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Indian Refining Scenario

Processing of Opportunity Crudes

July 18, 2014


6th India-Canada Energy Forum, Calgary, Alberta

Corporate Office, New Delhi, India

Corporate Overview
Incorporated in 1964
Indias Highest Ranked Fortune 500
Company at 88th of Global Fortune
Listing
Sales Turnover in 2013-14: USD
78.87 Billion

IndianOil- A Birds Eye View


10 Group Refineries accounting for a total refining

capacity of 66.3 MMTPA(1.3 mbpd)


Asias largest marketing network with around 39,000
sales touch points
Cross Country pipeline network of 10,909 kms for
transportation of crude and products
Spreading marketing network of Petrochemicals a
step for forward integration
Gas Marketing infrastructure
Renewables, nuclear and upstream ventures
Asia-Pacifics largest downstream R&D set up

R&D
Today
IndianOil-R&D-A Snapshot
Alternative Energy
- Bioenergy
- Hydrogen
- Gasification

Future Energy
Sources

Refinery Technology
- FCC/HD
- Catalyst
- Pipelines (iPIG)

Lubricant
Technology

- Solar
- Shale Oil
- Gas Hydrates

Petrochem. &
Polymers
Nanotechnology
Bio Technology

Fuel
Additives
Technical
Services

Primary Energy Consumption:


Current & Future
India

2010 (24.4 Q Btu)

Nuclear
Power
1%

Other
10%

Natural
Gas
10%

2040 (55 Q Btu)


Other
13%

Nuclear
Power
8%
Coal
52%

Oil
27%

Coal
41%

Natural
Gas
8%

Share of Oil
Share of Coal

Oil
30%

World

Nuclear
Power
5%

2010 (523.9 Q Btu)


Other
11%
Coal
28%

Natural
Gas
22%
Oil
34%

Growth rate: 2.8%

2040 (819.6 Q Btu)


Nuclear
Power
7%

Other
15%
Coal
27%

Natural
Gas
23%

Oil
28%

Growth rate: 1.5%


Share of Oil
Q Btu: Quadrillion Btu
Source: IEO 2013

Indian Refineries
Company

2012-13
No. MMTPA

IOC Group 10 66.3


BPC Group 4 30.5
HPC Group 3 25.5
ONGC Group 2 15.066
RIL (Pvt.)
2 60.0
ESSAR (Pvt.) 1 19.0
Total
22 216.366

Bhatinda
(9.0)

RIL
(60)
Company

2016-17
No. MMTPA

IOC Group 11 95.3


BPC Group 4 46.0
HPC Group 4 41.2
ONGC Group 2 18.1
RIL (Pvt.)
2 60.0
ESSAR (Pvt.) 1 38.0
Nagarjuna 1 15.0
Total
24 313.6

Koyali
(13.7)

EOL
(19)

Mumbai
(BPC:12.0
HPC: 7.5)
Mangalore
(15.0)
Kochi
(9.5)

Panipat
(15.0)
Mathura
(8.0)

Guwahati Digboi
(0.65)
(1.0)

Barauni
(6.0)
Bongaigaon
(2.35)

Bina
(6.0)

Numaligarh
(3.0)

Haldia
(7.5)

Visakh
(9.0)
Tatipaka
(0.066)

Manali
(11.1)
Nagapattinam
(1.0)

Paradip
(15.0)

Existing IOC
Subsidiaries of IOC
Other: PSU/JV
Other: Private
New addition

India: Dependency on Imported


crude
Refining capacity
Imported Crude

400

300

86.7%

200

100

82.6%

81.4%
79.4%

0
2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2016-17

Source: MOPNG 2011-12

India: Refinery Capacity &


Product Demand (MMTPA)
400

Refining capacity

300

Product surplus

200

48

49

43

127

100
0
2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2016-17
Source: MOPNG 2011-12

Indian Gasoline Specification


S. No.
1
2
3

Characteristics
Unit
BS III
0
3
Density 15 C
Kg/m
720-775
Distillation
Research Octane Number
91
(RON), Min
Anti Knock Index (AKI)/ MON,
81 (MON)
Min
Sulphur, Total , Max
mg/Kg
150
Lead Content(as Pb), Max
g/l
0.005
Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP), Kpa
60
Max
Benzene, Content, Max
% Vol
1

Olefin content, Max

% Vol

21

21

10

Aromatic Content, Max

% Vol

42

35

4
5
6
7

BS IV/V*
720-775

91
81 (MON)
50
0.005
60
1

* Reduced gaseous emmission


9

Indian Diesel Specification


S. No.
Characteristics
1
Density Kg/m3 15 0 C
2
Sulphur Content, mg/kg (max)
3

4
5

BS III BS IV/V*
820-845 820-845
350
50

Cetane Number and/or


Cetane Index(min)
PAH
Distillation

51
46
11

51
46
11

95%Vol Reco at 0o C max

360

360

* Reduced gaseous emmission

10

Opportunity Crude
Processing

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Opportunity crudes processing:


Constraints
Current Constraints
TAN< 0.5
Salt < 50 ptb, < 20 at some

Long residue < 58-59%


Short residue < 26-28%
S of VGO < 3-3.5%
Total N2 & Metals: <1600&1ppm
CCR of VR: < 26-27%

Refinery Design
limitation
Undesired
product
Qualities
High cost of
Treatment

Opportunity crudes processing:


Transportation

Remedies adopted

High Pour
Transportation

(Mangla crude)

Intermittent heating (costly)

High Viscosity
(Maya crude)

Injection of suitable Drag reducer


Additive
Addition of Pour point
depressants

Reduction in
Pipeline
Capacity

Blending with normal Crudes

Coastal refineries have the advantage of processing Heavy Crudes

Opportunity crudes processing:


Distillation
High Salt
High Residue
yields

Remedies adopted
Blending with normal Crudes

CDU / VDU
Overhead
Corrosion
Upsets
Tput Loss

Efficient Desalter operation


Overhead Corrosion Control
program

Opportunity crudes processing:


Reformer

Reformer

Lower
Naphtha
yields

Lower feed
stock
availability

Remedies adopted
Increased MS components to
Reformer by processing Hy.naphtha
Design changes in Pretreater
Use of suitable catalysts
Pretreater and Reformer

in

Opportunity crudes processing:


Cracking
VGO/VR from
feed will have
Higher metals
FCC / RFCC

Higher
Nitrogen
Lower H/C

Impact & remedy


Increased dry gas & Coke yields
due to high metals
Temporary poison due to high
Nitrogen
leading
to
lower
conversions
Higher Coke formation
Increased withdrawals of E-cat will
help to some extent

Resid Upgradation
Inhouse Technologies
Indmax
CCR upto 4%
LPG Deasphalting
Deasphalted oil
Asphalt for bitumen

17

High TAN Crude


Processing

18

High TAN Crudes


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Crude

Origin

API

%'S'

TAN

Bonga
Ceiba
Djeno
Escalante
Escravos
Lavan
Saxi
Zaffiro
Marlim
Dalia
Dar Blend
Nowrooz

Nigera
Eq.Guinea
Congo
Argentina
Nigera
Iran
Angola
Eq.Guinea
Brazil
Angola
Sudan

29
31.2
27.4
23.63
34.3
35.72
34.97
29.5
20.46
22.7
24
18.87

0.25
0.51
0.27
0.19
0.17
1.44
0.3
0.26
0.73
0.496
0.1
4.15

0.59
0.8
0.7
0.78
0.63
0.71
0.64
0.81
1.13
1.724
3.8
0.983

Discount available for High TAN crudes


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Factors Affecting NA Corrosion

Temperature
Velocity / Turbulence
Sulfur Species
MW of the Naphthenic acid
Metallurgy
Need to understand Crude Quality, Processing
environment & Refinery preparedness before
processing
20

High TAN Crude: Processing


Options
Crude Blending

Neutralisation / Mitigation

21

Blending: Corrosion Behavior


TAN

High TAN
Low S
(>0.5 mgKOH) (<1.0%wt)

Very High

Corrosion
rate (P5)
@350oC,
mm/year
2.35

High TAN

Medium S
(1-2wt%)

Low

0.56

High TAN

High S
(>2wt%)
Medium S

Very High

1.61

Low

0.44

High S

Very High

1.52

Low TAN
(<0.5mgKOH)
Low TAN

Sulfur

Corrosion

22

Predict Crude software: Joint


Industry Programme (JIP)
Predict-Crude software determines corrosion rates for
refinery materials
Covers all refinery metallurgy
Carbon steel, 5Cr, 9Cr, 12Cr, 304L, and 317L

Input parameters and their ranges


Temperature : 235 377degC
Naphthenic acid type : high or low MW
Acid content : up to 4.6 mg KOH / g
Active sulfur level: low, medium, high or very high
Pipe dimensions & flow parameters to calculate wall shear
stress : 1-135 Pa

Software validated utilizing actual refinery data


23

Predict Crude S/w

24

Predict Crude S/w

25

Mitigation:
TAN distribution in Products
1.8

Neat NG Crude

NG Crude with Mitigant

1.600

TAN, mg KOH/gm of sample

1.6
1.4
1.2
1.025
1.0

0.909

0.8
0.6

0.500
0.417

0.4
0.2

0.119
0.058

0.033

0.0

Kerosene

Gasoil

VGO

VR

Proposed Mitigant Dosing


Locations

AU

Mitigant
Dosing locations

VDU

27

Effect of mitigant using Predict crude S/w


For Atm Distillation Unit

Corrosion rate evaluation taking AU data with and without mitigated


condition for high TAN crude & its fractions
Corrosion rate prediction utilizing JIP model for carbon steel, P5, SS316L for
various sizes of piping from 4 to 22 considering the flow rate of AU
respective circuit in the temperature range 235-350oC indicates reduction in
corrosion rate significantly
High TAN Crude

Neat
Mitigated
RCO
RCO
from
mitigated crude

Equip.

Heater
Tube 6
Heater
Tube 6
Pipe 12
Pipe12

TAN g/mg
KOH

Temp
oC

Flow rate

Wall Shear
Stress

Corrosion
rate
mm/year

1.8

350

2.54M/S

14.03Pa 0.29

0.4

350

2.54M/s

14.03Pa 0.20

2.07
0.52

350
350

1.13M/S
1.13M/S

2.35Pa
2.35Pa

0.31
0.21

Present
Corrosion rate
mm/year

0.30 max
--

0.30 max

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Summary
Opportunity crude upgradation

thru Syncrude route


Huge business potential in the

energy sector

30

Thank you

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