacionals match was one of the highlights of the championship.
Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 33

Ingls
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.

BNDES

I watched a TV program which was highlighting the problems of the unemployed.


Two events have highlighted the tension in recent days.
Mr. Smith is highly successful salesman.
The new laws will hinder rather than promote prison reform.
Laura hopes to find a new job within the next two weeks.
All the players felt incredibly ill after eating that meal.
His silence seemed to imply agreement.
We need to improve our performance on the next game.
It is our belief that improvements in health care will lead to a stronger, more
prosperous economy.
Theyll have to find a way to augment their income in order to buy the house of
their dreams.
The world population continues to increase.
It became increasingly expensive to hire baby-sitters.
I was absolutely right. There was indeed a conspiracy.
The researchers will have to do an in-depth analysis of the figures.
I inferred from what you said that she has not been feeling well recently.
He was a man with considerable insight.

ATIVIDADES DE AULA
1. Match the columns.
( 1 ) FACE
( 2 ) FORBID
( 3 ) FARTHER
( 4 ) FIELD
( 5 ) FILE
( 6 ) FURTHERMORE
( 7 ) FIT
( 8 ) GENDER
( 9 ) GROWTH
(10) GOODS
(11) GROSS
(12) GRANT
(13) GO ON
(14) GIVE RISE

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 34

Ingls
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)

BNDES

ALM DISSO
DAR ESPAO
PROIBIR
ADEQUAR-SE, AJUSTAR-SE
SEGUIR
ARQUIVO, ARQUIVAR
CONCEDER
CAMPO, REA DE ATUAO
GROSSEIRO
MAIS DISTANTE
ENFRENTAR
MERCADORIAS, BENS
GNERO,SEXO
CRESCIMENTO

2. Fill in the blanks by using the words from the box below.
HARM

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)

HANDLE
HELPFUL
HIGHLIGHT (N)
HARDLY EVER
HARMFUL
HIGHLIGHT (V)
HOWEVER
HOPEFUL

She will never make a good teacher she doesnt know how to .. children.
He normally stays home during the weekends. He .. goes out.
Theres no need to be frightened they will do you no ... .
Medicines can be if you take too much of them.
You may find this book very .. to your research.
Seeing the palace was the .. of our tour.
Johns comments served to many points in our discussion.
His first response was to say no. Later, .. he changed his mind.
I feel .. that well find a way to solve this problem very soon.

3. Supply he correct words for the definitions and examples below (letters J and K).
a) A .. is a magazine, especially one that deals with a specialized subject. ex.: All
the results of this research will be published in Scientific .
b) If someone . in a particular state, they remain in it. ex.: All this noise will
.. him awake.
c) A . is a part of the human body such as an elbow or a knee where two
bones meet and are able to move together. ex.: Her . ache if she exercises.
d) A is a specially shaped piece of metal that you place in a lock and turn in
order to open or lock a door, or to stop or start the engine of a vehicle. ex.: They put the
in the door and entered the room.

Prof. Rafael Dupont

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Ingls

BNDES

e) is information or understanding about a subject which a person has, or


which all people have. ex. The Minister told the parliament he had no ...
about the affair.
f) If you talk about a particular .. of thing, you are talking about one of the
types or sorts of that thing. ex.: What .. of food do you like?
TESTES
62. The high walls are a special feature of the castle.
(A) proteo
(B) beleza
(C) caracterstica.
(D) defesa
(E) traado
63. His long legs didnt fit under the table.
(A) cabiam
(B) seguravam
(C) serviam
(D) dobravam
(E) pregavam
64. The company is in urgent need to improve the quality of its services.
(A) modificar
(B) implementer
(C) alterar
(D) manter
(E) melhorar
65. Tax is payable in all income over the specific amount.
(A) dvida
(B) receita
(C) salrio
(D) renda
(E) parcela
66. The rate of inflation has increased by 2%.
(A) diminui
(B) aumentou
(C) declinou
(D) inverteu-se
(E) modificou-se

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BNDES

67. There has been an increase of nearly 50% on oil prices over last year.
(A) aumento
(B) reduo
(C) diferenciao
(D) moderao
(E) recuo
68. Later, he admitted that the payments had indeed been made.
(A) claramente
(B) felizmente
(C) no obstante
(D) de fato
(E) parcialmente
69. We will discuss these three areas in depth next week.
(A) superficialmente
(B) oralmente
(C) em profundidade
(D) com dedicao
(E) indeterminadamente
70. We visited America and Australia, staying longer in the former than in the latter.
(A) ltimo
(B) inicial
(C) final
(D) primeiro
(E) antigo
71. You dont have to be a detective to figure out some things.
(A) deduzir
(B) duvidar
(C) roubar
(D) desdenhar
(E) figurar
72.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

They are late something must have happened to them.


esquecido
permanecido
atrasado
acontecido
obstruido

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 37

Ingls

BNDES

73. I can hardly carry this parcel. Its too heavy.


(A) suave
(B) pesado
(C) complicado
(D) antigo
(E) leve
74. We were very short of money, hence we had to spend the night in a cheap hotel.
(A) por outro lado
(B) depois
(C) alm disso
(D) contudo
(E) portanto
75. In French the adjective must agree with the noun in number and .. .
(A) gender
(B) goods
(C) gross
(D) grant
(E) growth
76. We are increasingly concerned about personal .. and development.
(A) gender
(B) increase
(C) growth
(D) face
(E) forbid

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 38

Ingls

BNDES

Unidade 9
Time to practice!!!

10

15

20

25

30

PETS PROVIDE HEALING FOR THE XXI CENTURY


By Margrit Oyens
The Umbrella , Vol. X, Novembro de 2004
In an interview given by Dr. Tennis Turner, president of the
International
Association of Human-Animal Integration Organizations (IAHAIO) and
professor for
veterinary science at the University of Zurich, he stated that the
company of cats
and dogs is essential to human quality of life. He has been trying to
convince
authorities, from ministers of health of First World countries to leaders
of small
South African communities, to invest in programs of Animal Assisted
Therapy
(AAT).
Dr. Turner has stated that the company of pets benefits not only
those physically or
mentally ill, but also all ordinary human beings, regardless of their
family income. It
is good not only for the health of the individual but for public health as
well. Animal
Assisted Therapy represents a tremendous economy to public health,
as it often
succeeds in cases where traditional medical treatment has failed.
In his quality of president of IAHAIO, Dr. Turner organizes
conferences in major
cities, which are attended by doctors from all over the world, with the
intention of
divulging the results of studies and experiments where animals have
acted as
therapists to children, juvenile delinquents, the elderly, women
suffering from breast
cancer, the mentally deficient, and even couples undergoing a crisis in
their
relationship.
Knowing the physical and psychological needs of cats and dogs helps
us to treat
them better. Only happy and healthy pets can be good company for

Prof. Rafael Dupont

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Ingls

BNDES

human beings
and contribute to our quality of life.
There are many kinds of benefits for people that have pets. Imagine a
normal
citizen, meaning someone healthy who needs some kind of therapy.
The presence
of a pet can lower his/her blood pressure, which is one of the reasons
for a pet
guardians better quality of life, one year after having a heart attack.
Another
explanation is obvious and applies to all guardians of dogs who wish
to guard
against heart disease: more daily exercise due to the necessary dog
walking. Pet
guardians generally have a lower level of cholesterol and are therefore
less prone
to heart attacks. A study published by the British Journal of the Royal
Society of
Medicine shows that pet guardians are less likely to be bothered by
small health
problems and enjoy a better quality of life than people who have no
pets.
Companionship animals are also of help to children, both at home and
in school.
They augment childrens self-esteem, improve their integration with
other children
and increase their performance in school.

77. Segundo o texto (linhas 1-18), o Dr. Turner exerce diversas atividades,
EXCETO:
(A) Presidente da IAHAIO.
(B) Professor de veterinria .
(C) Professor na Universidade de Zurich.
(D) Lder de comunidades sul-africanas.
(E) Organizador de congressos.

Prof. Rafael Dupont

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BNDES

78. O Dr. Turner afirma que (linhas 8-12):


A terapia com animais sempre substitui com sucesso os tratamentos
(A)
mdicos convencionais.
(B)

A AAT muito mais econmica para o governo, porque dispensa o uso de


medicamentos.

(C)

Firmas que trabalham com gatos e cachorros contribuem para a sade


dos empregados.

(D)

As pessoas que tm animais em casa preocupam-se menos com seu nvel


de renda familiar.

(E)

Os animais de estimao podem ajudar pessoas com doenas fsicas ou


mentais.

79. Na linha 9, a expresso ordinary human beings refere-se a pessoas:


(A) Comuns.
(B) Vulgares.
(C) Inferiores
(D) Medocres.
(E) De m ndole.
80. No texto, encontramos vrias palavras que tm significados opostos, por
exemplo succeeds (linha 12) e failed (linha 12). Nos pares de palavras
abaixo, assinale aquele que NO representa uma oposio.
(A) health (10) >< illness
(B) major (13) >< small
(C) lower ( 28 ) >< higher
(D) less ( 30 )>< more
(E) improve (33) >< increase (34)
81. Os congressos patrocinados pelo IAHAIO tm o objetivo de (linhas 13-16):
Divulgar os resultados de pesquisas sobre a terapia realizada atravs da
(A)
companhia de animais.
(B)

Encorajar os mdicos a estudarem as aes dos animais que participaram


de experimentos em laboratrio.

(C) Mostrar pesquisas sobre os animais em seu ambiente natural.


(D) Criticar experimentos sobre o comportamento dos animais.
(E) Falar sobre os animais que trabalham como atores.

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 41

Ingls

BNDES

82. Nas linhas 15-18, o autor diz que vrios tipos de pessoas podem ser ajudados
por animais de estimao. Das opes abaixo, o nico grupo NO
mencionado no texto o dos(das):
(A) Idosos.
(B) Crianas.
(C) Criminosos.
(D) Deficientes mentais.
(E) Jovens delinqentes.

83. A respeito das necessidades dos animais, o texto diz que Knowing the physical
and psychological needs of cats and dogs helps us to treat them better
(linhas 19-20). Assinale a alternativa que pode substituir, no mesmo
contexto, a frase sublinhada.
(A) We know what cats and dogs need but we dont treat them better.
(B)

If we know the physical and psychological needs of cats and dogs, we will
treat them better .

(C)

If cats and dogs know their physical and psychological needs, we will be
able to treat them better.

(D) Everyone knows the needs of cats and dogs because we treat them well.
(E) We need to treat cats and dogs better so we can know their needs.
84. Indique a opo que expressa a idia principal do quinto pargrafo do texto.
(A) A AAT ajuda aqueles que tiveram um ataque cardaco.
(B) Os animais trazem vrios benefcios para as pessoas.
(C) Os animais so, em geral, mais saudveis do que os seres humanos.
(D) O maior benefcio de se ter um animal o aumento do exerccio fsico.
(E)

No se sabe exatamente como os animais ajudam as pessoas com a


terapia.

85. A respeito da relao entre os animais e as crianas, o texto (linhas 32-34) diz
que:
A companhia dos animais ajuda as crianas tanto na escola como em
(A)
casa.
(B) Os animais irritam as crianas, que perdem a auto-estima.
(C) Os animais acompanham as crianas na escola e em casa.
(D) Os animais se integram melhor com as crianas na escola.
(E) As crianas nunca observam os hbitos dos animais.

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BNDES

86. Na linha 33, a palavra They se refere a:


(A) Children.
(B) Both at home and in school.
(C) Companionship animals.
(D) Childrens self-esteem.
(E) Other children.

Gabarito
77 D 78 E 79 A 80 E 81 A 82 C 83 B 84 B 85 A 86 C

Gabarito
A
B
C
D
E

1
X

3
X

6
X

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X

A
B
C
D
E

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X X
X
X X
X
X

A
B
C
D
E

37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
X
X
X X
X
X X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X X

Prof. Rafael Dupont

Pgina 43

Ingls

A
B
C
D
E

A
B
C
D
E

BNDES

55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72
X
X
X
X X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X
X
X
X
73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
PARTE II
Gramtica
Unidade 1
Pronomes

Pronomes Pessoais
(I, me; she, her,)
Em ingls, os pronomes pessoais dividem-se em subject e object pronouns. Observe no quadro
abaixo as diferentes formas dos pronomes pessoais em ingls.
SUBJECT
Singular
1st person
2nd person
3rd person
Plural
1st person
2nd person
3rd person

Prof. Rafael Dupont

OBJECT

I
You
He
She
It

Me
You
Him
Her
It

We
You
They

Us
You
Them

Pgina 44

Ingls

BNDES

Estes pronomes so usados quando nos referimos a pessoas e coisas. Eles so utilizados quando
no necessrio repetir um substantivo ou noun phrase.
Peter has broken his leg. He will be in hospital for 3 days.
Tell Priscilla that I miss her.
I dont want this dirty money. You can have it.
I never go to parties. I dont like them.
Os subject pronouns so usados na frase como sujeito e aparecem antes do verbo.
I know Suzy.
They really want to watch that movie.
He wants the key.
Os object pronouns funcionam como objeto nas oraes e aparecem depois do verbo e/ou aps
preposies.
Suzy knows me.
Linda never drinks milk. She doesnt like it.
I dont like dogs. Im afraid of them.
Who is that lady? Why are you looking at her.
Compare o uso dos pronomes nos exemplos abaixo.

I like dogs.
Dogs dont like me.

They sent her some flowers.


She sent them some flowers.
We often see him on the bus.
He often sees us on the bus.
O Pronome It
1a. it referindo-se a nothing, everything, all
Alm de referir-se a nomes de coisas, o pronome it pode ser usado para no repetirmos as
palavras nothing, everything e all.

I did all I could, but it wasnt enough.


Everything is all right, isnt it?
Nothing happened, did it?
1b. it como sujeito vazio

O pronome it usado como sujeito nas expresses de tempo, temperatura ou distncia.

Its nine oclock.


Its Friday again.
It rained for five days.
Prof. Rafael Dupont

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BNDES

Its twenty degrees.


O Pronome One
1c. One

One pode ser usado para falar de pessoas em geral.


One always thinks other peoples lives are more interesting.
One cant learn a language in three months.
One can usually find people who speak English in Brazil.
Pronomes Possessivos
(my, mine; her, hers; his, his)
Os pronomes possessivos dividem-se em possessive adjectives e possessive pronouns. Observe
no quadro abaixo as diferentes formas dos pronomes possessivos em ingls.

ADJECTIVES
Singular
1st person
2nd person
3rd person
Plural
1st person
2nd person
3rd person

POSSESSIVES

My
Your
His
Her
Its

Mine
Yours
His
Hers
Its

Our
Your
Their

Ours
Yours
Theirs

Os possessive adjectives aparecem antes de substantivos e noun phrases.


They have lost their keys.
Sarah and her husband live in Kew York.
Have you seen my new coat?
Can you lend me your car?
Os possessive pronouns so usados para no repetirmos estruturas como my car, your keys,
their books.
My flat is close to downtown. Wheres yours? (yours = your flat)
Our dog is smaller than theirs. (theirs = their dog)
Your house is older than mine. (mine = my house)
My car is faster than yours. (yours = your car)

Prof. Rafael Dupont

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BNDES

Compare o uso dos diferentes pronomes possessivos nas frases abaixo.


My book is on her table. Hers is on mine.
Take a look at our car. Its much nicer than yours.
The dog wags its tail when it sees its master.
Pronomes Reflexivos
(myself, herself, himself)
Na lngua inglesa, os pronomes reflexivos so: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself,
oneself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. O uso mais comum destes pronomes para
falar de aes onde o sujeito e o objeto so a mesma pessoa.
She cut herself last weekend.
Im going to the mall to get myself some new clothes.
Pronomes reflexivos podem se referir a outras coisas alm do sujeito:
His letters are all about himself.
Ill tell her a few things about herself.
She loves him for himself, not for his money.
Uso enftico
Podemos usar pronomes reflexivos para enfatizar sujeitos ou objetos.
The manager spoke to me himself.
Its quicker if you do it yourself.
The house itself is big, but the backyards very small.
Ill go and see the Minister himself if I have to.
Expresso

by oneself
By myself/yourself etc. pode ter dois sentidos: alone, without company ou without help.
They often like to spend time by themselves.
Do you need any help? No, thanks. I can do it by myself.
ATIVIDADES DE AULA
1. Substitua as palavras entre parntesis por possessive pronouns.
a) Her house is bigger than (her house).
________________________________
b) Your watch is more expensive than (my watch).
________________________________________
c) Our exams are more difficult than (their exams).
________________________________________
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d) Her job is harder than (his job).


___________________________
e) My father is stronger than (your father).
__________________________________
2. Reescreva as frases abaixo substutuindo as palavras sublinhadas por pronomes.
a) Paul and I saw Peter yesterday. He bought Paul and me a cup of coffee.
__________________________________________________________________________
b) Im looking for Sally. Have you seen Sally. Sally isnt at home.
__________________________________________________________________________
c) Sally and Ie saw a film called The Hedgehog yesterday. Have you seen this film?
__________________________________________________________________________
d) Paul and Ringo are meeting George today. George is having dinner with Paul and Ringo.
__________________________________________________________________________
e) Come to the garden with Susan and me. Susan and I are having fun here.
__________________________________________________________________________
3. Assinale as frases onde as estruturas sublinhadas contenham erro e corrija.
a) Look at the sky. Its going to rain.
__________________________________________________________________________
b) Those tickets for the cinema are hers.
__________________________________________________________________________
c) Shall we give the cat its food.
__________________________________________________________________________
d) I cant do this exercise. Its very difficult.
__________________________________________________________________________
f) Ive just found this wallet. Is it yours?
__________________________________________________________________________

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TESTES
1. Susan knows lesson well.
(A) hers
(B) its
(C) her
(D) mine
(E) she
2. I
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

drove all the way to Chicago by .


yourself
me
hers
myself
mine

3. Each dog has . own dish for food and water.


(A) its
(B) theirs
(C) his
(D) hers
(E) it
4. I
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

miss Mary. I used to see ....... everyday at school.


hers
her
me
it
him

5. Paul knows both of . very well.


(A) we
(B) us
(C) he
(D) they
(E) their
6. He wants to talk with
(A) we.
(B) I.
(C) me.
(D) yours.
(E) his.

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7. Na frase A scorpion comes along and asks the toad to take him to the other side of the pond,
a palavra sublinhada se refere a
(A) scorpion
(B) pond
(C) toad
(D) along
(E) asks
8. Technology for young people today is new, . is exciting, and is the difference between
and he older generation.
(A) he he their
(B) it it they
(C) its its them
(D) she she they
(E) it it them
9. With Tel-net services a user could connect to another computer anywhere in the world and
use . as if were sitting on .. own desktop.
(A) he its
(B) it him
(C) he its
(D) it his
(E) him it
10. Doris hurt . on a piece of glass.
(A) herself
(B) itself
(C) sheself
(D) oneself
(E) herselfs
11. Every student should keep dictionary nearby for reference.
(A) it
(B) their
(C) his
(D) hers
(E) its
12. Is this Johns room? Yes, it is ..
(A) my.
(B) hers.
(C) they.
(D) him.
(E) his.
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13. Tel .............. ................... gifts are on those shelves.


(A) her her
(B) he him
(C) me mine
(D) her hers
(E) them them
14. These CDs arent . They are .
(A) their ours
(B) them us
(C) his her
(D) hers mine
(E) ours them
GABARITO UNIDADE 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
X
X
A
X
X
X X
B
C X
X
X
D
X
X
X
E
X
X

Unidade 2
VERBOS
Presente Simples
(I go, I dont go)
O presente simples formado pela forma infinitiva dos verbos menos a partcula to. Na terceira
pessoa do singular acrescentamos o -s nos verbos. Observe no quadro abaixo a sua conjugao
na forma afirmativa.
I DRIVE
YOU DRIVE
HE/SHE/IT
DRIVES
WE DRIVE
YOU DRIVE
THEY DRIVE
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Nas formas negativas e interrogativas, usamos o verbo auxiliar do/does + verbo. Note que o
verbo principal permanece sempre no infinitivo.

I/WE/YOU/TH
EY

DONT

HE/SHE/IT

DOESNT

DO
DOES

I/WE/YOU/TH
EY
HE/SHE/IT

WORK
DO
DRIVE
WORK
DO
DRIVE

WORK?
DO?
DRIVE?
WORK?
DO?
DRIVE?

Os usos mais comuns do presente simples so os seguintes:

Falar de aes habituais que acontecem o tempo todo ou repetidamente. Nestes casos,
comum o uso de advrbios de freqncia ou locues adverbiais de freqncia como : always;

often;, usually; sometimes; seldom, never; every day; on Sundays; once a week; twice a week;
three times a week; etc.
I usually go to the beach on weekends.
Sheila plays tennis twice a week.
They never drink coffee.
I always take a bus to come to school
The new treatment for influenza doesnt appear to work.
The new science museum currently attracts 10,000 visitors a month.
Their school uniform consists of black trousers and a dark green jumper.

Verdades universais.

The sun sets in the west.


Water boils at 100 C.

Instrues.
A: How do I get to the nearest bus stop?
B: You go straight on to the traffic lights, then you turn right
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ATIVIDADES DE AULA
1.

Coloque os verbos entre parnteses na sua forma correta.

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

Jane ______________ tea very often. (drink)


The sun ______________ in the east. (rise)
Peter _____________________ French. (not/speak)
They ________________ in Ireland. (live)
Paul and George _________________ their homes at 7 a.m. every morning. (leave)
She ____________ to Sydney once a month. (fly)

2.

Escreva perguntas no simple present com as palavras entre parnteses.

a) (They/listen/to the radio)


_________________________________________________________________________
b) (He/drink/tea)
_________________________________________________________________________

TESTES
1. Chose the best alternative to complete the sentences below.
Bad driving . many accidents.
Vegetarians eat meat.
Peter never .... beer.
The world cup ... every four years.
(A) cause doesnt drink take place
(B) causes dont doesnt drink takes place
(C) causes dont drinks takes place
(D) causes doesnt drinks take place.
(E) caused doesnt drinks taken place
2. Chose the best alternative to complete the sentences below.
That restaurant is very good. I it.
My parents .. in a huge apartment.
A catholic . in God.
(A) suggest lives believes
(B) recommend lives believe
(C) suggest live believe.
(D) recommend live believes
(E) recommend lives believes

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3. Once a week, from eight till nine oclock or later, Paul goes to Victors to watch television.
A ao descrita,
(A) acaba de acontecer.
(B) acontece regularmente.
(C) vinha acontecendo.
(D) aconteceu uma vez.
(E) aconteceu no passado.
4. She ________________ movies. She ______________ to the cinema five times a week.
(A) love - go
(B) hates - gos
(C) loves - goes
(D) loves - going
(E) hated go

5. A: Where _________ you ________________?


B: I ________________ at Royal school.
(A) do study study
(B) does study studies
(C) do studies study
(D) do study studys
(E) does studies study
6. __________ he _____________ to drink beer?
(A) Does likes
(B) Do likes
(C) Does like
(D) Do like
(E) Do liking
7. I
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

_____________ to go to the cinema but my father ______________ to go.


want don't want
wants doesn't want
want don't wants
want doesn't want
wants don't want

8. Mary ___________ a big house but she ____________ a car.


(A) have doesn't have
(B) have doesn't has
(C) has doesn't have
(D) have doesn't have
(E) has doesn't has
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9. Peter never __________ his homework. He ____________ to _______________.


(A) does doesn't like studies
(B) do don't like studies
(C) does doesn't like study
(D) does don't like studies
(E) do doesn't like study
10. Os verbos TEACH, STUDY, PLAY, KISS e GO, na terceira pessoa do singular do simple
present ficariam, respectivamente:
(A) teachs studys plays kisses goes
(B) teaches studys plaies kisses goes
(C) teaches studies plays kiss goes
(D) teaches studies plays kisses goes
(E) teaches studys plaies kisses gos

Passado Simples
(I played/I didnt play)
O simple past usado para falar de aes e acontecimentos no passado que j esto
encerrados. Os verbos so geralmente acompanhados de expresses temporais (advrbios) que
determinam quando tal ao aconteceu. Quando estas expresses no aparecem na frase, os
falantes sabem quando a ao do verbo ocorreu. As formas afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa
do passado simplest esto no quadro abaixo. Note que nas estruturas negativas e interrogativas,
utilizamos o verbo auxiliar did e colocamos o verbo principal no infinitivo.
AFFIRMATIVE
I worked
You worked
He/She/It
worked
We worked
You worked
They worked

NEGATIVE

Full form

I did not work


You did not work
He/She/It did not
work
We did not work
You did not work
They did not work

Short form

I didnt work
You didnt work
He/she/it didnt
work
We didnt work
You didnt work
They didnt work

INTERROGATIV
E
Did I work?
Did you work?
Did
he/she/it
work?
Did we work?
Did you work?
Did they work?

Os verbos do quadro abaixo so regulares. Eles formam o passado com o acrscimo da


terminao -ed no seu final.
live lived
walk
walked
cook cooked
ask
asked
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Usos
Os usos mais comuns do simple past so os seguintes:

ao ocorrida em um tempo definido no passado.


I studied English last year.
Did you see my sister yesterday?

ao que ocupou um certo espao de tempo no passado.


She studied here for 6 years.
Mr. Brown worked in New York from 1992 to 1996.

aes consecutivas no passado


When I went to New York, I visited Sarah.
para contar histrias e narrar eventos no passado (story-telling).
One morning, the prince decided that he didnt like spending all day in the castle, so he told his
father that he wanted to start an adventure

ATIVIDADES DA AULA
1. Leia o texto abaixo.
Charles Bukowski is a famous American writer. He was born in Andernach, Germany. His
father was an American soldier and he met his mother in Germany. His parents went to the
United States when he was three. He grew up in Los Angeles and lived there for fifty years. He
published his first story in 1944 when he was twenty-four and began writing poetry at the age of
thirty five. During his lifetime he published more than forty-five books of poetry and prose. He
died in San Pedro, California on March 9, 1994 at the age of seventy-three..
Adapted from: Women, ECCO.
Reescreva as frases abaixo de acordo com o texto.
a) Charles Bukowski was Born in America.

He wasnt born in America. He was born in Germany.

b) His father was German.


_________________________________________________________________________
c) He went to the United States when he was five.
_________________________________________________________________________
d) He grew up in Germany.
_________________________________________________________________________

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e) He began writing poetry at the age of twenty-four.


_________________________________________________________________________
f) He died in Germany.
_________________________________________________________________________
2. Complete o texto com o passado dos verbos abaixo:
1. Love _______
2. Be _________
3. Have _______
4. Pass _______
4. Grow _______
5. Find ________
I have always loved animals. I ________ them deeply, from the very first days of my life. When
I ____ young, we always ____ many animals in our house, and so I used to spend most of my
days playing with them and taking care of them. As the years ______, I _______ into a quiet,
gentle man, and my love for animals ______ too. I ________ that they ______ more friendly,
more honest than most men. Animals ______ always my best friends.
Adapted from: Tales of Mystery and Imagination, Oxford University Press
3. Escreva perguntas para as respostas abaixo.
Ex.
a) I went to Africa in 1997.

When did you go to Africa?

b) I stayed in the Dolphin Hotel.


Where___________________________________________________________________?
c) We stayed there for one moth.
How long_________________________________________________________________?
d) It rained yesterday.
________________________________________________________________________?

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TESTES
11. Chose the best alternative to complete the sentences below.
She that cap when she traveled to Europe.
John .. his job at 9:00 last night.
They both .... the movie last night.
Hes not home. He to the park one hour ago.
(A) buys leaves watched left
(B) bought left saw went
(C) bought left watched goes
(D) bought leaves saw went
(E) buys left saw went
12. Read what Suzy says about a typical day in her life:
Suzy: I usually get up at 8 oclock and have breakfast. I take a bus to work and I arrive at the
office at 9 oclock. I never have lunch. I finish work at 6 oclock and I generally go to the
University after it. I go to bed around 10 oclock every night.
Yesterday was a typical day for Suzy. Complete the sentences based on the information given.
She _________ up at 8 oclock. She ________ a bus to work. She _________ there at 9 a.m.
She _________ lunch. She __________ work at 6 p.m. and probably __________ to the
University after it. She _________ to bed around 10 p.m.
(A) got took arrived had finished went went
(B) gets took arrive has finished went went
(C) got took arrived has finished gone gone
(D) got taken arrived had finished gone gone
(E) got took arrived has finished went went
13. I was surprised because I .. to see him again.
(A) dont expect
(B) expects
(C) expecting
(D) was expect
(E) did not expect.
14. Assinale a alternativa em que todos os verbos esto no simple past.
(A) bought cut see sold
(B) said put ran sell
(C) drank ate slept read
(D) came meet saw sold
(E) won wrote has gave

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15. When I went to England I . three English courses.


(A) take
(B) took
(C) was take
(D) taked
(E) takes
16. The murderer .. the room and . the old woman.
(A) enters shot
(B) entered shooted
(C) enter shot
(D) entered shoots
(E) entered shot
17. We .. to the cinema, but we .. the movie.
(A) didnt go enjoy
(B) went didnt enjoy
(C) goes enjoyed
(D) went enjoy
(E) went didnt enjoyed
18.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

I . Rod was busy, so I . him.


know disturbs
know didnt disturb
knew dont disturbed
knew didnt disturb
knew didnt disturbed

19. The hotel wasnt expensive. It .. very much.


(A) costed
(B) cost
(C) didnt costed
(D) didnt cost
(E) did costed
20. Sheila was very thirsty. She the water quickly
(A) drank
(B) drinks
(C) didnt drank
(D) drink
(E) doesnt drink

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21. John .. the stairs and . his leg.


(A) fall broke
(B) fell breaks
(C) fell broke
(D) fells brokes
(E) falls broke
22. Assinale a alternativa em que todos os verbos esto no simple past.
(A) drove cut got put
(B) kept putted said taught
(C) sang sat lose paid
(D) throw thought brought - cut
(E) spent sing stood blew

Presente Contnuo
(Im driving, Im not driving)
1. Formas
AFFIRMATIVA
I am working
you are working
etc

to be + -ing
NEGATIVA
INTERROGATIVA
Im not working
Am I working?
you arent working
Are you working?
etc
Etc

2. Usos
2a. temporary actions and situations that are going on around now: before, during and after
the moment of speaking.
Jill is waiting for you outside.
What are you doing? Im just looking at some porn magazines!
Im reading a very good book.
Hes working in Iraq at the moment.
2b. future
What are you doing Saturday night?
Im leaving the city tomorrow.

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3. PRESENT CONTINUOUS X SIMPLE PRESENT

permanent situations: it is preferable to use the simple present. Compare:


My brother is living in Paris now/at the moment.
You live in California, dont you?
repeated actions: the present continuous is more used in this case if the event is happening
around the moment of speaking. Compare:
Lucy is watching a lot of Friends these days.
Sarah goes to the cinema twice a week.

Translation
a) Some friends of mine are building their own house.
_________________________________________________________________________
b) Is your English getting better?
_________________________________________________________________________
c) Aunt Mary was always turning up and bringing us presents.
_________________________________________________________________________
d) They are having lunch outside.
_________________________________________________________________________
e) John is looking for the book which he lost.
_________________________________________________________________________
f) They are laughing at what you said.
_________________________________________________________________________
Passado Contnuo
(I was driving, I wasnt driving)
1. Formas
AFFIRMATIVA
I was working
you were working
he/she/it
was
working
etc

Prof. Rafael Dupont

NEGATIVA
I wasnt working
you werent working
he/she/it
wasnt
working
etc

INTERROGATIVA
was I working?
were you working?
was he/she/it/working?
Etc

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2. Usos
2a. say that something was in progress around a particular time in the past.
What were you doing at 9 oclock yesterday night? I was playing cards with John. I swear.
When I got up this morning it was raining.
2b. say that something was in progress at every moment during a period of time.
I was studying all day yesterday.
They were arguing the whole time they were together.
2c. two events happening simultaneously in the past.
They were walking on the street while the girls were watching them.
3. PAST CONTINUOUS X SIMPLE PAST
It is often common to use the simple past with the past continuous. The past continuous refers
to an action or situation which was being developed; the simple past refers to an action or event
that happened in the middle of the other action or that interrupted it..
As I was running down the road, I met Peter.
Somebody knocked at the door while I was having lunch.
The man was making his speech in front of the church. The crowds were cheering.
Photographers were jostling each other for the best positions. Suddenly the man fell and a girl
screamed

Translation
a) Two couples were playing cards when John accidentally dropped some cards on the floor.

b) When he bent down under the table to pick up the cards, he noticed that Bill's wife was
cheating!
______________________________________________________________________________
c) The accident happened while they were traveling to Mexico.
_________________________________________________________________________
d) When I got up this morning, the sun was shining brightly.
_________________________________________________________________________

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e) Peter was having dinner at 9 p.m. yesterday.


_________________________________________________________________________
Gabarito Unidade 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
A
X
X
B
X
X
C X
X
X
X
D
X
X X
X
E

A
B
C
D
E

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
X
X
X X X
X
X
X X
X

Unidade 3
VERBOS II CCerijidjfijvjdfijvnfjin,j fn fndvijfnivjnfijvnfijv;nijfnvi

Present Perfect
O present perfect formado com o verbo auxiliar have / has e um verbo no particpio (done,
seen, put). Observe no quadro abaixo a conjugao do verbo work no present perfect.
AFFIRMATIVE
NEGATIVE
INTERROGATIVE
I/we/you/they
have I/we/you/they
havent Have I/we/you/they
worked
worked
worked?
he/she/it has worked
he/s/he/it hasnt worked Has he/she/it worked?
O present perfect utilizado nas seguintes situaes:

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1. When we use the present perfect tense we are saying that a finished action or event is
connected with the present. When we say that something has happened we are thinking about
the present and the past at the same time.
What is Ted doing? He is looking for his key. He has lost it.
I cant go to the park with you because Ive broken my leg. (my leg is broken now)
Susan has had a baby.
Our cat has died.
3. The present perfect is also used to give the idea of completion or achievement.

The maids finished all the housework.


Have you done all your homework?
I have mastered my English.
My mechanic has already fixed my car.

3. The present perfect can be used when we are referring to a period of time continuing up to the
present.
Have you ever seen the movie Lethal Weapon?
Im sure weve met before.
Hes never apologized for anything in his life!
Has Bob come yet? Yes, and hes already started to make trouble.
Have you told the whole story to Peter No, I havent told him yet.
4. It is also correct to use the present perfect to say that something has happened several times
up to the present.
Ive been to Canada once/twice/three times.
Ive already written ten e-mails to Anna and she hasnt answered me yet.
How often have you been in love in your life?
5. It is common to use the present perfect to say how long a present situation has lasted.
Ive been a student since 1984.
Theyve studied hard for years.
How long have you been a teacher? Ive been a teacher for seven years.
NOTES

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TESTES
1. I
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

know now I shall never write a book better than the ones I
did write
have written
had write
have writing
wrote

2. Choose the alternative which presents all the verbs in the past participle.
(A) cut readed played put
(B) hung read put come
(C) cutted putted readed came
(D) read put come sang
(E) drank read come put
3. Mexico ... many difficult crisis in history, but now it its own Future.
(A) has faced is shaping
(B) faced was shaped
(C) have faced shapes
(D) have been facing shaped
(E) faces has been shaped
4. Choose the alternative which presents all the verbs in the past participle
(A) fed fought fall hurted taught
(B) won hurt hit let sat
(C) sat slept drunk grew - taught
(D) hurt led made set sang
(E) threw letted setted hurt fed
5. The word that could be placed between have and seen in the sentence I have seen that
play many times is
(A) never
(B) yet
(C) still
(D) ever
(E) already
6. O tempo verbal expresso por Shes learnt many new words
(A) present continuous.
(B) simple past.
(C) past continuous.
(D) present perfect.
(E) simple present.

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7. Among the magazines and newspapers that ... electronic recently .. Time, The
Los Angeles Times and Wired.
(A) have gone are
(B) have go will be
(C) have been going been
(D) had went were
(E) has gone are
8. A resposta certa para a pergunta Have we reached the point where we can no longer be sure
of the security information?
(A) Yes, we had.
(B) Yes, we have.
(C) Yes, we has.
(D) Yes, we did.
(E) Yes, we could.
9. My mother has not visited us since we .. the new house.
(A) had built
(B) built
(C) have built
(D) building
(E) having built
10. Escolha a melhor traduo para a frase Martha has gone crazy.
(A) Martha foi uma louca.
(B) Martha foi para a loucura.
(C) Martha enlouqueceu.
(D) Martha foi visitar uma louca.
(E) Martha louca.
11. He ................ home yet.
(A) hasnt arrived
(B) has arrived
(C) have arrived
(D) has arrive
(E) isnt arrived
12. Assinale a alternativa onde todos os verbos encontram-se no particpio passado.
(A) hurt lent founded fell
(B) hit hid costed grew
(C) hidden cut cost bet
(D) grown hit found knew
(E) hurted hit known - given
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Past Perfect
O past perfect formado com o verbo auxiliar had e um verbo no particpio (done, seen, put).
Observe no quadro abaixo a conjugao do verbo work no present perfect.
AFFIRMATIVE
I had worked
you had worked
etc

NEGATIVE
I hadnt worked
you hadnt worked
etc

INTERROGATIVE
had I worked?
had you worked?
Etc

O past perfect pode ser utilizado nas seguintes situaes:


2. The past perfect is used to talk about an action or situation which happened before another
one in he past. The past perfect is an earlier past.
When Mary arrived home, Peter had left.
She realized that they had met before.
When I got home, my sister had just left.
3. The past perfect is commonly used after verbs of saying and thinking, to talk about things that
had happened before that saying or thinking took place.
I told him I had sold the car.
I thought I had paid you.
I wondered who had left the window open

PRESENT PERFECT X PAST PERFECT


Compare the sentences:

Who is that woman? I have never seen her.


I didnt know who that woman was. I had never seen her.

We arent hungry. We have just had lunch.


We werent hungry. We had just had lunch.

ATIVIDADES DE AULA
Complete the blanks in text below by using the verbs from the box. You may use each verb just
once and put them into the simple past tense or the past perfect tense.
BECOME
REALIZE
BE

Prof. Rafael Dupont

BUY
BEGIN

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Paul Auster was born in Newark, New Jersey on 3 February 1947. He is a contemporary
American novelist of Jewish origin. His father, Samuel Auster, was a landlord, who owned
buildings with his brothers in Jersey City. His mother, Queenie Auster, was some 13 years younger
than her husband. The family was middle-class, the parents' marriage an unhappy one. Queenie
.., even before the end of the honeymoon, that the marriage
... a mistake, but her pregnancy made escape impossible.
Auster grew up in the Newark suburbs of South Orange and Maplewood. When he was 3
years old, a younger sister was born. When she was five, her psychological instability
.. apparent, and in later years she would be debilitated by mental breakdowns.
In 1959 his parents ... a large house in their town's most prestigious
neighborhood. It was here that Auster's uncle, the skilled translator Allen Mandelbaum, left
several boxes of books in storage while he traveled to Europe. The young Auster read the books
enthusiastically.
Instead of attending his high-school graduation, Auster headed for Europe. He visited Italy,
Spain, Paris, and Dublin. While he traveled he continued working on a novel he
.. some time before.
Futuro
Futuro Simples
O futuro simples (simple future) formado com os verbos modais/auxiliaries shall e will
acrescido de um verbo na forma infinitiva (do, play, see, put). Observe no quadro abaixo a
conjugao do verbo put no futuro simples.
shall / will + infinitive
AFFIRMATIVE
NEGATIVE
INTERROGATIVE
I will put
I will not put
Will I put?
you will put
you wont put
Will you put?
he/she/it will put
he/she/it wont put
Will he/she/it put?
etc
etc
Etc
O futuro simples comumente utilizado nas seguintes situaes:
1. Shall and will are used when we are simply giving information about the future, or predicting
future events which are not already decided.
Its too cold here. I will light the fire.
In 2050, people will be able to fly.
I shall probably be at Marys late at night
I think Manchester United will win.
Maybe Ill return later. I havent decided yet.
2. It can also be used for actions that we decide to do NOW, at the moment of speaking.
Considering these five options I think Ill take the red one.
I like this red coat. Ill buy it.

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Be Going To
Tambm possvel referir-se ao futuro usando a seguinte estrutura: to be + going to + forma
infinitiva do verbo. No quadro abaixo, observe a conjugao do verbo leave com o going to.

be + going to + infinitive
AFFIRMATIVE
Im going to work
youre going to work
he/she/it is going to
work
etc

NEGATIVE
Im not going to work
youre not going to
work
he/she/it isnt going to
work
etc

INTERROGATIVE
Am I going to work?
Are you going to
work?
Is he/she/it going to
work?
Etc

O futuro com be going to pode ser utilizado nas seguintes situaes:


Actions which have already been decided to do before we speak.
Im going to stay three months in Canada.
They are going to get married next year.
Were going to visit grandpa next month.
Were going to have a baby.
They are going to move on the 1st of July.
It can also be used for something that we expect to happen because the situation now indicates
that it is going to happen.
He is running towards the goal, and hes going to score.
Look at the sky. Its going to rain.
That little boy isnt looking where hes going. Hes going to walk into that tree.

TESTES (VERBOS REVISO GERAL)


13. Ive already bought our tickets. We .. tomorrow.
(A) are traveled
(B) are going to travel
(C) go travel
(D) will go
(E) will going.

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14. Im too tired to walk home. I think I .. a taxi.


(A) am getting
(B) will got
(C) will get
(D) am going to get
(E) shall getting
15. Im worried about Paul. I wonder what . to him.
(A) is going to happened
(B) will happens
(C) shall happened
(D) will happen
(E) is happened
16. Lets have a party?
Great idea! We .... a lot of people.
(A) will invite
(B) invite
(C) invited
(D) have invited
(E) are going to invite
17. Mary and I have decided to have a party. We .. a lot of people.
(A) has invited
(B) will invite
(C) are going to invite
(D) invite
(E) shall invite
18. They .. the train at Grand Station two hours ago. We ....
run.
(A) catch will get
(B) caught will got
(C) caught may get
(D) catch may got
(E) caught will gotten

... them if we

19. The bell . 30 minutes ago. Im pretty sure we .. late.


(A) rung are
(B) rings are
(C) rang is
(D) rang are
(E) rings will be
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20. They .. to take their vacation in June. They ....


go to Thailand.
(A) have planned are saving
(B) plan are saves
(C) intend is saves
(D) planned are saving
(E) intends will save

BNDES

. money so that they can

21. Wed a very good time at the pic nic before Kevin us with his spoiled
children.
(A) have join
(B) had - joins
(C) has - joined
(D) had joined
(E) have will join
22. Mr. Smith . to China to work. Last week, I his partner and he ..
me that he is going there too . There are rumors that Mr. Smith is becoming rich.
(A) went met told
(B) goes met told
(C) went meets tells
(D) has gone met - tell
(E) has gone met - told
23. I first .. Music of Chance when I was in high school. I it several times
since then. I ............... it again pretty soon. I love that book.
(A) read has read am reading
(B) read have read will read
(C) have read have read will read
(D) read read read
(E) have read read will read
24. When the bell . all the students from their seats and .. towards the
streets.
(A) rang jumped ran
(B) has rang jumped run
(C) rings jumps has ran
(D) rang has jumped run
(E) rings had jumped runs

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25. We are now .. on 50th street where we since 2004.


(A) living - live
(B) living have lived
(C) living left
(D) live have lived
(E) living had left
26. The first world war in 1914 and in 1918.
(A) begun ends
(B) begins ends
(C) began ended
(D) begin - ended
(E) began has ended
27. We many new words in this course.
(A) have learn
(B) learnt
(C) learn
(D) had learn
(E) have learned
28. Marianne says that she . his pocketbook.
(A) has lost
(B) had lost
(C) loses
(D) lost
(E) had lose
29. They in the restaurant on the corner when I saw .. .
(A) were eating him
(B) ate theirs
(C) are eating him
(D) were eating them
(E) eat - theirs
30. John .. us . . Something . to him.
(A) has called yet must have happened
(B) hasnt called yet must have happened
(C) hasnt called already must have happened
(D) has called already happen
(E) called today happen

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31. Observe the dialogue below:

The verbal form has vanished is an example of


(A) simple past.
(B) past perfect.
(C) simple future.
(D) present perfect.
(E) simple present.
32. She still .. her father 3 000.
(A) owe
(B) did
(C) do
(D) owes
(E) love
33. The pound . to its lowest recorded level against the dollar.
(A) have sunk
(B) are going to sink
(C) had sink
(D) will sinks
(E) has sunk
34. For ten years she among the nomads of North America. She told me it was a
great experience.
(A) dwelt
(B) have dwelled
(C) dwells
(D) has dwelt
(E) had dwell
35. Kate and Jack ..................... me lunch today.
(A) cooks
(B) were cooking
(C) has cooked
(D) cooked
(E) is cooking

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36. At that time John England.


(A) rules
(B) is ruling
(C) ruled
(D) has rule
(E) had rule
37. When he bought the book, he told that he .. for it everywhere.
(A) had look
(B) has looked
(C) looks
(D) had looked
(E) have looked
38. Mary asked me why I .... the party so early.
(A) had gone
(B) had left
(C) have leave
(D) had leave
(E) have left
39. What did she say she .. with the money?
(A) had did
(B) have done
(C) has done
(D) had done
(E) had do
40. Peter wanted to know what .. to his car.
(A) had happened
(B) has happened
(C) have happens
(D) had happen
(E) had happens
41. When I first saw Lucy, I ... that I ... her before.
(A) feel have met
(B) felt had met
(C) had felt have seen
(D) feel had met
(E) had felt met

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41.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

BNDES

It ... clear that Paul . us the wrong address.


is had gave
was has given
were had given
is has gave
was had given

42. When I got to the station I realized that I the front door opened.
(A) leave
(B) had left
(C) has left
(D) left
(E) leaves
43. If I ..................... enough money, I would have flown to Florida.
(A) had had
(B) has
(C) have
(D) had
(E) will have
44. If I your message, I would have come at once.
(A) receives
(B) had received
(C) have received
(D) received
(E) receive
45. We would have gone to the beach if the weather . nice yesterday.
(A) were
(B) was
(C) had been
(D) is
(E) are

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Gabarito Unidade 3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
A X
X
X
X
X
B
X
X
X X
X
X
C
X
X
X
X X
D
X
X
X X
E
X
X

A
B
C
D
E

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X
X
X
X

A
B
C
D
E

41 42 43 44 45
X
X
X
X
X
Unidade 4
Verbos modais

Os verbos can, could, should, may, etc so chamados verbos modais auxiliares. Eles sempre
aparecem antes de outros verbos no infinitivo e adicionam diferentes significados como certeza,
obrigao, etc. Suas principais caractersticas so as seguintes:
a) no levam -s na terceira pessoa do singular. So invariveis.
He may know our address.
b) no necessitam verbo auxiliar em frases negativas e interrogatives.

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Can you swim?


Will you marry me?
You shouldnt be doing that.
She cant speak French.
c) devem ser sempre seguidos de um outro verbo o infinitivo sem a partcula to.
We must water the flowers.
excees: os verbos modais have to e ought to so sempre seguidos de to.
People really have to work hard these days.
You ought to take the garbage outside.
Usos
Can, Could and (be) able to
We use can to say that something is possible or that somebody has the ability to do something.
They can see the bridge from their bedroom window.
I can come and see you next weekend if you like.
Can you speak English?
Mary cant speak any foreign language.
When we talk about ability, could is the past of can
Peter can swim very well.
Peters father could swim very well when he was younger.
(Be) able to is possible instead of can.
Are you able to speak English?
Can has only two forms: can (present) and could (past). When we want to express another
tense, it is necessary to use (be) able to.
John cant sleep.
John hasnt been able to sleep recently.
Could (do) and could have (done)
We use could to talk about possible actions now or in the future.
Mary: What shall we do tomorrow?
Peter: We could go to the mountains.
When you go to Los Angeles next year, you could rent a car.
Can is also possible in the sentences above (we can go to the mountains). Could is less sure
than can.

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Could (do) X could have (done)


Kim is really tired. I think he could sleep for a week.
Kim was really tired last weekend. He could have slept for a week.
We use could have (done) for things which were possible but did not happened.
Why did you rent that car? You could have borrowed mine!
Must and cant: deductions

We use must when we feel sure something is true.


Youve been working hard. You must be tired.
What did you say? Spanish is a nice language? You must be kidding!

We use cant when we feel sure something is not possible/true.


You have eaten five hamburgers. You cant be hungry!
Mary is a very shy girl. She cant know too many people.

The past form is must have (done) and cant have done.
The phone rang but I didnt hear it. I must have been out.
Lucy didnt look at me yesterday. She cant have seen me.
Must and have to: obligation and necessity

When we know that it is necessary to do something we use must and have to.
I havent seen Ann for ages. I must pay her a visit.
Gina cant come with us this evening. She has to work.
Bill is such a nice guy. You must meet him.
You cant turn left here. You have to turn right.

It is possible to use have got to instead of have to.


Ive got to work Sunday morning.
I have to work Sunday morning.
Should and Ought to
We use should to give advices and opinions.
Do you want to take the medicines course? You should study much more.
Should I invite Lucy to go out?
The president should do more things to help poor people.
I think you should work harder.
We use should have (done) when we didnt do something but we think it would have been
the right thing to do.
You missed a great party, Sarah. You should have come.
Im not feeling right. I shouldnt have drunk so much.
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It possible to use ought to instead of should.


The president ought to do more things to help poor people.
I think you ought to work harder.
May and might
We use may and might to express possibilities.
Pete: Wheres Sue?
Linda: I dont know. She may be in the office?
Sarah: She might be home.
Liz: Ask Jill. She might know.

For the past we use may have (done) or might have (done)
Mary didnt come to the party last night. She might have been sick.
Wheres my wallet? I may have left at Paulas house.

Had better and would rather


When we use had better, we are saying that it is advisable to do something. If one dont do it,
there will be a problem or a danger.
I have to catch the plane in ten minutes. Id better go now.
Youd better take an umbrella. It might rain this afternoon.

The negative form is had better not.


Im feeling ill. Id better not study today.
The boss is very demanding. Youd better not be late.

We use would rather to state a preference: would rather = would prefer


Id rather stay at home tonight than go to that boring party.
Would you rather have beer or wine?

The negative form is would rather not.


Im feeling tired. Id rather not go to the course this afternoon.
Id rather not go out tonight.
Can, could, may and would:
invitations, requests, offers and permissions.

Offering and inviting.


Would you like some tea?
Would you like to go out with me tonight?

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Offering to do things.
Can I help you?
Can I get you some medicine?

Requests.
Can you give me a hand, please?
Could you open the door, please?
John, would you do me a favor?
Will you please be quiet? Im trying to concentrate.

Asking for and giving permission.


Can I come in?
Could I come in?
May I come in?
Used to (do) and (be) used to (doing)
We use used to (do) to say that something happened regularly in the past but no longer
happens.
Bob used to smoke forty cigarettes a day. Thank God he doesnt smoke anymore.
Tina used to travel a lot when she worked at Varig.
Raphael used to have long hair when he was a teenager.
We use the structure (be) used to (doing) something when the thing is not strange or new for
me.
Im used to eating spicy food because I lived in Mexico for three years.
Mary is used to working hard because she worked as a intern some time ago.
ATIVIDADES DE AULA
1. Fill in the blanks with the correct modal verb.
a) Paul......................................to study more for his tests. (sugesto)
b) Susan........................................see a movie tonight. (possibilidade)
c) ....................................I use your pencil? (permisso)
d) It.........................rain tonight. (possibilidade)
e) John...........................play soccer very well. (habilidade)
f) Paul............................run very fast when he was a child. (habilidade no passado)
g) .. use your pen? (permisso informal)
h) I . get up very early when I worked there. (passado habitual)
i) We . at school at 7:45 every morning. (obrigao)
j) She .. speak six languages. (habilidade)
k) I play a lot of tennis when I was younger. (passado habitual)
l) I am . studying at weekends. (presente habitual)
m) She really wash her hair. (recomendao, sugesto)
n) Students . use the staff car park. (proibio)
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2. Relacione as colunas.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

SHOULD
MAY
MIGHT
WOULD
COULD
MUST
MUST NOT
CAN

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

)
)
)
)
)
)
)
)

ability in the past


obligation
recommendation
ability in the present/informal permission
prohibition
weak possibility
polite request (conditional)
permission (formal)

TESTES
1. A
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

frase excessive government spending may be the most important nos d a idia de
possibilidade.
certeza.
dvida.
necessidade.
obrigao.

2. . carry me to other side of the pond, please?


(A) Should you
(B) Must you
(C) Are you
(D) Do you
(E) Could you
3. By visiting colleges and writing to parents, the police will to help improve
surveilance.
(A) can
(B) be able
(C) many
(D) to be able
(E) able

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4. A
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

BNDES

frase I cant speak French pode ser substituda, conservando o mesmo sentido, por
I mustnt speak French.
I am not able to speak French.
I ought not to speak French.
I may not speak French.
I shall not speak French.

5. You ought to stay, means


(A) You might stay.
(B) You should stay.
(C) You have to stay.
(D) You must stay.
(E) You may stay.
6. You must study, means
(A) You have to study.
(B) You ought to study.
(C) You could study.
(D) You should study.
(E) You may study.
7. You may enter, means
(A) You must enter.
(B) You should enter.
(C) You ought to enter.
(D) You can enter.
(E) You have to enter.
8. A
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

frase Id rather have my money back indica


imposio.
obrigao.
necessidade.
possibilidade.
preferncia.

9. The teacher helped the boy .. the exercise because he .. it alone.


(A) did cant do
(B) to do wasnt able to do
(C) to do couldnt to do
(D) did isnt able of do
(E) do is able to doing
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10. I .. a lazy student, but now I know I was just wasting my time.
(A) was used to be
(B) used to being
(C) used to be
(D) am used to be
(E) use to
11. She . in the park every day when she was younger.
(A) used to walk
(B) was walking
(C) has been walking
(D) walks
(E) has walked
12. Shes used to on the left because he lived in Britain.
(A) drive
(B) driven
(C) drove
(D) driving
(E) drives
13. . you open the door, please?
(A) Can
(B) Might
(C) Must
(D) Would
(E) A e D esto corretas.
14. Theyre used to .. hard at weekends.
(A) study
(B) working
(C) plays
(D) traveling
(E) got
15. I . find my book. I ...................... it on the bus.
(A) may not might buy
(B) will will left
(C) can't must have left
(D) cant shall left
(E) may have must have left

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16. They dont answer their telephone. They . away somewhere.


(A) must go
(B) may have
(C) must have gone
(D) may have go
(E) should go
17. They think now that the jewels .. by one of the servants.
(A) might have been stolen
(B) must steal
(C) might have stole
(D) may have stolen
(E) may steal
18. George seems exhausted. He a lot.
(A) might have work
(B) must have worked
(C) might been working
(D) may worked
(E) may have been worked
Gabarito Unidade 4

A
B
C
D
E

1
X

6
X

X
X

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X
X
X
X
X
X X
X
X

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Unidade 5
Linking Words
What Are Linking words?
They are words that link other words, phrases, or

I went to bed early


clause

clauses.

linking word

because

I was very tired.


clause

They not only join clauses. They also show how the meanings of the two clauses are related.
He was pure but he was honest. (contrast)
The boys brought the food and the girls supplied the drink. (addition)
Ill phone you when I arrive. (time)
We can go to the beach or wee can stay here. (alternative).
Lets have a look at a list of Linking words according to their meanings.
Time

As, when and while are used to refer to one action taking place at the same time as another.
When my alarm rings at 6 a.m. I immediately get up.
While you were out, John rang.
As I was looking out of the window, they arrived.
The play started as I got there.
All the jurys eyes were on him as he continued speaking.
Paul had a heart attack while he was driving.
After, as soon as, before and when are used to refer to an action taking place immediately after
another.
As soon as I saw him on TV, I changed channel.
After I left high-school, I went abroad.
The customer left the store before I could give him an explanation.
When I finished doing the homework, I went out.

Until / till is used to refer to the length of time a situation continues.


I cant go out until my parents return.
Stir with a metal spoon until the sugar has dissolved.
You shouldnt change your car till you finish paying for it.
Why are you leaving? Youve said youd stay till tomorrow.

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Contrast

Although, though and even though are used before a subject and a verb to opposing or
contrasting statements.
Although he is a good writer, hes never published a book.
Although the shooting has stopped for now, the destruction left behind is enormous.
Even though theres a speed limit, drivers rarely respect it.
Even though we played well, we lost the game.
Though George studied hard last week, he didnt manage to pass the exam.
George studied hard. He didnt manage to pass his exam though.

Despite or in spite of are also used to opposing or contrasting statements, but they always come
before nouns, pronouns or gerunds.
Despite the traffic, we managed to reach the theatre on time.
In spite of the weather, we decided to go out anyway.
Despite his shyness, he invited Sally to go out.
Im not hungry, in spite of not eating all day.
Mary didnt call, in spite of being late.
NOTE
Notwithstanding can be used with the same meaning as in spite of.
Notwithstanding a decline in numbers, the company has had a good year.
The contract is invalid, notwithstanding the goods have been delivered.

While and whereas are used to refer to contrast between two statements.
It was raining in the city, while the weather was lovely in the country.
John loves to eat vegetables, while Linda hates it.
We can never agree on what film to watch. You like comedies, whereas I prefer thrillers.
My old flat was very old, whereas my new one is brand new.
But, however, nevertheless, nonetheless, yet and notwithstanding are used to give an idea of
contrast between clauses, sentences and words.
He not only wants to be taken seriously as a musician, but as a poet too.
Im sorry, but I have to tell you something.
Sally said she would never meet Paul again. However, the next morning, she called him.
Most marriages fail after eight years. Nevertheless, people continue to get married.
There was still a long way to go. Nonetheless, a huge progress had been made.
It was a simple yet beautiful dress.
I couldnt remember meeting him before, yet his face seemed familiar.
Cause and Effect

Thus, hence, so, consequently, therefore and then are used to refer to the result of something.
Some people are more capable and thus better paid than others.
The Minister had to attend an urgent call. Hence, he had to cancel other appointments.
Paul has exams all next week, so he cant go out in the mornings.
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He was a careless driver. Consequently, he spent all his life in a wheelchair.


He is out of the country and therefore unable to attend the meeting.
My car broke down and consequently I arrived late.

Since, because, because of, as and for are used to refer to reasons for doing something.
Since I have nothing else to say, I shall leave now.
There are no workers in that company because of the strike.
As it was raining, I took an umbrella.
Since the president is abroad, the vice-president is taking his place.
We listened to him with attention, for he was bringing important news.
The expression due to is also used to give an idea of cause (= because of).
Peter is absent due to his illness.
The teams success was largely due to Johns efforts.
Due to your help, I will survive.
Condition
The words if, whether, unless, otherwise and the expressions as long as and provided that are
used in sentences to give an idea of condition.
I dont know whether Ill be able to come.
Well be told tomorrow whether we are needed or not.
Ill only stay if you offer me more money.
Youll fail your exams unless you work harder.
Unless something unexpected happens, Ill see you tomorrow.
I had no problem, otherwise I would have telephoned you.
As long as it doesnt rain well play outside.
Ill agree to go provided that my expenses are paid.
Provided you have the money in your account, you may withdraw up to $ 1,000 a day.
Addition

Besides (that), furthermore, moreover, in addition to and beyond (that) are used to add
information.
There will be five of us for dinner, besides the children.
They knew the painting was a forgery. Moreover, they knew who painted it.
In addition to these arrangements, thirty ambulances will be on duty till midnight.
We shall not go inside. Furthermore, the boss claims that any interference will be useless.

And is used in the same meaning of in addition to / also.


You can find bread and butter in the kitchen.
Although she is a child, shes able to read and write.
Too and as well are generally used at the end of sentences, while also is commonly used in the
middle. They all have the same meaning.
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She speaks French and Portuguese and also a little Spanish.


They have a huge house and a castle too.
Ive read the book and Ive seen the film as well.

Purposes and Results


The expressions in order to / so as to + infinitive are used to talk about the purpose of an
action.
John took those courses in order to get a better job.
Trees are being planted on the roadside so as to reduce traffic noise.
They are training hard in order to win the championship.
The expressions in order that / so that are also used to express purposes. They are followed
by a subject and a verb.
She stayed at work late in order that she could complete the report.
I hid the presents so that Judy wouldnt find them.
Advice is given in order that students can choose the best course.
Edward cut the cake carefully into slices, so that everybody had their fair share.
Expressions

Both and is used to include two things.


Sally is both pretty and clever.
Both Robert and Jimmy wanted to play together again.
I spoke to both the principal and the teacher.
The expression either or is used to express a choice of two alternatives.
Shes either Spanish or French.
You can either phone or send an e-mail to buy those books.
You can either have soda or beer.
The structure neither nor is used to join two negative ideas.
I neither smoke nor drink.
She neither smiled, spoke, nor looked at us.
Neither Paul nor George wanted to play together again.
ATIVIDADES DE AULA
1. Choose the correct conjunction to complete the sentence.
a) Please sign the contract if/unless youre happy with the conditions.
b) I dont want to be disturbed, so dont call me unless/if its something important.
c) There was still a long way to go. Nonetheless/Thus some progress has been made.
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d) Its completely waterproof, yet/hence light and comfortable.


e) The trade imbalance is likely to rise again next year. Hence/Furthermore a new set of policy
actions will be required soon.
f) Muscle cells need lots of fuel and therefore/although burn a lot of calories.
g) I like traveling by sea as long as/unless it is not rough.
h) Were not very close friends despite/although weve known each other for a long time.
i) Although/Despite I was only six, I can remember that summer perfectly.
j) The National Health Service has clearly deteriorated, despite/although increased
spending from the government.
k) The other banks are going to be eager to help, provided that/unless they see the company
has a specific goal.
l) Enjoy the first hour of the day. This is important as/then it sets the mood for the rest of the
day.
m) The countrys economic problems are largely due to/in order to the weakness of the
government.
n) I think she has many qualities besides/despite being very beautiful.
o) Moreover/Despite his achievements, he remains sad and unhappy.
p) Please report to reception if/when you arrive.
q) Franklin told Rose to hurry; otherwise/as long as theyd miss their train.
r) Most schools are extremely unwilling to cut down on staff in order to/in order that reduce
costs.
s) According to/Beyond that his wife, Bill was at home when the accident happened.

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TESTS
1. A expresso furthermore pode introduzir uma idia de
(A) resultado.
(B) conseqncia.
(C) condio.
(D) oposio.
(E) acrscimo.
2. Na frase Yet both species continue to be hunted, a melhor traduo para a palavra yet
(A) tambm.
(B) apesar de.
(C) j.
(D) devido a.
(E) contudo.
3. Em despite official bans on the trade, a palavra sublinhada pode ser traduzida por
(A) despeito.
(B) desrespeitar.
(C) despistar.
(D) com respeito a.
(E) a despeito de.
4. A palavra therefore pode ser substituda por
(A) Moreover.
(B) consequently.
(C) however.
(D) although.
(E) nevertheless.
5. A expresso even though pode ser traduzida por
(A) Embora.
(B) mas tambm.
(C) portanto.
(D) mesmo assim.
(E) a no ser que.
6. A expresso in order to introduz uma idia de
(A) comparao.
(B) resultado.
(C) seqncia.
(D) conseqncia.
(E) finalidade.

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7. .......... its stimulating effect on the central nervous system, coffee is a popular drink.
(A) Although
(B) Thus
(C) However
(D) Nevertheless
(E) Despite
8. I cant travel this weekend my parents are sick.
(A) but
(B) why
(C) until
(D) however
(E) because
9. A expresso que completa corretamente a frase

Banners can injure spectators: .. they are offensive weapons,


(A) even.
(B) however.
(C) despite.
(D) unless.
(E) thus.
10. In the sentence We came back home because we ran out of money, the underlined word
could be replaced without any change in meaning by
(A) furthermore
(B) and
(C) nevertheless
(D) for
(E) although
11.A palavra hence pode ser substituda por
(A) moreover.
(B) consequently.
(C) however.
(D) despite.
(E) yet.
12. Grandpa had sustained a broken back while working in the mines. . he spent
the rest of his life in a wheelchair.
(A) beside
(B) furthermore
(C) nonetheless
(D)yet
(E) consequently

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13. He said he had not discussed the matter with her. .., he had not even
contacted her.
(A) although
(B) furthermore
(C) in spite of
(D) however
(E) if
14. these arrangements, extra ambulances will be on duty until midnight.
(A) in addition to
(B) thus
(C) however
(D) but
(E) even though
15. We thought the figures were correct. ., we have now discovered some errors.
(A) hence
(B) so
(C) if
(D) however
(E) consequently
16. the guitar was expensive, he decided to buy it.
(A) If
(B) Due to
(C) Although
(D) Despite
(E) Because
GABARITO Unidade 5
1

A
X
B
C
D
E X X X

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5 6
X

X X

10 11 12 13 14 15 16
X
X
X
X
X X
X

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